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Around the college
Grants awarded through Division of Sponsored Research
A note from the chair
UF Presidential Critera
UF will soon be interviewing candidates for
the presidency. It is difficult to underestimate
the importance of finding the right man or
woman for the job at hand. UF has made major
progress in the past decade and is poised to
move up further under appropriate leadership.
A special presidential search committee,
comprised of over 50 members, will help to
evaluate candidates. A common rule of thumb
is that if you want to get things done, appoint
a small committee, but perhaps this body will
be an exception. It certainly represents a rich
range of views, experience, and constituencies.
The committee has also developed an intimidat-
ing wealth of desiderata for the new president
the candidates walk on water. Unfortunately,
we will probably be faced with interviewing
We all have our biases about the qualities we
value in our leaders. Mine lead me to suggest
the following as important considerations for
presidential candidates at UE
* The Vision Thing-Few terms have been
more abused by those running for office, to the
point that this has become a cliche in itself.
Still, its true underlying meaning resonates with
many of us. Do we get a cardboard cutout fig-
ure who keeps the UF trains running, or dare we
demand someone who plans where the trains
should run, and what the ultimate goals of the
journey should be. UF can and should take its
place in the top 10 of AAU publics in this first
decade of the new century.
* Experience-I worry that experience will
be overrated as a criterion for this position.
Sure, serving as provost at a good institution,
a standard stepping stone to a presidency, can
clearly be helpful. And some prior experience
as a president can also be valuable, depend-
ing upon the circumstances. Ideal is to gain
sufficient experience in preparation, without
using up too much of the creative juices before
reaching Gainesville. An extended presidency
elsewhere may not be the best predictor of suc-
cess at UE I would like to see the committee
find that "young" leader who sees UF as a great
match for his or her academic ambitions. These
jobs extract energy from sitting presidents at a
prodigious rate. Our new president must arrive
Vol. 14 The University of Florida College of Liberal Arts and Sciences No. 4
Why Do We Do What We Do?
Philosopher Crystal Thorpe ponders the forces
that motivate our actions
Scenario: Upon exiting a building,
you hold the door open for the
person behind you. Do you do this
because you've been taught good man-
ners? Because you want to please or help
that person? What if you don't know
that person, or better yet, can't stand that
person? What motivates you to hold the
These are precisely the kinds of questions
CLAS philosopher Crystal Thorpe con-
templates every day. Thorpe's work cen-
ters around ethical theory, meta-ethics and
the philosophy of action, or what some in
the field call "practical rationality."
"I'm interested in questions concerning
our reasons for action. Why does it seem
we have a reason to refrain from killing,
for example, and what's the nature of that
reason? 'Morality' gives us reasons to do
this or that, and reasons to refrain from
this or that. But, exactly what is moral-
A new member of the UF Philosophy
Department, Thorpe came to Gainesville
from Stanford, where she earned her PhD
last fall. But the road to philosophy was a
winding one for the Maryland native.
As an undergraduate at the University of
North Carolina in the 80s, Thorpe found
herself on the pre-med path. \ ly BS was
in biology," she says, "which is why now,
when I teach contemporary moral issues,
I focus on medical ethics issues." How-
ever, medical school wasn't in the cards
for Thorpe. "I didn't think I wanted to be
a doctor, but I really liked the stuff you
needed to do to become a doctor," she ex-
plains. "Not so much the labs, but I really
liked microbiology and biochemistry and
the theoretical sciences."
Academics weren't Thorpe's only focus
in those days. She ran varsity track for
the Tarheels, competing in the half mile.
"The basketball team would run a few laps
during our practices at the track," she says,
"so I was on a 'hello' basis with Michael
Jordan." In fact, as a varsity athlete,
Thorpe was invited to usher UNC basket-
ball games, then held in intimate Carmi-
chael Auditorium. "We got to sit right
down front," she says. "It was considered
Without a clear career plan, upon gradua-
tion Thorpe moved to Philadelphia at the
invitation of a friend. "I was slightly lost
at the time," she admits. After conduct-
ing cancer research for two years at the
Wiststar Institute-a cancer research
foundation affiliated with the University of
Pennsylvania, she spent three years doing
Multiple Sclerosis research in the univer-
See Thorpe, page 9
See Musings, page 12
This month's focus: Philosophy
Around the College
On February 4, Brandon Kershner attended the conference on
"Joyce Culture" at the University of Miami, where he spoke on
"Harold Nicolson's Interview with James Joyce." Kershner has
been appointed one of three international judges of the Joyce
Foundation Student Scholarship competition for 2000.
Mark A. Reid gave an invited plenary address "Slow Fade to
Black: Blues People in American Film Studies" at the annual
meeting of the Society For Cinema Studies in Chicago on
Josh Russell's novel Yellow Jack has been selected as a final-
ist for the 1999 Barnes & Noble Discover Great New Writers
Award. The Award recognizes the finest work by a first-time
American novelist featured in Barnes & Noble's Discover Great
New Writers Program during the past year.
Stephanie Smith has been awarded a month-long creative writ-
ing residency at Norcroft Writer's Retreat in Minnesota. She has
also been invited to speak at this year's MELUS conference in
Orleans, France, in June.
Greg Ulmer made a CU-SeeMe presentation, entitled "Cyber-
pidgin," for Verve The Other Iti i, i,... at the Contemporary Art
Centre of South Australia, as part of the Telstra Adelaide Festival
2000, March 8.
David A. Micha has been awarded a fellowship by the Institute
for Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics at the Harvard
University/Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, where he is
a long-term visiting scientist during a sabbatical leave. The
institute is a National Science Foundation center dedicated to re-
search in interdisciplinary areas between Chemistry and Physics.
