Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The Life & adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073639/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Life & adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Series Title: The World's classics
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Alternate Title: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 394 p. ; 16 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731 ( Author, Primary )
Milford, Humphrey ( Publisher )
Oxford University Press ( Publisher )
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: c1937
Edition: Reset ed..
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Genre: fiction   ( marcgt )
Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe.
General Note: "London: Humphrey Milford."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073639
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 30874902

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Half Title
        Half Title 1
        Half Title 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
        Preface 1
        Preface 2
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Full Text


Ube 'WCiorlb's Classics



Born : St. Giles's, Cripplegate
Died : Moorfields

S1660 or 161
.6 April 17:

The Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe' wasfirst publish
in 1719. In 'The World's Classics' it was first published in Igc
and reprinted in 1904, I905, igii, 192o and 1937 (reset).







tlnersit) of Florida tibarli


London Edinburgh Glasgow New York
Toronto Melbourne Capetown Bombay
Calcutta Madras

F ever the story of any private man's adventures
Sthe world were worth making public, and
cre acceptable when published, the Editor of
is account thinks this will be so.
The wonders of this man's life exceed all that
e thinks) is to be found extant; the life of one
an being scarce capable of a greater variety.
The story is told with modesty, with serious-
ess, and with a religious application of events
Sthe uses to which wise men always apply
iem, viz., to the instruction of others by this
ample, and to justify and honour the wisdom
f Providence in all the variety of our circum-
Fances, let them happen how they will.
SThe Editor believes the thing to be a just
history of fact; neither is there any appearance
,' fiction in it; and, however, thinks, because
'1 such things are despatched, that the improve-
i-nt of it, as well to the diversion as to the
instruction of the reader, will be the same. And
Ls such, he thinks, without further compliment
Sthe world, he does them a great service in
e publication.

I WAs born in the year 1632, in the city of York,
of a good family, though not of that country, my
father being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled
first at Hull. He got a good estate by merchan-
dise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterward at
York, from whence he had married my mother,
whose relations were named Robinson, a very
good family in that country, and from whom I
was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but by the
usual corruption of words in England we are
now called, nay, we call ourselves, and write our
name, Crusoe, and so my companions always
called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of which was
lieutenant-colonel to an English regiment of foot
in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous
Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle
near Dunkirk against the Spaniards; what be-
came of my second brother I never knew, any
more than my father and mother did know what
was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred
to any trade, my head began to be filled very
early with rambling thoughts. My father, who
was very ancient, had given me a competent
share of learning, as far as house-education
and a country free school generally goes, and

designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied
with nothing but going to sea; and my inclina-
tion to this led me so strongly against the will,
nay, the commands, of my father, and against
all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother
and other friends, that there seemed to be some-
thing fatal in that propension of nature tend-
ing directly to the life of misery which was to
befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me
serious and excellent counsel against what he
foresaw was my design. He called me one morn-
ing into his chamber, where he was confined by
the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me
upon this subject. He asked me what reasons
more than a mere wandering inclination I had
for leaving my father's house and my native
country, where I might be well introduced, and
-Jad a prospect of raising my fortunes by ap-
,plication and industry with a life of ease and
pleasure. He told me it was for men of desperate
'fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior
fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon
adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make
themselves famous in undertakings of a nature
out of the common road; that these things were
all either too far above me, or too far below me;
that mine was the middle state, or what might
be called the upper station of low life, which he
had found by long experience was the best state
in the world, the most suited to human happi-
ness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships,
the labour and sufferings, of the mechanic part
of mankind, and not embarrassed with the
pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper

part of mankind. He told me I might judge
of the happiness of this state by this one
thing, viz., that this was the state of life which all
other people envied; that kings have frequently
lamented the miserable consequences of being
born to great things, and wished they had been
placed in the middle of the two extremes, between
the mean and the great; that the wise man gave
his testimony to this as the just standard of true
felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty
or riches.
He bid me observe it, and I should always
find, that the calamities of life were shared
among the upper and lower part of mankind;
but that the middle station had the fewest dis-
asters, and was not exposed to so many vicissi-
tudes as the higher or lower part of mankind.
Nay, they were not subjected to so. many dis-
tempers and uneasinesses either of body or mind
as those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and
extravagances on one hand, or by hard labour,
want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet
on the other hand, bring distempers upon them-
selves by the natural consequences of their way
of living; that the middle station of life was
calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind of
enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the
handmaids of a middle fortune; that temper-
ance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all
agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures,
were the blessings attending the middle station
of life; that this way men went silently and
smoothly through the world, and comfortably
out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of
the hands or of the head, not sold to the life

of slavery for daily bread, or harassed with per-
plexed circumstances, which rob the soul of
peace, and the body of rest; not enraged with
the passion of envy, or secret burning lust of
ambition for great things; but in easy circum-
stances sliding gently through the world, and
sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without the
bitter, feeling that they are happy, and learning by
every day's experience to know it more sensibly.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the
most affectionate manner, not to play the young
man, not to precipitate myself into miseries
which Nature and the station of life I was born
in seemed to have provided against; that I was
under no necessity of seeking my bread; that he
would do well for me, and endeavour to enter
me fairly into the station of life which he had
been just recommending to me; and that if I
was not very easy and happy in the world it must
be my mere fate or fault that must hinder it, and
that he should have nothing to answer for,
having thus discharged his duty in warning me
against measures which he knew would be to my
hurt; in a word, that as he would do very kind
things for me if I would stay and settle at home
as he directed, so he would not have so much
hand in my misfortunes, as to give me any en-
couragement to go away. And to close all, he
told me I had my elder brother for an example,
to whom he had used the same earnest per-
suasions to keep him from going into the Low
Country wars, but could not prevail, his young
desires prompting him to run into the army,
where he was killed; and though he said he
would not cease to pray for me, yet he would

venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish
step, God would not bless me, and I would have
leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected
his counsel when there might be none to assist in
my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse,
which was truly prophetic, though I suppose my
father did not know it to be so himself-I say,
I observed the tears run down his face very
plentifully, and especially when he spoke of my
brother who was killed; and that when he spoke
of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist
me, he was so moved, that he broke off the dis-
course, and told me, his heart was so full he
could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as
indeed who could be otherwise? and I resolved
not to think of going abroad any more, but to
settle at home according to my father's desire.
But alas! a few days wore it all off; and, in short,
to prevent any of m*y father's farther importuni-
ties, in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite
away from him. However, I did not act so
hastily neither as my first heat of resolution
prompted, but I took my mother, at a time when
I thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary,
and told her, that my thoughts were so entirely
bent upon seeing the world, that I should never
settle to anything with resolution enough to go
through with it, and my father had better give
me his consent than force me to go without it;
that I was now eighteen years old, which was too
late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an
attorney; that I was sure if I did, I should never
serve out my time, and I should certainly run

away from my master before my time was out,
and go to sea; and if she would speak to my
father to let me go but one voyage abroad, if I.
came home again and did not like it, I would
go no more, and I would promise by a double
diligence to recover that time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion. She
told me, she knew it would be to no purpose to
speak to my father upon any such subject; that
he knew too well what was my interest to give his
consent to anything so much for my hurt, and
that she wondered how I could think of any such
thing after such a discourse as I had had with
my father, and such kind and tender expressions
as she knew my father had used to me; and that,
in short, if I would ruin myself there was no help
for me; but I might depend I should never have
their consent to it; that for her part, she would
not have so much hand in my destruction, and
I should never have it to say, that my mother
was willing when my fatheA was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my
father, yet, as I have heard afterwards, she
reported all the discourse to him, and that my
father, after showing a great concern at it, said
to her with a sigh, 'That boy might be happy if
he would stay at home, but if he goes abroad he
will be the miserablest wretch that was ever
born: I can give no consent to it.'
It was not till almost a year after this that I
broke loose, though in the meantime I continued
obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to
business, and frequently expostulating with my
father and mother about their being so positively
determined against what they knew my inclina-

tions prompted me to. But being one day at
Hull, where I went casually, and without any
purpose of making an elopement that time; but
I say, being there, and one of my companions
being going by sea to London, in his father's
ship, and prompting me to go with them, with
the common allurement of seafaring men, viz.,
that it should cost me nothing for my passage,
I consulted neither father or mother any more,
nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving
them to hear of it as they might, without asking
God's blessing, or my father's, without any con-
sideration of circumstances or consequences,
and in an ill hour, God knows,(on the first of
September, 1651, I went on boart a ship bound
for London. Never any young adventurer's
misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or con-
tinued longer than mine. The ship was no
sooner gotten out of the Humber, but the wind
began to blow, arid the waves to rise in a most
frightful manner; and as I had never been at sea
before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body,
and terrified in my mind. I began now seriously
to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly
I was overtaken by the judgment of heaven for
my wicked leaving my father's house, and aban-
doning my duty; all the good counsel of my
parents, my father's tears and my mother's
entreaties, came now fresh into my mind, and
my conscience, which was not yet come to the
pitch of hardness which it has been since, re-
proached me with the contempt of advice, and
the breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the
sea, which I had never been upon before, went

very high, though nothing like what I have seen
many times since; no, nor like what I saw a few
days after. But it was enough to affect me then,
who was but a young sailor, and had never
known anything of the matter. I expected every
wave would have swallowed us up, and that
every time the ship fell down, as I thought, in
the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never
rise more; and in this agony of mind I made
many vows and resolutions, that if it would
please God here to spare my life this one voyage,
if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again,
I would go directly home to my father, and never
set it into a ship again while I lived; that I
would take his advice, and never run myself into
such miseries as these any more. Now I saw
plainly the goodness of his observations about
the middle station of life, how easy, how com-
fortably he had lived all his days, and never had
been exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles on
shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true
repenting prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all
the while the storm continued, and indeed some
time after; but the next day the wind was abated
and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little
inured to it. However, I was very grave for all
that day, being also a little sea-sick still; but
towards night the weather cleared up, the wind
was quite over, and a charming fine evening
followed; the sun went down perfectly clear,
and rose so the next morning; and having little
or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining
upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most
delightful that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no
more sea-sick but very cheerful, looking with
wonder upon the sea that was so rough and
terrible the day before, and could be so calm
and so pleasant in so little time after. And now
lest my good resolutions should continue, my
companion, who had indeed enticed me away,
comes to me: 'Well, Bob,' says he, clapping me
on the shoulder, 'how do you do after it? I
warrant you were frighted, wa'n't you, last
night, when it blew but a capful of wind?' 'A
capful, d'you call it?' said I;' 'twas a terrible
storm.' 'A storm, you fool you,' replies he; 'do
you call that a storm? Why, it was nothing at
all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and
we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that;
but you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come,
let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget
all that; d'ye see what charming weather 'tis
now?' To make short this sad part of my story,
we went the old way of all sailors; the punch
was made, and I was made drunk with it, and
in that one night's wickedness I drowned all my
repentance, all my reflections upon my past con-
duct, and all my resolutions for my future. In a
word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness
of surface and settled calmness by the abate-
ment of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts
being over, my fears and apprehensions of being
swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and
the current of my former desires returned, I
entirely forgot the vows and promises that I
made in my distress. I found indeed some
intervals of reflection, and the serious thoughts
did, as it were, endeavour to return again some-

times; but I shook them off, and roused myself
from them as it were from a distemper, and
applying myself to drink and company, soon
'mastered the return of those fits, for so I called
them, and I had in five or six days got as com-
plete a victory over conscience as any young
fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it
could desire. But I was to have another trial
for it still; and Providence, as in such cases
generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely
without excuse. For if I would not take this
for a deliverance, the next was to be such a
one as the worst and most hardened wretch
among us would confess both the danger and
the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into
Yarmouth roads; the wind having been contrary
and the weather calm, we had made but little
way since the storm. Here we were obliged to
come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind
continuing contrary, viz., at south-west, for
seven or eight days, during which time a great
many ships from Newcastle came into the same
roads, as the common harbour where the ships
might wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but
should have tided it up the river, but that the
wind blew too fresh; and after we had lain four
or five days, blew very hard. However, the
roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the
anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very
strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in
the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the
time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the
sea; but the eighth day in the morning the wind

