|UFDC Home||myUFDC Home | Help ||
|Around the college|
|Grants awarded through Division...|
|A Note from the chair|
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PDF VIEWER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
This item has the following downloads:
|Table of Contents|
Around the college
Grants awarded through Division of Sponsored Research
A Note from the chair
And to Round Out the Year
Readers of this column may recall that
I have been on record in recent months
about the many good things happening
in CLAS this year. In addition to accom-
plishments triggered by CLAS, we have
also enjoyed the gracious benevolence of
Tally, Tigert, and our alumni friends. No
question, it has been a fine year.
But in order to maintain good standing
in the International Deans Union, I must
cite here our catchy slogan, "What have
you done for me lately (as in, this week)?"
In spite of its substantial gains, CLAS has
yet many quite real needs.
And it is December, after all, when gifts
are expected, so I ask Chancellor Herbert,
President Lombardi, Provost Capaldi,
and CLAS alumni fundraising czar, Al
O'Neill, to keep in mind some of the mod-
est presents listed below that would look
good under the CLAS holiday tree.
* Funding for the Women's Gym-A
great opportunity to house one of the
finest Women's Studies programs in the
country and to name the building. I have
only a few of these naming opportunities
left, so don't wait too long. Note also that
not only does this fund a great program,
but another UF historic building becomes
renovated. A real win-win.
* Enhanced Faculty/Staff Salary Pack-
age-Progress has been made, but the UF
salary structure is still much below where
it should be for an AAU institution.
* Term Professorships-Our alumni and
friends have already funded several of
these, and we have need for more (the
target is 20) to recognize and reward the
best faculty in CLAS.
* Ethics Professorship--The need exists
for an interdepartmental effort to integrate
ethical considerations more broadly in our
curriculum. We seek an endowed senior
Vol. 12 The University of Florida College of Liberal Arts and Sciences No. 12
Written in the Stars
An Interview with CLAS Astronomer Charles Telesco
Cn: Last March, you and your team
(Scott Fisher, Robert Pifia and [from
Harvard] Ray Jayawardhana) discov-
ered what appears to be the birth of a
solar system like ours, using a sophis-
ticated infrared camera (OSCIR) you
designed, built and mounted on the
largest telescope at the Cerro Tololo Ob-
servatory in Chile. The reaction in the
popular press has been amazing. All the
major newspapers and radios have car-
ried the story, and your discovery made
the cover ofNewsweek. How has all the
coverage affected your work?
CT: I think that the press and PR that we
got about our discovery has actually helped
us quite a bit because it's really let people
know that we're doing interesting work.
It's a little hard to get that information out
to the broader public and the people who re-
ally support your research when the primary
way that you advertise, as it were, is through
The main thing was that a lot of people
were exposed to our department. Our depart-
ment has been remade in the last few years
[Telesco came in 1995], and even though
the "old department" had a lot of really top-
notch scientists in it, this new department
is taking advantage of all kinds of recent
technology, and we have new young faculty
members... so this was kind of our coming
out party. This publicity helped us advertise
ourselves at a very critical time. We' re hiring
new faculty now, too. We' ve just made a job
offer that was accepted by a scientist from Cal
Tech, and we're going to make two additional
offers. Those interested in applying could see
that we are on the move and that we are going
to be part of some major discoveries.
Because of the discovery and publicity, we
think we're on the verge of getting involved
in a big way in a really big class of tele-
scopes. Once we cross that line... once our
university is part of a big telescope project
like that-we're talking major telescopes, the
Robert Piia, Scott Fisher and Charles Telesco
at the international observatory in Mauna Kea,
biggest in the world at 8-10 meters-we'll
very quickly, coupled with the new faculty
that we're bringing in, be in the top class of
astronomy departments, which is a pretty
Cn: Describe the planet formation pro-
CT: What we were looking at indeed seems
to be the whole birth process....the creation
process. Swirling dust clouds in space con-
tain enormous filaments of material, and for
some reason that we don't fully understand,
the denser parts of the filaments start to col-
lapse in on themselves. Little knots eventu-
ally form, and then the knots may fragment
and form a lot of smaller knots which can
actually begin to collapse. They are already
rotating a bit, just a random rotation, and as
they collapse more they start to rotate faster,
you know, like a spinning ice-skater who
pulls in her arms. Eventually, they start to
flatten out to form a little disk... sort of-as
the Newsweek science editor said-like
when you take a ball of dough and toss it, it
stretches out into a pizza.
Initially you get this bright, central
core that will become the star [the star they
worked with in Chile is called HR 4796A],
See Astronomy, page 8
This month's focus: Astronomy
See Musings, page 12
Around the College
Stephen Mulkey and Kaoru Kitajima co-chaired an invited
paper session at the "Second International Canopy Biology
Conference: Global Perspectives" held at the Selby Botanical
Gardens, Sarasota, Florida, November 4-8. The meeting was
attended by tree canopy biologists from Europe, Asia, Aus-
tralia and the Americas. Kitajima presented her collaborative
work with Mulkey and S. J. Wright (Smithsonian Institution)
conducted from the two canopy cranes at the Smithsonian in
Michael Zerner has been awarded an honorary PhD from
Tartu University in Estonia. Tartu was founded in 1623 by
Gustavus II Adolphus and is one of Europe's oldest institutes
of higher learning. Cooperative agreements between UF and
Tartu were among the few that existed between Universities
in the US and the former Soviet States.
James Haskins' book, I Am Rosa Parks, written with Rosa
Parks, has been named a Carter G. Woodson Award Honor
Book. Moaning Bones: African-American Ghost Stories, has
been published by Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co.
