Robinson Crusoe

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Robinson Crusoe the life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, Mariner : who lived eight and twenty years all alone in an uninhabited island on the coast of America, near the mouth of the great river of Orinoco, having been cast on shore by shipwreck, wherein all the men perished but himself : with an account how he was at last as strangely delivered by pirates
Physical Description:
313 p., 3 leaves of plates : col. ill. ; 22 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Kredel, Fritz, 1900-1973
Publisher:
Doubleday Classics
Place of Publication:
New York
Publication Date:

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fiction   ( marcgt )

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Statement of Responsibility:
by Daniel Defoe ; illustrated by Fritz Kredel.

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 19297346
System ID:
UF00073642:00001


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ROBINSON
CRUSOE


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The Life and Adventures of ROBINSON CRUSOE








ROBINSON


CRUSO The Life and
Strange Surprising Adventures of ROBINSON CRUSOE, of York,
Mariner: Who Lived Eight and Twenty Years all Alone in
an Uninhabited Island on the Coast of AMERICA, Near the
Mouth of the Great River of ORINOCO; Having Been Cast on
Shore by Shipwreck, Wherein all the Men Perished but Him-
self. With an Account How He Was at Last as Strangely
Delivered by Pirates. By DANIEL DEFOE. Illustrated by
FarT KREDEL.


DOUBLEDAY CLASSICS GARDEN CITY NEW YORK































































ILLUSTRATIONS COPYRIGHT, 1945, BY DOUBLEDAY & COMPANY, INC.

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
















The Life and Adventures of ROBINSON CRUSOE
























WAS BORN in the year 1632,
in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, my father being a
foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull: he got
a good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived
afterward at York; from whence he had married my mother,
whose relations were named Robinson, a very good family
in that country, and from whom I was called Robinson
Kreutznaer; but by the usual corruption of words in England,
we are now called, nay, we call ourselves, and write our name
Crusoe; and so my companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-
colonel to an English regiment of Foot in Flanders, formerly
commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed
at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What be-








THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


came of my second brother I never knew, any more than my
father or mother knew what became of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts.
My father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent
share of. learning, as far as house education and a country
free school generally goes, and designed me for the law; but
I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my
inclination to this led me so strongly against the will, nay,
the commands of my father, and against all the entreaties
and persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there
seemed to be something fatal in that propension of nature
tending directly to the life of misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and ex-
cellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He
called me one morning into his chamber, where he was con-
fined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me
upon this subject: he asked me what reasons, more than a
mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving my father's
house and my native country, where I might be well intro-
duced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune by applica-
tion and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told
me it was for men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of
aspiring superior fortunes on the other, who went abroad
upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make themselves
famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common road;
that these things were all either too far above me, or too far
below me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be
called the upper station of low life, which he had found by







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


long experience was the best state in the world, the most
suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and
hardships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of
mankind, and notlembarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambi-
tion, and envy of the upper part of mankind. He told me, I
might judge of the happiness of this state, by this one thing,
namely, that this was the state of life which all other people
envied; that kings have frequently lamented the miserable
consequences of being born to great things, and wish they had
been placed in the middle of the two extremes, between the
mean and the great; that the wise man gave his testimony
to this, as the just standard of true felicity, when he prayed
to have neither poverty nor riches.
He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower
part of mankind but that the middle station had the fewest
disasters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as
the higher or lower part of mankind; nay, they were not sub-
jected to so many distempers and uneasinesses either of body
or mind, as those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and ex-
travagancies on one hand, or by hard labour, want of
necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet on the other hand,
bring distempers upon themselves by the natural conse-
quences of their way of living; that the middle station of life
was calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind of enjoy-
ments; that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a middle
fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness, health,
society, all agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures,
were the blessings attending the middle station of life; that








THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


this way men went silently and smoothly through the world,
and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours
of the hands or of the head, not sold to the life of slavery for
daily bread, or harassed with perplexed circumstances, which
rob the soul of peace, and the body of rest; not enraged with
the passion of envy, or secret burning lust of ambition for
great things; but in easy circumstances sliding gently through
the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living without
the bitter, feeling that they are happy, and learning by every
day's experience to know it more sensibly.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affec-
tionate manner, not to play the young man, not to precipitate
myself into miseries which nature and the station of life I
was born in seemed to have provided against; that I was
under no necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do
well for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station
of life which he had been just recommending to me; and that
if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it must be my
mere fate or fault that must hinder it, and that he should
have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty
in warning me against measures which he knew would be
to my hurt; in a word, that as he would do very kind things
for me if I would stay and settle at home as he directed, so
he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes, as to
give me any encouragement to go away; and to close all, he
told me I had my elder brother for an example, to whom he
had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going
into the Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young
desires prompting him to run into the army, where he was







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


killed; and though he said he would not cease to pray for
me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did take this
foolish step, God would not bless me, and I would have leisure
hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel when
there might be none to assist in my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse,-which was
truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know
it to be so himself,-I say, I observed the tears run down his
face very plentifully, and especially when he spoke of my
brother who was killed; and that when he spoke of my having
leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved,
that he broke off the discourse, and told me, his heart was so
full, he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as, indeed, who
could be otherwise, and I resolved not to think of going
abroad any more, but to settle at home according to my
father's desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all off;and, in
short, to prevent any of my father's further importunities, in
a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away from him.
However, I did not act so hastily neither, as my first heat of
resolution prompted, but I took my mother, at a time when I
thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and told her
that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world,
that I should never settle to anything with resolution enough
to go through with it, and my father had better give me his
consent than force me to go without it; that I was now eight-
een years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade,
or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure, if I did, I should never
serve out my time, and I should certainly run away from my








THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


master before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she
would speak to my father to let me go but one voyage abroad,
if I came home again and did not like it, I would go no more,
and I would promise by a double diligence to recover that
time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion: she told me, she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon
any such subject; that he knew too well what was my interest
to give his consent to anything so much for my hurt, and
that she wondered how I could think of any such thing after
such a discourse as I had had from my father, and such kind
and tender expressions as she knew my father had used to
me, and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no
help for me; but I might depend I should never have their
consent to it; that for her part she would not have so much
hand in my destruction; and I should never have it to say,
that my mother was willing when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet, as
I heard afterwards, she reported all the discourse to him,
and that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said
to her, with a sigh, "That boy might be happy if he would
staat home, but if he goes abroad, he will be the most miser-
able wretch that was ever born; I can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,
though in the meantime I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulating
with my father and mother about their being so positively
determined against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But being one day at Hull, where I went casually,







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


and without any purpose of making an elopement that time-
but I say, being there, and one of my companions being about
to sail to London, in his father's ship, and prompting me to
go with them, with the common allurement of seafaring men,
namely, that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I con-
sulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so much as
sent them word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they
might, without asking God's blessing, or my father's, without
any consideration of circumstances or consequences, and in
an ill hour-God knows.












N THE FIRST of September,
1651, I went on board a ship
bound for London. Never any young adventurer's misfor-
tunes, I believe, began sooner, or continued longer than mine.
The ship was no sooner gotten out of the Humber, but the
wind began to blow, and the waves to rise in a most frightful
manner; and as I had never been at sea before, I was most
inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I began now








THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I
was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked
leaving my father's house, and abandoning my duty; all the
good counsel of my parents, my father's tears and my mother's
entreaties, came now fresh into my mind, and my conscience,
which was not yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it
has been since, reproached me with the contempt of advice,
and the breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I
had never been upon before, went very high, though nothing
like what I have seen many times since; no, nor like what I
saw a few days after: but it was enough to affect me then,
who was but a young sailor, and had never known anything
of the matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed
us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I thought, in
the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more;
and in this agony of mind I made many vows and resolutions,
that if it would please God here to spare my life this one
voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again I
would go directly home to my father, and never set it into a
ship again while I lived; that I would take his advice and
never run myself into such miseries as these any more. Now
I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the mid-
dle station of life, how easy, how comfortably he had lived
all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea,
or troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true
repenting prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the
storm continued, and indeed some time after; but the next







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


day the wind was abated and the sea calmer, and I began to
be a little inured to it: however, I was very grave for all that
day, being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the
weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming
fine evening followed; the sun went down perfectly clear, and
rose so the next morning; and having little or no wind, and a
smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought,
the most delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick,
but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that
was so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so
calm and so pleasant in so little time after. And now, lest my
good resolutions should continue, my companion, who had
indeed enticed me away, comes to me. "Well, Bob," says he,
(clapping me upon the shoulder,) "how do you do after it?
I warrant you were frighted, want you, last night, when it
blew but a cap full of wind?" "A cap full do you call it?" said I.
"It was a terrible storm." "A storm, you fool you," replies he,
"do you call that a storm? why it was nothing at all; give us
but a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such
a squall of wind as that; but you're but a fresh-water sailor,
Bob: come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget
all that. Do you see what charming weather it is now?" To
make short this sad part of my story, we went the old way of
all sailors; the punch was made, and I was made drunk with
it, and in that one night's wickedness I drowned all my re-
pentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct, and all
my resolutions for my future. In a word, as the sea was re-
turned to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by








THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


the abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts
being over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed
up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of my former
desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that
I made in my distress. I found indeed some intervals of re-
flection, and the serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavour
to return again sometimes; but I shook them off, and roused
myself from them as it were from a distemper, and applying
myself to drink and company, soon mastered the return of
those fits, for so I called them, and I had in five or six days
got as complete a victory over conscience as any young fel-
low that resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. But
I was to have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in
such cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely
without excuse. For if I would not take this for a deliverance,
the next was to be such a one as the worst and most hardened
wretch among us would confess both the danger and the
mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
Roads; the wind having been contrary, and the weather
calm, we had made but little way since the storm. Here we
were obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind
continuing contrary, namely, at south-west, for seven or eight
days, during which time a great many ships from Newcastle
came into the same roads, as the common harbour where the
ships might wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but should have
tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and
after we had lain four or five days blew very hard. However,