increased, and we had all hands at work to
strike our topmasts, and make everything snug
and close, that the ship might ride as easy as
possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed,
and our ship rid forecastle in, shipped several
seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor
had come home; upon which our master ordered
out the sheet-anchor, so that we rode with two
anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the
better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed,
and now I began to see terror and amazement
in the faces even of the seamen themselves. The
master, though vigilant to the business of pre-
serving the ship, yet as he went in and out of
his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to
himself say several times, 'Lord be merciful to
us, we shall be all lost, we shall be all undone';
and the like. During these first hurries I was
stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the
steerage, and cannot describe my temper; I
could ill reassume the first penitence, which
I had so apparently trampled upon, and hard-
ened myself against; I thought the bitterness of
death had been past, and that this would be
nothing too, like the first. But when the master
himself came by me, as I said just now, and said
we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted;
I got up out of my cabin, and looked out. But
such a dismal sight I never saw; the sea went
mountains high, and broke upon us every three
or four minutes; when I could look about, I
could see nothing but distress round us. Two
ships that rid near us we found had cut their
masts by the board, being deep loaden; and our

men cried out, that a ship which rid about a mile
ahead of us was foundered. Two more ships
being driven from their anchors, were run out
of the roads to sea at all adventures, and that
with not a mast standing. The light ships fared
the best, as not so much labouring in the sea;
but two or three of them drove, and came close
by us, running away with only their sprit-sail
out before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain
begged the master of our ship to let them cut
away the foremast, which he was very unwilling
to. But the boatswain protesting to him that if
he did not the ship would founder, he consented;
and when they had cut away the foremast, the
mainmast stood so loose, and shook the ship so
much, they were obliged to cut her away also,
and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must
be in at all this, who was but a young sailor, and
who had been in such a fright before at but a
little. But if I can express at this distance the
thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in
tenfold more horror of mind upon account of
my former convictions, and the having returned
from them to the resolutions I had wickedly
taken at first, than I was at death itself; and
these, added to the terror of the storm, put me
into such a condition, that I can by no words
describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the
storm continued with such fury, that the seamen
themselves acknowledged they had never known
a worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep
loaden, and wallowed in the sea, that the seamen
every now and then cried out she would founder.

It was my advantage in one respect, that I did
not know what they meant by founder till I
inquired. However, the storm was so violent,
that I saw what is not often seen, the master, the
boatswain, and some others more sensible than
the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every
moment when the ship would go to the bottom.
In the middle of the night, and under all the
rest of our distresses, one of the men that had
been down on purpose to see cried out we had
sprung a leak, another said there was four foot
water in the hold. Then all hands were called
to the pump. At that very word my heart, as I
thought, died within me, and I fell backwards
upon the side of my bed where I sat, into the
cabin. However, the men roused me, and told
me, that I, that was able to do nothing before,
was as well able to pump as another; at which
I stirred up and went to the pump and worked
very heartily. While this was doing, the master
seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride
out the storm, were obliged to slip and run away
to sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire
a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing
what that meant, was so surprised that I thought
the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing had
happened. In a word, I was so surprised that
I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when
everybody had his own life to think of, no-
body minded me, or what was become of me;
but another man stepped up to the pump, and
thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, think-
ing I had been dead; and it was a great while
before I came to myself.
We worked on, but the water increasing in

the hold, it was apparent that the ship would
founder, and though the storm began to abate
a little, yet as it was not possible she could swim
till we might run into a port, so the master con-
tinued firing guns for help; and a light ship,
who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a
boat out to help us. It was with the utmost
hazard the boat came near us, but it was im-
possible for us to get on board, or for the boat
to lie near the ship's side, till at last the men
rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives
to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the
stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out
a great length, which they after great labour
and hazard took hold of, and we hauled them
close under our stern, and got all into their boat.
It was to no purpose for them or us after we
were in the boat to think of reaching to their
own ship, so all agreed to let her drive, and only
to pull her in towards shore as much as we could,
and our master promised them that if the boat
was staved upon shore he would make it good
to their master; so partly rowing and partly
driving, our boat went away to the norward,
sloping towards the shore almost as far as
Winterton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an
hour out of our ship but we saw her sink, and
then I understood for the first time what was
meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must
acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when
the seamen told me she was sinking; for from
that moment they rather put me into the boat
than that I might be said to go in; my heart
was as it were dead within me, partly with fright,

partly with horror of mind and the thoughts of
what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet
labouring at the oar to bring the boat near the
shore, we could see, when, our boat mounting
the waves, we were able to see the shore, a great
many people running along the shore to assist us
when we should come near. But we made but
slow way towards the shore, nor were we able to
reach the shore, till being past the lighthouse
at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward
towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a
little the violence of the wind. Here we got in,
and though not without much difficulty got all
safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot to
Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were
used with great humanity as well by the magis-
trates of the town, who assigned us good quarters,
as by particular merchants and owners of ships,
and had money given us sufficient to carry us
either to London or back to Hull, as we thought
Had I now had the sense to have gone back
to Hull, and have gone home, I had been happy,
and my father, an emblem of our blessed
Saviour's parable, had even killed the fatted
calf for me; for hearing the ship I went away in
was cast away in Yarmouth road, it was a great
while before he had any assurance that I was
not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an
obstinacy that nothing could resist; and though
I had several times loud calls from my reason
and my more composed judgment to go home,
yet I had no power to do it. I know not what to

call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret over-
ruling decree that hurries us on to be the instru-
ments of our own destruction, even though it be
before us, and that we rush upon it with our
eyes open. Certainly nothing but some such
decreed unavoidable misery attending, and
which it was impossible for me to escape, could
have pushed me forward against the calm
reasoning and persuasions of my most retired
thoughts, and against two such visible instruc-
tions as I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me
before, and who was the master's son, was now
less forward than I. The first time he spoke to
me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not
till two or three days, for we were separated in
the town to several quarters-I say, the first time
he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered,
and looking very melancholy and shaking his
head, asked me how I did, and telling his father
who I was, and how I had come this voyage only
for a trial in order to go farther abroad, his
father turning to me with a very grave and
concerned tone, 'Young man,' says he, 'you
ought never to go to sea any more, you ought
to take this for a plain and visible token, that
you are not to be a seafaring man.' 'Why, sir,'
said I, 'will you go to sea no more?' 'That is
another case,' said he; 'it is my calling, and
therefore my duty; but as you made this voyage
for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given
you of what you are to expect if you persist;
perhaps this is all befallen us on your account,
like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,' con-
tinues he, 'what are you? and on what account

did you go to sea?' Upon that I told him some
of my story, at the end of which he burst out
with a strange kind of passion. 'What had I
done,' says he, 'that such an unhappy wretch
should come into my ship? I would not set my
foot in the same ship with thee again for a thous-
and pounds.' This indeed was, as I said, an ex-
cursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by
the sense of his loss, and was farther than he
could have authority to go. However, he after-
wards talked very gravely to me, exhorted me
to go back to my father, and not tempt Provi-
dence to my ruin; told me I might see a visible
hand of Heaven against me. 'And, young man,'
said he, 'depend upon it, if you do not go back,
wherever you go you will meet with nothing but
disasters and disappointments, till your father's
words are fulfilled upon you.'
We parted soon after; for I made him little
answer, and I saw him no more; which way he
went, I know not. As for me, having some money
in my pocket, I travelled to London by land;
and there, as well as on the road, had many
struggles with myself what course of life I should
take, and whether I should go home, or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best
motions that offered to my thoughts; and it
immediately occurred to me how I should be
laughed at among the neighbours, and should
be ashamed to see, not my father and mother
only, but even everybody else; from whence I
have since often observed how incongruous and
irrational the common temper of mankind is,
especially of youth, to that reason which ought
to guide them in such cases, viz., that they are

not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to
repent; not ashamed of the action for which
they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are
ashamed of the returning, which only can make
them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some
time, uncertain what measures to take, and what
course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance
continued to going home; and as I stayed a
while, the remembrance of the distress I had
been in wore off; and as that abated, the little
motion I had in my desires to a return wore off
with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts
of it, and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first
away from my father's house, that hurried me
into the wild and indigested notion of raising
my fortune, and that impressed those conceits
so forcibly upon me as to make me deaf to all
good advice, and to the entreaties and even
command of my father-I say, the same in-
fluence, whatever it was, presented the most
unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and
I went on board a vessel bound to the coast of
Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage
to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune that in all these
adventures I did not ship myself as a sailor,
whereby, though I might indeed have worked
a little harder than ordinary, yet at the same
time I had learned the duty and office of a fore-
mast man, and in time might have qualified
myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not for a
master. But as it was always my fate to choose
for the worse, so I did here; for having money

in my pocket, and good clothes upon my back,
I would always go on board in the habit of a
gentleman; and so I neither had any business
in the ship, or learned to do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good
company in London, which does not always
happen to such loose and misguided young
fellows as I then was; the devil generally not
omitting to lay some snare for them very early;
but it was not so with me. I first fell acquainted
with the master of a ship who had been on the
coast of Guinea, and who, having had very good
success there, was resolved to go again; and
who, taking a fancy to my conversation, which
was not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing
me say I had a mind to see the world, told me
if I would go the voyage with him I should be
at no expense; I should be his messmate and
his companion; and if I could carry anything
with me, I should have all the advantage of it
that the trade would admit, and perhaps I
might meet with some encouragement.
I embraced the offer; and, entering into a
strict friendship with this captain, who was an
honest and plain-dealing man, I went the voyage
with him, and carried a small adventure with
me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my
friend the captain, I increased very considerably,
for I carried about 40 in such toys and trifles
as the captain directed me to buy. This 40 I
had mustered together by the assistance of some
of my relations whom I corresponded with, and
who, I believe, got my father, or at least my
mother, to contribute so much as that to my
first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say
was successful in all my adventures, and which
I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend
the captain; under whom also I got a competent
knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of
navigation, learned how to keep an account
of the ship's course, take an observation, and,
in short, to understand some things that were
needful to be understood by a sailor. For, as
he took delight to introduce me, I took delight
to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me
both a sailor and a merchant; for I brought
home five pounds nine ounces of gold dust for
my adventure, which yielded me in London at
my return almost 300, and this filled me with
those aspiring thoughts which have since so
completed my ruin.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes
too; particularly, that I was continually sick,
being thrown into a violent calenture by the
excessive heat of the climate; our principal
trading being upon the coast, from the latitude
of 15 degrees north even to the line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my
friend, to my great misfortune, dying soon after
his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage
again, and I embarked in the same vessel with
one who was his mate in the former voyage, and
had now got the command of the ship. This was
the unhappiest voyage that ever man made;
for though I did not carry quite Ioo of my
new-gained wealth, so that I had 200 left, and
which I lodged with my friend's widow, who
was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible mis-
fortunes in this voyage; and the first was this,

viz., our ship making her course towards the
Canary Islands, or rather between those islands
and the African shore, was surprised in the grey
of the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee,
who gave chase to us with all the sail she could
make. We crowded also as much canvas as our
yards would spread, or our masts carry, to have
got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon
us, and would certainly come up with us in a
few hours, we prepared to fight, our ship having
twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About
three in the afternoon he came up with us, and
bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter,
instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that side,
and poured in a broadside upon him, which
made him sheer off again, after returning our
fire and pouring in also his small-shot from near
200 men which he had on board. However, we
had not a man touched, all our men keeping
close. He prepared to attack us again, and we
to defend ourselves; but laying us on board the
next time upon our other quarter, he entered
sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to
cutting and hacking the decks and rigging. We
plied them with small-shot, half-pikes, powder-
chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of
them twice. However, to cut short this melan-
choly part of our story, our ship being disabled,
and three of our men killed and eight wounded,
we were obliged to yield, and were carried all
prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as
at first I apprehended, nor was I carried up the