Andrew Gordon chaired a panel on the fiction of Bellow
and Roth at the American Literature Association Conference
on Jewish-American literature, held in Delray Beach October
24. He also read a paper on "The Return of the Repressed in
the Bellarosa Connection." He will organize this conference
Brandon Kershner has been nominated to the Board of Direc-
tors of the International James Joyce Foundation. The Board
consists of eighteen internationally recognized scholars, nine
of them from North America. His former doctoral student at
UF, Garry Leonard (University of Toronto), has also been
Keene Faculty Center Dedicated
The New Keene Faculty Center in
Dauer Hall was dedicated on Thursday, November 12. Alistair
Duckworth (ENG) addressed the Keenes on behalf of the faculty
(left). President Lombardi and Ken and Janet Keene cut the
Geology Celebrates 50 Years at UF
President Lombardi (center), Geology chair Paul
Mueller (left) and Geology alumnus Jon Thompson
spoke at the Williamson Hall rededication ceremony.
The Geology Department celebrated its 50th anniversary dur-
ing the weekend of November 6. Activities included a professional
development symposium on Friday, where several UF Geology
alumni made presentations about their career experiences to the
On Saturday, a large group convened outside Williamson Hall
for a rededication ceremony. In his remarks, President Lombardi
recognized that the Department has become a comprehensive edu-
cational and research organization with an internationally acclaimed
faculty. He set forth a challenge that Williamson will become a
globally recognized center for research education and service in the
Other speakers included CLAS Associate Dean Jim Dufty, Geol-
ogy chair, Paul Mueller, and one of the Department's distinguished
alumni, Jon Thompson, president of Exxon Exploration Company.
A tour of the building immediately followed the rededication cer-
emony. The National Science Foundation and the State of Florida
have provided funds for Williamson's upcoming renovation.
CLAS notes is published monthly by
the College of Liberal Arts and Sci-
ences to inform faculty and staff of
current research and events.
Dean: Will Harrison
Editor: Jane Gibson
Asst. Editor: Ronee Saroff
Graphics: Gracy Castine
Around the College
top left: CWOC's AL;:
Kellie Roberts 1 ILIUE UbLLI
(fourth from left),
the UF Speech and
Debate Team and
the Law School's
Moot Court Team
served barbecue; the CLAS/Law Homecoming tent, spon-
sored by Sam AlIgood, Jr. (JD '49) and Bruce Bullock
(LS '55, LLB '62); Richard Haynes offered information at
the Philosophy Department's display; The Marine Biol-
ogy Club, headed up by Zoology lab techni-
T a cian Jonathan Wheeler (kneeling with cap in
foreground) treated parade
.watchers to a hands-on d
aquatic life display; Dean
Harrison and anthropology
grad student Heather Mcll-
vaine-Newsad admired the
department's Potlatch t-shirts;
Chemistry professor Gardiner
Myers performed magic for a
crowd in the Chemistry Lab
Building; Blue Key Distin-
guished Faculty designee
Thomas Emmel (ZOO) rode in the
parade; Physics technical assistant
Eric Berry conducted experiments for
spectators; Paula Palmer held down
the fort at the Center for Women's
Studies and Gender Research table.
B iI . .. -
Preserving the Past(Part,,)
Conversations with a UF Olympian
What follows is the third and final installment of our series on The Samuel Proctor Oral History
Program. The Oral History Program, directed by Julian Pleasants (History), houses over 3,200 inter-
views (more than 80,000 pages of transcribed material) which are available for use by research scholars,
students, journalists, genealogists, etc.
As with the other Oral History installments we've included in CLAS notes, the following short excerpts
represent a very small portion of the much lengthier original interview
Interviewer: Julian Pleasants
Interviewee: Nicole Haislett
UF graduate Nicole Haislett (Journalism, '97) won three gold
medals (the most of any US competitor and tied for the most golds
of any female athlete) in the 1992 Olympics in Barcelona, Spain.
Haislett 's titles came in the 200free, the 400 medley (prelims) and
the 400free relay (her team broke the world record). Since 1968,
Gator swimmers have won 46 Olympic medals.
P: I know for a fact that you are an outstanding student and
that you made All Academic SEC....[to win] gold medals and [to
maintain] a high academic standard is very, very difficult. How
do you explain that level of accomplishment?
H: I think it all stems back to what I learned through swimming.
Starting at such an early age, I learned a lot about myself and about
the sport. It is not just swimming; it is any sport. It teaches you
about goals, hard work, giving things up, and those are all things
that can be carried over into any aspect of your life [including]
P: If you look back, this is the twenty-fifth year of women's ath-
letics at the University of Florida, things have changed rather
dramatically. I think we would see in the lastfour orfive years that
women's sports have become much more equal to men's sports.
Did you find that, for example, on the swim team?
H: Yes. While I was here, I never felt that the men's swim team
had anymore than we did or had more privileges. I never saw that
anywhere, except for football. They have more scholarships because
they have more players. They get bigger prizes if they win the SEC
and so on. [But] it was not like it was an unfair thing, because they
are the ones who are bringing in all of the money for us....I always
felt that I was treated fairly and equally here.
P: Right before you swim, what do you do? What do you do in
the ready room, for example?
H: If I remembered, I would tell you. Everything is such a blur.
I really do not remember things very well. I remember warming
up real quickly before I went to the ready room and I was in the
warm-up pool and the men's 100 fly was right before my event.