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


the roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage
good, and our ground tackle very strong, our men were un-
concerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but
spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea;
but the eighth day in the morning, the wind increased, and
we had all hands at work to strike our top-masts, and make
everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy
as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our
ship rid forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought
once or twice our anchor had come home; upon which our
master ordered out the sheet anchor, so that we rode with
two anchors a-head, and the cables veered out to the better
end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I be-
gan to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the sea-
men themselves. The master, though vigilant in the business
of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin
by me, I could hear him softly to himself say several times,
Lord, be merciful to us; we shall be all lost, we shall be all un-
done, and the like. During these first hurries, I was stupid,-
lying still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot
describe my temper. I could ill reassume the first penitence
which I had so apparently trampled upon, and hardened my-
se f-aginst: I thought the bitterness of death had been past,
and that this would be nothing like the first. But when the
master himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we
should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted; I got up out of
my cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never
saw: the sea went mountains high, and broke upon us every







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


three or four minutes: when I could look about, I could see
nothing but distress round us: two ships that rid near us, we
found, had cut their masts by the board, being deep loaden;
and our men cried out, that a ship which rid about a mile
a-head of us was foundered. Two more ships being driven
from their anchors, were run out of the roads to sea at all
adventures, and that with not a mast standing. The light
ships fared the best, as not so much labouring in the sea;
but two or three of them drove, and came close by us, running
away with only their spritsail out before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the mas-
ter of our ship to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he
was very unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to
him, that if he did not, the ship would founder, he consented;
and when they had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast
stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged
to cut her away also, and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a
fright before at but a little. But if I can express at this distance
the thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in tenfold
more horror of mind upon account of my former convictions,
and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had
wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these,
added to the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition,
that I can by no words describe it. But the worst was not
come yet: the storm continued with such fury, that the sea-
men themselves acknowledged they had never known a worse.
We had a good ship, but she was deep loaden, and wallowed







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


in the sea, that the seamen every now and then cried out
she would founder. It was my advantage in one respect, that
I did not know what they meant by founder, till I inquired.
However, the storm was so violent, that I saw what is not
often seen, the master, thebhoatswain, and some others more
sensible than the rest at their prayers, and expecting every
moment when the ship would go to the bottom. In the middle
of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses, one of
the men that had been down on purpose to see, cried out, we
had sprung a leak; another said there was four foot water in
the hold. Then all hands were called to the pump. At that
very word my heart, as I thought, died within me, and I fell
backwards upon the side of my bed where I sat, into the
cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me, that I who
was able to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as
another: at which I stirred up, and went to the pump and
worked very heartily. While this was doing, the master see-
ing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm,
were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would not
come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress.
I, who knew nothing what that meant, was so surprised, that
I thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing hap-
pened. In a word I was so surprised, that I fell down in a
swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his own life
to think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me;
but another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me
aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead, and
it was a great while before I came to myself.
We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


was apparent that the ship would founder; and though the
storm began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she
could swim till we might run into a port, so the master con-
tinued firing guns for help; and a light ship who had rid it
out just a-head of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was
with the utmost hazard the boat came near us, but it was
impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near
the ship's side; till at last, the men rowing very heartily, and
venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope
over the stern with the buoy to it, and then veered it out a
great length, which they, after great labour and hazard, took
hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern and got all
into their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us after we
were in the boat to think of reaching to their own ship, so all
agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards shore
as much as we could, and our master promised them, that
if the boat was staved upon shore he would make it good
to their master; so partly rowing and partly driving, our boat
went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore al-
most as far as Winterton-Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of
our ship before we saw her sink, and then I understood for
the first time what was meant by a ship foundering in the
sea. I must acknowledge J had hardly eyes to look up when
the seamen told me she was sinking; for from that moment
they rather put me into the boat than that I might be said to
go in: my heart was as it were dead within me, partly with
fright, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what
was yet before me.







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at
the oars to bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when
our boat mounting the waves we were able to see the shore)
a great many people running along the shore to assist us when
we should come near; but we made but slow way towards
the shore, nor were we able to reach the shore, till being
past the light-house at Winterton, the shore falls off to the
westward towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little
the violence of the wind: here we got in, and, though not
without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked
afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men,
we were used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates
of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by particular
merchants and owners of ships, and had money given us
sufficient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as
we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, I had been happy, and my father, an emblem
of our blessed Saviour's parable, had even killed the fatted
calf for me; for hearing the ship I went away in was cast
away in Yarmouth Road, it was a great while before he had
any assurance that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud calls
from my reason and my more composed judgment to go home,
yet I had no power to do it. I know not what to call this, nor
will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree that hurries
us on to be the instruments of our own destruction, even
though it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our








THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


eyes open. Certainly nothing but some such decreed unavoid-
able misery attending, and which it was impossible for me to
escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm rea-
sonings and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and
against two such visible instructions as I had met with in my
first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and
who was the master's son, was now less forward than I. The
first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which
was not till two or three days, for we were separated in the
town to several quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it
appeared his tone was altered; and looking very melancholy,
and shaking his head, asked me how I did, and telling his
father who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a
trial, in order to go farther abroad; his father, turning to me
with a very grave and concerned tone, "Young man," says he,
"you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take
this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a
seafaring man." "Why, sir," said I, "will you go to sea no
more?" "That is another case," said he, "it is my calling, and
therefore my duty; but as you made this voyage for a trial,
you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you are
to expect if you persist; perhaps this is all befallen us on your
account, like Jonah, in the ship of Tarshish. Pray," continued
he, "what are you? and on what account did you go to sea?"
Upon that I told him some of my story; at the end of which
he burst out with a strange kind of passion: "What had I
done," says he, "that such an unhappy wretch should come
into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same ship with








OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


thee again for a thousand pounds." However, he afterwards
talked very gravely to me, exhorted me to go back to my
father and not tempt Providence to my ruin; told me I might
see a visible hand of Heaven against me. "And, young man,"
said he, "depend upon it if you do not go back, wherever
you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and disap-
pointments, till your father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I
saw him no more; which way he went, I know not. As for me,
having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London by
land; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles
with myself, what course of life I should take, and whether
I should go home, or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that
offered to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me
how Ishould be laughed at among the neighbours, and should
be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even
everybody else; from whence I have since often observed,
how incongruous and irrational the common temper of man-
kind is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought to
guide them in such cases, namely, that they are not ashamed
to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not ashamed of the
action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but
are ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be
esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, un-
certain what measures to take, and what course of life to
lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and
as I stayed a while, the remembrance of the distress I had







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


been in wore off, and as that abated, the little motion I had
in my desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite
laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my
father's house, that hurried me into the wild notion of raising
my fortune, and that imprest those conceits so forcibly upon
me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and to the en-
treaties and even the command of my father; I say, the same
influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of
all enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel bound
to the coast of Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a
voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I
did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might in-
deed have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at the
same time I had learned the duty and office of a fore-mast
man and in time might have qualified myself for a mate or
lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it was always my fate
to choose for the worse, so I did here; for having money in
my pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I would always
go on board in the habit of a gentleman, and so I neither had
any business in the ship, nor learned to do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in
London, which does not always happen to such loose and un-
guided young fellows as I then was; the devil generally not
omitting to lay some snare for them very early: but it was not
so with me. I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea, and who, having had
very good success there, was resolved to go again; and who,







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all dis-
agreeable at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to see
the world, told me if I would go the voyage with him I should
be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his companion,
and if I could carry anything with me, I should have all
the advantage of it that the trade would admit, and per-
haps I might meet with some encouragement.
I embraced the offer, and entering into a strict friendship
with this captain, who was an honest and plain-dealing man,
I went the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure
with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend
the captain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about
401. in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to
buy. This 401. I had mustered together by the assistance of
some of my relations whom I corresponded with, and who, I
believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to contribute
so much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful
in all my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and
honesty of my friend the captain, under whom also I got a
competent knowledge of the mathematics, and the rules of
navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship's
course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some
things that were needful to be understood by a sailor; for,
as he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn, and,
in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant;
for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold dust for
my adventure, which yielded me in London at my return,







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


almost 3001., and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts
which have since so completed my ruin.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particu-
larly, that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent
fever by the excessive heat of the climate; our principal trad-
ing being upon the coast, from the latitude of fifteen degrees
north even to the line itself.












WAS now set up for a
Guinea trader; and my friend,
to my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I
resolved to go the same voyage again, and I embarked in
the same vessel with one who was his mate in the former
voyage, and had now got the command of the ship. This was
the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for though I did
not carry quite tool. of my new gained wealth, so that I had
2001. left, and which i lodged with my friend's widow, who
was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this
voyage; and the first was this, namely: Our ship, making her








OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those
islands and the African shore, was surprised in the grey of
the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave chase
to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as
much canvas as our yards would spread, or our masts carry,
to have got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and
would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared
to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen.
About three in the afternoon he came up with us, and bring-
ing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart
our stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our guns to
bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which
made him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and pouring
in also his small shot from near 2oo men which he had on
board. However, we had not a man touched, all our men keep-
ing close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend
ourselves; but laying us on board the next time upon our
other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who
immediately fell to cutting and hacking the decks and rigging.
We plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and
such like, and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to
cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being
disabled, and three of our men killed, and eight wounded,
we were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into
Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I
apprehended, nor was I carried up the country to the em-
peror's court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by
the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made his







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At
this surprising change of my circumstances, from a merchant
to a miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I
looked back upon my father's prophetic discourse to me, that
I should be miserable, and have none to relieve me, which
I thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that I could
not be worse; that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken
me, and I was undone without redemption. But, alas! this
was but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as will
appear in the sequel of the story.
As my new patron or master had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes that he would take me with him
when he went to sea again, believing that it would some time
or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese
man of war, and that then I should be set at liberty. But this
hope of mine was soon taken away; for when he went to sea,
he left me on shore to look after his little garden, and do the
common drudgery of slaves about his house; and when he
came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the
cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least
probability in it: nothing presented to make the supposition
of it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to, that
would embark with me; no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irish-
man, or Scotchman, there but myself; so that for two years,
though I often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I
never had the least encouraging prospect of putting it in prac-
tice.







