• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Editorial note
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Chapter I
 Chapter II
 Chapter III
 Chapter IV
 Chapter V
 Chapter VI
 Chapter VII
 Chapter VIII
 Chapter IX
 Chapter X
 Chapter XI
 Chapter XII
 Chapter XIII
 Chapter XIV
 Chapter XV. Conclusion
 Advertising






Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073634/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner
Series Title: The Children's library
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: xvi, 264 p. : ill. ; 17 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Cruikshank, George, 1792-1878 ( Illustrator )
Unwin, T. Fisher ( Thomas Fisher ), 1848-1935 ( Publisher )
Jackson, John, 1801-1848 ( Engraver )
Williams, Thomas ( Engraver )
R. & R. Clark (Firm) ( Printer )
Publisher: T. Fisher Unwin
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: R. & R. Clark
Publication Date: 1894
 Subjects
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1894   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1894   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
 Notes
General Note: Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: "It was thought desirable to venture a few trifling modifications in a work published 175 years ago. ... this has been done ... by shortening sentences and paragraphs, by the sparing excision of now needless or irrelevant matter, and by the occasional substitution of a simple word for one that is unusual or obsolete."--Editorial note, p. vii.
General Note: Some ill. engraved by Jackson, Thos. Williams.
General Note: Variant of LC children's books, p. 262.
General Note: Publisher's catalog (7, 1 p.) at end.
General Note: Cover, endpapers and all edges are same blue on white floral pattern.
General Note: Part I of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility: told for The Children's Library ; with ill. by George Cruikshank.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073634
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28050560

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Page i
        Page ii
    Frontispiece
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Title Page
        Page v
        Page vi
    Editorial note
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
    List of Illustrations
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    Chapter I
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Chapter II
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Chapter III
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Chapter IV
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Chapter V
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Chapter VI
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Chapter VII
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
    Chapter VIII
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Chapter IX
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
    Chapter X
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
    Chapter XI
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
    Chapter XII
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
    Chapter XIII
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
    Chapter XIV
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
    Chapter XV. Conclusion
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
    Advertising
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
Full Text

LIBRARY


THE ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE









THE CHILDREN'S LIBRARY.


THE BROWN OWL.
A CHINA CUP, AND OTHER STORIES.
STORIES FROM FAIRYLAND.
THE STORY OF A PUPPET.
THE LITTLE PRINCESS.
TALES FROM THE MABINOGION.
IRISH FAIRY TALES.
AN ENCHANTED GARDEN.
LA BELLE NIVERNAISE.
THE FEATHER.
FINN AND HIS COMPANIONS.
NUTCRACKER AND MOUSE-KING.
ONCE UPON A TIME.
THE PENTAMERONE.
FINNISH LEGENDS.
THE POPE'S MULE.
THE LITTLE GLASS MAN.
ROBINSON CRUSOE.
THE MAGIC OAK TREE AND PRINCE
FILDERKIN.






















































CAPTURE OF MY MAN FRIDAY.







THE

ADVENTURES OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE

OF YORK, MARINER




TOLD FOR
THE CHILDREN'S LIBRARY



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS BY GEORGE CRUIKSHANK




LONDON
T. FISHER UNWIN
1894



















EDITORIAL NOTE


WORD or two of editorial ex-
planation may be considered
necessary. It was thought de-
sirable to venture a few trifling
modifications in a work published 175 years
ago. First of all, this has been done in
such a manner as, it is presumed, the author
would in the present day have approved,
namely, by shortening sentences and para-
graphs, by the sparing excision of now
needless or irrelevant matter, and by the
occasional substitution of a simple word for
one that is unusual or obsolete.
It may also be noted that, according to
the general custom, this volume comprises
only the First Adventures; for indeed the







viii ROBINSON CRUSOE

"Second Series," and much more the
" Serious Reflections during the Life of
Robinson Crusoe with his Vision of the
Angelic World," only serve to furnish
melancholy evidence that the noble writer
had expended his best efforts on the earlier
volume.























CONTENTS


CHAPTER I
PAGE
My Birth and Parentage-At Nineteen years
of Age I determine to go to Sea-Dis-
suaded by my Parents-Run away with a
Schoolfellow, and go on board Ship-A
Storm arises, during which I am dread-
fully frightened-Ship founders-Myself
and Crew saved by a Boat from another
Vessel, and landed near Yarmouth-Meet
my Companion's Father, who advises me
never again to go to Sea, but in vain-
Travel to London


CHAPTER II
I fall in with a sea captain trading to Guinea
-Engage with him as supercargo and
return with a well-filled purse-Make a
second venture and am captured by the






X ROBINSON CRUSOE
PAGE
Moors-Become a slave-Escape in my
former boat and make for the west coast
of Africa- Rescued by a Portugueser
bound for Brazil-Settle there as a planter
-Join a slave ship and am wrecked on a
desert Island 21


CHAPTER III

I go on board Ship bound for Africa-Driven
out of our Course by a Hurricane-Find
ourselves off the coast of South America
-Wrecked on a Sandbank-All hands
lost except myself-Land and settle on
the Island 39


CHAPTER IV

Appearance of the Wreck and Country next
Day-Swim on board of the Ship, and by
means of a contrivance get a quantity of
Stores on Shore-Shoot a Bird, but it
turns out perfect Carrion-Moralise upon
my Situation-The Ship blown off Land,
and totally lost-Set out in search of a
proper Place for a Habitation-See num-
bers of Goats-Melancholy reflections 51


CHAPTER V

EXTRACTS FROM MY JOURNAL

Fall upon various Schemes to make Tools,
Baskets, etc.-My Walks in the Woods






CONTENTS xi
PAGE
-At a great loss for an Evening Candle,
but fall upon an Expedient to supply the
Want-Strange discovery of Corn-A
terrible Earthquake and Storm 87


CHAPTER VI

EXTRACTS FROM MY JOURNAL
(continued)

Observe the Ship driven farther aground by
the late Storm-Procure a vast quantity
of Necessaries from the Wreck-Catch a
large Turtle-I fall ill of a Fever and
Ague-Terrible Dream, and serious Re-
flections thereupon-Find a Bible in one
of the Seamen's Chests thrown ashore,
the Reading whereof gives me great
Comfort 99


CHAPTER VII

EXTRACTS FROM MY JOURNAL
(continued)

I begin to take a Survey of my Island-Dis-
cover plenty of Tobacco, Grapes, Lemons,
and Sugar-canes, wild, but no human In-
habitants-Resolve to lay up a Store of
these Articles, to furnish Myself with
against the wet Season-My Cat, which
I supposed lost, returns with Kittens-I
regulate my Diet, and shut myself up for
the wet Season-Sow my Grain, which
comes to nothing; but I discover and
remedy my Error-Take Account of the
Course of the Weather. 12







ROBINSON CRUSOE


CHAPTER VIII
PAGE
Make a second Tour through the Island-
Catch a young Parrot, which I afterwards
teach to speak-My mode of sleeping at
Night-Find the other side of the Island
much more pleasant than mine, and
covered with Turtle and Sea-fowl-Catch
a young Kid, which I tame-Return to
my old Habitation-Great Plague with
my Harvest 126


CHAPTER IX
I attempt to mould Earthenware, and succeed
-Description of my Mode of Baking-
Begin to make a Boat-After it is finished
am unable to get it down to the Water-
Serious Reflections-My Ink and Biscuits
exhausted, and Clothes in a bad State-
Contrive to make a Dress of Skins. 143


CHAPTER X
I succeed in getting a Canoe afloat, and set
out on a Voyage in the sixth Year of my
Reign of Captivity-Blown out to Sea-
Reach the Shore with great Difficulty-
Fall asleep, and am awakened by a
Voice calling my Name-Devise various
Schemes to tame Goats, and at last
succeed 164


CHAPTER XI
Description of my Figure; also of my Dwell-
ing and Enclosures-Dreadful Alarm on






CONTENTS X11i
PAGE
seeing the Print of a Man's Foot on the
Shore-Take every possible Measure of
Precaution 178


CHAPTER XII

My Kingdom is invaded by Savages-Second
Invasion-They chase a Savage to devour
him-I rescue him, and kill his Pursuers 195


CHAPTER XIII

I am at great pains to instruct Friday re-
specting my Abhorrence of the Cannibal
Practices of the Savages-He is amazed
at the Effects of the, Gun, and considers
it an intelligent Being-Begins to talk
English tolerably-A Dialogue-Slaugh-
ter of Cannibals 207


CHAPTER XIV

How Friday and I fall in with White Savages
-They prepare to murder their Captain
and Officers-Friday and I come to the
Rescue-We seize the mutinied Ship-
My Deliverance and Return to England. 220


CHAPTER XV

CONCLUSION

I go to Lisbon and wind up my Brazil busi-
ness-Form a Cavalcade to cross the
Pyrenees-Adventures with Bears-Re-
turn home through France 253























LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


CAPTURE OF MY MAN FRIDAY

MY FATHER COUNSELS ME

MY ESCAPE FROM THE MOORS

HAILING A PORTUGUESE SHIP

WRECKED IN A STORM

RAFT LOADED WITH SALVAGE

SHOOTING EXCURSION

MY TIMEKEEPER .

I OFFER UP A PRAYER TO GOD
MY ISLAND HOME .

