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Around the college
Grants awarded through Division of Sponsored Research
Note from the director
Vol. 12 The University of Florida College of Liberal Arts and Sciences
Graduate Growth in CLAS
We are beginning an important
paradigm shift in CLAS. Briefly stated,
the president's new UF growth plan over
the next eight years calls for steady-state
undergraduate enrollments, balanced by
significant growth at the graduate level.
It is a model that offers great opportunity
for research enhancement that could
move this university into its target group
among the public AAU institutions. At the
same time, we must be vigilant in CLAS
that our growth plan proceeds within the
best academic quality interests of the
disciplines. It is a transition that we will
make with a great deal of discussion and
Let's review where we are and
where we are scheduled to go by the
president's plan. UF enrollment targets
have been set for each year through 2005-
06. Currently the UF headcount stands
at 32,440 undergraduate, 8540 graduate,
and 1077 professional students for a total
of 42,057. By 2005 the plan calls for
undergraduates to increase slightly to
33,936, professionals to remain fixed at
1085, and graduate students to increase
by 40% to 11,950. UF would then have a
student body count of 46,971.
Comparing UF with other public AAU
universities, we currently have a lower
fraction of graduate students than such
high reputation institutions as Wisconsin,
Illinois, and Michigan. It is the president' s
intention that UF will add 250 new
graduate FTEs (equivalent to a headcount
of roughly 330) each year over the eight
year plan. It is fairly obvious that CLAS
will have responsibility for a significant
fraction of the graduate growth, given the
large number of graduate programs in this
college. For the university to succeed in
this goal, CLAS must play a leading role,
thus providing us with both an exciting
opportunity and a daunting task.
A lot of good things could result
from this plan. We would need to add
-See Musings, page 12
n the 1980s, due in part to the world-
wide changing economic and political
climate, increasing numbers of foreign
students began enrolling in American
universities. UF's growing reputation in
research made it no exception to this trend.
Although visiting students added much to
UF in terms of international scholarship, as
teaching assistants, they raised eyebrows
among students and parents concerned
about the intelligibility of their instruction
(in turn fueling an already heated
controversy about the general quality of
undergraduate instruction at research
institutions). Newspaper editorials and
local debate on the subject culminated in
Gainesville's state senator establishing a
hotline for reporting supposed cases of
inadequate classroom communication
skills. Eventually, the Florida legislature
enacted a statute requiring instructors at
state universities to "be proficient in the
oral use of English, as determined by a
satisfactory grade on the Test of Spoken
Enter the Academic Spoken English
(ASE) program, established in 1986.
Funded by the Graduate School and
designed by the Linguistics Program
(with collaboration from the College
of Education), ASE screens incoming
international graduate students before
they are given teaching appointments to
make sure they are proficient enough with
spoken English to be effective instructors.
"There's a real advantage to being taught
by these very talented, highly selected
individuals from all around the world,"
says ASE Coordinator Kathy Kidder, "and
it's ourjob to help ensure that these bright
international TAs are successful in the
Minimum scores on the Test of English
as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the
GRE exam are required of all international
applicants, and as a result, UF foreign
grad students generally have an advanced
reading knowledge of English. Since
these tests don't include oral components,
however, high scores can't guarantee
a student's ability to speak clearly or
understand the varieties of American
English. "Some of our international TAs
(ITAs) get to UF and find out that the 12
or 13 years of English they'd studied in
their countries doesn't do them any good
Academic Spoken English (ASE)
Coordinator, Kathy Kidder,
evaluates the teaching
tape of an international TA.
if they can't make themselves understood
here," Kidder says. "Many were taught by
teachers with poor accents... or maybe they
did lots of grammar, reading and writing but
had little practice speaking."
To remedy this situation, ten times a
year ASE gives the locally administered
and scored version of the Test of Spoken
English, called SPEAK, to all international
students. Prospective ITAs passing this
test at the highest level are free to teach
without further language training. Those
-See ASE, page 11
Academic Spoken English
Advanced Training Courses for International Students
This month's focus: Linguistics
Around the College
COMMUNICATION SCIENCES & DISORDERS
Geralyn M. Schulz has been invited to present a workshop
on the "Efficacy of Treatment for Parkinson's Disease" to the
Voice Foundation's 27th Annual Symposium: Care of the
Professional Voice June 5, 1998 to be held in Philadelphia,
PA. This symposium brings together prominent national and
international researchers from the medical, speech pathology
and vocal arts fields.
Norm Holland gave a lecture entitled "Books, Bodies, and
Brains" at Bogazici University in Istanbul, Turkey on May 26.
Debra Walker King won two national award competitions
for the 1998-99 school term: a Ford Foundation Research
Fellowship (officially called a Post Doc Fellowship) and a
Schomburg Research grant (for their Scholars-in-Residence
program). The awards were granted based upon a proposal
for her next book project, "African Americans and the Culture
Grant Ian Thrall has been elected to the board of directors of the
American Real Estate Society (ARES). ARES is the professional
association for university professors and corporate practitioners
in land economics and real estate.
Peter Waylen presented a talk entitled "From Medicine Hat to
Manaus: Hemispherical Factors Controlling the Effects of El
Nifo on Hydrologic Extremes in Central America" as an invited
keynote speaker at the Canadian Geophysical Union Annual
Meeting in Qu6bec City.
R. Hunt Davis has been awarded a Fulbright fellowship to
teach next year (Jan- Dec 1999) at the University of Capetown
in South Africa.
Betty Smocovitis has been awarded a National Science
Foundation Fellowship for 1998-99.
Bertram Wyatt-Brown has been named a National Humanities
Fellow for 1998-99.