Alexander Berkovich and Krishnaswami Alladi gave back-to-
back plenary talks on their recent joint research in the theory of
partitions at the conference on Unusual Applications of Number
Theory held at the NSF sponsored DIMACS Research Institute
at Rutgers University, January 10-14, 2000.
Douglas Cenzer gave a 45-minute plenary lecture at the year
2000 Winter Meeting of the Association of Symbolic Logic in
Washington DC in January.
Scott McCullough gave an invited talk entitled "Matrix Valued
Interpolation on an Annulus" at a special session on Operator
Theory, Systems Theory, and Interpolation, during the Annual
Meeting of the American Mathematical Society in Washington
DC, January 18-22, 2000.
CLAS Baccaluareate May 5
Dean Harrison invites all faculty
to participate in the annual CLAS
Baccalaureate Ceremony honor-
ing our graduating seniors on
Friday, May 5, at 4:00 PM in the
University Auditorium. Cap and
gown optional. A reception on
the lawn will follow.
*Note: This year's time, 4 PM, is one hour
earlier than usual.
Marilyn Holly organized and was a presenter on the panel
"Conceptions of the Excellence of the Self, With Implications
for Education," at the annual conference of the Society for the
Advancement of American Philosophy (March 9-12 in India-
napolis). The panel consisted of two American Indian PhDs
in philosophy and two non-Indian PhDs in philosophy, who
presented papers to further dialogue between indigenous and
On November 16, 1999, Chuang Liu gave the Popper Seminar
Lecture, "Idealization and Laws of Nature," at the Centre for
Philosophy of Natural and Social Science at the London School
In February, John Palmer delivered the keynote address, "The
Academic Sceptics' Appeals to the Presocratics," at the gradu-
ate student conference, "Ideas in Motion: Evolution of Ancient
Philosophical Ideas," sponsored by the Program in Classics,
Philosophy and Ancient Science at the University of Pittsburgh.
Colette St. Mary was invited to the International Sympo-
sium on Diversity of Fishes: "Towards the New Horizon of an
Understanding of Biodiversity" (Tokyo, 24-25 February, 2000)
in commemoration of the 10th anniversary of His Majesty the
Emperor's ascension to the throne. St. Mary had the opportunity
to meet the Empress and the Emperor, who is an ichthyologist
(studies fish), and to tour the royal aquarium facilities.
Anthropologist Conducts Be-
lize Field School
From May-August 1999, Irma McClaurin
(Anthropology) conducted the first Zora
Neale Hurston Diaspora Ethnographic
Field School in Belize. Three anthropology
graduate students participated: Sybil DioNe,
Ermitte St. Jacques, and Carla Edwards.
Also involved was University Scholar, Thy
Nguyen, a junior in political science. As
part of her research, Thy has designed a Web
page on "Women's Rights as Human Rights"
that will be part of McClaurin's Web site
recently presented their research and experi-
ence as part of a panel entitled "Identity and
\ k thodl od 1 .i Native Anthropologists in
the Field" at the Conference on Qualitative
Research in Education, January 6-8, 2000, at
the University of Georgia in Athens.
Phillip Wegner, English
Robert Hatch, History
Ellen Martin, Geology
Anthony Randazzo, Geology
Dennis Galvan, Political Science
Michael Tuccelli, CSD
Anthony LaGreca, Sociology
Around the College
Political Science Holds Distinguished Speaker Banquet
The Political Science Depart-
ment's annual Distinguished Speak-
er's Banquet brings faculty, advanced
graduate students, and special guests
together to recognize outstanding
student and faculty accomplishments
and to discuss topics of importance
to the university and the nation with
eminent scholars in political sci-
S ence. At the 1999-2000 Banquet,
held March 23 in the Keene Faculty
Center, guest speaker Peter Katzenstein, the Walter S. Carpenter Chair at Cornell,
addressed how modem forces of globalization impact regional power in his lecture
"A World of Regions?" Katzenstein, the winner of many prestigious fellowships
and grants including a Rockefeller, Mellon, Ford Foundation and Guggenheim, was
elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1987.
Undersecretary of State Addresses Honors Forum
of State William Bader
discussed the impact of a
Fulbright award on his career
and possibilities for interna-
tional internships to students
at a CLAS honors forum,
March 16. Dr. Bader's visit
to UF was arranged by Al-
lan Burns (Anthropology
and UF Honors program) to
honor faculty and student
Fulbright award winners at
the president's house.
French CulturalAttach6 and UN Diplomat Visit Gainesville
'I Ham Museum Curator of
Contemporary Art, Kerry Oliver-
Smith (far left), discusses Monet's
Champ d'avoine (Oat Field, 1890),
with (from left) Carol Murphy,
CLAS Associate Dean, Delia
Mata-Ciampoli, Cultural Attach6,
Consulate General of France, and
her husband, Mr. Carlo Ciampoli,
UN Diplomat. On the couple's
recent visit to Gainesville, Dr.
Mata-Ciampoli was honored with
a luncheon given by the UF International Center at the Ham Museum. Monet's
painting, a depiction of a landscape in the French village where his family made their
home, is a gift the Ham received last summer from Gainesville area executive and
UF Graduate Michael Singer.
USPS Employees Recognized
U diversity Support Personnel System (USPS) employees in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences were honored on March 20th
their commitment and years of service to the university at a reception in the Keene Faculty Center (attendees pictured below). Presi-
dent Charles Young, CLAS Dean Will Harrison, Associate Director University Personnel Services Robert Willits, and University
Personnel Services Director Larry Ellis each offered words of gratitude and encouragement. Recognized employees received a
CLAS mug and pin, and a certificate signed by the Dean. A reception followed the ceremony.
Thirty Years Service:
Frank Flagg, Jr., Veterinary
Care Manager, Psychol-
ogy; Carol W. Rozear,
Statistics; Raymond G.