I BUILD A BOAT

I EXPLORE THE COAST


PAGE
Frontispiece

3
26

34

47

57
6o

77
109
IOg

S 132

S 154
17.







xvi ROBINSON CRUSOE
PAGE
DINNER-TIME-SELF AND PETS 176

PRINT OF A MAN'S FOOT ON THE SAND I85

THE MYSTERIOUS CAVERN 193

A CANNIBAL DANCE 98

A CANNIBAL FEAST 218

SURPRISING LANDING OF WHITE MEN .226

FRIDAY AND THE BEAR 260

ATTACK BY WOLVES 261

REVENGE 263


















CHAPTER I

My Birth and Parentage-At Nineteen Years of Age
I determine to go to Sea-Dissuaded by my
Parents-Run away with a Schoolfellow, and go
on board Ship-A Storm arises, during which I
am dreadfully frightened-Ship founders-Myself
and Crew saved by a Boat from another Vessel,
and landed near Yarmouth-Meet my Compan-
ion's Father, who advises me never again to go to
Sea, but in vain-Travel to London.

VWAS born in the year 1632, in
the city of York, of a good
family, though on one side not
native, my father being a
foreigner from Bremen, who
had settled at Hull. Having made his
fortune by trading, he retired to York: from
that town he had married my mother, whose
relations were named Robinson, after whom
I was christened Robinson. Kreutznaer was
my father's name; but, by the usual corrup-
tion of words in England, we are now called,
nay, we call ourselves and write our name,






ADVENTURES OF


Crusoe; and so my companions always
called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was
lieutenant-colonel to an English regiment of
foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by
the famous Colonel Lockhart, but he was
killed at the battle fought near Dunkirk
against the Spaniards. What became of
my second brother I never knew, any more
than my father or mother knew what after-
wards became of me.
Being the third son of the family, and
not bred to any trade, my head began to be
filled very early with rambling thoughts.
My father, who was of the old school, had
given me a competent share of learning, as
far as house-education and a country free-
school generally go. He designed me for
the law, but I would be satisfied with nothing
but going to sea; and my inclination to this
led me so strongly against the will, nay, the
commands of my father, and against all the
entreaties and persuasions of my mother and
other friends, that there seemed to be some-
thing fatal in the perversity with which my
nature tended directly to that life of misery
which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave
me serious and excellent counsel against
what he foresaw was my design. He called
me one morning into his chamber, where
he was confined by the gout, and expostu-







ROBINSON CRUSOE 3

lated very warmly with me upon this subject.
He asked me what reasons, more than a
mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving
my father's house and my native country,
where I might be well introduced, and had
a prospect of raising my fortune by applica-
tion and industry, so as to enjoy a life of















ease and pleasure. He told me it was men
of desperate fortunes on the one hand, or of
restless ambition on the other, who went
abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise,
and make themselves famous in undertakings
of a nature out of the common road; that
these things were all either too far above
me, or too far below me; that mine was the
middle state, or what might be called the
upper station of the lower class, which he






ADVENTURES OF


had found, by long experience, was the best
state in the world-the most suited to
human happiness, not exposed to the
miseries and hardships, the toil and suffer-
ings, of the handicraft part of mankind, and
not embarrassed with the pride, luxury,
ambition, and envy of the upper section of
society. He told me I might judge of the
happiness of this state by this one thing,
namely, that this was the state of life which
all other people envied; that kings have
frequently lamented the miserable conse-
quences of being born to great things, and
wished they had been placed in the middle
of the two extremes, between the mean and
the great; that the Wise Man gave his
testimony to this, as the just standard of
true happiness, when he prayed to have
neither poverty nor riches.
After this he pressed me earnestly, and
in the most affectionate manner, not to play
the young man, nor to precipitate myself
into miseries, which nature, and the station
of life I was born in, seemed to have provided
against; that I was under no necessity of
earning my bread; that he would do well
for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly
into the station of life which he had just
been recommending; that if ease and
happiness were not in store for me, I should
have none but myself to blame; and that he
should have nothing whatever to answer for,






ROBINSON CRUSOE


having thus discharged his duty in warning
me against measures which he knew would
be to my hurt.
I observed in this last part of his warning,
which was truly prophetic, though I suppose
my father did not know it to be so himself
-I say, I observed the tears run down his
face very plentifully, and when he alluded
to my probable misfortunes, with none to
assist me, he was so moved that he broke
off the conversation, and told me his heart
was so full he could say no more.
I was sincerely affected by what my father
had said; and, indeed, who could be other-
wise ? so I resolved not to think any more
of going abroad, but to settle at home,
according to my father's desire. But, alas !
a few days wore off the impression; and, in
short, to prevent any of my father's- further
importunities, in a few weeks after I resolved
to run quite away from him. However, I
did not act so hastily as the first heat of my
resolution prompted, for I took my mother
at a time when I thought her a little
pleasanter than ordinary, and told her that
my thoughts were so entirely bent upon
seeing the world, that I should never settle
to anything with resolution enough to go
through with it, and my father had better
give me his consent, than force me to go
without it; that I was now eighteen years
old, which was too late to go apprentice to






AD VENTURES OF


a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was
sure, if I did, I should never serve out my
time, but I should certainly run away from
my master before my time was out, and go
to sea. I begged she would ask my father
to let me go one voyage abroad, promising
that, if I did not like it, I would go no more,
but, by a double diligence, recover the time
lost.
This put my mother into a great passion.
She told me she knew it would be to no
purpose to speak to my father upon such a
subject; that he knew my interest too well
to give his consent to anything so much to
my disadvantage. For her own part, she
wondered how I could think of any such
thing, after the conversation I had had with
my father, and in the face of such kind and
tender expressions as she knew he had used
to me, and that, in short, if I would ruin
myself, there was no help for it; but I might
depend upon it I should never have their
consent to do so.
Though my mother refused to broach the
subject to my father, yet I afterwards heard
that she reported everything to him, and
that my father, after showing great concern
at it, said to her, with a sigh-' That boy
might be happy if he would stay at home,
but if he goes abroad he will be the most
miserable wretch that ever was born: I can
give no consent to it.'






ROBINSON CRUSOE


It was not till almost a year after this
that I broke loose, though, in the meantime,
I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals
of settling to business, frequently expostulat-
ing with my father and mother about their
being so positively determined against that
to which they knew my inclination prompted
me. But being one day at Hull, whither I
had gone by mere chance, without any
purpose of running away at that time,-I
say, being there, one of my companions,
who was going by sea to London in his
father's ship, pressed me to go with him,
using the common allurement of a seafaring
man, that it should cost me nothing for my
passage. I consulted neither father nor
mother any more, nor so much as sent them
word of my intentions, but leaving them to
hear of it as they might-without asking
God's blessing or my father's, without any
consideration of circumstances or conse-
quences, and in an evil hour-on September
I, 165 1, I went on board a ship bound for
London. Never, I believe, did any young
adventurer's misfortunes begin sooner, or
continue longer, than mine. The ship had
no sooner got out of the Humber than the
wind began to blow, and the sea to rise, in
a most frightful manner; and, as I had
never been at sea before, I was most in-
expressibly sick in body, and terrified in
mind. I now began seriously to reflect how






ADVENTURES OF


justly I was overtaken by the judgment of
Heaven for wickedly leaving my father's
house and abandoning my duty. All the
good counsel of my parents, my father's
tears and my mother's entreaties, now came
fresh into my mind; and my conscience,
which had not yet reached that pitch of
hardness in which it has since been, re-
proached me with my contempt of advice,
and my breach of duty to God and my
father.
All this while the storm increased, and
the sea ran very high, though nothing like
what I have often seen since-no, nor like
what I saw a few days after; but at
that time it was enough to affect me, being
but a young sailor, who had never known
anything of the matter. I expected every
wave would have swallowed us up, and that
every time the ship plunged down into the
trough or hollow of the sea, we should never
rise again. In this agony of mind, I made
many vows and resolutions, that, if it pleased
God to spare my life in this one voyage, if
ever I got my foot upon dry land again, I
would never set it in a ship while I lived;
that I would take my father's advice, and
never run myself into such miseries as these
any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness
of my father's observations about the middle
station of life, how easy, how comfortable he
had lived all his days, without having been






ROBINSON CRUSOE


exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles on
shore; and, in short, I resolved that I would,
like a true repenting prodigal, go home to
my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued
all the while the storm continued, and,
indeed, some time after; but the next day
the wind abated and the sea became calmer,
so I began to be a little inured to it. How-
ever, I was very grave all that day, being
still a little sea-sick; but towards night the
weather cleared up, the wind lulled, and a
charming evening followed; the sun went
down perfectly clear, and rose brilliant the
next morning, so that the smoothness of the
sea, with the sun shining upon it, appeared to
me the most delightful sight I had ever seen.
I had slept well in the night, and was
now no longer sea-sick, but very cheerful;'
looking with wonder upon the sea, that was
so rough and terrible the day before, and
could be so calm and pleasant so shortly
after. And now, lest my good resolutions
should continue, my companion, who had
indeed enticed me away, comes to me:-
'Well, Bob,' said he, clapping me upon
the shoulder, 'how do you do after it? I
warrant you were frightened, weren't you,
last night, when it blew but a capful of
wind ?'
'A capful, d'you call it,' said I, "twas a
terrible storm.'