Pablo Morales [U.S. Gold Medalist, 1996 Olympics] was in it and
you know that was a big story. My coach at the Olympics came
running in with this huge smile on his face and I was like, did he
win? I could tell [that he did]. I was really pumped up about that,
so I had some big adrenaline going. I warmed up, got my stuff on,
and went down to the ready room. All I can remember is being
so nervous....They put you in a line according to your lanes and
you march out....I just remember hearing these people yelling,
"Go Nicole, go Nicole." For a second I thought, wow, that really
sounds like my family. I lost all concentration and I looked up and
[saw that] it was [them]. They were just behind my lane. I almost
stopped the lineup because I was staring at them wondering how on
earth they got those tickets.
P: Did that help, the fact that they
H: Probably. One of the fond- Nicole Haislett
est memories that I have from the
Olympics is finishing the race and
being able to see them right away. The first thing I did was look
at the clock and then I looked at them.
P: Some people in the ready room stare down opponents. Do
you get into these mind games at all?
H: No. I was real quiet; I did not talk a lot. I just did my own
thing. If it was intimidating, then it was, but I did not do anything
purposely. I did not spit on anybody or make faces or anything
P: When did you know you won? Do you know when you hit
H: I did not know. I think I felt pretty good about it, but I did
not know. I touched the wall and I looked back and it seemed
like an eternity before the places went down by the lanes. Then
I saw the one.
P: You were swimming next to this girl.
H: Yes. I was right next to her.
P: And you did not see who touched first?
H: I breath hold the finish, so I do not breathe from five, six, seven
meters out. You cannot see the side of you and you are concentrat-
ing on your finish, so you cannot really tell. You know if you are
ahead of somebody, but I was not ahead of her. We were even.
P: It was that close?
H: The difference was .1 seconds exactly.
P: How did you feel when you got up on the stand to get your
first gold medal?
H: To me it was like deja vu because I had visualized it and
pictured it happening so many times that it felt like I had already
done it....It was pretty neat. It was funny because you watch it at
home and you watch them on the award stands, you watch them
raising the flag, and [you hear] the national anthem. So as I was
standing there I was thinking, wow, people at home are watching
me right now getting my medal.i
How Stars are Born
Elizabeth Lada's discovery paves way for
new research on star and planet formation.
While working on her disserta-
tion at The University of Texas
at Austin in the late 1980s,
Elizabeth Lada's goals were modest. By
surveying the giant dust cloud inside her
favorite constellation, Orion, Lada hoped
to understand more about the general for-
mation process of stars. "We knew that
stars form in very cold, very large, mas-
sive clouds of gas and dust. They're the
largest things in the universe and they're
the coldest things in the universe," she
says. "I was really fascinated by how the
gas and dust collects, eventually getting
dense enough to collapse and form stars."
But what she discovered changed the en-
tire premise of star formation theory. Up
until then, astronomers had assumed that
our sun and stars like it formed relatively
alone, from tiny cores. "In conducting
these surveys," explains Lada, "we
learned that typical stars like the sun don' t
form in isolation; in fact, most of them
form in hi nonulious clusters of hundreds
A near-infrared image of a cluster (NGC
2024) which contains more than 300 "infant"
stars (only around one million years old).
Lada discovered that most stars are born in
of stars very densely packed together.
This was a total surprise."
Her findings have raised many impor-
tant research questions, most notably: if
stars usually form in clusters, why do
so many "lone" stars exist? Part of the
answer is that star formation is, as Lada
terms it, "an inefficient process." While
the clouds of gas from which stars form
are huge-tens of thousands of times
the mass of the sun-only a small frac-
tion of this gas actually ends up creating
stars. But far from waste, this unusually
large quantity of leftover gas may actu-
ally act as a binder, keeping the young
stars together as they form. "What we
think happens, and we don't understand
the entire mechanism, is that at a certain
stage in this formation process, the gas
is disrupted and shoots out of the cluster.
We know that in these kinds of regions
you have very powerful outflows that
drive gas out and you have radiation
pressure from the new stars that push the
gas away." Once the "glue" is gone, Lada
theorizes, there is not enough material
between the stars to hold them together,
and since the galaxy and everything in
it is constantly moving, the stars end up
gradually drifting away from each
So it's highly possible that our
sun may have hundreds of brothers
and sisters out there, stars of similar
age and chemical composition. Un-
fortunately, this would be difficult
to prove. "Because our star, the sun,
is so old," Lada says, "if it did form
in a cluster, by now its brother and
sister stars would be spread all over
Since clusters produce stars of all
types and sizes, Lada also hopes to
understand more about the distribu-
tion of masses of stars within each
cluster. "We'd like to know if star
formation is so robust and fundamen-
tal that no matter where you go in the
galaxy, clusters are always going to
produce the same number of stars or
the same distribution of stars," she says.
"Looking at really young things will help
us out; we're not studying fossil records
of stars, we're looking at things that
have just been born." In recognition of
Elizabeth Lada in her office (note:
Orion on wall in background).
Lada's pioneering work in star formation,
the National Science Foundation awarded
her a $390,000 Faculty Early Career
Development Program (CAREER) grant
Lada's work has also dramatically
impacted research on planet formation.
Pictures from the Hubble Space Telescope
provided proof that disks of interstellar
dust (the type of disks now thought to
indicate the birth of planets see Telesco
interview in this issue) exist around ap-
proximately 50% of recently formed stars
in the nearby Trapezium cluster. "One of
the things we want to try to figure out is
how cluster density [the degree to which
these groups of young stars are closely
packed] affects disk formation. How long
do disks live in stellar clusters? Long
enough to produce planets? Does radia-
tion emitted from large, bright stars in a
cluster disrupt the environment for planet
She is currently using both mid-in-
frared technology (Telesco's OSCIR)
and radio millimeter telescopes to try to
answer these questions. FLAMINGOS,
Richard Elston's new spectrometer (see
article, page 9), will eventually be help-
ful in answering other questions about
star formation and stellar clusters. "With
FLAMINGOS, we'll be able to study
a whole cluster of new stars in a single
night-a powerful breakthrough- so I'm
really excited about that." %
Assistant professor of psychology Darragh Devine completed his PhD in psychology at Con-
cordia University's Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology in Montreal. He came to UF
from the University of Michigan School of Medicine, where he was a post-doctoral researcher
in the Department of Psychiatry. He is currently examining the molecular neurobiology of
stress and its relationship to disorders such as self-injurious behavior. He is also examining the
behavioral and physiological functions of the neurotransmitter orphanin FQ. He teaches courses
in physiological psychology and the neurobiology of stress. His pastimes include playing guitar,
cooking, windsurfing and playing soccer.