Thomas, Senior Tech Lab
Twenty Five Years Ser-
vice: Cheryl C. Phillips,
Office Manager, Psychol-
Twenty Years Service:
Carol Ann Binello, Admin-
istrative Assistant, Dean's
Office; Henry L. Coulter,
Marine Superintendent, Zo-
ology; Diana E. Davis, Accountant, Zoology; L. Beth Douglas, Administrative Assistant, Chemistry; Peter J. Eliazar, Senior
Biological Scientist, Zoology; Kenetha T. Johnson, Office Manager, Zoology; Dian A. Leahy, Program Assistant, Anthropol-
ogy; Lawrence W. Phelps, Senior Engineer, Physics
Fifteen Years Service: Cecile D. Chapman, Senior Word Processing Operator, Psychology; Sharon Easter, Administra-
tive Assistant, Mathematics; Carlon F. Elton, Senior Secretary, Astronomy; Nadine G. Gillis, Program Assistant, UCET;
Debra A. Hunter, Office Manager, Astronomy; Cathy E. Knudsen, Computer Support Specialist, Physics; Catherine C.
Moore, Program Assistant, Psychology; Salena L. Robinson, Program Assistant, Dean's Ofice; Catherine L. Williams,
Program Assistant, Chemistry
Ten Years Service: Virginia B. Dampier, Senior Secretary,
Philosophy; Mircea Garcea, Senior Biological Scientist,
Psychology; Karen M. Pallone, Program Assistant, Zoology;
Charlotte Rehberg, Senior Statistician, Statistics; Edward J.
Storch, Coordinator, Statistical Research, Statistics; Bar-
bara A. Walker, Senior Accountant, Chemistry; Roseanne
G. Warner, Executive Secretary, Dean's Office
Five Years Service: Deloris J. Collier, Program Assistant,
Upward Bound; Walter D. Golston, Stores/Receiving Man-
President Young congratu- ager, Chemistry; Mike W. Gunter, Maintenance Mechanic,
lated each employee at the Zoology; Joanne Jacobucci, Secretary, Chemistry; Suzanne
ceremony. Pictured clock- A. Lawless-Yanchisin, Program Assistant, Chemistry;
wise from top left: Young with
Frank Flagg, Carol Rozear, Carole M. Meacham, Senior Secretary, Statistics; Anne M.
and Raymond Thomas Newman, Secretary, Religion; Paula M. Palmer, Program
(each of whom were honored Assistant, Women's Studies; Connie S. Philebaum, Senior
for 30 years service at the Secretary, Physics; Julie Ann M. Steffens, Senior Tech Lab
University of Florida). Specialist, Chemistry; James G. Sullivan, Coordinator, Sta-
tistical Research, Statistics
Philosophy: Pop Culture vs. Academia
by CLAS philosopher Gene Witmer
Philosophy faces a peculiar advertis-
ing difficulty. Since it is not taught
in high school, very few students
have any idea what to expect from an
introductory course in philosophy. The
term "philosophy" will likely conjure up
for them images of a sage on a mountain-
top, a vague sense of obscure but "deep"
ideas, and perhaps a joke or two about the
meaning of life. I want to suggest here one
way of making sense of how "philosophy"
is popularly understood, a way that reveals
both how that public conception is at odds
with the academic discipline and how it
can, nonetheless, provide a bridge to it.
One of the more common ways in which
the word "philosophy" shows up in ordi-
nary speech is in the sentence "that's my
philosophy." This is used to mean: that's
the rule I live by. It's worth noting in this
connection that the ordinary speaker will
say of someone who reacts calmly to bad
events that she has a
For many people, to
be philosophical is to
have in one's possession
some means of guiding
one's life and thought
that results in peace,
happiness-and so on.
I want to suggest that
the public conception of
the philosophical is, in
keeping with the above
by what I would call
Examples of such writ-
ings include Every-
;h,l,. INeed to Know I
Learned in Kindergarten
and Meditations for
Women Who Do Too
Much. These might be
classified as "self-help,"
but I believe an enor-
mous number of people
aims to affect the reader by telling para-
bles, providing autobiographical reflec-
tions, formulating startling aphorisms-in
effect, by doing anything that strikes the
writer as apt to prod the reader into having
new, more helpful thoughts about his or
her situation. Such aphoristic insight is
precisely what the public imagines philoso-
phers doing when they picture us sitting
atop mountains uttering profundities in a
sentence or two.
Consider a student who has developed a
taste for this sort of inspirational writing
and who takes a course in Introduction to
Philosophy hoping to satisfy that taste. Is
there any reason to think that what drew
him to the inspirational material will
also motivate him to engage in explicit
argumentation, critical thinking, precise
attention to distinctions, appreciation of
different possible views, and the courage
to pursue tough questions as far as reason
Instead of being
swept away by neat
ideas in a philosophy
class, the student
is likely to feel con-
from his ideas, to
see them fall flat on
the floor, poked and
prodded like a lab
I believe, a certain
shock at the mood or
style of philosophy
think of this sort of thing as philosophy:
the activity of thinking about "abstract"
matters as a means of coping, of reaching
spiritual fulfillment, of improving one's
life in some sense. This sort of literature
will carry him? There's
a good chance that such
a student will be disap-
pointed. If his interest
in "philosophy" was
ultimately an interest
in a practical matter,
of having his life in
some way improved by
insight, he is not likely
to be happy. Getting
a better understanding
of the nature of knowl-
edge, the logic of truth,
the implications of free
will, and the like-this
is not the sort of thing
that will calm your
nerves, improve your
or make you a more
might be described as
an attempt to use ideas
as a means of transport,
where the reader falls in love with an idea
or saying. The idea is meant to be em-
braced, appreciated for its impact, savored
for its emotional resonance. In class,
however, the idea is made banal treated
literally, dissected and aggressively
rendered accessible to critical analysis.