ADVENTURES OF


'A storm, you fool,' replies he, 'do you
call that a storm ? Why, it was nothing at
all; give us but a good ship and sea room,
and we think nothing of such a squall of
wind as that; but you're but a fresh-water
sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of
punch, and we'll forget all that. Do you
see what charming weather 'tis now ?'
To make short this sad part of my story,
we went the way of all sailors; the punch
was made, and I was made half drunk with
it, and in that one night's wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all my reflec-
tions upon my past conduct, and all my
resolutions for the future. In a word, just
as the sea had returned to its smoothness
of surface and settled calmness, by the
abatement of that storm, so my troubled
thoughts being over, my fears and apprehen-
sions of being swallowed up by the sea
being forgotten, and the current of my
former desires having returned, I entirely
forgot the vows and promises that I had
made in my distress. I found, indeed,
some intervals of reflection ; and my serious
thoughts sometimes did, as it were, endea-
vour to return again ; but I shook them off,
and roused myself from them, as if from a
distemper; and, applying myself to drinking
and company, soon mastered the return of
those fits (for so I called them). Thus I
had, in five or six days, got as complete a






ROBINSON CRUSOE


victory over conscience as any young fellow
resolved not to be troubled with it could
desire. But I was to have still another
chance, and Providence resolved to leave
me entirely without excuse; for if I would
not take the first trial for a deliverance, the
next was to be one respecting which the
worst and most hardened wretch among us
would confess both the danger and the
mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea, we
came into the Yarmouth roads; the wind
having been contrary, and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm.
Here we were obliged to come to anchor,
and here we lay, the wind continuing con-
trary -namely, south-west-for seven or
eight days, during which time a great many
ships from Newcastle came into the same
roads, as the common harbour, where the
ships might wait for a wind for the river
Thames.
After we had lain here four or five days,
the wind continued to blow very hard.
However, the roads being reckoned as good
as a harbour, the anchorage safe, and our
ground-tackle very strong, our men were
unconcerned, and not in the least apprehen-
sive of danger, but spent the time in rest
and mirth, after the manner of seamen.
But the eighth day, in the morning, the
wind increased, and we had all hands at






ADVENTURES OF


work to strike our topmasts, and make
everything snug and close, that the ship
might ride as easy as possible. By noon
the sea ran very high indeed; and our
vessel shipped several seas, and we thought
once or twice our anchor had parted; upon
which our master ordered out the sheet
anchor, so that we rode with two anchors
ahead.
By this time it blew a terrible storm
indeed, and now I began to see terror and
amazement in the faces even of the seamen
themselves. The master, though vigilant
in the business of preserving the ship, yet,
as he went in and out of his cabin by me,
I could hear him say softly to himself,
several times, Lord, be merciful to us we
shall be all lost, we shall be undone,' and
the like. During all this confusion I was
stupid, lying still in my cabin, in a frame of
mind I cannot describe. I could ill resume
the first penitence, which I had so obstin-
ately trampled upon and hardened myself
against. I thought the bitterness of death
had been past, and that this, too, would be
nothing like the first. But when the master
himself came by me, as I said just now, and
said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully
frightened. I got up and looked out; but
such a dismal sight I never saw; the sea
rose mountains high, and broke upon us
every three or four minutes. When I could






ROBINSON CRUSOE


look about, I could see nothing but distress
around us. Two ships that rode near us,
we found had cut their masts by the board,
and our men cried out that a ship, which
rode about a mile ahead of us, had foundered.
Two more ships, being driven from their
anchors, had run out of the roads to sea,
and that with not a mast standing. The
light ships fared the best, as not labouring so
much in the sea; but two or three of them
drove close by us, running away, with only
their sprit-sail out, before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain
begged the master of our ship to let them
cut away the fore-mast, which he was very
unwilling to do; but the boatswain protest-
ing to him, that if he did not, the ship would
founder, he consented; and when they had
cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood
so loose, and shook the ship so much, they
were obliged to cut it away also, and make
a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I
must have been in on seeing all this-I,
who was so young a sailor, and who had
been in such a fright before at but little.
But, if I can express at this distance the
thoughts I had at that time, I was in tenfold
more horror of mind on account of my former
convictions, that is, for having returned from
them to the resolutions I had wickedly taken
at first, than I was at death itself; and these,






ADVENTURES OF


added to the terrors of the storm, put me
into such a condition, that I can by no
words describe it. But the worst had not
yet come; the storm continued with such
fury, that the seamen themselves acknow-
ledged they had never seen a worse. We
had a good ship, but she was deeply laden,
and she so wallowed in the sea, that the
seamen every now and then cried out she
would founder. It was my advantage, in
one respect, that I did not know what they
meant by 'founder,' till I inquired. How-
ever, the storm was so violent, that I saw
what is not often seen, the master, the boat-
swain, and some others, more sensible than
the rest, at their prayers-expecting every
moment that the ship would go to the bottom.
In the middle of the night, and under all
the rest of our distresses, one of the men
that had been down on purpose to see, cried
out we had sprung a leak; another said
there were four feet of water in the hold.
Then all hands were called to the pump.
At that very word my heart, as I thought,
died within me, and I fell backwards upon
the side of the bed where I sat, into the
cabin. However, the men roused me, and
told me, that I, who was able to do nothing
before, was as well able to pump as another,
at which I stirred up, and went to the pump,
and worked very heartily. While this was
being done, the master, seeing some light






ROBINSON CRUSOE


colliers, who, unable to ride out the storm,
were obliged to slip their anchors and run
away to sea, ordered a gun to be fired as a
signal of distress. I, who knew not .what
that meant, was so surprised that I thought
the ship had foundered, or some dreadful
thing happened. In a word, I was so sur-
prised that I fell down in a swoon. As this
was a time when everybody had his own life
to think of, nobody minded me, or what was
to become of me ; but another man stepped
up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with
his foot, let me lie, thinking I was dead;
and it was a great while before I came to
myself.
We worked on, but, the water increasing
in the hold, it was apparent that the ship
would go down, and though the storm began
to abate a little, yet, as it was not possible
she could float till we might run into port,
so the master continued firing guns for help;
and at last a light-ship, just ahead of us,
ventured a boat out to help us. It was at
the utmost risk that the boat came near us,
but it was impossible for us to get on board,
or for the boat to lie near the ship-side. At
length, the men rowing very heartily, and
venturing their lives to save ours, our men
cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy
to it, and then veered it out a great length.
This they, after much labour and risk, took
hold of, and we hauled them close under our






ADVENTURES OF


stern, and all got into their boat. It was
useless for them, after we were in the boat,
to think of reaching their own ship; so all
agreed to let her drive before the wind, and
only to pull her in towards the shore, as much
as we could; and our master promised the
men, that if the boat was staved upon shore,
he would make it good to their master. So
partly rowing and partly driving; our boat
went away to the northward, sloping towards
the shore, almost as far as Wintertonness.
We were not much more than a quarter
of an hour out of our ship, before we saw
her sink; and then I understood, for the
first time, what was meant by a ship founder-
ing at sea. I must acknowledge I had
hardly eyes to look up, when the seamen told
me she was sinking; for my heart was as it
were dead within me, partly with fright,
partly with horror of mind, and the thought
of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men
yet labouring at the oar to bring the boat
near the shore, we could see (when our boat
mounted the waves, we were able to see the
shore) a great many people running along
the strand to assist us when we should come
near. But we made but slow way towards
the shore; nor were we able to reach it till
beyond the light-house at Winterton, where
the shore falls off to the westward towards
Cromer, and therefore breaks off a little the






ROBINSON CRUSOE


violence of the wind. Here we got in; and,
though not without much difficulty, got all
safe on shore. We walked afterwards to
Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we
were used with great humanity, as well by
the magistrates of the town, who assigned
us good quarters, as by particular merchants
and owners of ships. We also had money
given us to carry us either to London, or
back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone
back to Hull, and thence home, I would
have been happy, and my father, an emblem
of our blessed Saviour's parable, would even
have killed the fatted calf for me: for
although he had heard that the ship I had
gone away in had been cast away in Yar-
mouth roads, he was still unfortunately with-
out any assurance of the fact that I was not
drowned.
But my ill fate now pushed me on with
an obstinacy that nothing could resist; and
though I had several times loud calls from
my reason and my more composed judgment
to go home, yet I had no power to comply.
My comrade, who had helped to harden
me before, and who was the master's son, was
now less forward than I. The first time he
spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which
was not till two or three days, for we were
separated in the town to several quarters-
I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared






ADVENTURES OF


his tone was altered. Looking very melan-
choly and shaking his head, asked me how
I did; and telling his father who I was,
and how I had come this voyage only for a
trial, in order to go farther abroad, his father
turned to me with a very grave and con-
cerned tone :
'Young man,' says he, you ought never
to go to sea any more; you ought to take
this for a plain and visible token, that you
are not to be a seafaring man.'
'Why, sir,' said I, 'will you go to sea no
more ?'
'That is another case,' said he, 'it is my
calling, and therefore my duty; but, as you
made this voyage for a trial, you see what a
taste Heaven has given you of what you are
to expect, if you persist; perhaps all this
has befallen us on your account, like Jonah
in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,' continued
he, 'what are you? and on what account
did you go to sea ?'
Upon that I told him some of my story;
at the end of which he burst out with a
strange kind of passion, What have I done,'
says he, that such an unhappy wretch should
come into my ship? I would not set my
foot in the same ship with thee again for a
thousand pounds!'
This, indeed, was, as I said, an excursion
of his spirits, which were yet agitated by the
sense of his loss and was farther than he