Neil White gave an invited talk entitled "Symplectic Matroids"
at the Conference on Algebraic Combinatorics held at Oakland
University, Rochester, MI, May 1-3.
Mike Radelet was interviewed on ABC Nightly News, and on
May 19 was a guest on Nightline, discussing the execution of
mentally ill death row inmates.
Computers and Writing Conference
The 14th Computers and Writing Conference was held
at UF May 28-31. The emphasis of the conference was on
"disciplines where computers and writing intersect, including
composition studies, hypermedia design, literary criticism,
ESL, creative writing, cultural studies, and literature." The
conference featured panelists and speakers from all over the
Lc0.\,itiII in addition to providing aforum for UF professors
and graduate students. Phil Wegner (English, right) and
Stephanie Tripp (English PhD candidate, left) were among
the 5 panelists in a session entitled "Academic Labor and the
Shock of Technology" moderated by Patricia Ventura (English
* Chemist Named Cottrell Scholar
* Chemistry professor Jeffrey Krause has just
* been named a 1998 Cottrell Scholar. The
S award, given annually by the Research
* Corporation to only 13 academics nation-
S wide, seeks to recognize faculty who excel
in both teaching and research. The award
comes with a $50,000 stipend to further
Alan Agresti was invited to visit the University of Paris,
France, for a month this spring. He presented seminars
and conducted research.
Malay Ghosh presented an invited talk entitled "The
Fieller-Creasy problem Revisited" at the ISI-Bernoulli
Society International Conference held in ISI, Calcutta on
December 29, 1997. He was also elected to the Executive
Board of the International Society for Bayesian Analysis
Around The College
CLAS Deans Receive Matheson
Historic Preservation Award
will be presented to
Dean Will Harrison
and Associate Dean
on Tuesday, June
23. The Matheson
annual award to
that have made Griffin-Floyd
contributions to the
heritage and history of Alachua County.
A Matheson Center press release
announcing the upcoming ceremony explains
that Dean Harrison "brought more than
a distinguished academic and scientific
reputation with him when he became Dean
of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences...
he also brought a passion and appreciation
for the historic structures that make up the UF
campus." The Center credits Dean Frazier for
working "side-by-side with Dean Harrison
in this campaign to renovate and resuscitate
UF's older buildings and enhance the beauty,
quality, and integrity of the historic campus."
The presentation will take place in the Ruth
McQuown room at 6:00 PM and is open to
the public. The program will consist of slides
showing before-and-after views of the historic
renovations to Dauer, Griffin-Floyd, Anderson
and Leigh Halls,
Flint Hall and the
a walking tour
of the historic
campus led by
Sam Proctor and
Ramond, Thompson and Opdyke
Elected to the American Academy
of Arts and Sciences
Three CLAS faculty were among
the 146 new Fellows and 22 Foreign
Honorary Members recently elected
into the American Academy of Arts
and Sciences (AAAC). John Thompson
(Math), Pierre Ramond (Physics) and Neil
Opdyke (Geology) will be inducted into
the Academy, which was founded during
the American Revolution by individuals
who contributed prominently to the Pierre Ramond
philosophical foundations of the new nation (Physics)
and to the establishment of its government
John Adams, later to become the second
President of the United States, initiated the
chain of events that led to the formation
of the Academy.
The 62 men inducted at the Academy's
founding were expected to "determine
the uses to which the various natural
productions of the country may be
applied; to promote and encourage
medical discoveries; mathematical
Neil Opdyke disquisitions; philosophical inquiries
(Geology) and experiments; astronomical, meteo-
rological, and geographical observations;
and improvements in agriculture, arts, manufactures, and
commerce; and, in fine, to cultivate every art and science which
may tend to advance the interest, honor dignity, and happiness
of a free, independent, and virtuous people."
Today, the Academy serves a dual function, "to honor
achievement in science, scholarship, the arts, and public affairs
and to conduct a varied program of projects and studies reflecting
the interests of its members and responsive to the needs and
problems of society."
Of the Academy's 3,300 Fellows and 550 Foreign Honorary
Members are 168 Nobel Prize laureates and 58 Pulitzer Prize
winners. Elected scholars and professionals include George
Soros, founder of the Soros Foundation and business leader;
Beverly Sills, opera singer and Director
of the New York City Opera; E. Donall
Thomas, Nobel laureate in medicine;
Steven Milihauser, Pulitzer Prize winning
author; John Wilford, science editor of
the New York Times; Susan Berresford,
President of the Ford Foundation; and
portraitist Chuck Close.
Only five UF faculty members have been
elected AAAC fellows in the past. David
Green (Psychology) was the lone CLAS IL
inductee before this year's election. John Thompson
International Issues in Pedagogy
Roger M. Thompson (English) serves as the undergraduate coordinator for the Program in Linguistics and as the coordinator for both the
graduate Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) Certificate and the undergraduate minor in TESL.
Teaching English as a Second Language
(TESL) training has been a main focus
of the Program in Linguistics since its
inception in 1968. Afew years ago, the
undergraduate minor was developed
for the many University of Florida
students who wish to teach English
overseas to finance a summer or a year-
long adventure after graduation. It is
especially popular with English and
foreign language majors.
The graduate TESL Certificate is
open to graduate students in any major.
Many combine it with an MA or PhD
to make teaching English as a second
or foreign language their careers.
Others use it so they can teach English
overseas to support their PhD research
in foreign languages or social sciences.