Instead of being swept away by neat ideas
in a philosophy class, the student is likely
to feel constantly alienated from his ideas,
to see them fall flat on the floor, poked
and prodded like a lab specimen. Many
students experience, I believe, a certain
shock at the mood or style of philosophy.
Those who come to us having found emo-
tional nourishment by detecting the aura
of profundity in difficult sayings are likely
to be dismayed by our rough treatment of
whatever is said.
There is, however, a somewhat paradoxical
counterinfluence at work that may, if we
are lucky, prevail. I have in mind here the
fact that such people find thought powerful
in the first place. If they seek comfort by
means of thinking, they care about think-
ing; they treat it as something important,
something to be pursued seriously. This
is hardly a universal trait! An enormous
number of people, I suspect, find no value
in thinking at all, conceiving of it as essen-
tially idle chit-chat. Curiously, for many
such people, philosophical subjects are
hardly unfamiliar. Casual discussion of the
great controversies-God, freedom, moral-
ity, truth-is everywhere. What is striking
about such discussions, however, is the
lack of seriousness of the participants. I
am very disheartened to see that, when
See Witmer, page 8
UF Physicist Pioneers Lower Temperature Scale
The "blue numbers" on the thermometer are about to extend to a new low, thanks to the work of a University of Florida researcher.
A temperature scale pioneered by UF physics professor Dwight Adams soon will become the world's official standard for measur-
ing the coldest temperatures known to man-temperatures just shy of absolute zero, or minus 459.67 degrees Fahrenheit.
Such temperatures had been out of reach to all but the most specialized laboratories in the world until the past two decades, when
refrigerators that could lower temperatures to 0.01 Kelvin became commercially available. The result has been an explosion of re-
search in this low temperature range, increasing the need for the new scale, Adams said.
"There's lots of work going on in this range now, and there is no defined scale for the people doing it, so this will be quite useful to
them," he said.
Adams and two graduate students, Gerald Straty and Richard Scribner, laid the groundwork for the scale 35 years ago when
they found a way to measure ultra cold temperatures using an isotope called helium-3.
Before the scale could be adopted as a standard, it had to be calibrated against a "primary" thermometer, something usually carried
out in national standards laboratories. Five years ago, Adams and UF colleagues Wen Ni, a graduate student, and J. S. Xia, a research
scientist, provided a calibration. Recently, the German standards lab completed their calibration, and an average of theirs and that
from UF has been recommended.
"It is quite gratifying to see this scale finally adopted since we suggested it soon after I came to UF Perseverance has paid off,"
Adams said. He added, "many labs around the world are already using the scale before its official adoption."
UF Part of Team to Discover First Quasar
A team of astronomers from the University of Florida, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the University of California have
identified the earliest known structure in the universe: quasar "RD J030117+002025" in the constellation Cetus.
"This high-red-shift quasar is extremely far away, which means observing it is like looking back in time to the earliest times in the
universe," says Richard Elston, a UF astronomy professor and member of the research team.
Quasars are highly luminous bodies that were more common in the early universe. Packed into a volume roughly equal to our solar
system, a quasar emits an astonishing amount of energy-up to 10,000 times that of the whole Milky Way galaxy. Scientists believe
quasars get their fuel from super-massive black holes that spit out enormous amounts of energy as they consume surrounding matter.
"It's like turning on a flashlight at the edge of the universe because it allows you to study everything that has developed between us
and the quasar," says Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Daniel Stern, who also played a key role in the discovery.
In addition, says Elston, high-red-shift quasars are vitally important to understanding one of the biggest mysteries confronting
scientists: how the universe went from the smooth, uniformity of its youth to the clumpy, galaxy-strewn formations of today.
AAU Schools Dominate Top 50 Public Universities List
1. Univ. of California-Berkeley
2. Univ. of Virginia
3. Univ. of California-Los Angeles
4. Univ. of Michigan
5. Univ. of North Carolina
7. Univ. of California-San Diego
8. Univ. of Illinois
8. Univ. of Wisconsin
10. Penn State Univ.
12. Univ. of California-Davis
13. Univ. of California-Santa
13. Univ. of Texas
13. Univ. of Washington
16. Univ. of Florida
16. Univ. of California-Irvine
18. Purdue Univ.
18. Univ. of Minnesota
21. Univ. of Iowa
22. Univ. of Maryland
28. Ohio State Univ.
31. Indiana Univ.
31. Michigan State Univ.
31. Univ. of Colorado
38. Iowa State Univ.
38. Univ. of Kansas
38. Univ. of Pittsburgh
48. Univ. of Arizona
48. Univ. of Missouri
U.S. News & World Report "2000 College Rankings," August, 1999.
1998-99 Final Sears Directors' Cup Standings
Top 10 Public & Private Universities Points
1. Stanford University 910
2. University of Georgia 720
3. Pennsylvania State University 600
4. University of Florida 580
5. University of California, Los Angeles 560
6. Duke University 510
7. University of Michigan 500
8. University of Virginia 490
9. University of Arizona 460
10. University of Southern California 440
Source: UF Athletic Association, Sports Information Department, 1999.