ROBINSON CRUSOE


could have authority to go. However, he
afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhort-
ing me to go back to my father, and not
tempt Providence to my ruin; adding, I
might see a visible hand of Heaven against
me: 'and, young man,' said he, 'depend
upon it, if you do not go back, wherever
you go, you will meet with nothing but dis-
asters and disappointments till your father's
words are fulfilled upon you.'
We parted soon after; for I made him
little answer, and I saw him no more: which
way he went I know not. As for me, hav-
ing some money in my pocket, I travelled
to London by land, and there, as well as on
the road, had many struggles with myself
what course of life I should take, and
whether I should go home, or go to sea.
As to going home, a sense of shame opposed
the best inclinations I had; and it immedi-
ately occurred to me how I should be
laughed at among the neighbours, and
should be ashamed to see, not my father
and mother only, but 'even everybody
else.
In this condition, however, I remained
some time, uncertain what measures to take,
and what course of life to lead. An irresist-
ible reluctance continued to going home;
and, as I delayed awhile, the remembrance
of the distress I had been in wore off; and
as that abated, the little desire I had to






20 ROBINSON CRUSOE

return lessened and at last quite disappeared.
So I looked out for a ship.
That evil influence which carried me first
away from my father's house, which hurried
me into the wild and absurd notion of mak-
ing my fortune, and that impressed those
conceits so forcibly upon me as to make
me deaf to all good advice, and to the
entreaties and even the commands of my
father;-I say, the same influence, whatever
it was, presented the most unfortunate of all
enterprises to my view, and I went on board
a vessel bound on a voyage to the coast of
Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a
voyage to Guinea.

















CHAPTER II

I fall in with a sea captain trading to Guinea-
Engage with him as supercargo and return with
a well-filled purse-Make a second venture and
am captured by the Moors-Become a slave-
Escape in my former boat and make for the west
coast of Africa-Rescued by a Portugueser bound
for Brazil-Settle there as a planter-Join a slave
ship and am wrecked on a desert Island.

T was my lot to fall into pretty
good company in London,
which does not always happen
to such loose and unguided
young fellows as I then was;
the devil generally not omitting to lay some
snare for them very early; but it was not so
with me. I first fell acquainted with the
master of a ship who had been on the coast
of Guinea; and who, having had very good
success there, was resolved to go again.
This captain taking a fancy to my conversa-
tion, which was not at all disagreeable at that
time, hearing me say I had a mind to see






ADVENTURES OF


the world, told me if I would go the voyage
with him I should be at no expense; I
should be his messmate and his companion,
and if I could carry anything with me I
should have all the advantage of it that the
trade would admit, and perhaps I might
meet with some encouragement.
I embraced the offer, and entering into a
strict friendship with this captain, who was
an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the
voyage with him, and carried a small adven-
ture with me, which, by the disinterested
honesty of my friend the captain, I in-
creased very considerably, for I carried
about 40 in such toys and trifles as the
captain directed me to buy. In a word,
this voyage made me both a sailor and a
merchant, for I brought home five pounds
nine ounces of gold dust for my adventure,
which yielded me in London at my return
almost 300.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader, and
my friend, to my great misfortune, dying
soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the
same voyage again; and I embarked in the
same vessel with one who was his mate in
the former voyage and had now got the
command of the ship. This was the un-
happiest voyage that ever man made, for I
fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage.
The first was this, namely, our ship making
her course towards the Canary Islands, or






ROBINSON CRUSOE


rather between those islands and the African
shore, was surprised in the gray of the
morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee, who
gave chase to us with all the sail she could
make. We crowded also as much canvas
as our yards would spread, or our masts
carry, to have got clear; but finding the
pirate gained upon us, and would certainly
come up with us in a few hours, we prepared
to fight, our ship having twelve guns and
the rogue eighteen. However, to cut short
this melancholy part of our story, our ships
being disabled and three of our men killed
and eight wounded, we were obliged to
yield, and were carried all prisoners into
Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors. The
usage I had there was not so dreadful as at
first I apprehended, nor was I carried up
the country to the emperor's court as the
rest of our men were, but was kept by the
captain of the rover as his proper prize, and
made his slave, being young and nimble and
fit for the business.
As my new patron, or master, had taken
me home to his house, so I was in hopes
that he would take me with him when he
went to. sea again, believing that it would
sometime or other be his fate to be taken by
a Spanish or Portugal man of war, and that
then I should be set at liberty. But this
hope of mine was soon taken away, for when
he went to sea he left me on shore to look






ADVENTURES OF


after his little garden and do the common
drudgery of slaves about his house, and
when he came home again from his cruise
he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look
after the ship. Here I meditated nothing
but my escape and what method I might
take to effect it, but found no way that had
the least probability in it.
After about two years an odd circumstance
presented itself which put the old thought of
making some attempt for my liberty again
in my head. My patron lying at home
longer than usual without fitting out his
ship, which, as I heard, was for want of
money, he used constantly, once or twice a
week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was
fair, to take the ship's pinnace and go into
the road a-fishing. As he always took me
and a young Maresco with him to row the
boat we made him very merry, and I proved
very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch
that he would sometimes send me with a
Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the young
Maresco to catch a dish of fish for him.
We went frequently out with this boat a-
fishing, and as I was most dexterous to
catch fish for him he never went without me.
It happened that he had appointed to go out
in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish,
with two or three Moors of some distinction
in that place, and for whom he had provided
extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on






ROBINSON CRUSOE


board the boat overnight a larger store of
provisions than ordinary. He had ordered
me to get ready three fuzees with powder
and shot, which were on board his ship, for
that they designed some sport of fowling as
well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed,
and waited the next morning with the boat
washed clean, her ancient and pendants out,
and everything to accommodate his guests,
when by and by my patron came on board
alone and told me his guests had put off
going, upon some business that fell out, and
ordered me with the man and boy, as usual,
to go out with the boat and catch them some
fish, for that his friends were to sup at his
house; all which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of de-
liverance darted into my thoughts, for now
I found I was like to have a little ship at my
command. My master being gone, I pre-
pared to furnish myself, not for fishing
business, but for a voyage; though I knew
not, neither did I so much as consider,
whither I should steer, for anywhere, to get
out of that place, was my way. We were
not above a mile out of the port before we
hauled in our sail.
After I had fished some time and in-
tentionally caught nothing, I said to the
Moor: 'This will not do; our master will
not thus be served; we must stand farther






ADVENTURES OF


after his little garden and do the common
drudgery of slaves about his house, and
when he came home again from his cruise
he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look
after the ship. Here I meditated nothing
but my escape and what method I might
take to effect it, but found no way that had
the least probability in it.
After about two years an odd circumstance
presented itself which put the old thought of
making some attempt for my liberty again
in my head. My patron lying at home
longer than usual without fitting out his
ship, which, as I heard, was for want of
money, he used constantly, once or twice a
week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was
fair, to take the ship's pinnace and go into
the road a-fishing. As he always took me
and a young Maresco with him to row the
boat we made him very merry, and I proved
very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch
that he would sometimes send me with a
Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the young
Maresco to catch a dish of fish for him.
We went frequently out with this boat a-
fishing, and as I was most dexterous to
catch fish for him he never went without me.
It happened that he had appointed to go out
in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish,
with two or three Moors of some distinction
in that place, and for whom he had provided
extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on






ROBINSON CRUSOE


board the boat overnight a larger store of
provisions than ordinary. He had ordered
me to get ready three fuzees with powder
and shot, which were on board his ship, for
that they designed some sport of fowling as
well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed,
and waited the next morning with the boat
washed clean, her ancient and pendants out,
and everything to accommodate his guests,
when by and by my patron came on board
alone and told me his guests had put off
going, upon some business that fell out, and
ordered me with the man and boy, as usual,
to go out with the boat and catch them some
fish, for that his friends were to sup at his
house; all which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of de-
liverance darted into my thoughts, for now
I found I was like to have a little ship at my
command. My master being gone, I pre-
pared to furnish myself, not for fishing
business, but for a voyage; though I knew
not, neither did I so much as consider,
whither I should steer, for anywhere, to get
out of that place, was my way. We were
not above a mile out of the port before we
hauled in our sail.
After I had fished some time and in-
tentionally caught nothing, I said to the
Moor: 'This will not do; our master will
not thus be served; we must stand farther







ADVENTURES OF


off.' He, thinking no harm, agreed, and
being in the head of the boat set the sails.
As I had the helm I ran the boat out near a
league farther, and then' brought her to as if
I would fish; when, giving the boy the helm,
I stepped forward to where the Moor was,


i ;*--


and making as if I stooped for something
behind him, I took him by surprise with my
arm under his twist and tossed him clear
overboard into the sea. He rose immedi-
ately, for he swam like a cork, and calling
to me begged to be taken in, telling me he
would go all over the world with me. He
swam so strong after the boat that he would