Shari Moskow, an assistant professor of mathematics, came to UF from the University
of Minnesota, where she was a postdoctoral associate. She earned her PhD from Rutgers
University in 1996. Her research interests include applied mathematics, partial differen-
tial equations and numerical analysis. Shari collaborates with industry studying problems
that arise in material science, electromagnetics and other areas of science. She is currently
teaching classes in numerical analysis and calculus. Her pastimes include watching movies,
dancing, reading mystery novels and traveling.
Ranjini Natarajan, an assistant professor of statistics, earned her PhD in statistics from Cornell
University. She came to UF from Brown University, where she was an assistant professor of
biostatistics. She is interested in the issue of modeling heterogeneity among experimental units I
through the use of random effects. Currently, she is investigating the consequences of ignoring
heterogeneity, and developing a procedure for testing its presence within a Bayesian statistical
paradigm. In her spare time, she enjoys cooking, watching movies, hanging out with her friends
and playing bridge.
Assistant professor of sociology Chuck W. Peek earned his PhD in 1995 from the Univer-
sity of Michigan in Ann Arbor. He has held postdoctoral fellowships in the UF College of
Medicine and most recently in the UF College of Dentistry. His research focuses on health
and long-term care among older adults. Chuck is currently working on a project that
examines race and ethnic differences in the physical and contextual aspects of disability
and the consequences of declining health. He will teach courses in medical sociology and
methods of social research. Spare time permitting, he enjoys playing tennis, cooking, and
reading mystery novels.
Robert Pifia, an assistant professor of astronomy, earned his PhD in 1994 from the University
of California, San Diego. He was most recently a postdoctoral research associate at UF. His
principle expertise is in astronomical infrared cameras, which use a special kind of detector
developed by the defense industry. Currently, he is studying massive stars and "active galaxies"
and developing new numerical techniques to "enhance" astronomical images. He is teaching his
first graduate class entitled, "Data Analysis with Application to Astronomy." He enjoys swim- N
ming, hiking, biking and reading. \
Closing the Gap
by Bo Gustafson (Astronomy)
Dust particles are the starting point
of planet formation, the remnants
from planet formation, and prob-
ably the "cradle" from which life developed
and spread in the universe. Theoretical
modeling and observations of cosmic dust
is a well-established research focus in the
Department of Astronomy and has been for
decades. In the Laboratory for Astrophysics
we are developing unique theoretical and
experimental methods that can be used on
"real" problems facing astronomy and other
fields of research in the natural sciences,
in medical sciences, and in engineering.
We apply these techniques in the develop-
ment of innovative space instrumentation
that enables missions that are truly "faster,
cheaper, and better."
In general, there is a big gap between the
idealized conditions that theoreticians can
solve for and the real world that we observe.
Almost all natural and man-made particles
are found to be complex structures and are
usually aggregates of multiple particles
less than a micrometer (one thousandth of a
millimeter) across. Most theoretical calcu-
lations of how these
particles interact with
light are, despite this,
still based on ideal-
and perfect spheri-
cal particles that are
also assumed to act
independently of one
another. This may be
a good approxima-
tion for explaining
the rainbow since it (from left) Bo Gustafs
arises from a cloud lova, Thomas Walden
of finely dispersed Frank Giovane stand
tion similar to equipn
liquid drops pulled built for the "John GI
spherical by surface mission.
tension, but it is not a good approxima-
tion for most other real conditions. Far
from spherical, cirrus cloud particles, for
example, are actually intricate angular ice
crystals that can be assembled in snowflake-
like complex geometries. Volcanic dust, car
exhaust, man-made smog and other types
of dust are examples of irregular, complex
aggregate structures. Real applications
involving such intricately shaped or closely
spaced particles include a range of remote
sensing applications, blood analysis and
other medical analyses, pol-
lution monitoring, and the
sensing and manipulation
of small particles in the food
industry and manufactur-
ing as well as in our pri-
mary interest: cosmic dust.
Maybe the common view
that most theoretical work
is "academic" and almost
unrelated to reality has some
truth to it.
When I formed the Labo- Ginterlaneta
ratory for Astrophysics in than 6000. T
1994 to study the physics built to study
of dust particles and other
small bodies, there was a great need for
closing the gap between modeling, both
theoretical and experimental, on the one
side, and real particles on the other. The
foundation for our success is an accurate
and fully automated microwave facility
that allows us to study light interactions in
which a particle's dimensions and the light' s
wavelength are scaled up by a factor of
6000. Affording great control and accuracy
through the scaling
SW I(we build models
of particles that are
scaled up to the size
of grapes), ours is
the first and only
facility capable of
measuring all as-
pects of the interac-
tion of light with an
n, Ludmilla Koloko- Its first use was to
rsson, Yu-lin Xu and test and confirm a
front of instrumenta- rigorous theoreti-
nt they designed and
n" Space Shuttle cal solution to the
scattering of light
by arbitrary aggregates of fully interacting
spheres developed in the Laboratory for
Astrophysics by Dr. Yu-lin Xu. This long
sought-after theoretical development is a
big step that has allowed theoretical mod-
eling of more realistic dust structures. Dr.