Note: The Director's Cup program, conducted by the National Associa-
tion of Collegiate Directors of Athletics and sponsored by Sears, annually
recognizes the schools with the best overall sports performance in an
academic year. Points are awarded based on finishes in up to 20 NCAA
Division I sports. UF sponsors 18 sports that can receive points in the
UF Center examines business and professional standards
An interview with Robert Baum
U F's Center for Applied Philosophy and Ethics celebrates its 20th anniversary this year. Robert
Baum, the Center's director for the last 19 years, and a pioneer in the field of applied ethics, is
also the editor of the Business and Professional Ethics Journal and Professional Ethics: A Multidis-
Cn: How does the Center
for Applied Philosophy and
Ethics interact with other
departments in CLAS and
RB: The Center's mission
is to facilitate research and
discussion in the areas of
business and professional eth-
ics. This field covers a broad
range of disciplines, such
as engineering, journalism,
urban planning and medicine,
to name just a few. So in ad-
dition to publishing journals,
organizing conferences, and
offering classes when appro-
priate, we are also interested
in bringing together the rather
large number of faculty who
are already teaching ethics-re-
lated courses across the varied
disciplines. We want to act as
a resource so that these people
can share their knowledge and
teaching techniques with one
Cn: What types of classes do
RB: A few years ago we of-
fered an experimental course
on financial ethics. The
Philosophy Department has
added two new faculty mem-
bers this year who specialize
in ethical theory, so I hope
we'll be able to offer a new
version of that course in the
near future. Also, this semes-
ter we are offering a course on
scientific research ethics.
Cn: How did this new ethics
class come about?
RB: An undergraduate
student came to see me; she
was looking for answers to
ethical questions that arise in
scientific research. When she
indicated that a large number
of her fellow students were
interested in these questions,
we discussed the situation
with representatives of the
physical science departments.
With support from the College
Office, we decided to offer
an experimental one-credit
course (IDS 4930-Ethics in
Scientific Research). We had
more than thirty students sign
up for it on the day it became
available. I am co-teach-
ing the class with Jonathan
Reiskind from the Zoology
Department, and we've had
a number of guest speakers
from various departments
in CLAS, including Dean
Sullivan (Physics) and Marta
Cn: Does student interest
in professional ethics reflect
wider concerns about profes-
RB: There is a steady, grow-
ing interest in this field. I can
remember when I set up the
ethics program at the National
Science Foundation in the
mid-70s. Many administra-
tors there were concerned that
applied ethics was a passing
fad, but that hasn't turned out
to be the case. There was no
huge splash where everybody
got involved for a year or two
and then moved on. Instead,
interest has gradually in-
creased since that time, with
the number of courses and
textbooks increasing steadily.
Cn: Why is that?
RB: There has been research
on the sociology of profes-
sions going back for 100
years, but with the exception
of the medical field, people
who studied normative ethics
did not pay attention to most
of the professions. When
the medical community was
faced with breakthroughs such
as organ transplants in the
1960s, they had to update and
revise their ethical standards.
Today's incredibly complex
circumstances in business and
most of the professional fields
also require that we increase
our understanding in order to
deal with these problems in
an ethically responsible way.
Entirely new situations and
modern problems have devel-
oped in the last 20 to 30 years,
and while most people hear
only about the professionals
who do not act ethically, it's
just as important to identify
what actions are ethical. We
have to ask "What are the
good things that can be done
by a person who has certain
expertise, professional train-
ing, and ability?"
Cn: How do business and
professional ethics compare
to medical ethics?
RB: The actions of most
professionals have consid-
erable moral significance.
Engineers who cut corners or
lawyers who do not prepare
adequately for the defense in
a capital punishment case can
be responsible for the loss of
innocent lives. Professionals
in various financial fields can
center tor Applied Phnilosophy and
Ethics director Robert Baum
have as much of an impact
on the general well-being
of people as any healthcare
providers. For example,
if a person invests in a life
insurance policy or IRA for
his or her retirement, and
the financial company does
not fulfill its responsibilities,
the investor can lose money.
Without these funds, a retired
person may be unable to af-
ford adequate medical care
or a good diet. On the other
hand, if the financial manage-
ment is handled in an ethically
responsible way, this produces
great benefit-just like good
Cn: What are the Center's
RB: We are completing plans
for conferences in medical
ethics (with the College of
Medicine and finance ethics
(with the College of Business
Administration). The Center
will also be hosting the 3rd
National Conference on Eth-
ics across the Curriculum in
Mathematicians Find "Proof"
"An especially delicious moment," says one collaborator.
In March 2000, mathematics chair Krishnaswami Alladi, in
collaboration with George Andrews (Evan Pugh Professor at
Penn State University) and Alexander Berkovich (visitor
in the mathematics), completed the proof of a four dimensional
identity. According to Alladi, this is a major breakthrough in the
theory of partitions and q-series, because the discovery and proof
of this identity not only settles a long standing problem, but opens
up several avenues of exploration.
"The theory of partitions and q-series is an exciting area of
research having interaction with a wide variety of fields within
mathematics like number theory, combinatorics, and analysis,
and outside with physics and computer
science," says Alladi. "A partition of
a positive integer is a representation of
that number into positive integers, two
such representations being considered the
same if they differ only in the order of the
parts. For example, there are 7 partitions
of 5, namely 5, 4+1, 3+2, 3+1+1, 2+2+1,
2+1+1+1, and 1+1+1+1+1. We deal with
partitions in day to day life, although we
may not realize it. For instance, when we
go to a bank and ask for $400 in cash, the
teller asks us in what denomination we
Alladi (left) and
would like this. What the teller is really discuss t
asking is the particular partition of 400 in
terms of the integers 100, 50, 20, 10, 5,
and 1 (dollar bills) that we want."
The theory of partitions was founded by Euler (who is considered
the most prolific mathematician in history) in the mid-seventeenth
century. With the discovery of several surprising results by the
Indian genius Srinivasa Ramanujan at the beginning of this cen-
tury, the subject blossomed.
Alladi's interest in the theory of partitions began in 1987 dur-
ing the Ramanujan Centennial, when he heard the lectures of
George Andrews, who is considered the "world's greatest expert"
on Ramanujan's work and on partitions. Andrews, along with
Alladi's former teacher Basil Gordon (UCLA)-who came to
Florida in 1989 on a visit-drew Alladi's attention to the Theorem
of G6llnitz, one of the deepest partition theorems. Alladi and
Gordon eventually developed a three dimensional generalization
of the theorem of G6llnitz; in the spirit of Euler, they cast it in
the form of a q-series identity that they called a "key identity."