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


After about two years an odd circumstance presented it-
self, which put the old thought of making some attempt for
my liberty again in my head: my patron lying at home longer
than usual, without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard,
was for want of money, he used constantly, once or twice a
week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the
ship's pinnace, and go out into the road a fishing; and as he
always took me and a young Maresco with him to row the
boat, we made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous
in catching fish: insomuch, that sometimes he would send me
with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Maresco
as they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a fishing in a stark calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a
league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew
not whither or which way, we laboured all day, and all the
next night, and when the morning came we found we had
pulled off to sea instead of pulling in for the shore, and that
we were at least two leagues from the shore; however, we got
well in again, though with a great deal of labour, and some
danger; for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morn-
ing, but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take
more care of himself for the future; and having lying by him
the long boat of our English ship he had taken, he resolved
he would not go a fishing any more without a compass and
some provision; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who
also was an English slave, to build a little state-room or cabin
in the middle of the long boat, like that of a barge, with a







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


place to stand behind it to steer and hale home the main-sheet,
and room before for a hand or two to stand and work the
sails. She sailed with what we call a shoulder of mutton sail;
and the boom gibed over the top of the cabin, which lay
very snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a
slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers
to put in some bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink,
particularly his bread, rice and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a fishing, and as I
was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went with-
out me. It happened that he had appointed to go out in this
boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors
of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had pro-
vided extraordinarily; and had therefore sent on board the
boat over night a larger store of provisions than ordinary,
and had ordered me to get ready three fusees with powder
and shot, which were on board his ship, for that they de-
signed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat washed clean, her flag and pendants
out, and everything to accommodate his guests; when by-and-
by my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests
had put off going, upon some business that fell out, and
ordered me with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with
the boat and catch them some fish, for that his friends were to
sup at his house; and commanded that as soon as I got some
fish I should bring it home to his house; all which I prepared
to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship
at my command; and my master being gone, I prepared to
furnish myself, not for a fishing business, but for a voyage;
though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither
I should steer; for anywhere to get out of that place was my
way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to
this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for
I told him we must not presume to eat of our patron's bread:
he said, that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or
biscuit of their kind, and three jars with fresh water into the
boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood, which
it was evident by the make were taken out of some English
prize; and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor
was on shore, as if they had been there before for our master.
I conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax into the boat, which
weighed above half a hundredweight, with a parcel of twine
or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which were of
great use to us afterwards; especially the wax to make can-
dles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently
came into also; his name was Ismael, who they called Muly,
or Moley; so I called to him, Moley, said I, our patron's guns
are on board the boat, can you not get a little powder and
shot, it may be we may kill some alcamies (a fowl like our
curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner's stores
in the ship? Yes, says he, I'll bring some; and accordingly
he brought a great leather pouch which held about a pound
and a half of powder, or rather more; and another with shot,
that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


the boat; at the same time I had found some powder of my
master's in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the
large bottles in the case, which was almost empty; pouring
what was in it into another: and thus furnished with every-
thing needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The castle
which is at the entrance of the port knew who we were, and
took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of the
port before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish;
the wind blew from the N.N.E. which was contrary to my
desire; for had it blown southerly I had been sure to have
made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the bay of
Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I
would be gone from that horrid place where I was, and leave
the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for
when I had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that
he might not see them; I said to the Moor, this will not do,
our master will not be thus served, we must stand farther off:
he thinking no harm agreed, and being in the head of the
boat set the sails; and as I had the helm I run the boat out
near a league farther, and then brought her to as if I would
fish, when giving the boy the helm, I stept forward to where
the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for something be-
hind him, I took him by surprise with my arm under his
legs, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose
immediately, for he swam like a cork, and calling to me,
begged to be taken in, told me he would go all over the world
with me; he swam so strong after the boat that he would have
reached me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the
fowling pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had
done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him
none: but, said I, you swim well enough to reach to the shore,
and the sea is calm, make the best of your way to shore, and I
will do you no harm, but if you come near the boat I'll shoot
you through the head; for I am resolved to have my liberty:
so he turned himself about and swam for the shore, and I
make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an
excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me,
and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to
trust him. When he was gone I turned to the boy, who they
called Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you will be faithful
to me I'll make you a great man, but if you will not stroke
your face to be true to me, that is swear by Mahomet and
his fathers' beard, I must throw you into the sea too: the boy
smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently that I could not
mistrust him; and swore to be faithful to me, and go all over
the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I
stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to
windward, that they might think me gone towards the Straits
mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their wits must
have been supposed to do), for who would have supposed
we were sailed on to the southward to the truly Barbarian
coast, where whole nations of Negroes were sure to surround
us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could never







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


once go on shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts,
or more merciless savages of human kind?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my
course a little toward the east, that I might keep in with the
shore; and having a fair fresh gale of wind, and a smooth
quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe by the next day
at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land,
I could not be less than 150 miles south of Sallee; quite be-
yond the emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of any
other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that
I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor. The
wind continuing fair till I had sailed in that manner five
days, and the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded
also that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also
would now give over; so I ventured to make the coast, and
came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not
what, or where; neither what latitude, what country, what
nation, or what river: I neither saw, or desired to see any
people, the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We
came into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore
as soon as it was dark, and discover the country; but as soon
as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the
barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures of we knew
not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear,
and begged of me not to go on shore till day. Well, Xury,
said I, then I won't, but it may be we may see men by day,







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


who will be as bad to us as those lions. Then we give them
the shoot gun, says Xury, laughing; make them run way. Such
English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. However
I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram
(out of our patron's case of bottles) to cheer him up: after
all Xury's advice was good, and I took it; we dropped our
little anchor and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept
none; for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures
(we knew not what to call them) of many sorts, come down
to the sea-shore and run into the water, wallowing and wash-
ing themselves for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and
they made such hideous howlings and yelling that I never
indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but
we were both more frighted when we heard one of these
mighty creatures come swimming towards our boat: we could
not see him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a
monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion,
and it might be so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to
me to weigh the anchor and row away. No, says I, Xury, we
can slip our cable with a buoy to it and go off to sea, they
cannot follow us far. I had no sooner said so, but I perceived
the creature (whatever it was) within two oars' length, which
something surprised me; however I immediately stept to the
cabin-door, and taking up my gun fired at him, upon which
he immediately turned about and swam towards the shore
again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises, and
hideous cries and howlings, that were raised, as well upon







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


the edge of the shore, as higher within the country, upon
the noise or report of the gun; a thing I have some reason to
believe those creatures had never heard before: this con-
vinced me that there was no going on shore for us in the
night upon that coast, and how to venture on shore in the day
was another question too; for to have fallen into the hands
of any of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen
into the hands of lions and tigers; at least we were equally
apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the
boat; when or where to get it was the point. Xury said, if I
would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find
if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him why
he would go? why I should not go, and he stay in the boat?
The boy answered with so much affection that made me love
him ever after. Says he, If wild mans come, they eat me, you
go way. Well, Xury, said I, we will both go, and if the wild
mans come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither of us; so
I gave Xury a piece of rusk-bread to eat, and a dram out of
our patron's case of bottles which I mentioned before; and
we hauled the boat in as near the shore as we thought was
proper, and waded on shore; carrying nothing but our guns,
and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river: but the boy
seeing a low place about a mile up the country rambled to
it; and by and by I saw him come running towards me. I
thought he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with








OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


some wild beast, and I ran forward towards him to help him,
but when I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over
his shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a
hare, but different in colour, and longer legs; however we
were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great
joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found
good water, and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains
for water; for a little higher up the creek where we were, we
found the water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but
a little way up; so we filled our jars and feasted on the hare
we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no
foot-steps of any human creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd
Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no in-
struments to take an observation to know what latitude we
were in, and did not exactly know, or at least remember,
what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them,
or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might
now easily have found some of these islands. But my hope
was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to that part
where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels
upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take
usin.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was,
must be that country, which lying between the emperor of
Morocco's dominions and the Negroes, lies waste, and unin-
habited, except by wild beasts, the Negroes having abandoned







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


it, and gone farther south for fear of the Moors; and the Moors
not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness;
and indeed both forsaking it because of the prodigious num-
ber of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which
harbour there; so that the Moors use it for their hunting only,
where they go like an army, two or three thousand men at a
time; and indeed for near an hundred miles together upon
this coast, we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country
by day; and heard nothing but howlings and roaring of wild
beasts by night.
Once or twice in the daytime I thought I saw the Peak of
Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe in
the Canaries; and had a great mind to venture out in hopes
of reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in
again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my
little vessel, so I resolved to pursue my first design and keep
along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water after we
had left this place; and once in particular, being early in the
morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land
which was pretty high, and the tide beginning to flow, we
lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about
him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me
that we had best go farther off the shore; for, says he, look
yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock fast
asleep. I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful mon-
ster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay on the side
of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung
as it were a little over him. Xury, says I, you shall go on shore







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


and kill him: Xury looked frighted, and said, Me kill! he eat
me at one mouth; one mouthful he meant. However, I said
no more to the boy, but bade him lie still; and took our biggest
gun, which was almost musket-bore, and loaded it with a
good charge of powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down;
then I loaded another gun with two bullets; and the third,
for we had three pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets.
I took the best aim I could with the first piece, to have shot
him into the head, but he lay so with his leg raised a little
above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and
broke the bone. He started up growling at first, but finding
his leg broke, fell down again, and then got up upon three
legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was
a little surprised that I had not hit him on the head; however,
I took up the second piece immediately, and though he be-
gan to move off, fired again, and shot him into the head, and
had the pleasure to see him drop, and make but little noise,
but lay struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would
have me let him go on shore. Well, go said I. So the boy
jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in one hand,
swam to the shore with the other hand, and coming close to
the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot
him into the head again, which dispatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food, and I
was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon
a creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury
said he would have some of him; so he comes on board, and
asked me to give him the hatchet. For what, Xury? said I.
Me cut off his head, said he. However, Xury could not cut