Ludmilla Kolokolova, also at the Labora-
tory for Astrophysics, uncovered evidence
for organic compounds sublimating away
from dust particles as they leave a comet,
an interpretation that catches the imagina-
tion since cometary organic may have
lds a scaled model of a dust particle. An actual
y dust partcle (upper right), magnified by more
he microwave facility Gustafson designed and
scaled particles is visible in the background.
"sparked" life on this planet. The interpre-
tation would have been impossible to make
without the laboratory data.
These successes have not gone unnoticed,
and NASA has repeatedly approached
our group to apply our results to instru-
mentation for the analysis of dust particles
in planetary atmospheres, the outflow
from icy satellites and comets, and in
space. We therefore formed an alliance for
space instrumentation with collaborators
worldwide including Dr. Frank Giovane
at the Naval Research Laboratory. As a
result, the Laboratory for Astrophysics was
funded to develop the next generation space
instrumentation that is small and techni-
cally simple-with no moving parts-but
that is "smart" because it uses knowledge
about real particles, not before available, to
analyze individual micrometer-sized specks
of dust that may be suspended in thick
atmospheres or could be traveling through
virtually empty space at velocities measured
in km/s. NASA designated our Planetary
Aerosol Monitor / Cometary DustAnalyzer
(PAM/IDA) one of their sixteen "standard
instruments for planetary exploration in the
As part of the effort, we developed test
and calibration facilities as well as both a
means of handling small particles and the
guns to shoot these particles. A plasma gun
of our design uses a hypodermic needle for
a barrel and may be the smallest hypervel-
ocity gun in the world. This gun launches
tiny dust particles to velocities exceeding
7 km/s, the speed of the space shuttle. The
whole setup including the gun and flight
path is designed to fit inside our 25-foot
See Gustafson, page 8
Telesco, continued from page 1
and over time the dust and gas in the disk slowly coagulate and
form bigger and bigger chunks of material that eventually form
planetesimals [a few kilometers and bigger], and over time those
coagulate and form planets, and all the dust and gas in the disk
either dissipates or is captured into one of the forming planets.
We think planets usually form in the interior of the disk [which
begins to look like a ring with a central cleared zone... they saw
this clearing in the disk around HR 4796A].
Cn: Do you hope to eventually identify and image an actual
planet in a new system like HR4796?
CT: The planets are going to be very hard to see because they are
very small and the star light is very bright... a planet like the earth
at the same distance from a star that earth is from the sun is like a
million or hundreds of thousands of times fainter than the star.
So it's going to be a long time before we can actually see a
planet like earth which is quite small. But we may be able to see
big planets like Jupiter in the next few years-see them directly.
We're going to have to be very clever [laughs]... you're just not
going to go and take a picture of it.
The key for us is that we' 11 be working in the mid-infrared with
the biggest telescopes possible to get the highest contrast between
the planets and the star so we can keep the stellar image overflow,
if you want to call it that, down to a minimum. But even doing
that is not enough. There is an interesting technique-called in-
terferometry-in which you use the interference effects of light to
actually cancel out the starlight. That's the state-of-the-art, where
researchers are struggling to learn
how to use the telescopes in the most
effective way, so it's not just having
a big telescope. You can actually
combine the radiation from several
telescopes to cancel radiation you
don't want so you can see radiation
that you do want. A pretty interest-
ing technique...but you just don't
get simple pictures... you have to
process the images before you can
translate them into a form in which
computer-enhanced version the planets are visible.
of an image Telesco's group
made using OSCIR on the
Keck II in Hawaii. The central
circle is the star (HR 4796A);
the circles above and below
are a cross-section of the
kind of circumstellar disk
(imagine looking at half of a
doughnut edge-on) in which
astronomers think planets are
Cn: What's your next step?
CT: We haven't discovered very
many of these disks. This one is only
the second one discovered for which
we see a lot of the details. What we' d
like to see is a whole sequence of
them-of different ages. If you were
a Martian and came to earth to find
out how a single person ages... if you
only had 10 minutes on earth, how would you do it? You could
take a lot of pictures of different people and compare them... you' d
realize there were some small ones, big ones, etc... and you'd find
that there is an evolution from children all the way through to adult-
hood. That's exactly what we want to do with solar systems.
Cn: So it's important to find more disks to examine.
CT: We have to find a lot of them. You want to see an evolution-
so you look at
a lot of differ-
ent systems of
a lot of differ-
ent ages. It's
a harder prob-
lem than one
we have to use
a variety of
determine the The Keck II telescope in Hawaii, where, in May, Teles-
age of a star, so co's group was able to gather more detailed images of
there's always their March discovery.
We have to build up statistics and look at a large number (ideally
hundreds and hundreds of disks of all shapes and sizes)... and then
we can piece together the scenario and really describe the evolu-
tion of solar systems.
Cn: A group working at the Keck H telescope in Hawaii made
the same discovery (HR 4796A) at almost the same time you did
last March. Is there a lot of competition out there?
CT: Yes. Over the last couple of years, we' ve been racing to hunt
down stars we can confirm as having disks around them. Right
now we' rejust sort of taking pot shots trying to accumulate data so
that we can actually begin to organize it-it's pretty exciting. And
we need the big telescopes and we need the good detectors. NASA
thinks this is important, and we enthusiastically agree. We're just
like kids in a candy shop.%
G ustafs on, continued from page 7
space simulation chamber. Detecting, let alone analyzing, particles
on this scale as they speed by is a truly mind boggling feat and our
way to "reach for the stars."