country to the emperor's court, as the rest of our
men were, but was kept by the captain of the
rover as his proper prize, and made his slave,
being young and nimble, and fit for his business.
At this surprising change of my circumstances
from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was
perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back
upon my father's prophetic discourse to me, that
I should be miserable, and have none to relieve
me, which I thought was now so effectually
brought to pass, that it could not be worse; that
now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and
I was undone without redemption. But alas!
this was but a taste of the misery I was to go
through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me
home to his house, so I was in hopes that he
would take me with him when he went to sea
again, believing that it would some time or other
be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portugal
man-of-war; and that then I should be set at
liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken
away; for when he went to sea, he left me on
shore to look after his little garden, and do the
common drudgery of slaves about his house; and
when he came home again from his cruise, he
ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and
what method I might take to effect it, but found
no way that had the least probability in it.
Nothing presented to make the supposition of
it rational; for I had nobody to communicate
it to that would embark with me, no fellow-slave,
no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotsman there

but myself; so that for two years, though I often
pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never
had the least encouraging prospect of putting it
in practice.
After about two years an odd circumstance
presented itself, which put the old thought of
making some attempt for my liberty again in
my head. My patron lying at home longer than
usual without fitting out his ship, which, as I
heard, was for want of money, he used con-
stantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener,
if the weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnace,
and go out into the road a-fishing; and as he
always took me and a young Maresco with him
to row the boat, we made him very merry, and
I proved very dexterous in catching fish; inso-
much, that sometimes he would send me with
a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth the
Maresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of
fish for him.
It happened one time that, going a-fishing in
a stark calm morning, a fog rose so thick,- that
though we were not half a league from the shore
we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not
whither or which way, we laboured all day, and'
all the next night, and when the morning came
we found we had pulled off to sea instead of
pulling in for the shore; and that we were at
least two leagues from the shore. However, we
got well in again, though with a great deal of
labour, and some danger, for the wind began to
blow pretty fresh in the morning; but particu-
larly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster,
resolved to take more care of himself for the

future; and having lying by him the long-boat
of our English ship which he had taken, he
resolved he would not go a-fishing any more
without a compass and some provision; so he
ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was
an English slave, to build a little state-room,
or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like
that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it
to steer and haul home the main-sheet, and
room before for a hand or two to stand and
work the sails. She sailed with what we call a
shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom jibbed
over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug
and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with
a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some
small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor
as he thought fit to drink; particularly his bread,
rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fish-
ing, and as I was most dexterous to catch fish
for him, he never went without me. It happened
that he had appointed to go out in this boat,
either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three
SMoors of some distinction in that place, and for
whom he had provided extraordinarily; and had
therefore sent on board the boat overnight a
larger store of provisions than ordinary; and
had ordered me to get ready three fuzees with
powder and shot, which were on board his ship,
for that they designed some sport of fowling as
well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and
waited the next morning with the boat, washed
clean, her ancient and pendants out, and every-
thing to accommodate his guests; when by and

by my patron came on board alone, and told
me his guests had put off going, upon some
business that fell out, and ordered me with the
man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat
and catch them some fish, for that his friends
were to sup at his house; and commanded that
as soon as I had got some fish I should bring it
home to his house; all which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance
darted into my thoughts, for now I found I was
like to have a little ship at my command; and
my master being gone, I prepared to furnish
myself, not for a fishing business, but for a
voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so
much as consider, whither I should steer; for
anywhere, to get out of that place, was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence
to speak to this Moor, to get something for our
subsistence on board; for I told him we must
not presume to eat of our patron's bread. He
said that was true; so he brought a large basket
of rusk or biscuit of their kind, and three jars
with fresh water, into the boat. I knew where
my patron's case of bottles stood, which it was
evident by the make were taken out of some
English prize; and I conveyed them into the
boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had
been there before for our master. I conveyed
also a great lump of beeswax into the boat,
which weighed above half a hundredweight,
with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a
saw, and a hammer, all which were great use
to us afterwards, especially the wax to make
candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which
he innocently came into also. His name was
J JQ! eplj jouo (q!SJ!au

Ismael, who they call Muly, or Moely; so I
called to him, 'Moely,' said I, 'our patron's guns
are on board the boat; can you not get a little
powder and shot? it may be we may kill some
alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves,
for I know he keeps the gunner's stores in the
ship.' 'Yes,' says he, 'I'll bring some'; and
accordingly he brought a great leather pouch
which held about a pound and a half of powder,
or rather more; and another with shot, that had
five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put
all into the boat. At the same time I had found
some powder of my master's in the great cabin,
with which I filled one of the large bottles in the
case, which was almost empty, pouring what
was in it into another; and thus furnished with
everything needful, we sailed out of the port to
fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the
port, knew who we were, and took no notice of
us; and we were not above a mile out of the
port before we hauled in our sail, and set us
down to fish. The wind blew from the N.N.E.,
which was contrary to my desire; for had it
blown southerly I had been sure to have made
the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the
bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow
which way it would, I would be gone from the
horrid place where I was, and leave the rest
to Fate.
After we had fished some time and catched
nothing, for when I had fish on my hook I would
not pull them up, that he might not see them,
I said to the Moor, 'This will not do; our master
will not be thus served; we must stand farther
off.' He, thinking no harm, agreed, and being

in the head of the boat set the sails; and as I had
the helm I run the boat out near a league
farther, and then brought her to as if I would
fish; when giving the boy the helm, I stepped
forward to where the Moor was, and making
as if I stooped for something behind him, I took
him by surprise with my arm under his twist,
and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He
rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and
called to me, begged to be taken in, told me he
would go all the world over with me. He swam
so strong after the boat, that he would have
reached me very quickly, there being but little
wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and
fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented
it at him, and told him I had done him no hurt,
and if he would be quiet I would do him none.
'But,' said I, 'you swim well enough to reach to
the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of
your way to shore, and I will do you no harm;
but if you come near the boat I'll shoot you
through the head, for I am resolved to have
my liberty.' So he turned himself about, and
swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but
he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent
I could have been content to have taken this
Moor with me, and have drowned the boy, but
there was no venturing to trust him. When he
was gone I turned to the boy, whom they called
Xury, and said to him, 'Xury, if you will be
faithful to me I'll make you a great man; but
if you will not stroke your face to be true to me,'
that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's
beard, 'I must throw you into the sea too.' The

,Toy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently,
.that I could not mistrust him, and swore to be
faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.
-=---'hile I was in view of the Moor that was
swimming, I stood out directly to sea with the
boat, rather stretching to windward, that they
might think me gone towards the straits' mouth
(as indeed any one that had been in their wits
must have been supposed to do); for who would
have supposed we were sailed on to the south-
ward to the truly barbarian coast, where whole
nations of negroes were sure to surround us with
their canoes, and destroy us; where we could
ne'er once go on shore but we should be de-
voured by savage beasts, or more merciless
savages of human kind?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening,
I changed my course, and steered directly south
and by east, bending my course a little toward
the east, that I might keep in with the shore;
and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a
smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe
by the next day, at three o'clock in the afternoon,
when I first made the land, I could not be less
than 150 miles south of Sallee; quite beyond the
Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of
any other king thereabouts, for we saw no
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the
Moors, and the dreadful apprehensions I had
of falling into their hands, that I would not stop,
or go on shore, or come to an anchor, the wind
continuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner
five days; and then the wind shifting to the
southward, I concluded also that if any of our

vessels were in chase of me, they also would now
give over; so I ventured to make to the coast,
and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little
river, I knew not what, or where; neither what
latitude, what country, what nations, or what
river. I neither saw, or desired to see, any
people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh
water. We came into this creek in the evening,
resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark,
and discover the country; but as soon as it was
quite dark we heard such dreadful noises of the
barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures,
of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy
was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not
to go on shore till day. 'Well, Xury,' said I,
'then I won't; but it may be we may see men by
day, who will be as bad to us as those lions.'
'Then we give them the shoot gun,' says Xury,
laughing; 'make them run away.' Such English
Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves.
However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful,
and I gave him a dram (out of our patron's case
of bottles) to cheer him up. After all, Xury's
advice was good, and I took it; we dropped our
little anchor and lay still all night. I say still,
for we slept none; for in two or three hours we
saw vast great creatures (we knew not what to
call them) of many sorts come down to the sea-
shore and run into the water, wallowing and
washing themselves for the pleasure of cooling
themselves; and they made such hideous howl-
ings and yelling, that I never indeed heard
the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so
was I too; but we were both more frighted when

we heard one of these mighty creatures come
swimming towards our boat; we could not see
him, but we might hear him by his blowing to
be a monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury
said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught
I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the
anchor and row away. 'No,' says I, 'Xury; we
can slip our cable with the buoy to it, and go
off to sea; they cannot follow us far.' I had no
sooner said so, but I perceived the creature
(whatever it was) within two oars' length, which
something surprised me; however, I imme-
diately stepped to the cabin door, and taking
up my gun, fired at him, upon which he im-
mediately turned about and swam towards the
shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrible
noises, and hideous cries and howlings, that were
raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as
higher within the country, upon the noise or
report of the gun, a thing I have some reason
to believe those creatures had never heard
before. This convinced me that there was no
going on shore for us in the night upon that
coast; and how to venture on shore in the day
was another question too; for to have fallen into
the hands of any of the savages, had been as bad
as to have fallen into the hands of lions and
tigers; at least we were equally apprehensive of
the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on
shore somewhere or other for water, for we had
not a pint left in the boat; when or where to get
to it, was the point. Xury said if I would let
him go on shore with one of the jars, he would

find if there was any water and bring some to
me. I asked him why he would go? why I should
not go and he stay in the boat? The boy
answered with so much affection, that made me
love him ever after. Says he, 'If wild mans
come, they eat me, you go way.' 'Well, Xury,'
said I, 'we will both go; and if the wild mans
come, -we will kill them, they shall eat neither
of us.' So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to
eat, and a dram out of our patron's case of
bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled
in the boat as near the shore as we thought was
proper, and so waded on shore, carrying nothing
but our arms and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat,
fearing the coming of canoes with savages down
the river; but the boy seeing a low place about
a mile up the country, rambled to it; and by
and by I saw him come running towards me.
I thought he was pursued by some savage, or
frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forward
towards him to help him; but when I came
nearer to him, I saw something hanging over
his shoulders, which was a creature that he had
shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and
longer legs. However, we were very glad of it,
and it was very good meat; but the great joy
that poor Xury came with was to tell me he had
found good water, and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not
take such pains for water, for a little higher up
the creek where we were we found the water
fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but
a little way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted
on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on