In November 1990, when Andrews arrived in Florida to give a
Frontiers of Science Lecture on the Lost Notebook of Ramanujan,
he helped the pair develop a proof for the new identity.
But this was just the beginning. From as far back as 1971,
Andrews (who was the first in this field to use computers to
search for identities), had asked whether there exist results that lie
beyond the G6llnitz theorem. Andrews, Alladi, and Gordon, had
been thinking about this possibility for many years. In the Spring
of 1999, Alexander Berkovich, a mathematical physicist-turned-
number theorist, came to the UF math-
ematics department to conduct research.
Berkovich, recently awarded the Heine-
man Prize in mathematical physics, began
collaborating with Alladi on the problem.
Alladi says "In an amazingly short time,
Berkovich mastered the techniques neces-
sary to make significant contributions.
His brilliance combined with his fierce
commitment was crucial to the eventual
In late October 1999, Alladi and Berkov-
ich found a theorem beyond G61lnitz, but
eir proof. in the world of mathematics, no result is
correct unless a proof is completed. In
the succeeding months, Alladi, Andrews,
and Berkovich obtained several possible approaches hoping that
one would finally succeed. And indeed, during the 2000 Spring
Break, the proof of this important four dimensional identity was
completed. "It has been a marvelous joint effort," says Alladi. In
a congratulatory letter George Andrews said "I cannot believe that
it is over! It has been a dream of mine since 1967 that someday
I would actually see a generalization of the G6llnitz Theorem. I
had rather lost hope after 30 years; so this is an especially deli-
The announcement of the new result and details of the proof will
be made in back to back talks by Alladi and Berkovich at the up-
coming Millennial Conference in Number Theory at the Univer-
sity of Illinois, Urbana in May.i%
W itm er, continued from page 5
left to themselves, people debating these issues do not take the trouble to listen to what their conversational partners are saying. They
care about making their voice heard, getting their view out there for all to see, but that is a far cry from caring about developing their
own view in a critical, conscientious fashion. Our culture has, I believe, devalued much of what we think of as intellectual matters by
labelling them all "mere opinion" and suggesting that all one needs to do is shout the loudest in order to win an argument.
Those who are attracted to inspirational writing at least believe in the power of thinking: if they can maintain this conviction even after
the honeymoon is over-that is, even after they have been jolted out of a state of enchantment-they might go on to discover a deep
pleasure in knowing that they are doing their best to figure things out-seriously, critically, and in good conscience.
Philosophy department staff includes office
manager Kitty Powers (left), who handles
books, grants, problem solving, and schedul-
ing, and senior secretary Virginia Dampier
(right), who takes care of reception, travel, the
phone system, and academic reports.
Thorpe, continued from page 1
sity's medical school department of microbiology. "During this
time I was considering going to graduate school in the sciences,"
In the meantime, Thorpe took a few philosophy classes at Penn,
and when she happened into a course on German philosopher Im-
manuel Kant (1724-1804), her future became quite clear. "It was
one of those mixed undergraduate/graduate student classes, and
I really liked it," she recalls. "I did very well in the class, too,
which was surprising because no one knew
who I was-I wasn't a graduate student,
I wasn't a major in philosophy, I was just
this stranger in a lab coat who sat in the
back of the room. That's when I realized
that philosophy was cool. I applied to grad
school knowing that I wanted to do Kant."
At Stanford, Thorpe steeped herself in
Kantian ethics. "I actually wrote half a
dissertation on the subject before switch-
ing topics," she says. Still strongly
influenced by Kant, Thorpe is currently
working on a paper called, "The Birth of
Autonomy and Kantian Ethics." "Kant,
along with Rousseau, was one of the first
to talk about autonomy, or freedom, and
ethics together," she explains. "There's
an idea in moral theory that if you're not
free, how can you be responsible for what
you do? If you don't freely act, then it's
hard to say you're responsible and blame-
advisor refers to it jokingly as the 'Thorpe-Kant' view. I learned
a lot from studying Kant, but I wasn't satisfied with all of his an-
swers, so I moved on to the contemporary literature-including
work on reasons for action-to see what it had to say."
That quest led Thorpe to her current work, which is situated in a
debate about reasons for action. Philosophers have put forward
two views about reasons, Thorpe explains. The "internalist"
view says that we only have reason to do those things that will
I did very well in the class,
too, which was surpris-
ing because no one knew
who I was-I wasn't a
graduate student, I wasn't
a major in philosophy, I
was just this stranger in
a lab coat who sat in the
back of the room. That's
when I realized that phi-
losophy was cool.
worthy and all that. So moral philosophers have an interest in
claiming that we're free, and Kant did a lot of work in this area
that is still relevant today."
Despite her affinity for Kant, Thorpe admits that, ironically, the
final version of her dissertation mentions his name only once.
"It's very influenced by Kant though," she says, "and, in fact, my
further our desires. The externalistt" view
says that not all of our reasons are based
on our desires-that there are some things
we have reason to do despite the desires
that we happen to have.
So if you're late for an important appoint-
ment and your arch-enemy is behind you,
the internalist might say that you don't
have a reason to hold the door open; after
all, you want to get where you're going
as quickly as possible, and you don't feel
like being polite to this person you find
distasteful. The externalist, on the other
hand, might say that you do have a reason
to hold the door open, regardless of these
factors. Thorpe rejects both views and
theorizes instead that there is a middle path
between the two, which she calls "non-
In exploring the contours of this theory
(which also formed the nucleus of her
dissertation) Thorpe wants to shy away from the idea that people
ought to act morally because society tells them to. "I want to get
at something more fundamental," she says. "What is a reason
anyway, and how are moral reasons different from other kinds of
reasons? These kinds of ideas drive me."%
(through the Division of Sponsored Research)
January 2000 Total: $2,096,578
Investigator Dept Agency
CHE Flexsys America LP
CHE Nippon Soda Company Ltd
CHE Procter & Gamble Company
CHE Trega Biosciences Inc
STA Procter & Gamble Company
Kolokolova, L. AST NASA
Kitajima, K. BOT EPA
STA Agcy For Health Care Admin
Tan, W. CHE Whitaker Foundation
ZOO Beinecke Memorial Scholarship
Structure activity relationships in viscous substances.