In just a few years since its formation, our group not only built
the ground facilities and developed the PAM/IDA instrument, it
has also built and flown a simplified version of the instrument on
the "John Glenn" space shuttle this fall. Our unit monitored the
growth of dust grains in a simulated planet forming region as part
of a German microgravity experiment that is intended to eventu-
ally be a long term project on the International Space Station. We
also designed part of the dust instrument on Rosetta, the European
mission to a comet, and are now negotiating to fly our PAM/IDA
instrument on NASA's DS4 comet mission.
Given the esoteric reputation of our field, it may be ironic that,
as astrophysicists, our primary activity is to close the gap between
theoretical and experimental modeling with applications to a broad
and well established research field that touches nearly all the sci-
ences and to bring modeling "down to Earth." Through establishing
applications for our work in the space program and potentially in
industry, we feel that we are also closing the gap between "academic
work" and the "real world."%
The Future of the Universe
Richard Elston's new design will allow astronomers to work 100 times faster.
Astronomers like Richard Elston
have to possess quite a bit of pa-
tience. "When you're trying
to figure out how all the galaxies in the
universe have changed and evolved over
time," Elston explains, "you need to collect
data on hundreds of galaxies." And that
takes time. Lots and lots of it. In order
to collect data Elston first has to apply for
time on major telescopes at the big obser-
vatories around the world. He might get
three or four nights several times a year.
But because distant galaxies are faint even
on the biggest telescopes, it takes Elston
most of each night observing to collect
data on a single galaxy. And that's only
if the weather is good. At the Cerro To-
lolo Inter-American Observatory in Chile
recently, for example, weather permitted
Elston only two productive nights. "I was
pretty happy with that," he admits, "but
it would have been nice if all four nights
would have been clear and I could have
observed four galaxies."
"Right now," admits Elston of the pains-
taking process of accruing data on hun-
dreds of galaxies, "we're merely scratching
the surface." Not for long. Thanks to a
new near infrared spectrometer that Elston
himself designed, astronomers will soon be
able to study up to one hundred galaxies
in a single night. "A factor of 100 is a big
gain," Elston says proudly of his creation,
the Florida Array Multi-object Imaging
Grism Spectrometer, or FLAMINGOS
for short. "In one night we can do what
would have taken a hundred nights to do
traditionally. FLAMINGOS will give us
this huge boost in the speed at which we
can do these kinds of projects."
FLAMINGOS will be used in two ways.
First, the instruments can act as a camera,
taking pictures of the sky at infrared wave-
lengths (several times longer than what
can be seen by the human eye). Secondly,
FLAMINGOS can be used as a multiple
object spectrometer. A spectrometer breaks
up all the wavelengths of the infrared and
spreads them out on the infrared array
which detects the light, allowing astrono-
mers to conduct various analyses. "We
can measure the distances to the objects,
we can measure their chemical composi-
tions, we can learn things about the type of
stars that they' re made of, how old they are
and a whole range of things," says Elston.
And although infrared spectrometers have
been built before, FLAMINGOS is the
first multi-object spectrograph, allowing
users to take spectra of about one hundred
What technology has allowed this gi-
ant leap forward? Several things. Using
lasers, astronomers can punch holes into a
small metal plate that fits inside Elston's
spectrometer. The holes, precisely mapped
to correlate with the location of targeted
objects, tell FLAMINGOS exactly which
galaxies to observe, and the instrument
can carry many of these perforated plates
at one time.
Another major factor aiding FLAMIN-
GOS' leap forward is improved infrared ar-
ray technology. "Right now most infrared
cameras have about 256 by 256 pixels,"
explains Elston, "but FLAMINGOS is
going to have 2,048 by 2,048." Advanced
technology comes at a price, however. The
infrared array or "detector" alone costs a
quarter of a million dollars.
FLAMINGOS, currently under con-
struction here at UF, should be finished in
one year. "We just signed an agreement
with the US National Observatory to take it
and put it on their telescope for part of the
year, and we're now talking to other major
observatories like the International Gemini
8-m telescope and the Harvard-Smithson-
ian MMIT 6.5-m telescope about getting it
on their telescopes for a substantial amount
of time." His agreement with the US Na-
tional Observatory guarantees Elston (and
his UF colleagues and graduate students)
40 observation nights a year, and they will
let outside groups use it for a total of 80
Elston' s long-term goal is to make head-
way into the mysteries of galaxy formation
and galaxy clustering effects. "Right now
there are two very different models of how
galaxies formed," he says. "They either
formed all at once in the collapse of a big
gas cloud, or they could have formed from
pieces of little clouds coming together
slowly over time. These are two very dif-
Richard Elston stands beside
FLAMINGOS, his new spectrometer
currently under construction at UF.
ferent pictures, and we hope to be able to
determine which is actually correct."
Since Elston studies galaxies that are
10 or 15 billion light years away, he is
actually looking at light that left these
galaxies and traveled for 10 or 15 billion
years to get to us. "Essentially, studying
these distant galaxies allows us to see the
universe as it appeared when it was very
young," he says. "With FLAMINGOS,
we want to look for clusters of galaxies
back in the distant universe to see how
these clusters have grown with time.
Gravity pulls more and more galaxies into
these clusters, so clusters are continually
growing as time passes. Thus, the overall
amount of matter in the universe will
determine how clusters of galaxies will
grow. The question then becomes, Is there
enough gravity in the universe to pull it
back together or will it go on expanding
forever?" Elston laughs and adds without
a touch of irony, "It's a big question."