Some 10 to 20 graduate students finish
the TESL Certificate each year. In spite
of the university's push to increase
graduate enrollment, Linguistics is
considering restricting access to this
popular TESL program in order to
reduce the size of graduate courses and
to reduce the demands on a limited
faculty. Students and faculty interested
in TESL may want to access my web
page ["Tman's TESOL Page"]
is designed to help undergraduates
and graduates get overseas jobs and
to supply them with
In addition to "...teach
working with TESL context
training, I conduct
research in socio- improve
linguistics and second the teaci
with an emphasis
which social and cognitive factors
make languages easier or harder to
learn. I have also been involved in
preparing language training materials
and providing training for the Peace
Corps. Besides studying Americans
learning German in Germany, Mexicans
learning English in Texas, Italians
learning Spanish in Mexico, Americans
learning Cakchiquel in Guatemala,
and Mexicans, Hungar-ians, and
Filipinos learning English in their native
countries, I have enjoyed studying my
own ten children learning Spanish
and Hungarian through immersion in
local schools while accompanying their
father on sab-baticals.
Based on my
developed a series
which use Hunga-
rian as the lan-
guage of instruc-
tion to illustrate
acquisition. On Roger
a recent sabbatical (Eng
to the Philippines,
where I served as a
Fulbright consultant to the Department
of Education, Culture, and Sports, I
had the opportunity to present these
Hungarian workshops to more than
4,000 English, science, and math
teachers throughout the country to
demonstrate how teaching language
in a real life context rather than from
a book improves language skills for
both the teacher and the student.
ing language in a real life
rather than from a book
s language skills for both
her and the student."
This is especially important in the
Philippines since all math and science
classes are taught in English from first
grade on up. Most teachers, especially
in provincial schools, speak limited
English and are reluctant to use the
language. As a result, the Filipinos
from rural schools do not learn enough
English to be successful in secondary
schools or in universities.
Many experienced language
teachers need help learning how
modern research can be applied in
their classes, and often, they resist
new approaches based on research
because they are comfortable with the
old way. On an earlier
sabbatical in Mexico,
I was responsible for
revi-sing the foreign
at a large private
university and then
with many years of
experience that newer
approaches and a
would work better.
SIn a later sabbatical in
Hun-gary during the
fall of communism,
ph)on I retrained Russian
) language teachers to be
English teachers. I had my
work cut out for me convincing these
teachers that Western approaches were
more efficient than Soviet approaches.
In both cases it was evident that
traditional training programs based
on reading and discussing research
studies did not work. Teachers have to
experience the learning process as the
students do so they can understand why
teaching strategies need to change.
This especially holds true for
teachers integrating technology into
the classroom. While in the Phil-
ippines, I trained more than 800 English
teachers how to use e-mail, homepages,
and the internet to enrich language
teaching. Many of the teachers in these
workshops were nearing retirement
and were using computers for the first
At present, I am working on a
research grant to study Taglish, the
mixture of Tagalog and English which
is developing in the Philippines. In
the fifty years since independence
from the United States, the Philippines
has promoted English in business, in
government, and in technology as the
language of national and international
development. Tagalog (also known
as Filipino) has been promoted as
Thompson, continued on page 9
Phonetics and Phonology
The Unwritten Rules of Language Systems
an Interview with Caroline Wiltshire
Assistant Professor of Linguistics Caroline Wiltshire received
her BA in math from Yale University and her MA and PhD
in Linguistics from the University of Chii,go. She taught for
a year each at Yale and Brown before accepting her present
position at UF three years ago. Although Wiltshire grew up in
Massachusetts, she frequently visited Gainesville as a child since
her grandfather, John Henry Davis, was a UF botany professor
(he retired in the late 1960s). Her grandmother still lives here in
Cn: You work in phonetics and phonology. What's the difference
between these two areas?
CW: Phonetics is the
.. actual physical articulation
of each sound and the
physical acoustics that
result from the articulation.
Phonology is a little more
abstract. It involves
s looking at sound systems,
sound patterns and the
way that languages differ
in their sound patterns.
We examine what sets of
arolin iltshre sounds are permissible,
and what sounds are
(Linguistics) meaningful in one
language versus in another.
Phonology is also looking for what features different
languages have in common. For example, all language
seems to have syllable structure, and all languages have
some restrictions on what can be a valid syllable.
This is what I do most of my work on. It's important
because all languages use syllables as a way of organizing
their sound systems. Native English-speakers know
without anyone ever telling them that an English word can't
start with a "tl" sound, like "tlick," That has to do with
English syllable structure; you can't start a syllable with a
"t" sound and an "1" sound together. So, when we borrow
words from other languages, we change them according to
our own rules. For example "Tlingit," a Native American
language spoken in the northwest of Canada and in Alaska,
was first pronounced and recorded in English as "Klingit."
Or, if you listen to Japanese speakers, their syllables
often go consonant-vowel-consonant-vowel. That's why
when they use English words they tend to add vowels. If a
native speaker of Japanese tries to say "street" in Japanese,
s/he might end up saying something like "si-too-ree-too"
Cn: What other projects are you working on ?
CW: I'm doing phonetic research with Louis Goldstein,
a colleague in New Haven, Connecticut who I started
working with when I was at Yale. He's got phonetic
equipment called an articulometer that lets you attach
tiny pellets to someone's tongue as they're speaking. By
generating a magnetic field around the subject's head, the
tongue's movements are recorded exactly as the person is
speaking. We did this with someone who speaks Tamil [a
South Indian language that Wiltshire works with] and we
recorded her tongue as she produced vowel-consonant-
vowel sequences for different consonants and vowels.
This equipment lets us look at speech discrepancy levels
that are even more fine tuned than you could possibly
Cn: So, instead of having to teach and learn languages by ear
only, we can now use images to help us refine our speech?
CW: Yes, plus it's amazing to actually see exactly what
our test subject was doing physically. She was doing
some interesting things, like, depending on the vowel
she'd adjust the angle of her tongue-we don't know yet
if that's just her or if it's an overall pattern.