our way, having seen no footsteps of any human
creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before,
I knew very well that the islands of the Canaries,
and the Cape de Verde Islands also, lay not far
off from the coast. But as I had no instruments
to take an observation to know what latitude
we were in, and did not exactly know, or at least
remember, what latitude they were in, I knew
not where to look for them, or when to stand off
to sea towards them; otherwise I might now
easily have found some of these islands. But my
hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I
came to that part where the English traded,
I should find some of their vessels upon their
usual design of trade, that would relieve and
take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place
where I now was must be that country which,
lying between the Emperor of Morocco's domin-
ions and the negroes, lies waste and uninhabited,
except by wild beasts; the negroes having aban-
doned it and gone farther south for fear of the
Moors, and the Moors not thinking it worth
inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness; and
indeed both forsaking it because of the pro-
digious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and
other furious creatures which harbour there;
so that the Moors use it for their hunting only,
where they go like an army, two or three
thousand men at a time; and indeed for near
an hundred miles together upon this coast we
saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country
by day, and heard nothing but howlings and
roarings of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the daytime I thought I saw
the Pico of Teneriffe, being the high top of the
Mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries, and had
a great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching
thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in
again by contrary winds, the sea also going too
high for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue
my first design, and keep along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh
water after we had left this place; and once in
particular, being early in the morning, we came
to an anchor under a little point of land which
was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow,
we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes
were more about him than it seems mine were,
calls softly to me, and tells me that we had best
go farther off the shore; 'For,' says he, 'look,
yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of
that hillock fast asleep.' I looked where he
pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed,
for it was a terrible great lion that lay on the
side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of
the hill that hung as it were a little over him.
'Xury,' says I, 'you shall go on shore and kill
him.' Xury looked frighted, and said, 'Me kill!
he eat me at one mouth'; one mouthfull he
meant. However, I said no more to the boy,
but bade him lie still, and I took our biggest
gun, which was almost musket-bore, and loaded
it with a good charge of powder, and with two
slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another
gun with two bullets; and the third (for we had
three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets.
I took the best aim I could with the first piece
to have shot him into the head, but he lay so

with his leg raised a little above his nose, that
the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke
the bone. He started up growling at first, but
finding his leg broke, fell down again, and then
got up upon three legs and gave the most
hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little
surprised that I had not hit him on the head.
However, I took up the second piece immedi-
ately, and, though he began to move off, fired
again, and shot him into the head, and had the
pleasure to see him drop, and make but little
noise, but lay struggling for life. Then Xury
took heart, and would have me let him go on
shore. 'Well, go,' said I; so the boy jumped
into the water, and taking a little gun in one
hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and
coming close to the creature, put the muzzle
of the piece to his ear, and shot him into the
head again, which despatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no
food; and I was very sorry to lose three charges
of powder and shot upon a creature that was
good for nothing to us. However, Xury said he
would have some of him; so he comes on board,
.and asked me to give him the hatchet. 'For
what, Xury?' said I. 'Me cut off his head,' said
he. However, Xury could not cut off his head,
but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him,
and it was a monstrous great one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the
skin of him might one way or other be of some
value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if
I could. So Xury and I went to work with him;
but Xury was much the better workman at it,
for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took

us up both the whole day, but at last we got off
the hide of him, and spreading it on the top of
our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two
days' time, and it afterwards served me to lie
After this stop we made on to the southward
continually for ten or twelve days, living very
sparing on our provisions, which began to abate
very much, and going no oftener into the shore
than we were obliged to for fresh water. My
design in this was to make the river Gambia or
Senegal-that is to say, anywhere about the
Cape de Verde-where I was in hopes to meet
with some European ship; and if I did not, I
knew not what course I had to take, but to seek
out for the islands, or perish there among the
negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe,
which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to
Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this cape,
or those islands; and in a word, I put the whole
of my fortune upon this single point, either that
I must meet with some ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten
days longer, as I have said, I began to see that
the land was inhabited; and in two or three
places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand
upon the shore to look at us; we could also
perceive they were quite black, and stark naked.
I was once inclined to have gone on shore to
them; but Xury was my better counsellor, and
said to me, 'No go, no go.' However, I hauled
in nearer the shore that I might talk to them,
and I found they ran along the shore by me a
good way. I observed they had no weapons in
their hands, except one, who had a long slender

stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that
they would throw them a great way with good
aim. So I kept at a distance, but talked with
them by signs as well as I could, and particularly
made signs for something to eat; they beckoned
to me to stop my boat, and that they would
fetch me some meat. Upon this I lowered the
top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran
up into the country, and in less than half an hour
came back, and brought with them two pieces
of dried flesh and some corn, such as is the
produce of their country; but we neither knew
what the one or the other was. However, we
were willing to accept it, but how to come at it
was our next dispute, for I was not for venturing
on shore to them, and they were as much afraid
of us; but they took a safe way for us all, for they
brought it to the shore and laid it down, and
went and stood a great way off till we fetched
it on board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had
nothing to make them amends. But an oppor-
tunity offered that very instant to oblige them
wonderfully; for while we were lying by the
shore came two mighty creatures, one pursuing
the other (as we took it)with great fury from the
mountains towards the sea; whether it was the
male pursuing the female, or whether they were
in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more
than we could tell whether it was usual or
strange, but I believe it was the latter; because,
in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom
appear but in the night; and in the second place,
we found the people terribly frighted, especially
the women. The man that had the lance or dart

did not fly from them, but the rest did; however,
as the two creatures ran directly into the water,
they did not seem to offer to fall upon any of the
negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea,
and swam about, as if they had come for their
diversion. At last, one of them began to come
nearer our boat than at first I expected; but I
lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with
all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both
the others. As soon as he came fairly within my
reach, I fired, and shot him directly into the
head; immediately he sunk down into the water,
but rose instantly, and plunged up and down,
as if he was struggling for life, and so indeed he
was. He immediately made to the shore; but
between the wound, which was his mortal hurt,
and the strangling of the water, he died just
before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment
of these poor creatures, at the noise and the fire
of my gun; some of them were even ready to die
for fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror. But when they saw the creature dead,
and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to
them to come to the shore, they took heart and
came to the shore, and began to search for the
creature. I found him by his blood staining the
water: and by the help of a rope, which I slung
round him, and gave the negroes to haul, they
dragged him on the shore, and found that it was
a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an
admirable degree; and the negroes held up their
hands with admiration, to think what it was I
had killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of

fire and the noise of the gun, swam on shore,
and ran up directly to the mountains from
whence they came; nor could I, at that distance,
know what it was. I found quickly the negroes
were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was
willing to have them take it as a favour from
me; which, when I made signs to them that
they might take him, they were very thankful
for. Immediately they fell to work with him;
and though they had no knife, yet, with a
sharpened piece of wood, they took off his skin
as readily, and much more readily, than we
could have done with a knife. They offered me
some of the flesh, which I declined, making as
if I would give it them, but made signs for the
skin, which they gave me very freely, and
brought me a great deal more of their provision,
which, though I did not understand, yet I
accepted. Then I made signs to them for some
water, and held out one of my jars to them,
turning it bottom upward, to show that it was
empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They
called immediately to some of their friends, and
there came two women, and brought a great
vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose,
in the sun; this they set down for me, as before,
and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and
filled them all three. The women were as stark
naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such
as it was, and water; and leaving my friendly
negroes, I made forward for about eleven days
more, without offering to go near the shore, till
I saw the land run out a great length into the
sea, at about the distance of four or five leagues

before me; and the sea being very calm, I kept
a large offing, to make this point. At length,
doubling the point, at about two leagues from
the land, I saw plainly land on the other side,
to seaward; then I concluded, as it was most
certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verde,
and those the islands, called from thence Cape
de Verde Islands. However, they were at a
great distance, and I could not well tell what
I had best to do; for if I should be taken with a
fresh of wind, I might neither reach one or other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I
stepped into the cabin, and sat me down, Xury
having the helm; when, on a sudden, the boy
cried out, 'Master, master, a ship with a sail!'
and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits,
thinking it must needs be some of his master's
ships sent to pursue us, when I knew we were
gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped
out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only
the ship, but what she was, viz., that it was a
Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bound
to the coast of Guinea, for negroes. But when
I observed the course she steered, I was soon
convinced they were bound some other way,
and did not design to come any nearer to the
shore; upon which I stretched out to sea as
much as I could, resolving to speak with them,
if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I
should not be able to come in their way, but
that they would be gone by before I could make
any signal to them; but after I had crowded to
the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems,
saw me by the help of their perspective glasses,

and that it was some European boat, which, as
they supposed, must belong to some ship that was
lost, so they shortened sail to let me come up.
I was encouraged with this; and as I had my
patron's ancient on board, I made a waft of it
to them for a signal of distress, and fired a gun,
both which they saw; for they told me they saw
the smoke, though they did not hear the gun.
Upon these signals they very kindly brought to,
and lay by for me; and in about three hours'
time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese,
and in Spanish, and in French, but I understood
none of them; but at last a Scots sailor, who was
on board, called to me, and I answered him,
and told him I was an Englishman, that I had
made my escape out of slavery from the Moors,
at Sallee. Then they bade me come on board,
and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, that any
one will believe, that I was thus delivered, as
I esteemed it, from such a miserable, and almost
hopeless, condition as I was in; and I immedi-
ately offered all I had to the captain of the ship,
as a return for my deliverance. But he gener-
ously told me he would take nothing from me,
but that all I had should be delivered safe to
me when I came to the Brazils. 'For,' says he,
'I have saved your life on no other terms than
I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may,
one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in
the same condition. Besides,' says he, 'when I
carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your
own country, if I should take from you what
you have, you will be starved there, and then

I only take away that life I have given. No, no,
Seignior Inglese,' says he, 'Mr. Englishman, I
will carry you thither in charity, and those
things will help you to buy your subsistence
there, and your passage home again.'
As he was charitable in his proposal, so he
was just in the performance to a tittle; for he
ordered the seamen that none should offer to
touch anything I had; then he took everything
into his own possession, and gave me back an
exact inventory of them, that I might have them,
even so much as my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one, and
that he saw, and told me he would buy it of me
for the ship's use, and asked me what I would
have for it? I told him he had been so generous
to me in everything, that I could not offer to
make any price of the boat, but left it entirely
to him; upon which he told me he would give
me a note of his hand to pay me eighty pieces
of eight for it at Brazil, and when it came there,
if any one offered to give more, he would make
it up. He offered me also sixty pieces of eight
more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take;
not that I was not willing to let the captain have
him, but I was very loth to sell the poor boy's
liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in
procuring my own. However, when I let him
know my reason, he owned it to be just, and
offered me this medium, that he would give the
boy an obligation to set him free in ten years if
he turned Christian. Upon this, and Xury
saying he was willing to go to him, I let the
captain have him.
We had a very good voyage tq the Brazils, and

arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All
Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two days after.
And now I was once more delivered from the
most miserable of all conditions of life; and what
to do next with myself, I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me,
I can never enough remember. He would take
nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty
ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty for the
lion's skin, which I had in my boat, and caused
everything I had in the ship to be punctually
delivered me; and what I was willing to sell he
bought, such as the case of bottles, two of my
guns, and a piece of the lump of beeswax-for
I had made candles of the rest; in a word, I
made about 220 pieces of eight of all my cargo,
and with this stock I went on shore in the
I had not been long here, but being recom-
mended to the house of a good honest man like
himself, who had an ingeino as they call it, that
is, a plantation and a sugar-house, I lived with
him some time, and acquainted myself by that
means with the manner of their planting and
making of sugar; and seeing how well the
planters lived, and how they grew rich suddenly,
I resolved, if I could get licence to settle there, I
would turn planter among them, resolving in
the meantime to find out some way to get my
money which I had left in London remitted to
me. To this purpose, getting a kind of a letter
of naturalisation, I purchased as much land that
was uncured as my money would reach, and
formed a plan for my plantation and settlement,
and such a one as might be suitable to the stock

which I proposed to myself to receive from
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon,
but born of English parents, whose name was
Wells, and in much such circumstances as I was.
I called him my neighbour, because his planta-
tion lay next to mine, and we went on very
sociably together. My stock was but low, as well
as his; and we rather planted for food than
anything else, for about two years. However,
we began to increase, and our land began to
come into order; so that the third year we
planted some tobacco, and made each of us a
large piece of ground ready for planting canes
in the year to come. But we both wanted help;
and now I found, more than before, I had done
wrong in parting with my boy Xury.
But alas! for me to do wrong that never did
right was no great wonder. I had no remedy
but to go on. I was gotten into an employment
quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary
to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook
my father's house, and broke through all his
good advice; nay, I was coming into the very
middle station, or upper degree of low life, which
my father advised me to before; and which, if
I resolved to go on with, I might as well have
stayed at home, and never have fatigued myself
in the world as I had done. And I used often
to say to myself, I could have done this as well
in England among my friends, as have gone
5000 miles off to do it among strangers and
savages, in a wilderness, and at such a distance
as never to hear from any part of the world that
had the least knowledge of me.