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him,
and it was a monstrous great one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him
might one way or other be of some value to us; and I resolved
to take off his skin, if I could. So Xury and I went to work
with him; but Xury was much the better workman at it, for
I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed it took us up both the
whole day; but at last we got the hide off him, and spreading
it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two
days' time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward continually
for ten or twelve days, living very sparing on our provisions,
which began to abate very much, and going no oftener into
the shore than we were obliged to for fresh water: my design
in this was, to make the river Gambia or Senegal, that is to
say anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes
to meet with some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not
what course I had to take, but to seek for the Islands, or
perish there among the Negroes. I knew that all the ships
from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to
Brasil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those Islands;
and, in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single
point, either that I must meet with some ship or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
as I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited;
and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people
stand upon the shore to look at us; we could also perceive they
were quite black, and stark naked. I was once inclined to
have gone on shore to them; but Xury was my better counsel-







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


lor, and said to me, No go, no go: however I hauled in nearer
the shore that I might talk to them, and I found they ran
along the shore by me a good way. I observed they had no
weapons in their hands except one, who had a long slender
stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they would
throw them a great way with good aim. So I kept at a distance, /
but talked with them by signs as well as I could; and partic-
ularly made signs for something to eat: they beckoned to
me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat;
upon this I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two
of them ran up into the country, and in less than half an hour
came back, and brought with them two pieces of dry flesh
and some corn, as is the produce of their country; but we
neither knew what the one nor the other was: however, we
were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our next
dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to them, and
they were as much afraid of us; but they took a safe way for
us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid it down, and
went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board,
and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends; but an opportunity offered that very
instant to oblige them wonderfully; for while we were lying
by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the
other (as we took it) with great fury, from the mountains
towards the sea: whether it was the male pursuing the female,
or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell,
any more than we could tell whether it was usual or strange,
but I believe it was the latter; because, in the first place, those







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and in
the second place, we found the people terribly frighted, es-
pecially the women. The man that had the lance or dart
did not fly from them, but the rest did; however, as the two
creatures ran directly into the water, they did not seem to
offer to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves
into the sea, and swam about as if they had come for their
diversion. At last one of them began to come nearer our boat
than at first I expected, but I lay ready for him, for I had
loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury
load both the others. As soon as he came fairly within my
reach, I fired, and shot him directly into the head. Immedi-
ately he sunk down into the water but rose instantly, and
plunged up and down as if he was struggling for life; and so
indeed he was: he immediately made to the shore, but be-
tween the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the stran-
gling of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and the fire of my gun; some of them
were even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with
the very terror. But when they saw the creature dead, and
sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them to come to
the shore, they took heart and came to the shore, and began
to search for the creature. I found him by his blood staining
the water; and by the help of a rope, which I slung round
him, and gave the Negroes to haul, they dragged him on
shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted
and fine to an admirable degree, and the Negroes held up








OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


their hands with admiration to think what it was I had killed
him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the
noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the
mountains from whence they came, nor could I at that dis-
tance know what it was. I found quickly the Negroes were
for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have
them take it as a favour from me, which when I made signs
to them that they might take him, they were very thankful
for. Immediately they fell to work with him, and though they
had no knife, yet with a sharpened piece of wood they took
off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we could
have done with a knife: they offered me some of the flesh,
which I declined, making as if I would give it them, but made
signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and
brought me a great deal more of their provision, which though
I did not understand, yet I accepted; then I made signs to
them for some water, and held out one of my jars to them,
turning it bottom upward, to shew that it was empty, and
that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately to
some of their friends, and there came two women, and brought
a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose, in the
sun; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent Xury on
shore with my jars, and filled them all three.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was,
and water; and, leaving my friendly Negroes, I made for-
ward for about eleven days more, without offering to go near
the shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the
sea, at about the distance of four or five leagues before me;








THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


and, the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing to make this
point: at length, doubling the point at about two leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side to sea-ward;
then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that this
was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called from
thence Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great
distance, and I could not tell what I had best do, for if I
should be taken with a fresh of wind I might neither reach
one nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stept into the
cabin and set me down, Xury having the helm, when on a
sudden the boy cried out, Master, master, a ship with a saill
and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it
must needs be some of his master's ships sent to pursue us,
when I knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach.
I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw not only the
ship, but that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I thought,
was bound to the coast of Guinea for Negroes. But when I
observed the course she steered, I was soon convinced they
were bound some other way, and did not design to come any
nearer to the shore; upon which I stretched out to sea as much
as I could, resolving to speak with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able
to come in their way, but they would be gone by before I
could make any signal to them. But after I had crowded to
the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by
the help of their perspective-glasses, and that it was some
European boat, which, as they supposed, must belong to some
ship that was lost; so they shortened sail to let me come up.







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


I was encouraged with this, and as I had my patron's flag
on board, I made a waft of it to them for a signal of distress,
and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told-me they
saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon
these signals they very kindly brought-to, and lay-by for me,
and in about three hours time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish,
and in French; but I understood none of them; but at last
a Scottish sailor, who was on board, called to me, and I an-
swered him, and told him I was an Englishman, that I had
made my escape out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee. Then
they bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and
all my goods.
It was inexpressible joy to me, that any one would believe,
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miser-
able and almost hopeless condition as I was in, and immedi-
ately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a return
for my deliverance; but he generously told me, he would
take nothing from me, but that all I had should be delivered
safe to me when I came to the Brasils; for, says he, I have
saved your life on no other terms than I would be glad to be
saved myself; and it may one time or other be my lot to be
taken up in the same condition: Besides, says he, when I
carry you to the Brasils, so great a way from your own country,
if I should take away from you what you have, you will be
starved there, and then I only take away that life I have
given. No, no Seignor, Mr. Englishman, I will carry you
thither in charity, and those things will help you to buy your
subsistence there, and your passage home again.





















Z' *." -S HE WAS charitable in his
proposal, so he was just in the
performance to a tittle, for he ordered the seamen, that
none should offer to touch anything I had; then he took every-
thing into his own possession, and gave me back an exact
inventory of them, that I might have them; even so much as
my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw,
and told me he would buy it of me for the ship's use, and
asked me what I would have for it? I told him, he had been
so generous to me in everything, that I could not offer to make
any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which
he told me he would give me a note of his hand to pay me
80 pieces of eight for it at Brasil; and when it came there,
if any one offered to give more, he would make it up; he
offered me also 60 pieces of eight more for my boy Xury,
which I was loth to take; not that I was not willing to let the
captain have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor boy's









liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my
own. However, when I let him know my reason, he owned
it to be just, and offered me this medium, that he would give
the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned
Christian. Upon this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to
him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brasils, and arrived in
All-Saints-Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And now I
was once more delivered from the most miserable of all con-
ditions of life, and what to do next with myself I was now to
consider.
"The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never
enough remember; he would take nothing of me for my pas-
sage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty
for the lion's skin, which I had in my boat, and caused every-
thing I had in the ship to be punctually delivered me; and
what I was willing to sell he bought, such as the case of
bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-wax,
for I had made candles of the rest; in a word, I made about
220 pieces of eight of all my cargo, and with this stock I went
on shore in the Brasils.
I had not been long here, but being recommended to the
house of a good honest man like himself, who had an Ingenio
as they call it, that is, a plantation and a sugar house; I lived
with him some time, and acquainted myself by that means
with the manner of their planting and making of sugar; and
seeing how well the planters lived, and how they grew rich
suddenly, I resolved, if I could get license to settle there, I
would turn planter among them, resolving in the meantime







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


to find out some way to get my money, which I had left in
London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of a
letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land that was
uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for
my plantation and settlement, and such a one as might be
suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to receive
from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of
English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. I call him neighbour, because his
plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably
together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather
planted for food, than anything else, for about two years.
However, we began to increase, and our land began to come
into order; so that the third year w; planted some tobacco,
and made each of us a large piece of ground ready for plant-
ing canes in the year to come; but we both wanted help; and
now I found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting
with my boy Xury.
But alasl for me to do wrong, that never did right, was no
great wonder: I had no remedy but to go on; I was gotten
into an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly
contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook
my father's house, and broke through all his good advice;
nay, I was coming into the very middle station, or upper
degree of low life, which my father advised me to before; and
which if I resolved to go on with, I might as well have staid at
home, and never have fatigued myself in the world as I had
done: and I used often to say to myself, I could have done this







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


as well in England among my friends, as have gone five thou-
sand miles off to do it, among strangers and savages in a
wilderness, and at such distance as never to hear from any
part of the world that had the least knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and
then this neighbour: no work to be done, but by the labour
of my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast
away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but
himself. But how just has it been, and how should all men
reflect, that, when they compare their present conditions with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the
exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity, by their
experience; I say how just has it been, that the truly solitary
life I reflected on in an island of mere desolation should be my
lot, who had so often unjustly compared it with the life which
I then led, in which, had I continued, I had in all probability
been exceeding prosperous and rich.
I was in some degree settled in my measures for carrying
on the plantation, before my kind friend the captain of the
ship that took me up at sea, went back; for the ship remained
there, providing his loading, and preparing for his voyage,
near three months; when, telling him what little stock I had
left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and
sincere advice: Seignor Inglese, says he (for so he always
called me), if you will give me letters, and a procuration here
in form to me, with orders to the person who has your money
in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as
I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this coun-