"With the help of FLAMINGOS," he
continues, "we hope to learn something
more global about what the whole future
of the universe is."%
G ra nts (through Division of Sponsored Research)
October 1998 Total $ 1,930,417
Investigator Dept. Agency Award
Abboud, K. CHE
Boncella, J. CHE
Hudlicky, T. CHE
Katritzky, A. CHE
Katritzky, A. CHE
Katritzky, A. CHE
Richardson, D. CHE
Winefordner, J. CHE
Thomas, C. CRI
Golant, S. GEO
Procter & Gamble 42,000
Hoechst Schering 112,170
Mult Companies 10,000
Mult Sources 8,500
Mult Sources 40,349
Crystal structure determination.
Bimetalic group 4 metallocene complexes for the polymerization of alpha-olefins.
Organic synthetic methods and services.
Compounds for biological screening.
Agrevo compound agreement.
Miles compound contract.
Metal-oxo catalysts for hydrocarbon activation by oxygen.
Private corrections project.
The Casera project.
Lada, E. AST
Dermott, S. AST
Elston, R. AST
Gustafson, B. AST
Lada, E. AST
Dermott, S. AST
Telesco, C. AST
Bowes, G. BOT
Gordon, D. BOT
Kennedy, R. CHE
Richardson, D. CHE
Stewart, J. CHE
Winefordner, J. CHE
Smith, N. GEO
Korytov, A. PHY
Scicchitano, M. POL
Bradley, M. PSY
Fischler, I. PSY
Natarajan, R. STA
Shuster, J. STA
Bolten, A. ZOO
Bolten, A. ZOO
Katritzky, A. CHE
Malecki, E., Jr. GEO
Chapman, C. ZOO
Brown, W., Jr. CSD
Mossa, J. GEO
Understanding the accretion geometry and energetic in polars.
Calibration and astrophysics with the infrared space observatory.
Calibration and astrophysics with the infrared space observatory.
Planetary aerosol monitor/integrated dust analyzer.
Calibration and astrophysics with the infrared space observatory.
Student experimenters in motion.
Calibration and astrophysics with the infrared space observatory.
Characterization of NADP-MALIC enzyme in a unique Kranz-less C4 system.
Native sandhill species revegetation techniques.
Role of glutamate release ABD metabotropic autoreceptors.
Gas-phase chemistry and spectroscopy of metal complex ions.
New reagents for asymmetric organic synthesis from engineered baker's yeast.
Advanced measurements and characterization.
Market impacts on agrobiodiversity among smallholders in Eastern Amazonia.
Luminosity monitor detector development for the CDF experiment.
Task G CMS: Research on elementary particle physics.
A study of attitudes regarding union membership.
Project 4: Center for the study of emotion and attention.
Project 3: Center for the study of emotion and attention.
Bayesian analysis of generalized linear mixed models using non-informative priors.
Pediatric oncology group-Phase I Clinical Trials in Children.
5,693 Sea turtles and longline fisheries in the Eastern Atlantic.
6,215 International sea turtle flipper tag distribution and tag recapture dissemination.
3,000 Novel methodology for pyridine ring synthesis.
19,968 Telecommunications infrastructure in the Southeastern United States.
11,500 Ugandan student support.
Misc Donors 6,250 Miscellaneous donors.
Blackband, S. CHE FSU
Boyland, P. MAT U of Illinois
Xia, J. PHY FSU
2,225 Spatial and relational database services for water use and supply.
75,990 A proposal to establish an optically polarized noble gas NMR and MRI program.
28,374 Subcontract between the University of Illinois and the University of Florida.
59,165 Experimental investigation of states at half-filled Landau levels.
Haunted Bodies: Gender and
Edited by Anne Goodwyn Jones
(English) and Susan V. Donaldson
University Press of Virginia
and Susan V.
gether some of
our most highly
and literary crit-
ics to consider
through three centuries and from a wealth
of vantage points. Works as diverse as
eighteenth-century court petitions and lyr-
ics of 1970s rock music demonstrate how
definitions of southern masculinity and
femininity have been subject to bewilder-
ing shifts and disabling contradictions for
Analyses of gender in American studies
have tended to assume that the contours
of gender that developed in the first half
of the nineteenth century in the American
North can be successfully generalized
elsewhere.... Yet a moment's thought will
make it clear that such gender assump-
tions could not work so smoothly for peo-
ple in the American South, white or black,
rich or poor, slave or free. For manhood,
the notion of "the free play of individual
interests" in a rigidly hierarchical and
paternalistic society or of gaining social
status through achievement rather than
birth in a culture based on family lineage
had to remain only a gleam in the eye for
the Southerner born with the wrong blood
or condition of servitude and without a
silver spoon in his mouth. Most southern
men, that is to say, would not have had
access to Rotundo's "American" man-
hood. And even those most likely to-the
men of the master class-argued quite
explicitly against such ideas, for example
in the proslavery speeches, sermons, and
here are true
(and tongue-in-cheek) accounts of alli-
gators and the people who have hunted
them, been attacked by them, and tried
to save them from extinction. Journey
through the Everglades with 1800s
Seminoles, experts at stalking and kill-
ing gators. Go along with a "Northern
girl" as she shoots "my first alligator in
my gloves and veil." And learn how
modern alligator hunters go about their
business, which hasn't changed much
in the last hundred years or so.
This book is filled with amusing
black-and-white photos and is punctuat-
ed by a full-color section of photographs
by John Moran, who has managed to
capture the true essence of alligators in
their natural habitat.