ROBINSON CRUSOE


have reached me very quickly, there being
but little wind; upon which I stepped into
the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-
pieces I presented it at him, and told him I
had done him no harm, and if he would be
quiet I would do him none. 'But,' said I,
'you swim well enough to reach the shore,
and the sea is calm. Make the best of your
way to the shore and I will do you no hurt;
but if you come near the boat I will shoot
you through the head, for I am resolved to
have my liberty.' So he turned himself
about, and I make no doubt but he reached
the shore with ease, for he was an excellent
swimmer. I could have been content to
have taken this Moor with me, and have
drowned the boy, but there was no venturing
to trust him. When he was gone I turned
to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said
to him, Xury, if you will be faithful to me I
will make you a great man; but if you will
not stroke your face to be true to me '-that
is, swear by Mahomet and his father's
beard-' I must throw you into the sea too.'
The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so
innocently, that I could not mistrust him,
and swore to be faithful to me, and go all
over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was
swimming, I stood out directly to sea with
the boat, rather stretching to windward
that they might think me gone towards the






ADVENTURES OF


Straits' mouth. But as soon as it grew
dusk in the evening, I changed my course,
and steered directly south and by east, bend-
ing my course a little towards the east, that
I might keep in with the shore. Having a
fair, fresh gale of wind and a smooth, quiet
sea, I made such sail that I believe by the
next day at three o'clock in the afternoon,
when I first made the land, I could not be
less than 150 miles south of Sallee; quite
beyond the Emperor of Morocco's dominions,
or, indeed, of any other king thereabouts,
for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at
the Moors, and the dreadful apprehensions
I had of falling into their hands, that I
would not stop, or go oi shore, or come to
an anchor. The wind continuing fair till I
had sailed in that manner five days, and
then the wind shifting to southward, I con-
cluded also that if any of our vessels were in
chase of me they also would now give over.
So I ventured to make to the coast, and
came to an anchor in the mouth of a little
river, I knew not what or where; neither
what latitude, what country, what nation, or
what river. I neither saw nor desired to
see any people. The principal thing I
wanted was fresh water. We came into
this creek in the evening, resolving to swim
on shore as soon as it was dark, and dis-
cover the country. But as soon as it was






ROBINSON CRUSOE


quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of
the barking, roaring, and howling of wild
creatures of we knew not what kinds, that
the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and
begged of me not to go on shore till day.
'Well, Xury,' said I, 'then I won't, but it
may be we may see men by day who will be
as bad to us as those lions.' Then we give
them the shoot gun,' says Xury, laughing,
'make them run wey.' Such English Xury
spoke by conversing among us slaves.
However, I was glad to see the boy so
cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of our
patron's case of bottles) to cheer him further.
After all, Xury's advice was good, and I
took it. We dropped our little anchor and
lay still all night. I say still, for we slept
none; for in two or three hours we saw vast
great creatures (we knew not what to call
them) of many sorts, come down to the sea-
shore and run into the water, wallowing and
washing themselves for the pleasure of cool-
ing themselves. They made such hideous
howlings and yelling that I never, indeed,
heard the like. This convinced me that
there was no going on shore for us in the
night upon that coast, and how to venture
in the day was another question too; for to
have fallen into the hands of any of the
savages had been as bad as to have fallen a
prey to lions and tigers.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to






ADVENTURES OF


go on shore. 'Well, go,' said I. So the
boy jumped into the water, and taking a
little gun in one hand swam to shore with
the other. Coming close to the creature he
put the muzzle of the piece to his ear and
shot him in the head again, which dispatched
him quite.
After this stop, we made on to the south-
ward continually for ten or twelve days,
living very sparingly on our provisions,
which began to abate very much, and going
no oftener to the shore than we were obliged
to for fresh water. My design in this was
to make the river Gambia or Senegal, that
is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd,
where I was in hopes to meet with some
European ship. If I did not, I knew not
what course to take, but to seek for the
islands or perish there among the negroes.
I knew that all the ships from Europe which
sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to
Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this
Cape, or those islands; and, in a word, I put
the whole of my fortune upon this single
point-either that I must meet with some
ship or must perish.
I made forward for about eleven days
more, without offering to go near the shore,
till I saw the land run out a great length
into the sea at about the distance of four or
five leagues before me. The sea being very
calm, I kept a large offing to make this






ROBINSON CRUSOE


point. At length, doubling the point, at
about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side, to seaward.
Then I concluded, as it was most certain
indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd and
those the islands, called from thence Cape
de Verd Islands. However, they were at a
great distance, and I could not well tell what
I had best do, for if I should be taken with
a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one
or other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive,
I stepped into the cabin and sat me down,
Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden,
the boy cried out, 'Master, master, a ship
with a sail!' and the foolish boy was
frightened out of his wits, thinking it must
needs be some of his master's ships
sent to pursue us, when I knew we were
gotten far enough out of their reach. I
jumped out of the cabin and immediately
saw not only the ship, but what she was,
viz. that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I
thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea
for negroes. But when I observed the
course she steered I was soon convinced
they were bound some other way and did
not design to come any nearer to the shore.
Upon which I stretched out to sea as much
as I could, resolving to speak with them if
possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I
D






ADVENTURES OF


should not be able to come in their way,
but that they would be gone by before I
could make any signal to them. But after
I had crowded to the utmost and began to
despair, they, it seems, saw me by the help
of their perspective glasses, and that it was
some European boat which they supposed
must belong to some ship that was lost. So
they shortened sail to let me come up. I











was encouraged with this, and as I had my
patron's flag on board, I made a waft of it
to them for a signal of distress, and fired a
gun, both which they saw, for they told me
they saw the smoke though they did not
hear the gun. Upon these signals, they
very kindly brought to and lay by for me,
and in about three hours' time I came up
with them.
They asked me what I was in Portuguese,
in Spanish, and in French, but I answered
none of them. At last, a Scots sailor who






ROBINSON CRUSOE


was on board called to me, and I answered
him. I told him that I was an Englishman,
and that I had made my escape out of
slavery from the Moors at Sallee. They
then bade me come on board, and very
kindly took me in with all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which
any one will believe, that I was thus de-
livered, as I esteemed it, from such a miser-
able and almost hopeless condition as I was
in. I immediately offered all I had to the
captain of the ship as a return for my deliver-
ance; but he generously told me he would
take nothing from me, but that all I had
should be delivered safe to me when I came
to the Brazils. 'For,' says he, 'I have
saved your life on no other terms than I
would be glad to be saved myself, and it
may one time or other be my lot to be taken
up- in the same condition. Besides,' said
he, 'when I carry you to the Brazils, so
great a way from your own country, if I
take from you what you have, you will be
starved there, and then I only take away
that life I have given. No, no,' says he,
'Seignor Inglese' (Mr. Englishman), I will
carry you thither in charity, and those things
will help to buy your subsistence there and
your passage home again.'
As he was charitable in this proposal, so
he was just in the performance to a tittle,
for he ordered the seamen that none should






ADVENTURES OF


offer to touch anything I had. Then he took
everything into his own possession, and gave
me back an exact inventory of them that I
might have them, even so much as my three
earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one,
and that he saw, and told me he would buy
it of me for the ship's use, and asked me
what I would have for it. I told him he
had been so generous to me in everything
that I could not offer to make any price of
the boat, but left it entirely to him; and as
to Xury, on his saying he was willing to go, I
let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils,
and arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos,
or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two days
after. And now I was once more delivered
from the most miserable of all conditions of
life, and what to do with myself next I was
now to consider.
At length I made up my mind to become
a Planter; and with this view I took up my
quarters at an ingenio, as they call it, where
I learned the manner of planting and making
sugar. Meanwhile I arranged to get my
money (which I had left in London) remitted
to me so as to supply me with the necessary
capital. I then settled down and fairly set
to work upon my plantation with infinite
pains, foreseeing a profitable result in the
future. In short, after having lived four






ROBINSON CRUSOE


years in the Brazils I began to thrive and
prosper very well.
My fellow-planters were vastly interested
by my account of Guinea, the manner of
trading with the negroes there, and how easy
it was to purchase upon the coast for trifles-
such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets,
bits of glass, and the like-not only gold
dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, etc.,
but negroes for the service of the Brazils in
great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to
my discourses on these heads, but especially
to that part which related to the buying of
negroes, which was a trade at that time, not
only not far entered into, but, as far as it
was, had been carried on by the assientos,
or permission of the kings of Spain and
Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock,
so that few negroes were bought, and those
excessive dear.
It happened, being in company with some
merchants and planters of my acquaintance,
and talking of those things very earnestly,
three of them came to me the next morning
and told me they had been musing very
much upon what I had discoursed with them
of the last night, and they came to make a
secret proposal to me. After enjoining me
to secrecy, they told me that they had a
mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that
they had all plantations as well as I, and






ROBINSON CRUSOE


were straitened for nothing so much as
servants; that as it was a trade that could
not be carried on, because they could not
publicly sell the negroes when they came
home, so they desired to make but one
voyage, to bring the negroes on shore
privately, and divide them among their own
plantations. In a word, the question was,
whether I would go their supercargo in the
ship to manage the trading part upon the
coast of Guinea; and they offered me that I
should have my equal share of the negroes
without providing any part of the stock.
I took all possible caution to preserve my
effects, and to keep up my plantation. Had
I used half as much prudence to have looked
into my own interest, and have made a
judgment of what I ought to have done and
not to have done, I had certainly never gone
away from so prosperous an undertaking,
leaving all the probable views of a thriving
circumstance, and gone upon a voyage to
sea, attended with all its common hazards,
to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect
particular misfortunes to myself. But I was
hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates
of my fancy rather than my reason. Ac-
cordingly, the ship was fitted out and the
cargo furnished, and all things done as by
agreement by my partners in the voyage.

