It's one of those basic research things that doesn't
sound all that exciting to say, 'we noticed that the angle
changes if the vowel is "ooh" versus "ahh,"' but it's
fundamental for other things. In addition to being useful
for teaching and learning other languages, it will also be
useful for technological sorts of developments like speech
recognition or speech synthesis.
Right now, if you have a voice recognition VCR
phoneticianss and phonologists help to teach such
machines to understand human language), and you want
it to respond to verbal commands, you have to program
it with YOUR voice-it'll only recognize your voice. One
of the things we're trying to figure out is why human
beings are so robust at understanding other human
beings, but machines have such a hard time figuring out
what it is about the speech pattern that it has to focus on.
It's also amazing how hard these problems are. In every
science fiction movie you see, characters have little voice
translators, or they talk to their computers which answer
back. When you start exploring the details necessary
to implement this kind of technology, you realize those
are incredibly hard problems. It makes you even more
amazed that human beings just do it automatically. If
you look at the acoustic patterns of the voices of small
children, they're on a completely different scale than
adults because their heads and mouths are smaller, and
yet we understand children and they understand us-it's
phenomenal. Even four year-olds are listening to people
speaking with completely different physical systems, and
they still are able to translate words to their own systems,
something we can't get computers to do, yet.
Cn: What courses do you teach?
Wiltshire, continued on page 9
Lada Awarded NSF CAREER Grant
Joins Five Others in CLAS
Elizabeth Lada (Astronomy) has just been awarded a Faculty Early Career
Development Program CAREER grant from the National Science Foundation. The
CAREER Program seeks to reinforce "the importance the Foundation places on the
early development of academic careers dedicated to stimulating the discovery process
in which the excitement of research is enhanced by inspired teaching and enthusiastic
learning." Each award is 4-5 years in duration and comes with a stipend of $200,000-
$500,000 depending on the scope of the project. NSF expects to make approximately
350 new CAREER awards each year.
Lada's CAREER plans include conducting an extensive and systematic broad-
band infrared and millimeter wavelength study of 11 young stellar clusters which
span a range in age from 1 to 70 Myrs and span a range of physical environment. In
addition to providing a rich data base for investigations of the star forming histories
of young clusters, this project will establish, for the first time, a complete and statistically significant census
of circumstellar/proto-planetary disk sources in cluster environments. As an integral part of her proposal,
Lada proposes to carry out an educational plan that encourages, teaches and mentors high school, college
undergraduates and graduate students toward careers in the physical sciences. She joins five other young
CLAS professors currently on CAREER grants
Ellen Martin, from the Geology Department, is investigating the relationship between ocean circulation and climate change, focusing
Son changes associated with the last major period of glaciation on the earth 18,000 years ago. She is using a
chemical tracer consisting of neodymium (Nd) isotopes preserved in fossil fish teeth to try to reconstruct past
ocean circulation patterns. Ellen is currently involved in designing an oceanography project that will allow
students to utilize data from the world wide web to construct their own maps and depth profiles of temperature
and salinity distributions in the ocean, leading to a better understanding of ocean circulation, as well as the
development of El Nifio conditions.
Russ Bowers' (Chemistry) NSF CAREER grant, awarded in May '96, is entitled "Optically
Enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Nanostructured Electronic Materials." The project is providing
a foundation for understanding spin polarization phenomena in nanostructures such as GaAs/AlGaAs
multiquantum wells. Experiments are underway to observe NMR transitions in the quantum Hall regime,
probing the spin polarization of 2D electrons and the Skyrme states. Unusual dynamic polarization phenomena
are also being studied, such as spin injection nuclear polarization and polarization by hot conduction electrons
in metals and semiconductors.
An important aspect of Ben Horenstein's (Chemistry) CAREER research, which began in 1995 involves the use of
kinetic isotope effect techniques to unravel complex enzyme mechanisms. Through their ongoing research into
sialyltransferase mechanisms, the Horenstein research group seeks to design inhibitors for sialyltransferases which
may be used to control cell surface glycosylation patterns. Such inhibitors would be a powerful tool for the study
of the function of cell-surface glycoproteins. Professor Horenstein has developed new courses in Biochemistry as
part of the educational component of the CAREER award.
Weihong Tan (Chemistry) received a CAREER award in 1998. His program focuses on the development of new
optical microscopy methods, based on near field optics, which allow the direct, in vivo imaging of biological
processes on the subcellular scales. One of the long-standing issues in the area of cellular biology has been the
desire to observe biochemical phenomena on the single-cell level. Tan is developing imaging techniques based on
near field optical methods which address this very important area of research. His CAREER research project will
expose students to the interdisciplinary aspects of biomedical sciences and chemical instrumentation.
Dmitrii Maslov's (Physics) CAREER research began in 1997 and concerns the theory of mesoscopic electron
systems, i.e., the systems which are much bigger than the atomic size but yet small enough to exhibit quantum-
mechanical effects. His research has focused on properties of quantum wires and quantum dots with a recent
addition of a metal-insulator transition in silicon mosfets. He is particularly interested in effects of electron-electron
interactions in these systems as they tend to enhance with diminishing system size and/or dimensionality. A
related field of interest is the behavior of conductors in ultrastrong magnetic fields (>10T) which also leads to
the enhancement of electron-electron interactions.
Applying Linguistics: Diana Boxer
Diana Boxer (Linguistics) is Associate
Director of the English Language
Institute (ELI) where she oversees the
academic program. Below, she describes
her work in applied linguistics.