In this manner I used to look upon my con-
dition with the utmost regret. I had nobody to
converse with, but now and then this neighbour;
no work to be done, but by the labour of my
hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man
cast away upon some desolate island, that had
nobody there but himself. But how just has it
been! and how should all men reflect, that when
they compare their present conditions with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them
to make the exchange, and be convinced of
their former felicity by their experience;-I say,
how just has it been, that the truly solitary life
I reflected on in an island of mere desolation
should be my lot, who had so often unjustly
compared it with the life which I then led, in
which, had I continued, I had in all probability
been exceeding prosperous and rich.
I was in some degree settled in my measures
for carrying on the plantation before my kind
friend, the captain of the ship that took me up
at sea, went back; for the ship remained there
in providing his loading, and preparing for his
voyage, near three months; when, telling him
what little stock I had left behind me in London,
he gave me this friendly and sincere advice:
'Seignior Inglese,' says he, for so he always
called me, 'if you will give me letters, and a
procuration here in form to me, with orders to
the person who has your money in London to
send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as
I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper
for this country, I will bring you the produce
of them, God willing, at my return. But since
human affairs are all subject to changes and

disasters, I would have you give orders but for
one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say,
is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for
the first; so that if it come safe, you may order
the rest the same way; and if it miscarry, you
may have the other half to have recourse to for
your supply.'
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so
friendly, that I could not but be convinced it
was the best course I could take; so I accordingly
prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom
I had left my money, and a procuration to the
Portuguese captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full
account of all my adventures; my slavery,
escape, and how I had met with the Portugal
captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour,
and in what condition I was now in, with all
,other necessary directions for my supply. And
when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he
found means, by some of the English merchants
there, to send over not the order only, but a full
account of my story to a merchant at London,
who represented it effectually to her; where-
upon, she not only delivered the money, but
out of her own pocket sent the Portugal captain
a very handsome present for his humanity and
charity to me.
The merchant in London vesting this hundred
pounds in English goods, such as the captain
1had writ for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon,
and he brought them all safe to me to the Brazils;
among which, without my direction (for I was
too young in my business to think of them), he
had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron-

work, and utensils necessary for my plantation,
and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune
made, for I was surprised with joy of it; and my
good steward, the captain, had laid out the five
pounds, which my friend had sent him for a
present for himself, to purchase and bring me
over a servant under bond for six years' service,
and would not accept of any consideration,
except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; but my goods being all
English manufactures, such as cloth, stuffs,
baize, and things particularly valuable and
desirable in the country, I found means to sell
them to a very great advantage; so that I may
say I had more than four times the value of my
first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my
poor neighbour, I mean in the advancement of
my plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought
me a negro slave, and an European servant also;
I mean another besides that which the captain
brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made
the very means of our greatest adversity, so was
it with me. I went on the next year with great
success in my plantation. I raised fifty great
rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more than
I had disposed of for necessaries among my
neighbours; and these fifty rolls, being each of
above a hundredweight, were well cured, and
laid by against the return of the fleet from
Lisbon. And now, increasing in business and
in wealth, my head began to be full of projects
and undertakings beyond my reach, such as

are, indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in
Had I continued in the station I was now in,
I had room for all the happy things to have yet
befallen me for which my father so earnestly
recommended a quiet, retired life, and of which
he had so sensibly described the middle station
of life to be full of. But other things attended
me, and I was still to be the wilful agent of all
my own miseries; and particularly, to increase
my fault and double the reflections upon myself,
which in my future sorrows I should have leisure
to make. All these miscarriages were procured
by my apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish
inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing
that inclination in contradiction to the clearest
views of doing myself good in a fair and plain
pursuit of those prospects, and those measures
of life, which Nature and Providence concurred
to present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in my breaking away
from my parents, so I could not be content now,
but I must go and leave the happy view I had
of being a rich and thriving man in my new
plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoder-
ate desire of rising faster than the nature of the
thing admitted; and thus I cast myself down
again into the deepest gulf of human misery
that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be
consistent with life and a state of health in the
To come, then, by the just degrees to the
particulars of this part of my story. You may
suppose, that having now lived almost four years
in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and

prosper very well upon my plantation, I had
not only learned the language, but had con-
tracted acquaintance and friendship among my
fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants
at St. Salvador, which was our port, and that
in my discourses among them I had frequently
given them an account of my two voyages to
the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with
the negroes there, and how easy it was to pur-
chase upon the coast for trifles-such as beads,
toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and
the like-not only gold-dust, Guinea grains,
elephants' teeth, etc., but negroes, for the service
of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my
discourses on these heads, but especially to that
part which related to the buying negroes; which
was a trade, at that time, not only not far entered
into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on
by the assiento, or permission, of the Kings of
Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public,
so that few negroes were brought, and those
excessive dear.
It happened, being in company with some
merchants and planters of my acquaintance,
and talking of those things very earnestly, three
of them came to me the next morning, and told
me they had been musing very much upon what
I had discoursed with them of, the last night,
and they came to make a secret proposal to me.
And after enjoining me secrecy, they told me
that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to
Guinea; that they had all plantations as well
as I, and were straitened for nothing so much
as servants; that as it was a trade that could not

be carried on because they could not publicly
sell the negroes when they came home, so they
desired to make but one voyage, to bring the
negroes on shore privately, and divide them
among their own plantations; and, in a word,
the question was, whether I would go their
supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading
part upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered
me that I should have my equal share of the
negroes without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed,
had it been made to any one that had not had a
settlement and plantation of his own to look
after, which was in a fair way of coming to be
very considerable, and with-a good stock upon
it. But for me, that was thus entered and
established, and had nothing to do but go on
as I had begun, for three or four years more,
and to have sent for the other hundred pounds
from England; and who, in that time, and with
that little addition, could scarce have failed
of being worth three or four thousand pounds
sterling, and that increasing too-for me to
think of such a voyage, was the most preposter-
ous thing that ever man, in such circumstances,
could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer,
could no more resist the offer than I could
restrain my first rambling designs, when my
father's good counsel was lost upon me. In a
word, I told them I would go with all my heart,
if they would undertake to look after my planta-
tion in my absence, and would dispose of it to
such as I should direct if I miscarried. This
they all engaged to do, and entered into writings

or covenants to do so; and I made a formal will,
disposing of my plantation and effects, in case
of my death; making the captain of the ship
that had saved my life, as before, my universal
heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects
as I had directed in my will; one-half of the
produce being to himself, and the other to be
shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve
my effects, and keep up my plantation. Had I
used half as much prudence to have looked into
my own interest, and have made a judgment of
what I ought to have done and not to have done,
I had certainly never gone away from so prosper-
ous an undertaking, leaving all the probable
views of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon
a voyage to sea, attended with all its common
hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to
expect particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the
dictates of my fancy rather than my reason.
And accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and
the cargo furnished, and all things done as by
agreement by my partners in the voyage, I went
on board in an evil hour, the [first] of [Septem-
ber 1659], being the same day eight year that
I went from my father and mother at Hull, in
order to act the rebel to their authority, and
the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about 120 tons burthen, carried
six guns and fourteen men, besides the master,
his boy, and myself. We had on board no large
cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit
for our trade with the negroes-such as beads,
bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially

little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets,
and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail,
standing away to the northward upon our own
coast, with design to stretch over for the African
coast, when they came about 10 or 12 degrees
of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the
manner of their course in those days. We had
very good weather, only excessive hot, all the
way upon our own coast, till we came the height
of Cape St. Augustino, from whence, keeping
farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and
steered as if we were bound for the Isle Fernando
de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N.,
and leaving those isles on the east. In this course
we passed the line in about twelve days' time,
and were, by our last observation, in 7 degrees
22 minutes northern latitude, when a violent
tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our
knowledge. It began from the south-east, came
about to the north-west, and then settled into
the north-east, from whence it blew in such a
terrible manner, that for twelve days together
we could do nothing but drive, and, scudding
away before it, let it carry us wherever fate and
the fury of the winds directed; and during these
twelve days, I need not say that I expected
every day to be swallowed up, nor, indeed, did
any in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of
the storm, one of our men died of the calenture,
and one man and the boy washed overboard.
About the twelfth day, the weather abating a
little, the master made an observation as well
as he could, and found that he was in about

1 degrees north latitude, but that he was 22
degrees of longitude difference west from Cape
St. Augustino; so that he found he was gotten
upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of
Brazil, beyond the river Amazon, toward that
of the river Orinoco, commonly called the Great
River, and began to consult with me what course
he should take, for the ship was leaky and very
much disabled, and he was going directly back
to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over
the charts of the sea-coast of America with him,
we concluded there was no inhabited country
for us to have recourse to till we came within the
circle of the Carribbee Islands, and therefore
resolved to stand away for Barbadoes, which by
keeping off at sea, to avoid the indraft of the
Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform,
as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; whereas
we could not possibly make our voyage to the
coast of Africa without some assistance, both to
our ship and to ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and
steered away N.W. by W. in order to reach some
of our English islands, where I hoped for relief;
but our voyage was otherwise determined; for
being in the latitude of 12 degrees 18 minutes,
a second storm came upon us, which carried
us away with the same impetuosity westward,
and drove us so out of the very way of all human
commerce, that had all our lives been saved,
as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being
devoured by savages than ever returning to our
own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very

hard, one of our men early in the morning cried
out, 'Land!' and we had no sooner ran out of
the dabin to look out, in hopes of seeing where-
abouts in the world we were, but the ship struck
upon a sand, and in a moment, her motion
being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such
a manner, that we expected we should all have
perished immediately; and we were immediately
driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from
the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been
in the like condition, to describe or conceive
the consternation of men in such circumstances.
We knew nothing where we were, or upon what
land it was we were driven, whether an island
or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited;
and as the rage of the wind was still great,
though rather less than at first, we could not so
much as hope to have the ship hold many
minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the
winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn imme-
diately about. In a word, we sat looking one upon
another, and expecting death every moment,
and every man acting accordingly, as preparing
for another world; for there was little or nothing
more for us to do in this. That which was our
present comfort, and all the comfort we had,
was that, contrary to our expectation, the ship
did not break yet, and that the master said the
wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did
a little abate, yet the ship having thus struck
upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to
expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful
condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to

think of saving our lives as well as we could.
We had a boat at our stern just before the storm,
but she was first staved by dashing against the
ship's rudder, and in the next place, she broke
away, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea,
so there was no hope from her; we had another
boat on board, but how to get her off into the
sea was a doubtful thing. However, there was
no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would
break in pieces every minute, and some told
us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold
of the boat, and with the help of the rest of the
men they got her slung over the ship's side; and
getting all into her, let go, and committed our-
selves, being eleven in number, to God's mercy,
and the wild sea; for though the storm was
abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadful
high upon the shore, and might well be called
den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed, for
we all saw plainly that the sea went so high, that
the boat could not live, and that we should be
inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had
none; nor, if we had, could we have done any-
thing with it; so we worked at the oar towards
the land, though with heavy hearts, like men
going to execution, for we all knew that when
the boat came nearer the shore, she would be
dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the
sea. However, we committed our souls to God
in the most earnest manner; and the wind
driving us towards the shore, we hastened our
destruction with our own hands, pulling as well
as we could towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand,
whether steep or shoal, we knew not; the only
hope that could rationally give us the least
shadow of expectation was, if we might happen
into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some
river, where by great chance we might have run
our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and
perhaps made smooth water. But there was
nothing of this appeared; but as we made nearer
and nearer the shore, the land looked more
frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about
a league and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging
wave, mountainlike, came rolling astern of us,
and plainly bade us expect the coup de grdce.
In a word, it took us with such a fury, that it
overset the boat at once; and separating us, as
well from the boat as from one another, gave -us
not time hardly to say, '0 God!' for we were all
swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought
which I felt when I sunk into the water; for
though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver
myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till
that wave having driven me, or rather carried
me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having
spent itself, went back, and left me upon the
land almost dry, but half dead with the water
I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as
well as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the
mainland than I expected, I got upon my feet,
and endeavoured to make on towards the land
as fast as I could, before another wave should
return and take me up again. But I soon found
it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea

come after me as high as a great hill, and as
furious as an enemy, which I had no means or
strength to contend with. My business was to
hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water,
if I could; and so, by swimming, to preserve
my breathing, and pilot myself towards the
shore, if possible; my greatest concern now being,
that the sea, as it would carry me a great way
towards the shore when it came on, might not
carry me back again with it when it gave back
towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried
me at once 20 or 30 feet deep in its own body,
and I could feel myself carried with a mighty
force and swiftness towards the shore a very
great way; but I held my breath, and assisted
myself to swim still forward with all my might.
I was ready to burst with holding my breath,
when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my
immediate relief, I found my head and hands
shoot out above the surface of the water; and
though it was not two seconds of time that I
could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly,
gave me breath and new courage. I was covered
again with water a good while, but not so long
but I held it out; and finding the water had
spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward
against the return of the waves, and felt ground
again with my feet. I stood still a few moments
to recover breath, and till the water went
from me, and then took to my heels and ran
with what strength I had farther towards the
shore. But neither would this deliver me from
the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after
me again, and twice more I was lifted up by the

waves and carried forwards as before, the shore
being very flat.
The last time of these two had well near been
fatal to me; for the sea, having hurried me along
as before, landed me, or rather dashed me,
against a piece of a rock, and that with such
force, as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless,
as to my own deliverance; for the blow taking
my side and breast, beat the breath as it were
quite out of my body; and had it returned again
immediately, I must have been strangled in the
water. But I recovered a little before the return
of the waves, and seeing I should be covered
again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by
a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if
possible, till the wave went back. Now as the
waves were not so high as at first, being near
land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and
then fetched another run, which brought me so
near the shore, that the next wave, though it
went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as
to carry me away, and the next run I took I got
to the mainland, where, to my great comfort,
I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat
me down upon the grass, free from danger, and
quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and
began to look up and thank God that my life
was saved in a case wherein there was some
-minutes before scarce any room to hope. I
believe it is impossible to express to the life what
the ecstasies and transports of the soul are when
it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very grave;
and I do not wonder now at that custom, viz.,
that when a malefactor, who has the halter

about his neck, is tied up, and just going to be
turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him-
I say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon
with it, to let him blood that very moment they
tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive
the animal spirits from the heart, and over-
whelm him:
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my
hands, and my whole being, as I may say, wrapt
up in the contemplation of my deliverance,
making a thousand gestures and motions which
I cannot describe, reflecting upon all my com-
rades that were drowned, and that there should
not be one soul saved but myself; for, as for
them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign
of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and
two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when
the breach and froth of the sea being so big, I
could hardly see it, it lay so far off, and con-
sidered, Lord! how was it possible I could get
on shore?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfort-
able part of my condition, I began to look
round me to see what kind of place I was in, and
wJat was next to be done, and I soon found my
comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a
dreadful deliverance; for I was wet, had no
clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat
or drink to comfort me, neither did I see any
prospect before me but that of perishing with
hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts; and
that which was particularly afflicting to me was,

that I had no weapon either to hunt and kill
any creature for my sustenance, or to defend
myself against any other creature that might
desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had
nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe,
and a little tobacco in a box. This was alLmy
provision; and this threw me into terrible agonies
of mind, that for a while I ran about like a
madman. Night coming upon me, I began,
with a heavy heart, to consider what would be
my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that
country, seeing at night they always come
abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts
at that time was, to get up into a thick bushy
tree like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me,
and where I resolved to sit all night, and con-
sider the next day what death I should die, for
as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about
a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find
any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my
great joy; and having drank, and put a little
tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went
to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured
to place myself so, as that if I should sleep I
might not fall; and having cut me a short stick,
like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my
lodging, and having been excessively fatigued,
I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I
believe, few could have done in my condition,
and found myself the most refreshed with it that
I think I ever was on such an occasion.
When I waked it was broad day, the weather
clear, and the storm abated, so that the sea did
not rage and swell as before. But that which

surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted
off in the night from the sand where she lay, by
the swelling of the tide, and was driven up
almost as far as the rock which I first mentioned,
where I had been so bruised by the dashing me
against it. This being within about a mile from
the shore where I was, and the ship seeming
to stand upright still, I wished myself on board,
that, at least, I might have some necessary
things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in
the tree I looked about me again, and the first
thing I found was the boat, which lay as the
wind and the sea had tossed her up upon the
land, about two miles on my right hand. I
walked as far as I could upon the shore to have
got to her, but found a neck or inlet of water
between me and the boat, which was about half
a mile broad; so I came back for the present,
being more intent upon getting at the ship,
where I hoped to find something for my present
A little after noon I found the sea very calm,
and the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come
within a quarter of a mile of the ship; and here
I found a fresh renewing of my grief, for I saw
evidently, that if we had kept on board we had
been all safe, that is to say, we had all got safe on
shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be
left entirely destitute of all comfort and com-
pany, as I now was. This forced tears from my
eyes again; but as there was little relief in that,
I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I
pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot
to extremity, and took the water. But when I

came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater
to know how to get on board; for as she lay
aground, and high out of the water, there was
nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam
round her twice, and the second time I spied a
small piece of a rope, which I wondered I did not
see at first, hang down by the fore-chains so
low, as that with great difficulty I got hold of it,
and by the help of that rope got up into the
forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the
ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water
in her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a
bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her
stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head
low almost to the water. By this means all her
quarter was free, and all that was in that part
was dry; for you may be sure my first work was
to search and to see what was spoiled and what
was free. And first I found that all the ship's
provisions were dry and untouched by the water;
and being very well disposed to eat, I went to
the bread-room and filled my pockets with
biscuit, and eat it as I went about other things,
for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum
in the great cabin, of which I took a large dram,
and which I had indeed need enough of to spirit
me for what was before me. Now I wanted
nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many
things which I foresaw would be very necessary
to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was
not to be had, and this extremity roused my
application. We had several spare yards, and
two or three large spars of wood, and a spare
top-mast or two in the ship. I resolved to fall

to work with these, and flung as many of them
overboard as I could manage for their weight,
tying every one with a rope, that they might not
drive away. When this was done I went down
the ship's side, and, pulling them to me, I tied
four of them fast together at both ends as well
as I could, in the form of a raft; and laying two
or three short pieces of plank upon them cross-
ways, I found I could walk upon it very well,
but that it was not able to bear any great weight,
the pieces being too light. So I went to work,
and with the carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-
mast into three lengths, and added them to my
raft, with a great deal of labour and pains;
but hope of furnishing myself with necessaries
encouraged me to go beyond what I should have
been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any
reasonable weight. My next care was what to
load it with, and how to preserve what I laid
upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was not
long considering this. I first laid all the planks
or boards upon it that I could get, and having
considered well what I most wanted, I first got
three of the seamen's chests, which I had broken
open and emptied, and lowered them down
upon my raft. The first of these I filled with
provisions, viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goat's flesh, which we lived
much upon, and a little remainder of European
corn, which had been laid by for some fowls
which we brought to sea with us, but the fowls
were killed. There had been some barley and
wheat together, but, to my great disappoint-
ment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten

or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several
cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in
which were some cordial waters, and, in all,
about five or six gallons of rack. These I stowed
by themselves, there being no need to put them
into the chest, nor no room for them. While I
was- doing this, I found the tide began to flow,
though very calm, and I had the mortification
to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had
left on shore upon the sand, swim away; as for
my breeches, which were only linen, and open-
kneed, I swam on board in them, and my stock-
ings. However, this put me upon rummaging
for clothes, of which I found enough, but took
no more than I wanted for present use; for I
had other things which my eye was more upon,
as first tools to work with on shore; and it was
after long searching that I found out the car-
penter's chest, which was indeed a very useful
prize to me, and much more valuable than a
ship-loading of gold would have been at that
time. I got it down to my raft, even whole as it
was, without losing time to look into it, for I
knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and
arms; there were two very good fowling-pieces
in the great cabin, and two pistols; these I
secured first, with some powder-horns, and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords.
I knew there were three barrels of powder in
the ship, but knew not where our gunner had
stowed them; but with much search I found
them, two of them dry and good, the third had
taken water; those two I got to my raft with the
arms. And now I thought myself pretty well

freighted, and began to think how I should get
to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, or
rudder; and the least capful of wind would have
overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements. I. A smooth,
calm sea. 2. The tide rising and setting in to
the shore. 3. What little wind there was blew
me towards the land. And thus, having found
two or three broken oars belonging to the boat,
and besides the tools which were in the chest,
I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer, and
with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile or there-
abouts my raft went very well, only that I found
it drive a little distant from the place where I
had landed before, by which I perceived that
there was some indraft of the water, and conse-
quently I hoped to find some creek or river there,
which I might make use of as a port to get to
land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was; there appeared
before me a little opening of the land, and I
found a strong current of the tide set into it, so
I guided my raft as well as I could to keep in the
middle of the stream. But here I had like to
have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I
had, I think verily would have broke my heart;
for knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran
aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not
being aground at the other end, it wanted but a
little that all my cargo had slipped off towards
that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the
water. I did my utmost by setting my back
against the chests to keep them in their places,
but could not thrust off the raft with all my
strength, neither durst I stir from the posture

I was in, but holding up the chests with all my
might, stood in that manner near half an hour,
in which time the rising of the water brought
me a little more upon a level; and a little after,
the water still rising, my raft floated again, and
I thrust her off with the oar I had into the
channel, and then driving up higher, I at length
found myself in the mouth of a little river, with
land on both sides, and a strong current or tide
running up. I looked on both sides for a proper
place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be
driven too high up the river, hoping in time to
see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to
place myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right
shore of the creek, to which, with great pain and
difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so
near, as that, reaching ground with my oar, I
could thrust her directly in; but here I had like
to have dipped all my cargo in the sea again;
for that shore lying pretty steep, that is to say,
sloping, there was no place to land but where
one end of my float, if it run on shore, would lie
so high and the other sink lower, as before, that
it would endanger my cargo again. All that I
could do was to wait till the tide was at the
highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an
anchor to hold the side of it fast to the shore,
near a flat piece of ground, which I expected
the water would flow over; and so it did. As
soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew
about a foot of water, I thrust her on upon that
flat piece of ground, and there fastened or
moored her by sticking my two broken oars into
the ground; one on one side near one end, and
17 D

one on the other side near the other end; and
thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my
raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country and
seek a proper place for my habitation, and where
to stow my goods to secure them from whatever
might happen. Where I was, I yet knew not;
whether on the continent, or on an island;
whether inhabited, or not inhabited; whether
in danger of wild beasts, or not. There was a
hill, not above a mile from me, which rose up
very steep and high, and which seemed to over-
top some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from
it, northward. I took out one of the fowling-
pieces and one of the pistols, and a horn of
powder; and thus armed, I travelled for dis-
covery up to the top of that hill, where, after
I had with great labour and difficulty got to the
top, I saw my fate to my great affliction, viz.,
that I was in an island environed every way with
the sea, no land to be seen, except some rocks
which lay a great way off, and two small islands
less than this, which lay about three leagues to
the west.
I found also that the island I was in was
barren, and, as I saw good reason to believe,
uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of whom,
however, I saw none; yet I saw abundance of
fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither when
I killed them, could I tell what was fit for food,
and what not. At my coming back, I shot at a
great bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the
side of a great wood. I believe it was the first
gun that had been fired there since the creation
of the world. I had no sooner fired, but from all