CHAPTER III

I go on board Ship bound for Africa-Driven out of
our Course by a Hurricane- Find ourselves off
the coast of South America-Wrecked on a Sand-
bank-All hands lost except myself-Land and
settle on the Island.

WENT on board in an evil hour
again, for, as it happened, it
was the first of September, being
the same day on which I deserted
my father and mother, in order
to act the rebel to their authority, and the
fool to my own interests. Our ship was
about 120 tons burden, carried six guns and
fourteen men, besides the master, his boy,
and myself. We. had on board no large
cargo of goods except such toys as were fit
for our trade with the negroes; such as beads,
bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especi-
ally little looking-glasses, knives, scissors,
hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set






ADVENTURES OF


sail, standing away to about o10 or 12 of
northern latitude, which, it seems, was the
manner of their course in those days. We
had very good weather till we lost sight of
land. We then steered as if we were bound
for the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding
our course NE. by N., leaving those isles
on the east. In this course we passed the
Line in about twelve days' time, and were,
by our last observation, in 7 22' northern
latitude, when a violent tornado or hurricane
took us quite out of our reckoning. It
began from the SE., came about to the NW.,
and then settled into the NE., whence it
blew in such a terrible manner, that for
twelve days together we could do nothing
but drive; and scudding away before the
wind, we let it carry us wherever fate and
the fury of the winds directed. During
these twelve days, I need not say that I
expected every day to be swallowed up, nor
did any in the ship expect to save their
lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror
of the storm, one of our men dead of sun-
stroke, and one man and the boy washed
overboard. About the twelfth day, the
weather abating a little, the master made
an observation as well as he could, and
found that he was in about x I north latitude,
but that he was 220 of longitude difference
west from Cape St. Augustino, so that he






ROBINSON CRUSOE


found he was upon the coast of Guyana, or
the north part of Brazil, beyond the river
Amazons, towards the river Orinoco,
commonly called the Great River; and now
he began to consult with me what course he
should take, for the ship was leaky and very
much disabled, and he was for going directly
home again.
I was positively against that; and looking
over the charts of the sea-coast of America
with him, we concluded there was no in-
habited country for us to have recourse to
till we came within the circle of the Caribbee
Islands. We therefore resolved to stand
away for Barbadoes, which by keeping off
at sea, to avoid the indraught of the bay or
gulf of Mexico, we might easily reach, as
we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; whereas
we could not possibly make our voyage to
the coast of Africa without some assistance
both to our ship and to ourselves.
With this design we changed our course,
and steered away NW. by W., in order to
reach some of our English islands, where
we hoped for relief. But our voyage was
otherwise determined; for, when in the
latitude of 12 18', a second storm came
upon us, which carried us away with the
same impetuosity westward, and drove us
so far out of the way of all human commerce,
that even supposing our lives to be saved
from shipwreck, we had a better chance of






ADVENTURES OF


being devoured by savages than of returning
to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing
very hard, one of our men, early one morning,
cried out land! and we had no sooner run
out of the cabin to look out in hopes of
seeing whereabouts in the world we were,
than the ship struck upon a sandbank, and,
in a moment, her motion being thus stopped,
the sea broke over her in such a manner
that we expected we should all have perished.
We were immediately driven into our close
quarters, to shelter ourselves from the very
foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not
been in a similar condition, to describe or
conceive the consternation of men in such
circumstances. We knew not where we
were, or upon what land it was we had
driven, whether an island or the mainland,
whether inhabited or not inhabited! and as
the rage of the wind was still great, though
rather less than at first, we could not so
much as hope that the ship would hold
many minutes without breaking in pieces,
unless the wind, by a kind of miracle, should
veer immediately about. In a word, we sat
looking upon one another, expecting death
every moment; every man acting as if in
preparation for another world, for there was
little or nothing more for us to do in this.
Our present comfort, and indeed all the






ROBINSON CRUSOE


comfort we had, was, that contrary to our
expectation, the ship did not yet break up,
and that the master said the wind began to
abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind
did a little abate, yet the ship having thus
struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast
for us to expect to get her off, we were in a
dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing
to do but to think of saving our lives as well
as we could. We had a boat at our stern
just before the storm, but she was first staved
by dashing against the ship's rudder, and in
the next place she broke away, and either
sank or was driven off to sea-so there was
no hope from her. We had another boat
on board, but how to get her off into the sea
was a doubtful thing. However, there was
no room for debate, for we fancied the ship
would break in pieces every minute; and
some said she had broken up already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel
laid hold of the boat, and, with the help of
the rest of the men, got her flung over the
ship's side. We then all leaped into her,
let go, and committed ourselves, eleven in
number, to God's mercy, and the wild sea.
For though the storm had abated consider-
ably, yet the sea ran dreadfully high upon
the shore, and might well be called Die
wilde See, as the Dutch call the sea in a
storm.






ADVENTURES OF


And now our case was very dismal in-
deed, for we all saw plainly that the sea ran
so high, that the boat could not live, and
that we should be inevitably drowned. As
to making sail, we had none; nor, if we had,
could we have done anything with it; so we
worked at the oar towards the land, though
with heavy hearts, like men going to
execution; for we all knew that when the
boat came near the shore, she would be
dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach
of the sea. However, we committed our-
selves to God in the most earnest manner,
and the wind driving us towards the shore, we
hastened our destruction with our own hands,
pulling, as well as we could, towards land.
What the shore was, whether rock or
sand, whether steep or shoal, we knew not;
the only hope that could rationally give us
the least shadow of expectation was, if we
might get into some bay or gulf, or the
mouth of some river, where, by great chance,
we might have run our boat in, or got under
the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth
water. But nothing of this appeared; on
the contrary, as we made nearer and nearer
the shore, the land looked more frightful
than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven,
about a league and a half, a raging wave,
mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and
plainly bade us expect our doom. In a word,






ROBINSON CRUSOE 45
it overset the boat at once, and separating us
as well from the boat as from one another,
gave us hardly time to say, 'O God for
we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of
thought which I felt when I sank in the
water; for though I swam very well, yet I
could not deliver myself from the waves so
as to draw my breath, till one wave had
carried me a vast way on towards the shore,
and having spent itself, went back, and left me
upon the land almost dry, but half dead with
the water I had taken in. I had so much
presence of mind, as well as breath left, that
seeing myself nearer the mainland than I
expected, I got upon my feet, and en-
deavoured to go on towards the land, as fast
as I could, before another wave should
return and take me up again. But I soon
found it was impossible to avoid it; for I
saw the sea come after me as high as a great
hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had
no means or strength to contend with. My
business was to hold my breath, and raise
myself upon the water, if I could, and so by
swimming to preserve my breathing, and
pilot myself towards the shore, if possible;
my greatest concern now being that the
wave, as it would carry me a great way
towards the shore when it came on, might
not carry me back again with it when it
recoiled towards the sea.






ADVENTURES OF


The wave that came upon me again buried
me at once twenty or thirty feet deep in its
own body, and I could feel myself carried
with a mighty force and swiftness towards
the shore a very great way; but I held my
breath, and made an effort to swim still
farther forward with all my might. I was
ready to burst with holding my breath, when,
as I felt myself rising up, to my immediate
relief, I found my head and hands shoot out
above the surface of the water; and though
it was not two seconds of time that I could
keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly,
giving me breath and new courage. I was
covered again with water a good while, but
not so long but I held out, and finding the
water had spent itself, and had begun to
return, I struck forward to escape the
advance of the waves, and felt ground again
with my feet. I stood still a few moments
to recover breath, and till the water went
from me, and then took to my heels, and
ran with what strength I had farther towards
the shore. But neither would this deliver
me from the fury of the sea, which came
pouring in after me again; and twice more
was I lifted up by the waves, and carried
forward as before, the shore being very
flat.
The last time of these two had well nigh
been fatal to me, for the sea having hurried
me along as before, landed me, or rather







ROBINSON CRUSOE 47

dashed me, against a piece of rock, and that
with such force as left me senseless, and
indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance;
for the blow taking my side and breast, beat
the breath, as it were, quite out of my body,
and, had it returned again immediately, I


must have been strangled in the water. But
I recovered a little before the return of the
waves, and seeing I should be covered again
with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a
piece of rock, and so to hold my breath, if
possible, till the wave went back. Now, as
the waves were not so high as at first, being
near land, I kept my hold till the wave