I have a unique job. My research and
teaching focus on both adult second
language acquisition and the analysis
of face-to-face discourse, or what I
call "real world linguistics." More
specifically, my theoretical work in
discourse analysis and pragmatics
(what we mean by what we say) has
given me the opportunity to study
a diversity of areas including: 1)
how we build solidarity with others
through the way we use discourse
(e.g., complimenting, commiserating,
joking); 2) how language learners can
learn to use such rapport-inspiring
speech to build relationships with
native speakers and thereby learn
more language; 3) how gender
differences in spoken discourse affect
perceptions and relationships; 4) how
gendered discourse can be perceived
as sexual harassment, particularly
in intercultural interactions (e.g.,
between undergraduates and
international teaching assistants)
(with Andrea Tyler, Georgetown); 5)
how language use in the workplace
can create a hostile work environment
for those not in the "inner circle" (e.g.,
foreigners, women) (with Andrea
DeCapua of "Virtual Languages");
and 6) how cultural stereotypes
held by administrators and staff
at universities can adversely affect
foreign students in "gate keeping
encounters" (with doctoral student
and UF lecturer in German, Christina
Overstreet). The scope of practical
linguistics applications is enormous.
Diana Boxer (Linguistics)
Most recently, I've been working
with linguistics colleague and fellow
sociolinguist Florencia Cortes-Conde
on a project dealing with content-
based language learning (learning
language through the study of
subject matter in the language).
Cortes-Conde's body of research
focuses principally on macro
issues of bilingualism. Her role in
overseeing second year Spanish in the
Department of Romance Languages
fits logically with my work at ELI
and my focus on micro issues of
face-to-face interaction. This is our
third jointly authored project, to be
presented this July at the meetings
of the International Pragmatics
Association in Reims, France. Our
project is entitled: "Tell me who
you are and I'll tell you who I am:
Relational Identity Development and
Content-Based Language Learning."
Our papers discuss the creation of
membership in classroom discourse
communities and its consequences
for language students and their
learning processes. In comparing the
discursive practices of two different
language acquisition contexts: second
and foreign language classrooms,
we found several key distinctions.
While second language learning, at
the ELI for example, is an intensive
"immersion experience," foreign
language learning is something quite
different. Students come for a few
hours a week and are not in contact
with the wider culture of the foreign
language. We are presently applying
micro ethnographic techniques to the
analysis of videotaped data of two
content-based series of courses: one in
Spanish as a foreign language (foreign
languages across the curriculum, or
FLAC), and the other in English as
a second language. In the process,
we are analyzing the discursive
practices of teacher-fronted, small
group and paired task configurations,
their repercussions for the building
of individual and group identities,
and the development of sociocultural
and pragmatic competence in the two
Our findings indicate that
interaction at the micro level creates
group identities that affect the
perception of peers and teacher.
Teachers create and impose identities
on learners, affecting their ability
and motivation to learn. We've
concluded that interactional practices
of students with their peers have an
role in making
the classroom a
an learning community.
g is Identities are
week and many different
uage. levels: teachers
the identities of
develop identities for teachers;
learners develop/create identities
for each other. Thus, a "community
of practice" (Walters 1996) is created
that is not fixed, but that is important
in the successful (or unsuccessful)
learning of language.
Both Cortes-Conde's analysis
and my own focus on the various
Boxer, continued on page 9
While second language learning, at the ELIfor example, is
intensive "immersion experience," foreign language learning
something quite different. Students come for a few hours a
are not in contact with the wider culture of the foreign lang,
Black May: The Epic Story of The Guide to the University of Florida
Allies' Defeat of the German U- and Gainesville
Boats in May 1943 Kevin McCarthy (English) and Mur-
Michael Gannon (History) ray Laurie (retired Graduate School
Harper Collins Editor) with photographs by Karelisa
(review taken from
Given the stra-
of events of May
1943, it is natural
to ask, How did
Black May hap-
pen and why?
Who or what
Were new Allied
or new weapons
This book an-
swers those questions and many oth-
ers. Drawing on original documents
in German, British, US, and Canadian
archives, as well as interviews with
surviving participants, Gannon de-
scribes the exciting sea and air battles,
frequently taking the reader inside the
U-boats themselves, aboard British
warships, onto the decks of torpedoed
merchant ships, and into the cockpits
of British and U.S. aircraft.
With a loud explosion, but noflash,
one of Hasenchar's wakeless torpedoes
struck Harbury on the starboard side in
No. 5 hold, blowing off its hatches and
flooding it. The time was 0046 on 5 May.
A fracture in the tunnel door allowed wa-
ter into the engine room, which began to
fill with sea water. The Master, Captain
WE. Cook, made his way to the bridge
wings, where he saw that the ship was
settling by the stern. Third Officer W.
Skinner fired the required white rockets.
Only twenty-one or twenty-two years old,
Skinner had previously gone down once
with a mined ship, a second time with a
ship sunk by Japanese aircraft off Ceylon,
and, after the latter sinking, he had been
sunk yet a third time by a Japanese cruiser
that shelled the ship that rescued him.
Said Cook later about Skinner's fourth ex-
perience, he was "most reliable and cool."
(review taken from book cover)
In September 1906, 102 young men
arrived at the newly established Uni-
versity of Florida in Gainesville to find
two unfinished red brick buildings
rising in Gothic splendor from a land-
scape of dusty paths, isolated sink-
holes, tall pines, and newly planted
oak trees. Students today encounter
a completely different campus-three
square miles of classrooms, dormi-
tories, laboratories, administration
buildings, and other facilities, set in
of a friendly,
m growing city.
campus of the
Florida is un-
packed in this
more to Gainesville than just UF. The
city boasts charming historic neigh-
borhoods and a vibrant downtown
entertainment district, and unspoiled
natural environments such as the
Devil's Millhopper and Paynes Prairie
are just minutes away.