The University of Florida began using
a gator for its mascot back in 1907. At
that time, Philip Miller, who owned a
stationery store in Gainesville, Florida,
was visiting his son at the University
of Virginia in Charlottesville. When he
tried to order some University of Florida
pennants there to sell in Gainesville,
Miller suggested the alligator for two
reasons: First, no other school at that
time had an alligator for a mascot;
and second, the reptile was native to
When the pennant maker admit-
ted that he had never seen an alligator
and could therefore not design one for
the pennants, Miller's son went to the
local library, found a picture of a gator
in a book, and presented a copy to the
pennant maker. When the pennants ar-
rived in Gainesville in time for the 1908
football season, the blue banners had
on them a large orange alligator-and a
mascot was born.
Enchanted Paths and Magic
Words: The Quantum Mind and
Time Travel in Science and in
E.C. Barksdale (Germanic and
(review taken from book jacket)
Dreams of time travel have long
haunted the human imagination. Many
physicists and philosophers think that
time travel is impossible; others, such
as Stephen Hawking, ponder whether
perhaps it could be done. Part One of
this book offers a nontechnical account
of some of the major current theories
concerned with time travel and with
the quantum mind. The mind already
makes imaginary journeys in time. The
mind may some day, through a special
process of information transfer, make
real ones. In Part Two, the reader goes
on several trial-run trips in time with
great writers and filmmakers as guides.
We cannot re-
ally see time as
a fourth dimen-
we perceive it
as a one-direc-
from the three
space; and we
sion in one
from the past
to the present and on to the future. We
shall see later in this book that certain
famous physicists, including Sir Isaac
Newton, have proposed that there is no
reason why we cannot in theory" crawl"
back in the other direction; from future
to the present and on into the past. So
we perceive time as a one-dimensional
entity because we can imagine time
as a straight line and often we draw
time on graphs as a straight line....we
always conceive of three dimensions of
space as utterly separate from the extra
dimension of time.
Musings, continued from page 1
position, the occupant of which will
provide leadership in this area.
* Continued Upgrade of Rolfs Hall
- We are gradually modernizing this
1927 building for critical CLAS teaching
needs, although painfully slowly. Much
work remains to be done. The provost
is providing 5th floor renovations this
year, for which I am grateful. [Betty,
did I mention the critical needs on the
4th floor, too?]
* Residential College-An unfulfilled
dream is the conversion of a campus
dormitory into a site for faculty-student
social and intellectual interaction. A
small Residential College within UF
could have a catalytic effect far beyond
its size, and our students (and faculty)
would be the better for it.
* More Infrastructure-We always need
more talented staff to make this far-flung
College function properly. New posi-
tions for secretaries, engineers, computer
managers, and lab technicians would be
* Increased TA Stipends-To be suc-
cessful in the graduate growth initiative,
we need to be competitive with our peer
institutions in attracting the best gradu-
ate students. Given the financial straits
of most graduate students, stipend level
takes on undue significance.
* Additional Graduate Fellowships-
Similar purpose and needs as described
above under TA Stipends.
* Naming of the College-A defining
mark for CLAS would take the form of
a large gift to endow and name the Col-
lege (i.e., the Gates College of Liberal
Arts and Sciences).
I will stop here to avoid the slightest
appearance of unreasonableness, but
a more complete list is available upon
request. And remember, CLAS is always
a good investment.
Ajoyous holiday season to all.
A Note from the Chair
Stan Dermott, C1
Department of Astrc
ne measure of the success of a re
search program is its level of ex-
ternal funding. In FY95-96, the
total external funding of the Astronomy
Department was $637,884. In FY96-97,
we brought in $1,478,558, an increase of
230%. In FY97-98, that figure increased to
$3,636,290, representing a further increase
of 250%. There must, of course, be a limit
to this process, but all the indications point
to a level of funding that may be close to
the highest in the college, at least on a
funds per faculty member basis. At pres-
ent, the department has 17 faculty.
This success has been achieved by
a new strategy. Time on space-based
telescopes-for example, the technically
brilliant Hubble Space
Telescope operated by
through open competi-
tion and our faculty
have been very success-
ful in gaining time on
those facilities. How-
ever, most of the new,
large and sophisticated
telescopes are ground-
based and sited in the
deserts of Arizona, The birth of a depai
Chile and Hawaii. CLAS astronomers
The new strategy cover of Newsweek
that the department
is pursuing is the development of instru-
ments that are unique and of such high
quality that the major observatories will
welcome the opportunity of using them
on their telescopes. Thus, in exchange
for an investment in instrumentation, UF
astronomers now gain some access to the
world's best observatories.
OSCIR, the infrared camera designed
and built by Charlie Telesco and his team,
was used by UF
discover a disk
of dust around
a young, nearby
star in which
planets may now
be forming. This
the cover of Newsweek in May 1998 and
was the first big payoff of the new strategy.
Other major new instruments are now under
development with funds provided by NSE
Our graduate program is small, but com-
parable in size to those of most other major
astronomy departments. We only have 28
students in our PhD program, but
with one exception, all of these
students are fully funded, and 40%
hold competitive, external fel-
lowships. With the expansion of
our research program, we expect
our graduate program to continue
to grow. At the undergraduate
level, we teach mostly 1000 and
2000 level general education
courses to non-scientists. We find
that the presentation of the latest
rtment: discoveries on the frontiers of
made the astronomy, sometimes by the
: last May. astronomers who are making
those discoveries, can be an
exciting and intellectually challenging ex-
perience for these young students.
We are now in the process of hiring three
new faculty to strengthen our research on the
origin of the universe and all that it contains:
that is, galaxies, stars, planets and even life
itself. We are confident both of making
further important discoveries in that area
and of communicating the new results to
The Astronomy De-
partment's office staff
includes (from left) of-
fice manager Deborah
Hunter, senior secretary
Ann Elton, and program
assistant Glenda Smith.