ADVENTURES OF


abated, and then made another run, which
brought me so near the shore, that the next
wave, though it went over me, did not so
swallow me up as to carry me away. The
next run I took I got to the mainland, where,
to my great comfort, I clambered up the
cliffs of the shore, and sat down upon the
grass, free from danger, and quite out of the
reach of the water.
I was now landed and safe on shore, and
began to look up and thank God that my
life was saved from a fate wherein there was,
some minutes before, scarce any room to
hope. I believe it is impossible to express
to the life what the ecstasies and transports
of the soul are when thus, saved, as I may
say, out of the very grave; and I do not
wonder now at that custom-namely, when
a malefactor, who has the halter about his
neck, is tied up, and just going to be turned
off, and has a reprieve brought to him-I
say, I do not wonder that they bring a
surgeon with him, to bleed him the very
moment they tell him of it, that the surprise
may not drive the animal spirits from the
heart, and overwhelm him-
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.'
I walked about on the shore, lifting up
my hands, and my whole being, as I may
say, wrapt in the contemplation of my
deliverance, making a thousand gestures





ROBINSON CRUSOE


and motions which I cannot describe, re-
flecting upon all my comrades that were
drowned, and that there should not be one
soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I
never saw them afterwards, or any signs of
them, except three of their hats, one cap,
and two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes towards the stranded
vessel, and seeing that, the breach and
froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly
discern it, it lay so far off-I considered,
Lord how was it possible I could have got
on shore.
After I had solaced my mind with the
comfortable part of my condition I began
to look around me to see what kind of
place I was in, and what was next to be done,
and I soon found my comforts abate, and that,
in a word, I had had a dreadful deliverance;
for I was wet, had no clothes for a change,
nor anything either to eat or drink to com-
fort me, neither did I see any prospect before
me but that of perishing of hunger, or being
devoured by wild beasts. But what was
particularly afflicting to me was, that I had
no weapon either to hunt and kill any
creature for my sustenance, or to defend
myself against the attacks of any creature
that might desire to kill me for theirs. In
a word, I had nothing about me but a knife,
a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a
box; this was all my provision, and this






ROBINSON CRUSOE


threw me into terrible agonies of mind, so
that for a while I ran about like a madman.
Night coming upon me, I began with a
heavy heart to consider what would be my
lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that
country, seeing at night they always come
abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that presented itself to
my thoughts at that time was, to get up into
a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny,
which grew near me : there I resolved to sit
all night, and consider the next day what
death I should die, for as yet I saw no pro-
spect of life. I walked about a furlong
from the shore, to see if I could find any
fresh water to drink, which I did to my
great joy; and having drunk, and put a
little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger,
I went to the tree, and getting up into it,
endeavoured to place myself so as that, if I
should sleep, I might not fall. Having cut
a short stick, like a truncheon, for my de-
fence, I took up my lodging; and being
excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and
slept as comfortably as I believe few could
have done in my condition; and I found my-
self more refreshed by it than I think I ever
was on such an occasion.


















CHAPTER IV

Appearance of the Wreck and Country next Day-
Swim on board of the Ship, and by means of a
contrivance get a quantity of Stores on Shore-
Shoot a Bird, but it turns out perfect Carrion-
Moralise upon my Situation-The Ship blown off
Land, and totally lost-Set out in search of a
proper Place for a Habitation-See numbers of
Goats-Melancholy reflections.

HEN I waked it was broad day,
the weather clear, and the storm
abated, so that the sea did not
rage and swell as before; but
that which surprised me most
was, that the ship had been lifted off from the
sand where she lay, by the swelling of the
tide, and driven up almost as far as the
rock which I mentioned, where I had been
so bruised by the sea dashing me against it.
This being within about a mile from the
shore where I was, and the ship still seem-
ing to stand upright, I wished myself on






ADVENTURES OF


board, that at least I might save some
necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment
in the tree, I looked about me again; and
the first thing I found was the boat, which
lay as the wind and sea had tossed her up
upon the land, about two miles on my right
hand. I walked as far as I could upon the
shore to get to her, but found a neck or
inlet of water between me and the boat,
which was about half a mile broad; so I
came back for the present, being more intent
upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to
find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon I found the sea very
calm; and the tide ebbed so far out, that I
could get within a quarter of a mile of the
ship; and here I found a fresh renewing of
my grief; for I saw that if we had kept on
board we would have all been safe, and
I had not been so miserable as to have
been left entirely destitute of all comfort and
company as I now was. This forced tears
from my eyes again, but as there was little
relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get
to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for
the weather was intensely hot, and took the
water. But when I came to the ship, my
difficulty was still greater to know how to
get on board, for as she lay aground and high
out of the water, there was nothing within
my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her






ROBINSON CRUSOE


twice, and the second time I espied a small
piece of rope, which I wondered I did not
see at first, hang down by the fore-chains,
so low that without great difficulty I got
hold of it, and by that means got up into the
forecastle of the ship. Here I found that
the ship was bulged, and had a great deal
of water in her hold, but that she lay so on
the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather
earth, that her stern was lifted up upon the
bank, and her head low almost to the water:
thus all her quarter was free, and all that
was in that part was dry; for you may be
sure my first work was to search and to see
what was spoiled and what was safe. And
first I found that all the ship's provisions
were dry and untouched by the water; and
being very well disposed to eat I went to
the bread room and filled my pockets with
biscuit, and ate it as I went about other
things, for I had no time to lose. I also
found some rum in the great cabin, of which
I took a large dram, and which I had in-
deed need enough of, to spirit me for what
was before me. Now I wanted nothing but
a boat to furnish myself with many things
which I foresaw would be very necessary to
me.
It was in vain to sit still, and wish for
what was not to be had; and this extremity
roused my application. We had several
spare yards, and two or three large spars of






ADVENTURES OF


wood, and a spare top-mast or two in the
ship; I resolved to fall to work with these,
and flung as many of them overboard as I
could, tying every one with a rope that
they might not drive away. When this was
done, I went down the ship's side, and
pulling them to me, I tied four of them fast
together at both ends as well as I could, in
the form of a raft; and laying two or three
short pieces of plank upon them crossways,
I found that I could walk upon it very well,
but that it was not able to bear any great
weight, the pieces being too light. So I set
to work, and with a carpenter's saw I cut a
spare top-mast into three lengths, and added
them to my raft; but the hope of furnishing
myself with necessaries encouraged me to
do more than I should have been able to
have done upon an ordinary occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear
any reasonable weight. My next care was
what to load it with, and how to preserve
what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea;
but I was not long considering this: I first
laid all the planks or boards upon it that I
could get, and having considered well what
I most wanted, I first got three of the sea-
men's chests which I had broken open and
emptied, and lowered them down upon my
raft. The first of these I filled with provi-
sions-namely, bread, rice, three Dutch
cheeses, pieces of dried goat's flesh, which






ROBINSON CRUSOE


we had lived much upon, and a little
remainder of European corn, which had been
laid by for some fowls which we brought to
sea with us, but which had been killed.
There had been some barley and wheat
together, but, to my great disappointment,
I found afterwards that the rats had eaten
or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found
several cases of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which were some cordial waters,
and in all about five or six gallons of
spirits; these I stowed by themselves, there
being no need to put them into the chest,
nor any room for them. While I was doing
this, I found the tide began to flow, though
very gently, and I had the mortification of
seeing my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which
I had left on shore upon the sand, float
away: as for my breeches, which were only
linen, and open-knee'd, I swam on board in
them and my stockings. However, this
suggested my rummaging for clothes,- of
which I found enough, but took no more
than I wanted for present use, for I had
more important things to look after, for
example, tools to work with on shore; and
it was after long searching that I found out
the carpenter's chest, which was indeed a
very useful prize to me, and much more
valuable than a ship-load of gold would
have been at that time. I got it down to
my raft, even whole as it was, without losing






ADVENTURES OF


time to look into it, for I knew in general
what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition
and arms. There were two very good fowling-
pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols:
these I secured first, with some powder-
horns, a small bag of shot, and two old
rusty swords. I knew there were three
barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not
where our gunner had stowed them, but
after a long search I found them, two of
them dry and good, the third had got wet;
those two I got to my raft, with the arms.
And now I thought myself pretty well
freighted, and began to think how I should
get to shore with them, having neither sail,
oar, nor rudder, while the least capful of
wind would have capsized everything.
I had three encouragements: first, a
smooth and calm sea ; second, the tide rising
and setting in to the shore ; third, what little
wind there was blew towards the land; and
thus, having found two or three broken oars
belonging to the boat, I put to sea with my
cargo. For a mile or thereabouts my raft
went very well, only that I found it drive a
little distance from the place where I had
landed before, by which I perceived there
was some current landwards, and conse-
quently I hoped to find some creek or river
there, which I might make use of as a port
to get to land with my cargo.