Each significant building on
campus and in town is described
here, with information on its history,
architecture, location, and present
use. Over a hundred black-and-white
photographs and fifteen maps com-
plete this thorough tour. Whether
you're an alum, new student, or long-
time Gainesville resident, thumbing
through this book is sure to provide
you with a fresh perspective on the
unique places and character of the
University of Florida and Gainesville.
The town, which was officially es-
tablished January 24, 1854, was named
Gainesville after General Edmund Pendle-
ton Gaines (1777-1849). General Gaines
was a well-known, much admired military
man who had served in the War of 1812.
He had captured the traitor Aaron Burr
and laterfought in the Second Seminole
The new town of Gainesville, which
consisted of some 103 acres, was bounded
by present-day Fifth Avenue on the north,
Sweetwater Branch on the east, Second
Place on the south, and Second Street on
Edited by David
H. Evans (Biologi-
(review taken from
As in the bestsell-
ing first edition,
The Physiolo i of
Fishes, Second Edi-
tion, is a compre-
the-art review of
the major areas of research in modern
fish physiology. This Second Edition
is entirely revised, with 17 of the 18
chapters written by new authors. It
also includes four entirely new chap-
ters: Feeding and Digestion, Growth
and Metabolism, Immunity, and The
Central Nervous System.
International contributions from
leading experts detail current knowl-
edge of locomotion and energetic, gas
exchange and cardiovascular physiolo-
gy, homeostasis, and neurophysiology
and neuroendocrine control.
A distinctive group of herbivorous
fishes are those that feed on the fruits,
seeds, flowers, and leaves of trees in the
regions. The fishes, especially species in
the several genera of the Characidae, swim
into the flooded forest and feed on the
fruits and seeds as they fall into the water.
These fishes appear to store up large fat
reserves during the rainy season, and al-
though some crush seeds with the powerful
molariform teeth, others pass viable seeds
and may be important dispersal agents for
some tropical forest trees.
features of discourse (i.e., turn-taking, topics, getting and holding
the floor, interruptions, repair, etc.) in the two different language-
learning contexts. One of the most important contrasts that can be
drawn is that of the assumed homogeneity of the Spanish content
class versus the heterogeneity of the ESL content class. This simple
variable severely constrains how identity is displayed and developed
at the micro level. It is assumed that the foreign language class
has the possibility of utilizing the shared cultural schema of the
students, and that the ESL class has no such possibility. In intensive
adult ESL, such as in the ELI, the experience of "being in the same
boat," of "being a stranger in a strange place," can be used as a
positive springboard for the learning of new norms for face-to-face
Because the challenges of the two settings are distinct, the
teachers' ability to direct participant roles varies, and group
interactions are affected. The two language learning contexts, by
virtue of their inherent differences, generated two very different
types of learning communities, affecting identity display and
Boxer is also in the process of outlining her next book, Applying Sociolinguistics.
The book will deal with how the discourse and pragmatics offace-to-face interaction
affect all domains of life. "As long as people are talking," says Boxer, "the world is
my laboratory. "
Wiltshire, from page 5
CW: I teach LIN 3010 (Introduction to Linguistics) [Wiltshire is
also the coordinator for this course], LIN 4320 (Introduction to
Phonology), LIN 6323 (the graduate version of 4320), and LIN 6341
(Issues in Phonology). I also teach LIN 3201 (Sounds of Human
Language) which is also known as "sounds of human anguish"
since this course goes through every single sound that we have
in the phonetic alphabet-every single sound that's used in any
language of the world. We teach them how to produce the sounds
and how to distinguish them from each other. Interestingly, this is a
skill that four month-old babies have, but two year-old babies don't
have because they've already started to filter out all the sounds their
language doesn't use and forget how to produce or perceive these
Cn: So that's why exposure to foreign language is key at a very young age.
CW: Yes, and that's also why losing an accent is one of the hardest
things to do. We tend to freeze around age two or three to focus on
our own language, so we loose the flexibility to hear and produce
Wiltshire is preparing to participate in a conference in Germany where
she'll talk about the interactions of syllable, word and phrase boundaries.
A related paper on this subject will be published in the July issue of
Linguistics. She also has an article coming out in the January Yearbook
of South Asian Languages and Linguistics on onomatopoeia-like
words in the Tamil language, and she and JC Casagrande are organizing
the 30th Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages to be held in
Gainesville in the year 2000. (Casagrande organized the very first such
Symposium here in 1971.)t
Cindy Powell, Linguistics Secretary
and Office Manager (above), has
been with the Linguistics Program
Thompson, from page 4
the language of national unity in a country
with more than seventy local languages. With
the closing of all US military bases and new
immigration laws which restrict entry into the
United States, Filipinos do not see why they
need to speak English in a pure form with each
other. However, rather than drop English,
they blend it in certain social situations with
Tagalog to create Taglish. I apply principles of
sociolinguistics and discourse analysis to study
the various language samples I collected on my
Fulbright. Included in this data base are Taglish
from newspapers and the popular tabloids as
well as from popular television shows such as the
news, basketball games, situation comedies, and
of course commercials. The results will appear
in my forthcoming book A Day with Taglish: The
social dynamics of English in the Philippines.
As part of his work with discourse analysis and second
language acquisition, Dr. Thompson is also preparing a
textbook (Interaction and Modern English Structure)
to be used in grammar classes for future English teachers.
Thompson hopes the book will help teachers to understand
that in order to improve the language of their students,
they need to conceptualize English as more than a series
of grammar rules which apply to sentences. "English
is used in a social context," he explains. "As a result,
sociolinguistic rules govern how sentences are combined
to create essays, speeches, conversations, and other types
Boxer, from page 7
Grant Awards through Division of Sponsored Research
April 1998 Total $2,792,898
MAT Lockheed Mar.