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


try, I will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my
return; but since human affairs are all subject to changes and
disasters, I would have you give orders but for one hundred
pounds sterling, which you say is half your stock, and let
the hazard be run for the first; so that if it come safe, you may
order the rest the same way; and if it miscarry, you may have
the other half to have recourse to it for your supply.
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that
I could not but be convinced it was the best course I could
take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman
with whom I had left my money, and a procuration to the
Portuguese captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all
my adventures, my slavery, escape, and how I had met with
the Portugal captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour,
and what condition I was now in, with all other necessary
directions for my supply; and when this honest captain came
to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants
there, to send over, not the order only, but a full account of
my story, to a merchant at London, who represented it ef-
fectually to her; whereupon, she not only delivered the money,
but out of her own pocket sent the Portugal captain a very
handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London vesting this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me
to the Brasils; among which, without my directions (for I
was too young in my business to think of them), he had taken
care to have all sorts of tools, iron-work, and utensils neces-







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


sary for my plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived I thought my fortune made, for I
was surprised with joy of it; and my good steward the captain
had laid out the five pounds which my friend had sent him
for a present for himself, to purchase, and bring me over a
servant under bond for six years service, and would not accept
of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would
have him accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; but my goods being all English manu-
factures, such as cloth, stuffs, baize, and things particularly
valuable and desirable in the country, I found means to sell
them to a very great advantage, so that I may say I had more
than four times the value of my first cargo,and was now
infinitely beyond my poor neighbour mean i the advance-
ment of my plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me
a Negro slave, and an European servant also; I mean an-
other besides that which the captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our greatest adversity, so it was with me. I went on the
next year with great success in my plantation; I raised fifty
great rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had
disposed of for necessaries among my neighbours; and these
fifty rolls, being each of above an hundredweight, were well
cured and laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon.
And now, increasing in business and in wealth, my head be-
gan to be full of projects and undertakings beyond my reach;
such as are indeed often the ruin of the best heads in business.
Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room
for all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


father so earnestly recommended a quiet retired life, and of
which he had so sensibly described the middle station of life
to be full; but other things attended me, and I was still to be
the wilful agent of all my own miseries; and particularly to
increase my fault, and double the reflections upon myself,
which in my future sorrows I should have leisure to make. All
these miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate
adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering abroad, and
pursuing that inclination in contradiction to the clearest views
of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those
prospects and those measures of life, which nature and Provi-
dence concurred to present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had done thus in breaking away from my parents, so
I could not be content now, but I must go and leave the
happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my
new plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire
of rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and
thus I cast myself down again into the deepest gulph of human
misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent
with life and a state of health in the world.
To come then by the just degrees to the particulars of this
part of my story; you may suppose, that having now lived
almost four years in the Brasils, and beginning to thrive and
prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned
the language, but had contracted acquaintance and friend-
ship among my fellow planters, as well as among the mer-
chants at St. Salvadore, which was our port; and that in my
discourses among them I had frequently given them an ac-
count of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


of trading with the Negroes there, and how easy it was to
purchase upon the coast, for trifles, such as beads, toys, knives,
scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like, not only gold dust,
Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c., but Negroes for the serv-
ice of the Brasils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to the
buying Negroes, which was a trade at that time not only not
far entered into, but as far as it was, had been carried on by
the Assientos, or permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal,
and engrossed in the public, so that few Negroes were bought,
and those excessively dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning, and
told me they had been musing very much upon what I had
discoursed with them of the last night, and they came to make
a secret proposal to me; and after enjoining me to secrecy, they
told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea;
that they had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened
for nothing so much as servants; that as this was a trade that
could not be carried on, because they could not publicly sell
the Negroes when they came home; so they desired to make
but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore privately, and
divide them among their own plantations; and in a word,
the question was, whether I would go as their supercargo
in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of
Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my equal
share of the Negroes, without providing any part of the stock.







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been
made to any one that had not had a settlement and planta-
tion of his own to look after, which was in a fair way of
becoming very considerable, and with a good stock upon it.
But for me, that was thus entered and established, and had
nothing to do but go on as I had begun, for three or four
years more, and to have sent for the other hundred pounds
from England, and who in that time, and with that little addi-
tion, could scarce have failed of being worth three or four
thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too; for me to
think of such a voyage, was the most preposterous thing that
ever man in such circumstances could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no
more resist the offer, than I could restrain my first rambling
designs, when my father's good counsel was lost upon me. In
a word, I told them I would go with all my heart, if they
would undertake to look after my plantation in my absence,
and would dispose of it to such as I should direct if I mis-
carried. This they all engaged to do, and entered into writings
or covenants to do so; and I made a formal will, disposing of
my plantation and effects, in case of my death, making the
captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before, my
universal heir; but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I
had directed in my will, one half of the produce being to
himself, and the other to be shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects,
and keep up my plantation. Had I used half as much prudence
to have looked into my own interest, and have made a judg-
ment of what I ought to have done and not to have done, I







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an under-
taking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving circum-
stance, and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its
common hazards; to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect
particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of
my fancy rather than my reason; and accordingly, the ship
being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all things done
as by agreement by my partners in the voyage, I went on
board in an evil hour, the 1st of September-being the same
day eight years that I went from my father and mother at
Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority, and the fool
to my own interest.
Our ship was about 120 tons burthen, carried 6 guns, and
14 men, besides the master, his boy, and myself. We had on
board no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit
for our trade with the Negroes, such as beads, bits of glass,
shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses, knives,
scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to
the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch
over for the African coast when they came about ten or twelve
degrees of northern latitude, which it seems was the manner
of their course in those days. We had very good weather, only
excessive hot, all the way upon our own coast till we came
the height of Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping far-
ther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we
were bound for the isle Fernand de Noronha, holding our
course N.E. by N. and leaving those isles on the east. In this








THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES

course we passed the line in about twelve days' time, and
were by our last observation in seven degrees twenty-two
minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado or hurri-
cane took us quite out of our knowledge. It began from the
south-east, came about to the north-west, and then settled
into the north-east, from whence it blew in such a terrible
manner, that for twelve days together we could do nothing
but drive, and scudding away before it, let it carry us whither
ever fate and the fury of the winds directed; and during
these twelve days I need not say that I expected every day
to be swallowed up, nor indeed did any in the ship expect to
save their lives.
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm,
one of our men died of fever, and one man and the boy washed
overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abating a
little, the master made an observation as well as he could,
and found he was in about eleven degrees north latitude,
but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude difference
west from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was gotten
upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brasil, beyond
the river Amazones, toward that of the river Oronoque, com-
monly called the Great River, and began to consult with me
what course he should take, for the ship was leaky and very
much disabled, and he was going directly back to the coast
of Brasil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the charts
of the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there
was no inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we








OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


came within the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and therefore
resolved to stand away for Barbadoes, which, by keeping off
at sea, to avoid the indraught of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we
might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days'
sail; whereas, we could not possibly make our voyage to the
coast of Africa without some assistance, both to our ship and
to ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and steered away
N.W. by W. in order to reach some of our English islands,
where I hoped for relief; but our voyage was otherwise deter-
mined; for being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen
minutes, a second storm came upon us, which carried us
away with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so
out of the very way of all human commerce, that had all our
lives been saved, as to the sea, we were rather in danger of
being devoured by savages than ever returning to our own
country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of
our men early in the morning cried out, Land! and we had no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in the world we were, but the ship struck upon
a sand, and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the
sea broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we
should all have perished immediately; and we were immedi-
ately driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very
foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the like
condition, to describe or conceive the consternation of men
in such circumstances. We knew nothing where we were, or








THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


upon what land it was we were driven, whether an island or
the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as the
rage of the wind was still great, though rather less than at
first, we could not so much as hope to have the ship hold
many minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the winds,
by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately about. In a
word, we sat looking one upon another, and expecting death
every moment, and every man acting accordingly as prepar-
ing for another world, for there was little or nothing more for
us to do in this. That which was our present comfort, and all
the comfort we had, was, that contrary to our expectation
the ship did not break yet, and that the master said the wind
began to abate.
Now, though we found that the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking
too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful
condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving
our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern
just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing
against the ship's rudder, and in the next place she broke
away, and either sunk or was driven off to sea, so there was
no hope from her. We had another boat on board, but how
to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however,
there was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would
.break in pieces every minute, and some told us she was ac-
tually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men, they got her slung
over the ship's side, and getting all into her, let go, and com-







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


mitted ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's mercy
and the wild sea; for though the storm was abated consider-
ably, yet the sea went dreadful high upon the shore, and
might well be called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea
in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw
plainly that the sea went so high, that the boat could not live,
and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail,
we had none, nor, if we had, could we have done anything
with it, so we worked at the oar towards the land, though
with heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all
knew, that when the boat came nearer the shore, she would be
dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. How-
ever, we committed our souls to God in the most earnest
manner, and the wind driving us towards the shore, we has-
tened our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well
as we could towards land.
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep
or shoal, we knew not; the only hope that could rationally
give us the least shadow of expectation was, if we might hap-
pen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where
by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got under
the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But
there was nothing of this appeared; but as we made nearer
and nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than the
sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a
half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came
rolling a-ster of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup-de-







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


grdce. In a word, it took us with such a fury, that it overset
the boat at once; and separating us, as well from the boat
as from one another, gave us not time hardly to say, 0 Godl
for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt
when I sunk into the water; for though I swam very well,
yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw
breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me,
a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself,
went back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half
dead with the water I took in. I had so much presence of
mind, as well as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the main
land than I expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured
to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before another
wave should return and take me up again. But I soon found it
was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as
high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy which I had
no means or strength to contend with. My business was to
hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could;
and so by swimming to preserve my breathing, and pilot my-
self towards the shore, if possible. My greatest concern now
being that the sea, as it would carry me a great way towards
the shore when it came on, might not carry me back again
with it when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once 20
or 30 feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself car-
ried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore, a
very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to
swim still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so,
to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot
out above the surface of the water; and though it was not
two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved
me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was covered
again with water a good while, but not so long but I held it
out; and finding the water had spent itself, and began to
return, I struck forward against the return of the waves, and
felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few moments
to recover breath, and till the water went from me, and then
took to my heels and ran with what strength I had farther
towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the
fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again, and
twice more I was lifted up by the waves and carried forwards
as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well near been fatal to me;
for the sea having hurried me along as before, landed me, or
rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that with
such force, as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to
my own deliverance; for the blow taking my side and breast,
beat the breath as it were quite out of my body; and had it
not returned again immediately, I must have been strangled
in the water; but I recovered a little before the return of the
waves, and seeing I should be covered again with the water,
I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so hold my
breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now as the waves
were not so high as at first, being near land, I held my hold
till the wave abated, and then fetched another run, which
brought me so near the shore that the next wave, though it








THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me
away; and the next run I took I got to the main land, where,
to my great comfort, I clambered up the clefts of the shore,
and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger, and quite
out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed and safe on shore, and began to look up
and thank God that my life was saved in a case wherein there
was some minutes before scarce any room to hope. I believe
it is impossible to express to the life what the ecstasies and
transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say,
out of the very grave. I walked about on the shore, lifting
up my hands, and my whole being, as I may say, wrapt up
in the contemplation of my deliverance, making a thousand
gestures and motions which I cannot describe, reflecting upon
all my comrades that were drowned, and that there should
not be one soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw
them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three of their
hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the breach and
froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far
off, and considered, Lord! how was it possible I could get on
shore
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of
my condition, I began to look around me, to see what kind of
place I was in, and what was next to be done; and I soon
found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful
deliverance. For I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor
anything either to eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I
see any prospect before me, but that of perishing with hunger,







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


or being devoured by wild beasts; and that which was particu-
larly afflicting to me, was, that I had no weapon either to hunt
and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself
against any other creature that might desire to kill me
for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife
and a little tobacco in a box; this was all my provision, and
this threw me into terrible agonies of mind, that for a
while I ran about like a madman. Night coming upon
me, I began with a heavy heart to consider what would
be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country,
seeing at night they always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time
was, to get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny,
which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night,
and consider the next day what death I should die, for as
yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from
the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink,
which I did, to my great joy; and having drank, and put a
little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the
tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place myself so
as that if I should sleep I might not fall; and having cut me a
short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my
lodging, and having been excessively fatigued I fell fast asleep,
and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have done
in my condition, and found myself the most refreshed with
it that I think I ever was on such an occasion.





















EN I WAKED it was broad
day, the weather clear, and the
storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as
before; but that which surprised me most was, that the ship
was lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay by
the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as
the rock which I first mentioned, where I had been so bruised
by the dashing me against it. This being within about a mile
from the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand
upright still, I wished myself on board, that, at least, I might
save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat,
which lay as the wind and the sea had tossed her, up upon
the land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far
as I could upon the shore to have got to her, but found a neck
or inlet of water between me and the boat, which was about
half a mile broad; so I came back for the present, being more









intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find some-
thing for my present subsistence.
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out that I could come within a quarter of a mile
of the ship, and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief;
for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had
been all safe, that is to say, we had all got safe on shore,
and I had not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute
of all comfort and company, as I now was. This forced tears
from my eyes again, but as there was little relief in that, I
resolved, if possible, to get to the ship, so I pulled off my
clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the
water; but when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still
greater to know how to get on board, for as she lay a-ground,
and high out of the water, there was nothing within my reach
to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second time
I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see
at first, hang down by the fore-chains so low as that with
great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope
got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the
ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold,
but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or
rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and
her head low almost to the water. By this means all her quar-
ter was free, and all that was in that part was dry; for you
may be sure my first work was to search and to see what was
spoiled and what was free; and first I found that all the ship's
provisions were dry and untouched by the water; and being
very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room and filled







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


my pockets with biscuit, and eat it as I went about other
things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum in
the great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had
indeed need enough of to spirit me for what was before me.
Now I wanted nothing but a boat to furnish myself with
many things which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be
had, and this extremity roused my application. We had several
spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a
spare top-mast or two in the ship. I resolved to fall to work
with these, and flung as many of them overboard as I could
manage for their weight, tying every one with a rope that
they might not drive away; when this was done I went down
the ship's side, and pulling them to me, I tied four of them
fast together at both ends, as well as I could, in the form of a
raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them
cross-ways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that
it was not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too
light; so I went to work, and with the carpenter's saw I cut
a spare top-mast into three lengths, and added them to my
raft, with a great deal of labour and pains: but hope of fur-
nishing myself with necessaries encouraged me to go be-
yond what I should have been able to have done upon another
occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight; my next care was what to load it with, and how to
preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I
was not long considering this. I first laid all the planks or
boards upon it that I could get, and having considered well







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


what I most wanted, I first got three of the seamen's chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered them
down upon my raft. The first of these I filled with provisions,
namely, bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried
goat's flesh, which we lived much upon, and a little remainder
of European corn which had been laid by for some fowls
which we brought to sea with us, but the fowls were killed.
There had been some barley and wheat together; but, to my
great disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had
eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several cases
of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some cordial
waters, and in all about five or six gallons of rack; these I
stowed by themselves, there being no need to put them into
the chest, nor no room for them. While I was doing this, I
found the tide began to flow, though very calm; and I had
the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which
I had left on shore upon the sand, swim away; as for my
breeches, which were only linen and open-kneed, I swam on
board in them and my stockings. However, this put me upon
rummaging for clothes, of which I found enough, but took
no more than I wanted for present use; for I had other things
which my eye was more upon-as, first, tools to work with on
shore; and it was after long searching that I found out the
carpenter's chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to
me, and much more valuable than a ship-loading of gold
would have been at that time. I got it down to my raft, even
whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I knew
in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and
two pistols; these I secured first, with some powder-horns,
and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew
there were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not
where our gunner had stowed them; but with much search I
found them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken
water. Those two I got to my raft, with the arms; and now I
thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to think how
I should get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor
rudder, and the least cap-full of wind would have overset all
my navigation.
I had three encouragements: a smooth, calm sea, the tide
rising and setting into the shore, and what little wind there
was blew me towards the land; and thus, having found two
or three broken oars belonging to the boat, and besides the
tools which were in the chest, I found two saws, an axe and
a hammer, and with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or
thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I found it drive
a little distant from the place where I had landed before, by
which I perceived that there was some indraft of the water,
and consequently I hoped to find some creek or river there,
which I might make use of as a port to get to land with my
cargo.
As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide
set into it, so I guided my raft as well as I could to keep in
the middle of the stream; but here I had like to have suffered
a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think verily would have
broke my heart; for knowing nothing of the coast, my raft








OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


run a-ground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being
a-ground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my
cargo had slipped off towards that end that was afloat, and
so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting my back
against the chests, to keep them in their places, but could
not thrust off the raft with all my strength, neither durst I
stir from the posture I was in; but holding up the chests with
all my might, stood in that manner near half an hour, in
which time the rising of the water brought me a little more
upon a level; and a little after, the water still rising, my raft
floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the
channel; and then driving up higher, I at length found myself
in the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and a
strong current or tide running up. I looked on both sides for
a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be
driven too high up the river, hoping in time to see some ship
at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near the
coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the
creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my
raft, and at last got so near, as that, reaching ground with
my oar, I could thrust her directly in. But here I had liked to
have dipped all my cargo in the sea again; for that shore
lying pretty steep, that is to say sloping, there was no place
to land, but where one end of the float, if it run on shore,
would lie so high, and the other sink lower as before, that
it would endanger my cargo again. All that I could do, was
to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with
my oar like an anchor to hold the side of it fast to the shore,








THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


near a flat piece of ground, which I expected the water would
flow over; and so it did. As soon as I found water enough
(for my raft drew about a foot of water), I thrust her on
upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored
her by sticking my two broken oars into the ground; one on
one side near one end, and one on the other side near the
other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and
left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was I yet knew
not; whether on the continent or on an island, whether in-
habited or not inhabited, whether in danger of wild beasts
or not. There was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose
up very steep and high, and which seemed to over-top some
other hills which lay as in a ridge from it northward. I took
out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and an
horn of powder, and thus armed, I travelled for discovery
up to the top of that hill; where, after I had with great labour
and difficulty got to the top, I saw my fate to my great afflic-
tion, namely, that I was in an island environed every way
with the sea, no land to be seen, except some rocks which
lay a great way off, and two small islands less than this, which
lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I
saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild
beasts, of whom however I saw none; yet I saw abundance of
fowls, but knew not their kinds, neither when I killed them
could I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming








OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree
on the side of a great wood-I believe it was the first gun
that had been fired there since the creation of the world. I
had no sooner fired, but from all parts of the wood there arose
an innumerable number of fowls of many sorts, making a con-
fused screaming, and crying every one according to his usual
note; but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for
the creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of hawk, its colour
and beak resembling it, but had no talons or claws more than
common; its flesh was carrion and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and
fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up
the rest of that day; and what to do with myself at night I
knew not, nor indeed where to rest; for I was afraid to lie
down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might
devour me, though, as I afterwards found, there was really
no need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made
a kind of a hut for that night's lodging. As for food, I yet
saw not which way to supply myself, except that I had seen
two or three creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where
I shot the bird.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship which would be useful to me, and
particularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other
things as might come to land, and I resolved to make another
voyage to board the vessel, if possible; and as I knew that
the first storm that blew must necessarily break her all in








THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart till I got every-
thing out of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council,
that is to say, in my thoughts, whether I should take back
the raft; but this appeared impracticable, so I resolved to go
as before, when the tide was down, and I did so, only that
I stripped before I went from my hut, having nothing on but
a chequered shirt, and a pair of linen trousers, and a pair
of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship, as before, and prepared a second
raft, and having had experience of the first, I neither made
this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard; but yet I brought
away several things very useful to me; as first, in the carpen-
ter's stores, I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes,
a great screw jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and above
all, that most useful thing called a grindstone. All these I
secured, together with several things belonging to the gunner,
particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels of mus-
ket-bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with
some small quantity of powder more, a large bag full of small
shot, and a great roll of sheet lead; but this last was so heavy
I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I
could find, and a spare fore-top-sail, hammock, and some bed-
ding; and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought
them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions during my absence from
the land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on
shore; but when I came back, I found no sign of any visitor,
only there sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the








OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away a little dis-
tance, and then stood still. She sat very composed and un-
concerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to
be acquainted with me. I presented my gun at her, but as
she did not understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at
it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a
bit of biscuit, though by the way I was not very free of it,
for my store was not great. However, I spared her a bit, I
say, and she went to it, smelled it, ate it, and looked, as
pleased, for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no
more, so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore, though I was fain
to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels
(for they were too heavy, being large casks), I went to work
to make me a little tent with the sail and some poles which
I cut for that purpose; and into this tent I brought everything
that I knew would spoil, either with rain or sun, and I piled
all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent,
to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from man or
beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent
with some boards within, and an empty chest set up on-end
without; and spreading one of the beds on the ground, laying
my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me,
I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all
night, for I was very weary and heavy; for the night before
I had slept little, and had laboured very hard all day, as well
to fetch all those things from the ship as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever were








THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


laid up, I believe, for one man, but I was not satisfied still;
for while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I
ought to get everything out of her that I could: so every day
at low water I went on board, and brought away something
or other; but particularly the third time I went, I brought
away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small
ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvas,
which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel
of wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought away all the sails
first and last, only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and
bring as much at a time as I could; for they were no more
useful to be sails, but as mere canvas only.
But that which comforted me more still, was that, last of all,
after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought
I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth
my meddling with; I say, after all this, I found a great hogs-
head of bread, and three large runlets of rum or spirits, and
a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour. This was surprising
to me, because I had given over expecting any more provi-
sions, except what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied
the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by
parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, in a word,
I got all this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage; and now, having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out,
I began with the cables; and cutting the great cable into
pieces, such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser
on shore, with all the iron-work I could get; and having cut
down the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and everything







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


I could to make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy
goods and came away. But my good luck began now to leave
me; for this raft was so unwieldy and so overladen, that after
I had entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of
my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the
other, it overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water.
As for myself it was no great harm, for I was near the shore;
but as to my cargo, it was great part of it lost, especially the
iron, which I expected would have been of great use to me.
However, when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of
cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite labour;
for I was fain to dip for it into the water-a work which
fatigued me very much. After this, I went every day on board
and brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been
eleven times on board the ship, in which time I had brought
away all that one pair of hands could be well supposed ca-
pable to bring; though I believe verily, had the calm weather
held, I should have brought away the whole ship, piece by
piece. But preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found
the wind begin to rise; however, at low water I went on board,
and though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effec-
tually, as that nothing more could be found, yet I discovered
a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or
three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or
a dozen of good knives and forks; in another I found about
thirty-six pounds value in money, some European coin, some
Brasil, some pieces of eight, some gold, some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. "0 Drugl"







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


said I, aloud, "what art thou good for? thou art not worth to
me, no, not the taking off the ground. One of these knives is
worth all this heap. I have no manner of use for thee, even
remain where thou art and go to the bottom, as a creature
whose life is not worth saving." However, upon second
thoughts, I took it away, and wrapping all this in a piece of
canvas, I began to think of making another raft; but while
I was preparing this, I found the sky over-cast, and the wind
began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh
gale from the shore. It presently occurred to me, that it was
in vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore,
and that it was my business to be gone before the tide of
flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore
at all: accordingly I let myself down into the water, and
swam across the channel, which lay between the ship and
the sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly with
the weight of things I had about me, and partly the rough-
ness of the water; for the wind rose very hastily, and before
it was quite high water it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay with
all my wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all
that night; and in the morning when I looked out, behold no
more ship was to be seen. I was a little surprised, but re-
covered myself with this satisfactory reflection; namely, that
I had lost no time, nor abated any diligence, to get everything
out of her that could be useful to me; and that indeed there
was little left in her that I was able to bring away, if I had had
more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of any







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


thing out of her, except what might drive on shore from her
wreck, as indeed divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those
things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing
myself against either savages (if any should appear) or wild
beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts
of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling
to make; whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a
tent upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both, of
the manner, and description of which it may not be improper
to give an account.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement,
particularly because it was upon a low moorish ground near
the sea, and I believed would not be wholesome, and more
particularly because there was no fresh water near it, so I
resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
ground.
I consulted several things in my situation which I found
would be proper for me. Health, and fresh water, I just now
mentioned; shelter from the heat of the sun; security from
ravenous creatures, whether man or beast; a view to the sea,
that if God sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any ad-
vantage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing to
banish all my expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain
on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little
plain was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come
down upon me from the top; on the side of this rock there was
a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


of a cave: but there was not really any cave or way into the
rockatall.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I
resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above an hun-
dred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a
green before my door, and at the end it descended irregularly
'every way down into the low grounds by the sea-side. It was
on the N.N.W. side of the hill, so that I was sheltered from
the heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or
thereabouts, which in those countries is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-di-
ameter, from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from
its beginning and ending.
In this half circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driv-
ing them into the ground till they stood very firm, like piles,
the biggest end being out of the ground about five foot and a
half, and sharpened on the top; the two rows did not stand
above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the
ship, and laid them in rows one upon another, within the
circle between these two rows of stakes, up to the top, plac-
ing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about
two foot and a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence
was so strong, that neither man nor beast could get into it
or over it. This cost me a great deal of time and labour, es-
pecially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the
place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not by a door,







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


but by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when
I was in, I lifted over after me: and so I was completely
fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and
consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I
could not have done; though, as it appeared afterward, there
was no need of all this caution from the enemies that I ap-
prehended danger from.











o! NTO THIS FENCE or for-
tress, with infinite labour, I
carried all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition and
stores, of which you have the account above; and I made me
a large tent, which, to preserve me from the rains, that in one
part of the year are very violent there, I made double, namely,
one smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it, and
covered the uppermost with a large tarpaulin which I had
saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a
very good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything
that would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my
goods I made up the entrance, which till now I had left open,
and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the
rock; and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down
out through my tent, I laid them up within my fence in the
nature of a terrace, that so it raised the ground within about
a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave just behind my
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour, and many days, before all these
things were brought to perfection, and therefore I must go
back to some other things which took up some of my thoughts.
At the same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme
for the setting up my tent and making the cave, that a storm
of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of
lightning happened, and after that a great clap of thunder,
as is naturally the effect of it. I.was not so much surprised
with the lightning, as I was with a thought which darted
into my mind as swift as the lightning itself: 0 my powder!
my very heart sunk within me, when I thought, that at one
blast all my powder might be destroyed; on which, not my
defence only, but the providing me food, as I thought, en-
tirely depended. I was nothing near so anxious about my
own danger, though, had the powder took fire, I had never
known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the
storm was over I laid aside all my works, my building, and
fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes to sep-








OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


arate the powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel,
in hope, that whatever might come, it might not all take fire at
once; and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to
make one part fire another. I finished this work in about a
fortnight; and I think, my powder, which in all was about
240 pounds weight, was divided in not less than a hundred
parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not appre-
hend any danger from that, so I placed it in my new cave,
which in my fancy I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid
up and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might
come to it, marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out
once at least every day with my gun, as well to divert myself
as to see if I could kill anything fit for food, and, as near as
I could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced.
The first time I went out I presently discovered that there
were goats in the island, which was a great satisfaction to
me; but then it was attended with this misfortune to me,
namely, that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of
foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the world to come
at them. But I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but
I might now and then shoot one, as it soon happened; for
after I had found their haunts a little, I laid wait in this
manner for them: I observed, if they saw me in the valleys,
though they were upon the rocks, they would run away as in
a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and
I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me: from whence
I concluded, that by the position of their optics, their sight
was so directed downward, that they did not readily see ob-







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


jects that were above them; so afterward I took this method:
I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then
had frequently a fair mark. The first shot I made among these
creatures I killed a she-goat, which had a little kid by her,
which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily; but when
the old one fell, the kid stood stock-still by her till I came and
took her up; and not only so, but when I carried the old one
with me upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my
enclosure, upon which I laid down the dam, and took the
kid in my arms and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have
bred it up tame, but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill
it and eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great
while, for I eat sparingly, and saved my provisions (my
bread especially) as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely nec-
essary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn;
and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my cave,
and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full account
of in its place; but I must first give some little account of
myself, and of my thoughts about living, which it may well
be supposed were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not
cast away upon that island without being driven, as is said,
by a violent storm quite out of the course of our intended
voyage, and a great way, some hundreds of leagues, out of
the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great rea-
son to consider it as a determination of Heaven that in this
desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my
life. The tears would run plentifully down my face when I







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


made these reflections, and sometimes I would expostulate
with myself, why Providence should thus completely ruin his
creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable, so with-
out help abandoned, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly
be rational to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check
these thoughts and to reprove me; and particularly one day,
walking with my gun in my hand by the sea-side, I was very
pensive upon the subject of my present condition, when rea-
son as it were expostulated with me the other way, thus:
Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but pray
remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you come
eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten? Why were
they not saved and you lost? Why were you singled out? Is
it better to be here or there? and then I pointed to the sea.
All evils are to be considered with the good that is in them,
and with what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished
for my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it
had not happened, which was a hundred thousand to one,
that the ship floated from the place where she first struck,
and was driven so near the shore that I had time to get all
these things out of her? What would have been my case if I
had been to have lived in the condition in which I at first came
on shore, without necessaries of life or necessaries to supply
and procure them? Particularly, said I aloud (though to
myself), what should I have done without a gun, without
ammunition, without any tools to make anything, or to work
with; without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of cover-









ing? And that now I had all these to a sufficient quantity, and
was in a fair way to provide myself in such a manner, as to
live without my gun when my ammunition was spent, so that
I had a tolerable view of subsisting, without any want, as
long as I lived; for I considered from the beginning how I
should provide for the accidents that might happen and for
the time that was to come, even not only after my ammuni-
tion should be spent, but even after my health or strength
should decay.
I confess I had not entertained any notion of my ammuni-
tion being destroyed at one blast, I mean, my powder being
blown up by lightning; and this made the thoughts of it so
surprising to me when it lightened and thundered, as I ob-
served just now.
And now being about to enter into a melancholy relation
of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of
in the world before, I shall take it from its beginning, and
continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 3oth of
September, when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot
upon this horrid island, when the sun being, to us, in its
autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head; for I reck-
oned myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of 9 de-
grees and 22 minutes north of the line.





