Collaborative work in heterocyclic chemistry.
Indole natural products.
Synthetic strategies for nitrogen heterocycles.
Service agreement for web-based dental research.
65,469 Complex silicate grains with sublimating mantles: a systematic
laboratory study of optical properties and applications.
7,644 Task 003: an evaluation of the life-histories of invading popula-
tions of Ardisia crenata in North Florida.
430,000 Time-resolved ESR and ENDOR on triplet states in photosyn-
49,803 Fourier transform mass spectrometer development support.
130,553 Reaction coordinate analyses-uracil DNA glycosylases.
7,825 Work performed by Dr. Sung-Kwong Lung per agreement.
70,500 Career: time dependent laser-matter interaction.
26,057 Reference electrode with an invariant liquid junction potential.
52,215 Bimetallic complexes as methanol oxidation catalysts.
95,300 Theoretical studies of reactive molecular processes.
41,833 The features of self assembling organic bilayers important to the
formation of anisotropic inorganic materials.
60,000 Career: nanometer scale imaging and sensing.
60,000 Career: nanometer scale imaging and sensing.
38,172 Idealization and idealized models in thermostatistical physics.
15,000 Partial financial support for the 2000 Sanibel Symposium.
12,000 Travel support for DOE computational materials science net-
work on scale-parity multiscale simulation.
60,000 EIP HQ data advice and technical assistance.
44,319 EIP HQ data advice and technical assistance.
9,902 Informatics-database management for Florida Birth Defects
4,201 Birth vital statistics: survival low birth weight & morbidity
154,838 Quantitative genetics of ovariole number in drosophila.
65,190 Engineering and optical patch-clamp device for single ion chan-
4,000 Ugandan student support.
Lieberman, L. ANT FL Clinical Practice Assn
Telesco, C. AST Grantecan Canary Island Telescope
BOT Am Soc of Plant Physiologists 1,000
GEO Water Management Districts St Johns River 20,000
GEO Inter-American Foundation 3,580
GEO Water Management Districts St Johns River 1,906
HIS Multiple Sponsors 2,500
PHIL Multiple Sources 15,000
ZOO Assn for Tropical Lepidoptera 6,500
Center For Research on Women's Health.
Contract for the preliminary design of Canaricam for the Gran
Aerial photograph library management and database services.
Human use & potential conservation of the giant river turtle
(Podocnemis expansa) in Parque Nacional Noel Kempffmer-
Interagency agreement for review and verification of water use
Oral History Program.
Business & professional ethics journal.
Recent publications from CLAS faculty
Grammar of Mandarin
Chauncey C. Chu (African i
and Asian Languages and ___.. .
Literatures) and Tsung-Jen
The product of the author's
1998-99 sabbatical leave in
Taiwan, A Cognitive-Func-
tional Grammar of Manda-
rin Chinese incorporates
the current functional theory of Western linguistics in
the analysis of the Chinese language while endeav-
oring to highlight its unique characteristics.
Solar System Dynamics
C.D. Murray and Stan Der-
Cambridge University Press
(from book jacket)
Clearly written and well
illustrated, Solar Sys-
tem Dynamics provides
students with a complete
introduction to understand-
ing the intricate and often
beautiful resonant struc-
ture of the Solar System.
Step-by-step, it show how a basic knowledge of
the two-and three- body problems and perturbation
theory can be combined to understand features as
diverse as the tidal heating of Jupiter's moon lo,
the unusual rotation of Saturn's moon Hyperion, the
origin of the Kirkwood gaps in the asteroid belt, the
radial structure of Saturn's A ring, and the long-term
stability of the Solar System. Problems at the end
of each chapter and a free Internet Mathematica
software packages (that includes animations and
computational tools) are provided to help students to
test and develop their understanding.
The Newtonian universe was a deterministic system.
The Voyager missions increased our knowledge of
the outer solar system by several orders of mag-
nitude, and yet they would not have been possible
without knowledge of Newton's laws and their con-
sequences. However, advances in mathematics and
computer technology have now revealed that, even
though our system is deterministic, it is not neces-
sarily predictable. The study of nonlinear dynamics
has revealed a solar system even more intricately
structured than Newton could have imagined.
Vector Integration and Stochastic Integration in
Nicolae Dinculeanu (Mathematics)
(from bookjacket) a ..
The theory of stochastic integration has become an B- JSPC
intensely studied topic in recent years, owing to its
extraordinarily successful application to financial math-
ematics, stochastic differential equations, and more.
This book features a new measure theoretic approach
to stochastic integration, opening up the field for re-
searches in measure and integration theory, functional
analysis, probability theory, and stochastic processes.
World-famous expert on vector and stochastic integration in Banach spaces
Nicolae Dinculeanu compiles and consolidates information form disparate
journal articles-including his own results-presenting a comprehensive, up-
to-date treatment of the theory in two major parts. He first develops a general
integration theory, discussing vector integration with respect to measures with
finite semivariation, then applies the theory to stochastic integration in Banach
The End of Books-Or Books Without End? Read-
ing Interactive Narratives
Jane Yellowlees Douglas (Dial Center for Written and
University of Michigan Press
(from book jacket)
Of all developments surrounding hypermedia, none has
been as hotly or frequently debated as the conjunction
of fiction and digital technology. In this book, J. Yellow-
lees Douglas considers the implications of this union.