the parts of the wood there arose an innumerable
number of fowls of many sorts, making a con-
fused screaming, and crying every one according
to his usual note; but not one of them of any
kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed,
I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colour and
beak resembling it, but had no talons or claws
more than common; its flesh was carrion, and
fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to
my raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on
shore, which took me up the rest of that day; and
what to do with myself at night, I knew not, nor
indeed where to rest; for I was afraid to lie down
on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast
might devour me, though, as I afterwards found,
there was really no need for those fears. How-
ever, as well as I could, I barricaded myself
round with the chests and boards that I had
brought on shore, and made a kind of a hut for
that night's lodging; as for food, I yet saw not
which way to supply myself, except that I had
seen two or three creatures like hares run out of
the wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider, that I might yet get a
great many things out of the ship, which would
be useful to me, and particularly some of the
rigging and sails, and such other things as might
come to land; and I resolved to make another
voyage on board the vessel, if possible. And as
I knew that the first storm that blew must neces-
sarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all
other things apart till I got everything out of
the ship that I could get. Then I called a council,
that is to say, in my thoughts, whether I should

take back the raft, but this appeared impractic-
able; so I resolved to go as before, when the tide
was down; and I did so, only that I stripped
before I went from my hut, having nothing on
but a chequered shirt and a pair oflinen drawers,
and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared
a second raft, and having had experience of the
first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded
it so hard; but yet I brought away several things
very useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter's
stores I found two or three bags full of nails and
spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of
hatchets, and above all, that most useful thing
called a grindstone. All these I secured, to-
gether with several things belonging to the
gunner, particularly two or three iron crows,
and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets,
and another fowling-piece, with some small
quantity of powder more; a large bag full of
small-shot, and a great roll of sheet lead; but
this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to
get it over the ship's side. Besides these things,
I took all the men's clothes that I could find, and
a spare fore-top sail, a hammock, and some bed-
ding; and with this I loaded my second raft, and
brought them all safe on shore, to my very great
I was under some apprehensions during my
absence from the land, that at least my provisions
might be devoured on shore; but when I came
back, I found no sign of any visitor, only there
sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the
chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away
a little distance, and then stood still. She sat

very composed and unconcerned, and looked
full in my face, as if she had a mind to be
acquainted with me. I presented my gun at her;
but as she did not understand it, she was per-
fectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir
away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though, by the way, I was not very free of it,
for my store was not great. However, I spared
her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled of it,
and ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more; but
I thanked her, and could spare no more, so she
marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore, though
I was fain to open the barrels of powder and
bring them by parcels, for they were too heavy,
being large casks, I went to work to make me a
little tent with the sail and some poles which I
cut for that purpose; and into this tent I brought
everything that I knew would spoil either with
rain or sun; and I piled all the empty chests and
casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it
from any sudden attempt, either from man or
When I had done this I blocked up the door
of the tent with some boards within, and an
empty chest set up on end without; and spread-
ing one of the beds upon the ground, laying my
two pistols just at my head, and my gun at
length by me, I went to bed for the first time,
and slept very quietly all night, for I was very
weary and heavy; for the night before I had
slept little, and had laboured very hard all day,
as well to fetch all those things from the ship, as
to-get them on shore. --
SI had the biggest magazine of all kinds now

/that ever was laid up, I believe, for one man;
Sbut I was not satisfied still, for while the ship sat
upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get
everything out of her that I could.: So every day
-at low vwtar-We-r t ii-6oard, and brought away
something or other; but, particularly the third
time I went I brought away as much of the
rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and
rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare
canvas, which was to mend the sails upon
occasion, the barrel of wet gunpowder; in a
word, I brought away all the sails first and last,
only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and
bring as much at a time as I could; for they
were no more useful to be sails, but as mere
canvas only.
But that which comforted me more still was,
that at last of all, after I had made five or six
such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing
more to expect from the ship that was worth my
meddling with; I say, after all this, I found a
great hogshead of bread, and three large runlets
of rum or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel
of fine flour; this was surprising to me, because
I had given over expecting any more provi-
sions, except what was spoilt by the water. I
soon emptied the hogshead of that bread, and
wrapped it up parcel by parcel in pieces of the
sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all
this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage. And
now, having plundered the ship of what was
portable and fit to hand out, I began with the
cables; and cutting the great cable into pieces,
such as I could move, I got two cables and a

hawser on shore, with all the ironwork I could
get; and having cut down the sprit-sail-yard,
and the mizzen-yard, and everything I could to
make a large raft, I loaded it with all those
heavy goods, and came away. But my good
luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so
unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was
entered the little cove where I had landed the
rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so
handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw
me and all my cargo into the water. As for
myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the
shore; but as to my cargo, it was great part of it
lost, especially the iron, which I expected would
have been of great use to me. However, when
the tide was out I got most of the pieces of cable
ashore, and some of the iron, though with
infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into
the water, a work which fatigued me very much.
After this I went every day on board, and
brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and
had been eleven times on board the ship; in
which time I had brought away all that one
pair of hands could well be supposed capable
to bring, though I believe verily, had the calm
weather held, I should have brought away the
whole ship piece by piece. But preparing the
twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind
begin to rise. However, at low water I went on
board, and though I thought I had rummaged
the cabin so effectually as that nothing more
could be found, yet I discovered a locker with
drawers in it, in one of which I found two or
three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with

some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks; in
another, I found about thirty-six pounds value
in money, some European coin, some Brazil,
some pieces of eight, some gold, some silver.
/-Tsmiled to myself at the sight of this money.
fO drug!' said I aloud, 'what art thou good for?
Thou art not worth to me, no, not the taking
off of the ground; one of those knives is worth
lall this heap. I have no manner of use for thee;
even remain where thou art, and go to the
bottom as a creature whose life is not worth
Savingg' Howevepupon second thoughts, I took
_it away ,and wrapping all this in a piece of
canvas, I began to think of making another raft;
but while I was preparing this, I found the sky
overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a
quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the
shore. It presently occurred to me that it was
in vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind
off shore, and that it was my business to be gone
before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might
not be able to reach the shore at all. Accord-
ingly I let myself down into the water, and swam
across the channel, which lay between the ship
and the sands, and even that with difficulty
enough, partly with the weight of the things I
had about me, and partly the roughness of the
water; for the wind rose very hastily, and before
it was quite high water it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where
I lay with all my wealth about me very secure.
It blew very hard all that night, and in the
morning, when I looked out, behold, no more
ship was to be seen. I was a little surprised, but
recovered myself with this satisfactory reflection,

viz., that I had lost no time, nor abated no
diligence, to get everything out of her that could
be useful to me, and that indeed there was little
left in her that I was able to bring away if I had
had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the
ship, or of anything out of her, except what
might drive on shore from her wreck, as indeed
divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those
things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed
about securing myself against either savages, if
any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were
in the island; and I had many thoughts of the
method how to do this, and what kind of dwell-
ing to make, whether I should make me a cave
in the earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in
short, I resolved upon both, the manner and
description of which it may not be improper to
give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my
settlement, particularly because it was upon a
low moorish ground near the sea, and I believed
would not be wholesome; and more particularly
because there was no fresh water near it. So I
resolved to find a more healthy and more con-
venient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation,
which I found would be proper for me. First,
health and fresh water, I just now men-
tioned. Secondly, shelter from the heat of the
sun. Thirdly, security from ravenous creatures,
whether men or beasts. Fourthly, a view to the
sea, that if God sent any ship in sight I might
not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of

which I was not willing to banish all my expecta-
tion yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a
little plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front
towards this little plain was steep as a house-
side, so that nothing could come down upon me
from the top; on the side of this rock there was
a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the
entrance or door of a cave; but there was not
really any cave, or way into the rock at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow
place, I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain
was not above an hundred yards broad, and
about twice as long, and lay like a green before
my door, and at the end of it descended irregu-
larly every way down into the low grounds by
the seaside. It was on the N.N.W. side of the
hill, so that I was sheltered from the heat every
day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or there-
abouts, which in those countries is near the
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half circle
before the hollow place, which took in about
ten yards in its semi-diameter from the rock,
and twenty yards in its diameter from its begin-
ning and ending. In this half-circle I pitched
two rows of strong stakes, driving them into the
ground till they stood very firm like piles, the
biggest end being out of the ground about five
feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The
two rows did not stand above six inches from one
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had
cut in the ship, and laid them in rows one upon
another, within the circle, between these two

rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes
in the inside leaning against them, about two
feet and a half high, like a spur to a post; and
this fence was so strong, that neither man or
beast could get into it, or over it. This cost me
a great deal of time and labour, especially to
cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the
place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not
by a door, but by a short ladder to go over the
top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over
after me, and so I was completely fenced in, and
fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and
consequently slept secure in the night, which
otherwise I could not have done; though as it
appeared afterwards, there was no need of all
this caution from the enemies that I appre-
hended danger from.
Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labour,
I carried all my riches, all my provisions,
ammunition, and stores, of which you have the
account above; and I made me a large tent,
which, to preserve me from the rains that in one
part of the year are very violent there, I made
double, viz., one smaller tent within, and one
larger tent above it, and covered the uppermost
with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among
the sails. And now I lay no more for a while
in the bed which I had brought on shore, but
in a hammock, which was indeed a very good
one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and
everything that would spoil by the wet; and
having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up
the entrance, which, till now, I had left open,

and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short
When I had done this, I began to work my
way into the rock; and bringing all the earth
and stones that I dug down out through my tent,
I laid them up within my fence in the nature
of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within
about a foot and a half; and thus I made me a
cave just behind my tent, which served me like
a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour, and many days,
before all these things were brought to perfec-
tion, and therefore I must go back to some other
things which took up some of my thoughts. At
the same time it happened, after I had laid my
scheme for the setting up my tent, and making
the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick
dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning hap-
pened, and after that a great clap of thunder,
as is naturally the effect of it. I was not so much
surprised with the lightning, as I was with a
thought which darted into my mind as swift as
the lightning itself. 0 my powder! My very
heart sunk within me when I thought, that at
one blast all my powder might be destroyed,
on which, not my defence only, but the provid-
ing me food, as I thought, entirely depended.
I was nothing near so anxious about my own
danger; though had the powder took fire, I had
never known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that
after the storm was over I laid aside all my
works, my building, and fortifying, and applied
myself to make bags and boxes to separate the
powder, and keep it a little and a little in a

parcel, in hope that whatever might come it
might not all take fire at once, and to keep it so
apart, that it should not be possible to make one
part fire another. I finished this work in about
a fortnight; and I think my powder, which in
all was about 240 pounds weight, was divided
in not less than a hundred parcels. As to the
barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend
any danger from that, so I placed it in my new
cave, which in my fancy I called my kitchen,
and the rest I hid up and down in holes among
the rocks, so that no wet might come to it,
marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing,
I went out once, at least, every day with my gun,
as well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill
anything fit for food, and as near as I could to
acquaint myself with what the island produced.
The first time I went out, I presently discovered
that there were goats in the island, which was a
great satisfaction to me; but then it was attended
with this misfortune to me, viz., that they were
so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was
the difficultest thing in the world to come at
them. But I was not discouraged at this, not
doubting but I might now and then shoot one,
as it soon happened; for after I had found their
haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for
them. I observed if they saw me in the valleys,
though they were upon the rocks, they would
run away as in a terrible fright; but if they were
feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks,
they took no notice of me, from whence I con-
cluded that, by the position of their optics, their
sight was so directed downward, that they did