AFTER I HAD BEEN there
-- about ten or twelve days, it
came into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of
time for want of books, and pen and ink, and should even
forget the abhathdys from the working days; but to prevent
this, I cut it with my knife upon a large post in capital letters,
and making it into a great cross, I set it up on the shore where
I first landed, namely, I CAME ON SHORE HERE ON THE 3 TH OF
SEPT. 160g. Upon the sides of this square post I cut every
day a notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was as
long again as the rest, and every first day of the month as
long again as that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or
weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place we are to observe, that among the many
things which I brought out of the ship in the several voyages,
which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things
of less value, but not all less useful to me, which I omitted
setting down before; as in particular, pens, ink, and paper;







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


several parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpen-
ter's keeping; three or four compasses, some mathematical
instruments, dials, perspective glasses, charts, and books of
navigation; all which I huddled together, whether I might
want them or no; also, I found three very good Bibles which
came to me in my cargo from England, and which I had
packed up among my things; some Portuguese books also,
and among them two or three popish prayer-books, and sev-
eral other books, all which I carefully secured. And I must not
forget, that we had in the ship a dog and two cats, of whose
eminent history I may have occasion to say something in its
place; for I carried both the cats with me; and as for the
dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam on shore
to me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and
was a trusty servant to me many years. I wanted nothing
that he could fetch me, or any company that he could make
up to me; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that he
could not do. As I observed before, I found pen, ink, and
paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall show,
that while my ink lasted, I kept things very exact; but after
that was gone I could not, for I could not make any ink, by
any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, not-
withstanding all that I had amassed together; and of these
this of ink was one, as also spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to dig
or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread; as for linen, I
soon learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily, and
it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


little pale or surrounded habitation. The piles or stakes, which
were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting
and preparing in the woods, and more by far in bringing
home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and
bringing home one of those posts, and a third day in driving
it into the ground; for which purpose I got a heavy piece of
wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one of the iron
crows, which, however, though I found it, yet it made driving
those posts or piles very laborious and tedious work.
But what need I have been concerned at the tediousness
of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do it in,
nor had I any other employment if that had been over, at
least, that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to
seek for food, which I did more or less every day.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of
posts and cables, but I might now rather call it a wall, for I
raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet
thick on the outside, and after some time, I think it was a
year and a half, I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock,
and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and such
things as I could get to keep out the rain, which I found at
some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into
this pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me;
but I must observe too, that at first this was a confused heap
of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all
my place, I had no room to turn myself; so I set myself to
enlarge my cave and works farther into the earth; for it was







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


a loose, sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labour I be-
stowed on it. And so when I found I was pretty safe as to
beasts of prey, I worked sideways to the right hand into the
rock; and then turning to the right again, worked quite out,
and made me a door to come out, on the outside of my pale
or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were a
backway to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room
to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, as particularly a chair and
a table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few
comforts I had in the world. I could not write or eat, or do
several things with so much pleasure without a table.
So I went to work; and here I must needs observe, that as
reason is the substance and original of the mathematics, so
by stating and squaring everything by reason, and by making
the most rational judgment of things, every man may be in
time master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a
tool in my life, and yet in time by labour, application, and
contrivance, I found at last that I wanted nothing but I could
have made it, especially if I had had tools; however, I made
abundance of things, even without tools, and some with no
more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were
never made that way before, and that with infinite labour;
for example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut
down a tree, set it on a hedge before me, and hew it flat on
either side with my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin as a
plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


this method I could make but one board out of a whole tree,
but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more than I
had for the prodigious deal of time and labour which it-took
me up to make a plank or board; but my time or labour was
little worth, and so it was as well employed one way as an-
other.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place, and this I did out of the short pieces
of boards which I brought on my raft from the ship; but when
I had wrought out some boards, as above, I made large shelves,
of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another, all
along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-
work, and in a word, to separate everything at large in their
places, that I might come easily at them. I knocked pieces
into the wall of the rock to hang my guns and all things that
would hang up.
So that had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a gen-
eral magazine of all necessary things; and I had everything
so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see
all my goods in such order, and especially to find my stock
of all necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every
day's employment; for indeed at first I was in too much hurry,
and not only hurry as to labour, but in too much discomposure
of mind, and my journal would have been full of many dull
things.
I shall here give you the copy (though in it will be told
many particulars over again) as long as it lasted; for having
no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


THE JOURNAL
SEPT. 30, 1659. I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe, being
shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on
shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which I called the
Island of Despair, all the rest of the ship's company being
drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself, at the
dismal circumstances I was brought to, namely, I had neither
food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to, and in de-
spair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me, either
that I should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by sav-
ages, or starved to death for want of food. At the approach
of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures, but slept
soundly though it rained all night.
OCTOBER i. In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the
ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore
again much nearer the island, which as it was some comfort
on one hand, for seeing her sit upright, and not broken to
pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board,
and get some food or necessaries out of her for my relief; so,
on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my com-
rades, who I imagined if we had all stayed on board might
have saved the ship, or at least that they would not have
been all drowned, as they were; and that, had the men been
saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat out of the
ruins of the ship, to have carried us to some other part of the
world. I spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on
these things; but at length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


upon the sand as near as I could, and then swam on board:
this day also it continued raining, though with no wind at
all.
From the Ist of OCTOBER to the 24th. All these days entirely
spent in making several voyages to get all I could out of the
ship, which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon
rafts. Much rain also in these days, though with some intervals
of fair weather: but, it seems, this was the rainy season.
OCT. 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon
it; but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly
heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide was out.
OCTr. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of
wind, during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind
blowing a little harder than before, and was no more to be
seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I
spent this day in covering and securing the goods which I had
saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
ocr. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day, to find
out a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure
myself from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts
or men. Towards night I fixed upon a proper place under a
rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encampment, which
I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification
made of double piles, lined within with cables, and without
with turf.
From the 26th to the 3oth, I worked very hard in carrying
all my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the
time it rained exceeding hard.
The 3ist, in the morning, I went out into the island with my








THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


gun, to see for some food, and discover the country, when I
killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home; which I
afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.
NOVEMBER i. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there
for the first night, making it as large as I could with stakes
driven in to swing my hammock upon.
NOV. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces
of timber which made my rafts, and with them formed a
fence round me, a little within the place I had marked out
for my fortification.
NOV. 3. I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like
ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon went to
work to make me a table.
Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times of work,
of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion.
Every morning I walked out with my gun for two or three
hours, if it did not rain, then employed myself to work till
about eleven o'clock, then eat what I had to live on, and
from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
excessive hot, and then in the evening to work again. The
working part of this day, and of the next, were wholly em-
ployed in making my table, for I was yet but a very sorry
workman, though time and necessity made me a complete
natural mechanic soon after, as I believe it would do any
one else.
NOV. 5. This day went abroad with my gun and my dog,
and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good
for nothing: every creature I killed I took off the skins and
preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore I saw many







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE


sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand; but was sur-
prised and almost frighted with two or three seals, which,
while I was gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got
into the sea, and escaped me for that time.
NOV. 6. After my morning walk I went to work with my
table again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor
was it long before I learned to mend it.
NOV. 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th,
8th, 9th, loth, and part of the ;2th (for the 11th was Sunday)
I took wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado
brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to please me; and
even in the making I pulled it in pieces several times. NOTE.-
I soon neglected keeping S days, for omitting my mark
or them on my post, I forgot which was which.
NOV. 13. This day it rained, which refreshed me exceed-
ingly, and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with
terrible thunder and lightning, which frighted me dreadfully
for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over I resolved to
separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as
possible, that it might not be in danger.
NOV. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in making little
square chests or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or
two pounds at most, of powder; and so putting the powder
in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote from one an-
other as possible. On one of these three days I killed a large
bird that was good to eat, but I know not what to call it.
NOV. 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent into the
rock, to make room for my farther conveniency. NOTE. Three
things I wanted exceedingly for this work, namely, a pick-axe,







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


a shovel, and a wheel-barrow or basket, so I desisted from
my work, and began to consider how to supply that want,
and make me some tools. As for a pick-axe, I made use of
the iron crows, which were proper enough, though heavy; but
the next thing was a shovel or spade. This was so absolutely
necessary, that indeed I could do nothing effectually without
it; but what kind of one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I found a
tree of that wood, or like it, which in the Brasils they call the
Iron Tree, for its exceeding hardness; of this, with great labour
and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece and brought it home
too with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy.
The excessive hardness of the wood, and having no other
way, made me a long while upon this machine; for I worked
it effectually by little and little into the form of a shovel or
spade, the handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only
that the broad part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it
would not last me so long; however, it served well enough for
the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but never was a
shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so long a making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheel-barrow.
A basket I could not make by any means, having no such
*things as twigs that would bend to make wicker ware, at least
none yet found out; and as to a wheel-barrow, I fancied I
could make all but the wheel, but that I had no notion of,
neither did I know how to go about it; besides, I had no
possible way to make the iron gudgeons for the spindle or
axis of the wheel to run in, so I gave it over; and so for
carrying away the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made