Computer recording of the card catalogue of photometric.
Miles compound contract.
Software research report.
Miles compound contract.
Miles compound contract.
Inspire pharmaceuticals compounds collection.
Implementation of strain sensitive paint.
Private corrections project.
9,534 PDE methods in automatic secmentation and edge extraction.
5,000 Optical characterization of thin films and relevant materials.
NSF student cost of education allowances.
Design, fabrication and commissioning of the mid-infrared imager.
USRP Photometric study of RV crateris.
Novel syntheses and fourier transform mass.
Enhanced sensitivity NMR studies of nanostructured electronic materials.
60,594 Research experiences for undergraduates in chemistry at UF.
Novel syntheses and fourier transform mass.
REU: mechanism & inhibitor design for sialyltransferases.
Mechanism & inhibitor design for sialyltransferases.
Catalytic oxidation of mustard simulants in basic solution.
Comparing magnetic Langmuire-Blodgett films.
Ultrasensitive biosensors for molecular recognition and manipulation.
Unsaturated carbosiland & carbosiloxane polymers.
Analysis of human and host animal emanations.
Matthew Hale's legal writings and the 18th century novel.
Gradient-like flows in image processing.
Groups as Galois groups.
Theoretical studeis of vortex dynamics in superconductors.
GAANN at UF, Department of Physics.
Doped hole physics in single-layer perovskites.
High field optical studies of highly correlated metals.
Statistical inference for sparse categorical data.
Pathiobiology and treatment of malaria in Africa.
Juvenile transfers to criminal court studies.
Foundation ...$ 53,823
Balaban, A. AALL
Eyler, J. CHE
Clark, I. ENG
Hodell, D. GLY
Hodell, D. GLY
McMahon, R. HIS
Sanderson, S. POL
Radelet, M. SOC
Randles, R. STA
Nordlie, F ZOO
UF Res Found
UF Res Found
Texas A&M RF
Texas A&M RF
UF Res Found
UF Res Found
UF Res Found
UF Res Found
UF Res Found
9,918 The Japan Foundation support program for Japanese studies staff expansion pro
Professorship award program.
Professorship award program.
Late pleistocene accumulation of ice-rafted debris in the Atlantic sector.
Stable isotype stratigraphy and paleoceanography of the Mid-Brunhes.
Professorship award program.
Professorship award program.
Professorship award program.
Professorship award program.
Professorship award program.
Chemical and isotopic analysis of natural waters.
Academic Spoken English, continued from page 1
passing the exam with provisional scores
are still permitted to become ITAs under the
condition that they take a specialized ASE
course, ENS 4502, during the first semester
of teaching. International students scoring
below the cutoff point are not allowed to
teach until they become more proficient.
Capped at six students per section
to ensure individualized instruction,
ENS 4502 covers strategies for accent
reduction as well as teaching techniques
and intercultural communication. The
new ITAs are recorded on video every
other week at work in their classrooms,
and on alternating weeks they meet one-
on-one with an instructor to review their
tapes and work on individual trouble spots.
Together with theASE administered "early
feedback form" (a mid-term evaluation of
the ITA by his/her students), the tapes and
seminar provide intensive instruction and
constructive criticism while building ITA
confidence. And since all of the students in
4502 are in their first semester of teaching,
they are regularly able to share teaching
frustrations and problems in an open,
After a semester in the Academic Spoken
English program, most of the international
instructors, Kidder explains, are approved
by ASE and their individual departments to
continue teaching with normal supervision.
Infrequently, when an ITA is still struggling
after a term of teaching and 4502, s/he
won't be re-appointed or will be switched
to a research assistantship. Another option
in this situation is for the student to take
the observation portion of ENS 4502 over
offers ENS 4501, which Kidder calls
"a crash course in how to survive in
American academia" to non-teaching
foreign students (and occasional visiting
professors) who are seeking to improve their
communication skills and/or are planning
to teach eventually. Often, departments or
dissertation committees will require
foreign grad students struggling with
spoken English to attend this class.
The four credit, nine contact hour-
a-week course includes three hours
a week in the language lab working
on sounds, rhythms, intonations
and overall language patterns, as
well as extensive public speaking
experience to prepare them for class
and professional presentations. As in
ENS 4502, students are videotaped
and critiqued individually. "It's very
intensive," Kidder says.
ENS 4503, the program's
advanced course, focuses on
interpersonal skills. It is especially
useful for graders and tutors although
some students take it as a follow up
All three ASE courses include a good
deal of cultural content. "Our students
come to learn that undergraduates
asking questions is not disrespectful [as
it is in some of their home countries],
and that it's not necessarily rude if
students eat or drink in class. We also
reinforce to them that there are kinds of
behaviors that they do have to control, and
we help them to understand where they
should set the limits in what is to some of
After a semester in the Academic Spoken English program,
most of the international instructors, Kidder explains,
are approved by ASE and their individual departments to
continue teaching with normal supervision.
English helps assure that undergraduates
receive quality classroom instruction, while
linguistics TAs working in the program
are provided the invaluable experience
of teaching advanced academic speakers.