not readily see objects that were above them.
So afterward I took this method; I always
climbed the rocks first to get above them, and
then had frequently a fair mark. The first shot
I made among these creatures I killed a she-
goat, which had a little kid by her, which she
gave suck to, which grieved me heartily; but
when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by
her till I came and took her up; and not only so,
but when I carried the old one with me upon my
shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my
enclosure; upon which I laid down the dam, and
took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my
pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it
would not eat, so I was forced to kill it, and eat
it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a
great while, for I eat sparingly, and saved my
provisions, my bread especially, as much as
possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it
absolutely necessary to provide a place to make
a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for
that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and what
conveniences I made, I shall give a full account
of in its place. But I must first give some little
account of myself, and of my thoughts about
living, which it may well be supposed were not
a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for
as I was not cast away upon that island without
being driven, as is said, by a violent storm, quite
out of the course of our intended voyage, and a
great way, viz., some hundreds of leagues out
of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind,
I had great reason to consider it as a determina-

tion of Heaven, that in this desolate place, ana
in this desolate manner, I should end my life. /
The tears would run plentifully down my face
when I made these reflections, and sometimes
I would expostulate with myself, why Provi-j
dence should thus completely ruin its creatures,
and render them so absolutely miserable, so
without help abandoned, so entirely depressed,
that it could hardly be rational to be thankful
for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me
to check these thoughts, and to reprove me; and
particularly one day, walking with my gun in
my hand by the seaside, I was very pensive upon
the subject of my present condition, when
Reason, as it were, expostulated with me t'other
way, thus: 'Well, you are in a desolate condition
it is true, but pray remember, where are the rest
of you? Did not you come eleven of you into/
the boat? Where are the ten? Why were notl
they saved, and you lost? Why were you singled
out? Is it better to be here, or there?' And then
I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be con-
sidered with the good that is in them, and with
what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was
furnished for my subsistence, and what would
have been my case if it had not happened, which
was an hundred thousand to one, that the ship
floated from the place where she first struck and
was driven so near to the shore that I had time
to get all these things out of her; what would
have been my case, if I had been to have lived
in the condition in which I at first came on shore,
without necessaries of life, or necessaries to

supply and procure them? 'Particularly,' said
I aloud (though to myself), 'what should I have
done without a gun, without ammunition, with-
out any tools to make anything or to work with,
without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner
of covering?' and that now I had all these to a
sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to
provide myself in such a manner, as to live with-
out my gun when my ammunition was spent;
so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting
without any want as long as I lived. For I
considered from the beginning how I would
provide for the accidents that might happen,
and for the time that was to come, even not
only after my ammunition should be spent, but
even after my health or strength should decay.
I confess I had not entertained any notion of
my ammunition being destroyed at one blast-
I mean, my powder being blown up by light-
ning; and this made the thoughts of it so surpris-
ing to me when it lightened and thundered, as
I observed just now. -
And now being to enter into a melancholy
relation of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps,
as was never heard of in the world before, I shall
take it from its beginning, and continue it in its
order. It was, by my account, the 3oth of
September when, in the manner as above said,
I first set foot upon this horrid island, when the
sun being to us in its autumnal equinox, was
almost just over my head, for I reckoned myself,
by observation, to be in the latitude of 9 degrees
22 minutes north of the line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve
days, it came into my thoughts that I should

lose my reckoning of time for want of books and
pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath
days from the working days; but to prevent this,
I cut it with my knife upon a large post, in
capital letters; and making it into a great cross,
I set it up on the shore where I first landed, viz.,
'I came on shore here on the 3oth of September
1659.' Upon the sides of this square post I cut
every day a notch with my knife, and every
seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and
every first day of the month as long again as
that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or
weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place we are to observe, that
among the many things which I brought out of
the ship in the several voyages, which, as above
mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of
less value, but not all less useful to me, which
I omitted setting down before; as in parti-
cular, pens, ink, and paper, several parcels in
the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's
keeping, three or four compasses, some mathe-
matical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts,
and books of navigation, all which I huddled
together, whether I might want them or no.
Also I found three very good Bibles, which came
to me in my cargo from England, and which I
had packed up among my things; some Portu-
guese books also, and among them two or three
Popish prayer-books, and several other books,
all which I carefully secured. And I must not
forget, that we had in the ship a dog and two
cats, of whose eminent history I may have
occasion to say something in its place; for I
carried both the cats with me; and as for the

dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and
swam on shore to me the day after I went on
shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty
servant to me many years. I wanted nothing
that he could fetch me, nor any company that
he could make up to me; I only wanted to have
him talk to me, but that would not do. As I
observed before, I found pen, ink, and paper,
and I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall
show that while my ink lasted, I kept things very
exact; but after that was gone, I could not, for I
could not make any ink by any means that I
could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many
things, notwithstanding all that I had amassed
together; and of these, this of ink was one, as also
spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove
the earth, needles, pins, and thread; as for linen,
I soon learned to want that without much
This want of tools made every work I did go
on heavily; and it was near a whole year before
I had entirely finished my little pale or sur-
rounded habitation. The piles or stakes, which
were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long
time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and
more by far in bringing home; so that I spent
sometimes two days in cutting and bringing
home one of those posts, and a third day in
driving it into the ground; for which purpose I
got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows, which,
however, though I found it, yet it made driving
those posts or piles very laborious and tedious

But what need I have been concerned at the
tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had
time enough to do it in? nor had I any other
employment, if that had been over, at least, that
I could foresee, except the ranging the island to
seek for food, which I did more or less every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condi-
tion, and the circumstance I was reduced to;
and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing;
not so much to leave them to any that were to
come after me, for I was like to have but few
heirs, as to deliver my thoughts from daily por-
ing upon them, and afflicting my mind. And as
my reason began now to master my despon-
dency, I began to comfort myself as well as I
could, and to set the good against the evil, that
I might have something to distinguish my case
from worse; and I stated it very impartially, like
debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed
against the miseries I suffered, thus:

I am cast upon a hor-
rible desolate island, void
of all hope of recovery.
I am singled out and
separated, as it were,
from all the world to be

I am divided from
mankind, a solitaire, one
banished from human

But I am alive, and
not drowned, as all my
ship's company was.
But I am singled out,
too, from all the ship's
crew to be spared from
death; and He that mira- ,
culously saved me from
death, can deliver me
from this condition.
But I am not starved"
and perishing on a bariren
place, affording no sus-


I have not clothes to
cover me.

I am without any de-
fence or means to resist
any violence of man or

I have no soul to speak
to, or relieve me.

But I am in a hot cli-
mate, where if I had
clothes I could hardly
wear them.
But I am cast on an
island, where I see no
wild beasts to hurt me,
as I saw on the coast of
Africa; and what if I had
been shipwrecked there?
But God wonderfully
sent the ship in near
enough to the shore, that
I have gotten out so
many necessary things as
will either supply my
wants, or enable me to
supply myself even as
long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testi-
mony, that there was scarce any condition in
the world so miserable, but there was something
negative or something positive to be thankful
for in it; and let this stand as a direction from
the experience of the most miserable of all con-
ditions in this world, that we may always find
in it something to comfort ourselves from, and to
set in the description of good and evil on the
credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish
my condition, and given over looking out to sea,
to see if I could spy a ship; I say, giving over
these things, I began to apply myself to accom-
modate my way of living, and to make things as
easy to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which
was a tent under the side of a rock, surrounded
with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I
might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a
kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet
thick on the outside, and after some time-I
think it was a year and a half-I raised rafters
from it leading to the rock, and thatched or
covered it with boughs of trees and such things
as I could get to keep out the rain, which I found
at some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my
goods into this pale, and into the cave which I
had made behind me. But I must observe, too,
that at first this was a confused heap of goods,
which as they lay in no order, so they took up all
my place; I had no room to turn myself. So I
set myself to enlarge my cave and works farther
into the earth; for it was a loose sandy rock,
which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on
it. And so, when I found I was pretty safe as to
beasts of prey, I worked sideways to the right
hand into the rock; and then, turning to the
right again, worked quite out, and made me a
door to come out on the outside of my pale or
fortification. This gave me not only egress and
regress, as it were a back-way to my tent and to my
storehouse, but gave me room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such
necessary things as I found I most wanted, as par-
ticularly a chair and a table; for without these I
was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in
the world. I could not write or eat, or do several
things with so much pleasure without a table.
So I went to work; and here I must needs

observe, that as reason is the substance and
original of the mathematics, so by stating and
squaring everything by reason, and by making
the most rational judgment of things, every man
may be in time master of every mechanic art.
I had never handled a tool in my life; and yet
in time, by labour, application, and contrivance,
I found at last that I wanted nothing but I could
have made it, especially if I had had tools.
However, I made abundance of things even
without tools, and some with no more tools than
an adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were
never made that way before, and that with
infinite labour. For example, if I wanted a
board, I had no other way but to cut down a
tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat
on either side with my axe, till I had brought it
to be thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth
with my adze. It is true, by this method I could
make but one board out of a whole tree; but this
I had no remedy for but patience, any more than
I had for the prodigious deal of time and labour
which it took me up to make a plank or board.
But my time or labour was little worth, and so
it was as well employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I
observed above, in the first place, and this I did
out of the short pieces of boards that I brought
on my raft from the ship. But when I had
wrought out some boards, as above, I made
large shelves of the breadth of a foot and a half
one over another, all along one side of my cave,
to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work; and,
in a word, to separate everything at large in
their places, that I might come easily at them.

I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang
my guns and all things that would hang up; so
that had my cave been to be seen, it looked like
a general magazine of all necessary things; and
I had everything so ready at my hand, that it
was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods
in such order, and especially to find my stock of
all necessaries so great.
And now it was when I began to keep a
journal of every day's employment; for, indeed,
at first, I was in too much hurry, and not only
hurry as to labour, but in too much discom-
posure of mind; and my journal would have
been full of many dull things. For example, I
must have said thus: Sept. the 3oth.-After I got
to shore, and had escaped drowning, instead
of being thankful to God for my deliverance,
having first vomited with the great quantity of
salt water which was gotten into my stomach,
and recovering myself a little, I ran about the
shore, wringing my hands, and beating my head
and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying
out, I was undone, undone, till, tired and faint,
I was forced to lie down on the ground to repose;
but durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured.
Some days after this, and after I had been on
board the ship, and got all that I could out of
her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the
top of a little mountain, and looking out to sea,
in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy at a vast
distance I spied a sail, please myself with the
hopes of it, and then, after looking steadily till
I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down
and weep like a child, and thus increase my
misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some
measure, and having settled my household stuff
and habitation, made me a table and a chair,
and all as handsome about me as I could, I
began to keep my journal, of which I shall here
give you the copy (though in it will be told all
these particulars over again) as long as it lasted;
for, having no more ink, I was forced to leave
it off.
September 30, 1659.-I, poor miserable Robin-
son Crusoe, being shipwrecked, during a dread-
ful storm, in the offing, came on shore on this
dismal unfortunate island, which I called the
Island of Despair, all the rest of the ship's com-
pany being drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting
myself at the dismal circumstances I was brought
to, viz., I had neither food, house, clothes,
weapon, or place to fly to; and in despair of any
relief, saw nothing but death before me; either
that I should be devoured by wild beasts, mur-
dered by savages, or starved to death for want
of food. At the approach of night, I slept in a
tree for fear of wild creatures, but slept soundly,
though it rained all night.
Oct. I.-In the morning I saw, to my great
surprise, the ship had floated with the high tide,
and was driven on shore again much nearer the
island; which, as it was some comfort on one
hand, for seeing her sit upright, and not broken
to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might
get on board, and get some food and necessaries
out of her for my relief; so, on the other hand,

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