She looks at the new light that interactive narratives
may shed on theories of reading and interpretation and
the possibilities for hypertext novels, World Wide Web-
based short stories, and cinematic, interactive narratives on CD-ROM. She
confronts questions that are at the center of the current debate: Does an interac-
tive story demand too much from readers? Does the concept of readerly choice
destroy the author's vision? Does interactivity turn reading fiction from "play"
into "work"-too much work? Will hypertext fiction overtake the novel as a form
of art or entertainment? And what might future interactive books look like?
By examining in detail both the similarities and differences between interactive
and print stories, we can begin to understand the satisfactions we derive from
being drawn into fictional worlds not of our inventing-one of the opportunities
afforded us when we encounter reading, stories, plots, and characters outside
a print environment so familiar to us that we are scarcely aware of print as both
medium and technology. By bringing together disparate studies in the fields of
psychology, narratology artificial intelligence, and literary theory, we can begin
to understand which elements of storytelling are changeable, open to further
development and invention in interactive narratives, and which are changeless
and immutable across media and millennia alike.
S6/1 a r Syste I m
Musings, continued from page 1
in Gainesville strong both in body and spirit.
* National Visibility-For UF to reach its institutional
aspirations for national recognition, its leader must enjoy
high respect within the public AAUs. It is not required
that the president have this public profile when entering
office, but it will be important to cultivate and earn this
recognition early on. UF's president can enhance the im-
age of this university among our peers by demonstrated
teamwork and creative, proactive leadership.
* Faculty Understanding-The new president should
have an informed comprehension of faculty and their
view(s) of critical academic issues. Candidates aris-
ing from faculty ranks is a normal and, in most cases,
preferable route, although a leader entering from an
alternative background is not necessarily a fatal error.
Indeed, sometimes long-term academics show an ap-
palling misunderstanding of faculty values. In the case
of an outsider, what is important is whether that person
can translate valuable experience from another profes-
sional theater into effectiveness in the academy. Faculty
deserve a president who cares about their views. This is
not to suggest that faculty are always right, but they have
a pretty good track record. It also wouldn't hurt if the
president actually liked faculty.
* Florida Politics-This may come under the heading of
asking too much, but the president should understand the
Byzantine world of the Florida legislature and the Board
of Regents, two important bodies that will influence
greatly how fast (or whether) UF can meet its ambitious
goals. An effective president must develop a good work-
ing relationship with both.
* Three Legged Stool-The traditional academic
measures of teaching, research, and service have seen im-
portant modifications during the past couple of decades,
resulting at times in a quite unstable stool. The research
leg sometimes has threatened to outgrow by far the other
two stabilizing supports. While this is not necessarily
bad in some units, the president needs to understand the
significance of each measure, college by college.
* Development-The new UF president had better be
a good people person, particularly with regard to our
far-flung alumni and friends. Private support is becoming
more and more important for all the best public AAU uni-
versities. UF cannot attain greatness without this critical
boost from its loyal supporters. The president will arrive
in time to celebrate the successful closure of the current
$750 million capital campaign in January 2001, after
which preliminary planning will be in order for a new $1
In the interests of column length and readership atten-
tion span (doubtless greatly exceeded already), my list of
presidential criteria will be limited to the few thoughts,
above. These views are purely my own and should not
be taken to represent the opinions of others in CLAS or
beyond. I encourage you to make the UF presidential
search committee aware of your own desired criteria.
This is too important for any of us to remain on the side-
A Note From the Chair
Robert D'Amico, Philosophy
philosophy studies fundamental and yet
puzzling problems that emerge in
understanding the world and thought
itself. Among its questions are: What can be
known? What is real? What is morally right?
The study and teaching of philosophy, however,
has been haunted in the 20th century by doubts
concerning whether these sorts of questions can
Though there have always been popular mis-
conceptions of the profession, as outlined by
my colleague Gene Witmer in this issue, the
doubts I am referring to have been posed internally. One influential criticism
during this century is scientism holding that philosophical debates reduce to
scientific explanations. In recent decades the broader academic world has
been gripped by what might be called, in contrast, aestheticism, holding that
philosophy is subsumed under the study of literary and poetic texts. What is
interesting about these criticisms is how they generate responses defending
the autonomy of philosophy. In other words, philosophy has the irritating
tendency of awakening during the autopsy. Most important, these counsels
The views of my
colleagues are not
in perfect harmony
future, but we
do have a deep
agreement on how
of despair concerning the future of philosophy
have to be assessed against widely shared ad-
vances in how to solve its classic problems.
Finally, doubts are, oddly enough, integral
to philosophy. The views of my colleagues are
not in perfect harmony concerning such ultimate
questions about philosophy's future, but we do
have a deep agreement on how to proceed. We
approach philosophy in both our teaching and
in the design of our program as blending two
strands. First, one must be grounded in the
history of philosophy. Not merely because the
odds are that those thinkers were smarter than
you, but because studying Aristotle, Hume,
Kant, or Descartes teaches you to read carefully
and critically. However, philosophy must also
be studied in action by systematic review of contemporary contributions in
epistemology, metaphysics, and ethics. These two strands are the support
for specialized studies in philosophy of science, philosophy of language, and
philosophy of mind, as well as the on-going research that gives life to our
graduate and undergraduate teaching.
Perhaps Ludwig Wittgenstein was the last philosopher who both shaped the
internal debates and achieved
the status of a public intel-
lectual. He once described
what he did as follows: "I am
sitting with a philosopher in
the garden; he says again and
again, 'I know that that is a
tree,' pointing to a tree that is
near us. Someone else arrives
and hears this, and I tell him,
'This fellow isn't insane.
We are only doing philoso-
2. UNIVERSITY OF
CLASnotes is published monthly by the College
of Liberal Arts and Sciences to inform faculty and
staff of current research and events.
M. Jane Gibson