And of course, the English assistance ASE
provides foreign graduate students makes
UF even more appealing to prospective
International graduate student Amy Buch-
wald works on vowel reduction in an ASE
lab. The computer software ASE uses (called
TEAM) provides the student user a graph of
how a particular word should sound. When
the student repeats this word into a connected
headset, a graph of his/her pronunciation
appears directly below the correct version,
allowing a visual comparison. Students may
repeat words as many times as it takes to see
international applicants. "All of these
people are going to be eminent in their
fields," says Kidder of the ITAs, "and since
English is the most common academic
language spoken, if/when they return to
their home countries, they'll be even more
valuable as scholars."%
again, meeting with the instructor every
two weeks as before. "We continue to
tape them in the classroom and conference
with them on individual issues including
how to integrate more American teaching
styles (interaction, visual support for
explanations, using case studies and
examples, etc.) so that despite negotiating
an accent, undergraduates can more readily
follow the class format and therefore can
understand their instructor better," says
Kidder. "A lot of the things we do are
Academic Spoken English also
them a strange world to negotiate."
Academic Spoken English offers six to
seven ENS courses per semester. Kidder
teaches two and linguistics graduate
students handle the rest. "We have the
advantage of our TAs being from the
Linguistics Program, so they are very
familiar with the latest work and all the
current research and patterns in English,"
she says. "It's a real strength."
Those in contact with the program
might use these same words to describe
ASE, which renders an important service
to UF on many levels. Academic Spoken
CLAS notes is published monthly
by the College of Liberal Arts and
Sciences to inform faculty and staff
of current research and events.
Musings, continued from page 1
more faculty to serve the new graduate
students. OPS and OE budgets would
have to increase accordingly. New
facilities (labs, classrooms, library
resources) would follow. Our research
grants and contracts would increase with
the added faculty. The reputation of the
disciplines would be enhanced by the
additional research. What's not to like?
Of course, deans are notorious worriers.
What's on my worry list? That there may
not be enough money to meet the needs;
that the graduate student pool may not
be of sufficient quality to grow rapidly;
that our graduate stipends will remain too
low; and that without careful planning
we could produce more graduates than
could be adequately placed. Cassandra
could go on. But I still believe that the
potential opportunities far outweigh the
quite real problems.
Graduate growth in CLAS will be
the topic of in-depth discussions with
department chairs and program directors.
Some units are eager to grow and see this
as a terrific opportunity to develop new
programs. Some units believe there is
no good reason for them to grow much
in the current environment. Many units
are somewhere in between, approaching
this with a healthy mixture of caution and
optimism. We in the College Office have
certain areas that we favor for growth, but
nothing will be forced on departments.
It will be the chairs working with their
faculty who will have to make the major
decisions on growth.
Growth has been a discussion topic in
CLAS for most of the 1997-98 academic
year, and we now need to accelerate
the planning process to respond to
the president's plan just announced.
We must recognize our considerable
strengths, as well as our constraints. I
believe the opportunities are very real,
and if this plan can be realized, CLAS
and UF will be much stronger. Let me
know what you think.
Note from the Director
Marie Nelson, Director of Linguistics
From its beginning in 1969, the University
of Florida Linguistics Program has provided
instruction in the core areas of phonology,
morphology, and syntax, and in pragmatics
and semantics as well.
Students can now look
forward to additional
opportunities to study
and do research in the
areas of socio-linguistics
and applied linguistics,
and, with the development
of the University of
Florida Brain Institute, it
is apparent that psycho-
linguistics, along with
cognitive studies, could
become an important area Marie Nel
for further development. Director of Lin
As a program, rather than
a department, this administrative unit has a
director rather than a chair, and its members
are formally affiliated with degree-granting
departments. M.J. Hardman, a leader in
the area of Gender and Language studies, for
example, is a member of the Anthropology
Department; William J. Sullivan, who has
given the Linguistics Program long service
as its Graduate Coordinator, also serves as a
member of Germanic and Slavic Languages
Department; and Mohammad Mohammad,
whose forthcoming book will deal with the
syntax of Arabic, is a member of the African
and Asian Language
Depart-ment. In "...with the
addition, the Program of Florida Bra
depends heavily on the psycho-linguist
contributions of other could become
members of theAfrican development."
and Asian Literatures
Department, and on
linguists affiliated with the Classics, English,
Romance Languages and Literatures, and
Communication Processes and Disorders
Departments. The result is a remarkable
diversity, a mingling of multiple voices.
The University of Florida Linguistics
Program offers the BA degree, as well as two
minors. It also offers four graduate degrees:
the non-thesis MA, the MA with thesis, the
MAT (Master's degree in Teaching), and the
PhD. We also offer a graduate certificate
in teaching English as a second language
(TESL), which can be earned in conjunction
with a degree in either Linguistics or a
cognate department, and the newly instituted
TESL minor, which prepares students to
board what a recent Newsweek article
called "the linguistic bandwagon" and teach
As part of its service to
the University community
and to the larger international
provides instruction through
the Academic Spoken English
Program (ASE), the Scholarly
Writing Program (SW), and
the English Language Institute
The Academic Spoken
English Program, instituted in
on 1988 and continuing under the
guistics direction of Kathryn Kidder,
offers advanced training
courses in oral English, teaching tech-
niques, and cross-cultural communication
to international students enrolled at UF (see
cover article for details).
The Scholarly Writing Program, which
began in August 1983 and continues under
the direction of Anne Wyatt-Brown, serves
students who are native speakers of Spanish,
Chinese, Korean, Portuguese, Japanese,
Turkish, Thai, Indonesian, Yoruba, and
Russian, among other languages.
The English Language Institute takes its
beginnings from the summer of 1955,
development of the University
tin Institute, it is apparent that
;ics, along with cognitive studies,
an important area for further
when the first English Language Program
was offered to a handful of students from
Latin America who were planning to attend
classes in the Center for Latin American
Studies. The ELI, under the continuing
direction of J.C. Casagrande, now serves
students from 34 countries who have
business and economic reasons for their
studies, who seek to improve their skills
in order to gain entry into US university
programs, and who come with the intention
of broadening their cultural and linguistic