ROBINSON CRUSOE 57
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared
before me a little opening of the land, and I
found a strong current of the tide setting
into it, so I guided my raft as well as I
could, to keep in the middle of the stream.
But here I was on the point of suffering a




i: 4 "L "


second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think
verily would have broken my heart; for,
knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran
aground, at one end of it, upon a shoal, and
not being aground at the other, all my cargo
was within a hair's breadth of slipping off
towards that end that was afloat, and so
falling into the water. I did my utmost, by






ADVENTURES OF


setting my back against the chests, to keep
them in their places, but with all my strength
I could not thrust off the raft ; neither durst
I stir from the posture I was in, but, holding
up the chests with all my might, stood in
that manner nearly half an hour, in which
time the rising of the water brought me a
little upon a level, and a little after, the
water still rising, my raft floated again, and
I thrust her off with the oar I had, into the
channel, and then driving up higher, I at
length found myself at the mouth of a little
river, with land on both sides, and a strong
current of tide running up. I looked on
both sides for a proper place to get ashore,
for I was not willing to be driven too high
up the river, hoping in time to see some
ship at sea: and I therefore resolved to
place myself as near the shore as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the
right shore of the creek, to which with great
pain and difficulty I guided my raft, and at
last got so near as that, reaching ground
with my oar, I could thrust her directly in;
but here I was very nearly dipping all my
cargo into the sea again, for the shore lying
pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there
was no place to land, but where one end of
the raft, if it ran on shore, would lie so high,
and the other sink lower as before, that it
would endanger my cargo. All that I could
do was to wait till the tide was at the highest,






ROBINSON CRUSOE


keeping the raft with my oar, like an anchor,
to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near
a flat piece of ground, which I expected the
water would flow over, and so it did. As
soon as I found water enough (for my raft
drew about a foot of water), I thrust her
upon that flat piece of ground, and there
fastened or moored her, by sticking my two
broken oars into the ground, one on one
side near one end, and one on the other side
near the other end; and thus I lay till the
water ebbed, and left my raft and all my
cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country,
and seek a proper place for my habitation,
and where to stow my goods to secure them
from whatever might happen. Where I was,
I yet knew not, whether on the continent or
on an island; whether it was inhabited or
not inhabited; whether in danger of wild
beasts or not. There was a hill not above
a mile from me, which rose up very steep
and high, and which seemed to overtop
some other hills, which stretched in a ridge
from it northward. I took out one of the
fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a
horn of powder, and, thus armed, I travelled
on a tour of discovery up to the top of that
hill, where, after I had with great labour and
difficulty got up, I immediately saw my fate,
to my great affliction, namely, that I was on
an island, environed every way by the sea,







60 ADVENTURES OF

no land to be seen, except some rocks which
lay a great way off, and two small islands
less than this, which lay about three leagues
to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was
barren, and, as I saw good reason to believe,
uninhabited, except perhaps by wild beasts,
of which, however, I saw none; yet I saw















abundance of fowls, but knew not their
kinds, nor, when I killed them, could I tell
what was fit for food, and what not. On
my return, I shot a large bird, which I saw
sitting upon a tree, on the side of a great wood.
I believe it was the first gun that had been
fired there since the creation of the world.
I had no sooner fired, than from all parts
of the wood there arose an extraordinary






ROBINSON CRUSOE


number of fowls, of many sorts, making a
confused screaming and crying, every one
according to his usual note; but not one of
them of any kind that I knew. As for that
creature I killed, I took it to be a kind o. ;,
hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, bpt
it had no talons or claws more than common;
its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
.. Contented with this discovery, I came back
to my raft, and fell to work to britig the rest
of my cargo on shore, which took up the
rest of the day. What to do with myself at
night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest;
for I was afraid to lie down on the ground,
not knowing but some wild beast might
devour me, though I afterwards found there
was really no need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded
myself round with the chests and boards
that I had brought on shore, and made a
kind of hut for that night's lodging. As for
food, I still had no means of supplying
myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures, like hares, run out of the wood
where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet
get a great many things out of the ship
which would be useful to me, and particularly
some of the rigging and sails, and such other
things as might be useful; so I resolved to
make another voyage on board the vessel, if
possible. Knowing that the first storm that






ADVENTURES OF


blew must necessarily break her in pieces, I
resolved to set all other things aside till I
got everything out of the ship that I could
get. Then I called a council (that is to say,
in my thoughts), whether I should take back
the raft, but this appeared impracticable ; so
I resolved to go as before, when the tide was
down, and I did so, only that I stripped
before I went from my hut, having nothing
on but a checkered shirt, a pair of linen
drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and
prepared a second raft; and having had
experience of the first, I neither made this
so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard. Still I
brought away several things very useful to
me: for example, in the carpenter's store I
found two or three bags full of nails and
spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two
of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful
thing called a grindstone. All these I
secured, together with several things belong-
ing to the gunner, particularly three iron
crows, and two barrels of musket bullets,
seven muskets, and another fowling-piece,
with a small quantity of powder, a large bag
full of small shot, and a great roll of sheet
lead; but this last was so heavy, I could not
hoist it up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's
clothes that I could find, and a spare fore-
topsail, hammock, and some bedding, and





ROBINSON CRUSOE 63
with this I loaded my second raft, and
brought them also safe on shore, to my great
comfort.
I was under some apprehensions, during
my absence from the land, that at least my
provisions might be devoured, or more; but
when I came back, I found no sign of any
visitor, only there sat a creature like a wild
cat upon one of the chests, which, when I
came towards it, ran away to a little distance,
and then stood still. She sat very composed
and unconcerned, and looked full in my face,
as if she had a mind to be acquainted with
me. I presented my gun at her, but, as she
did not understand it, she was perfectly un-
concerned, nor did she offer to stir away;
upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though I was not very free of it, for my
stock was not large. However, I gave her
a bit, I say; she smelled at it, ate it, and
looked for more; but I thanked her, and
could spare no more, so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore
(though I was fain to open the barrels of
powder, and bring them by parcels, for they
were too heavy, being large casks), I set to
work to make a little tent with the sail and
some poles which I cut for that purpose.
Into this tent I brought everything that I
knew would spoil either with rain or sun;
and I piled all the empty chests and casks
up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it






ADVENTURES OF


from any sudden attempt either from man
or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the
door of the tent with some boards within,
and an empty chest set on end without.
Then spreading one of the beds upon the
ground, and laying my two pistols just at
my head, and my gun alongside of me, I
went to bed for the first time, and slept very
quietly all night, for I was very weary and
heavy, as I had slept little the night before,
and had laboured hard all day, as well in
fetching those things from the ship, as in
getting them on shore.
I had now the largest store of all kinds
that ever was laid up, I believe, for one
man; but I was not yet satisfied, for, while
the ship sat upright in that posture, I
thought I ought to get everything out of her
that I could; so every day at low water, I
went on board, and brought away something
or other. But particularly the third time I
went, I brought away as much of the rigging
as I could, as also all the small ropes and
rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare
canvas, which was to mend the sails upon
occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder.
In a word, I brought away all the sails first
and last, only that I was fain to cut them in
pieces, and bring as much at a time as I
could, for they were no longer useful to me
as sails, but merely as canvas.






ROBINSON CRUSOE


But what comforted me more than any-
thing was, that last of all, after I had made
five or six such voyages as these, and
thought I had nothing more to expect
from the ship worth my meddling with; I
say, after all this, I found a great hogs-
head of bread, three large runlets of rum
or spirits, a box of sugar, and a barrel of
file flour: this was surprising to me,
because I had given up expecting any more
provisions, except what was spoiled by the
water. I soon emptied the hogshead of
that bread, and wrapt it up parcel by parcel,
in pieces of the sails which I cut out ; and,
in a word, I got this safe on shore also,
though at different times.
The next day I made another voyage;
and now having plundered the ship of what
was portable and fit to hand out, I began
with the cables: and cutting the great cable
into pieces such as I could move, I got two
cables and a hawser on shore with all the
iron-work I could get; and having cut down
the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and
everything suited to make a large raft, I
loaded it with all those heavy goods, and
came away. But my good luck began now
to leave me, for this raft was so unwieldy
and so overloaded, that after I had entered
the little cove where I had landed the rest
of my goods, not being able to guide it so
handily as I did the other, it overset, and
F






ADVENTURES OF


threw me and all my cargo into the water.
As for myself, it was no great harm, for I
was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it
was in great part lost, especially the iron,
which I expected would have been of great
use to me. However, when the tide was
out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore,
and some of the iron, though with infinite
labour, for I was obliged to dip for it into the
water, a work which fatigued me very much.
After this I went every day, and brought
away what I could.
I had now been thirteen days on shore,
and had been eleven times on board the
ship, in which times I had brought away all
that one pair of hands could well be sup-
posed capable of bringing, though I verily
believe, had the calm weather held, I should
have brought away the whole ship piece by
piece. But on preparing the twelfth time
to go on board, I found the wind began to
rise. Notwithstanding this I went on board
at low water; and though I thought I had
rummaged the cabin so effectually as that
nothing more could be found, yet I dis-
covered a locker with drawers in it, in one
of which I found two or three razors and
one pair of large scissors, with ten or a
dozen good knives and forks; in another I
found about thirty six pounds value in
money, some European coin, some Brazil,
some pieces of eight, some gold, some silver.






ROBINSON CRUSOE


I smiled to myself at the sight of this
money. 0 drug,' said I aloud, 'what art
thou good for ? Thou art not worth to me,
no, not the taking off of the ground; one of
those knives is worth all this heap; I have
no manner of use for thee; even remain
where thou art, and go to the bottom as a
creature whose life is not worth saving!'
However, upon second thoughts I took it
away, and wrapping all this in a piece of
canvas, I began to think of making another
raft; but while I was preparing this, I found
the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise,
and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh
gale from the shore. It presently occurred
to me that it was in vain to pretend to make
a raft with the wind off shore, and that it
was my business to be gone before the
flood-tide began, otherwise I might not be
able to reach the shore at all: accordingly,
I let myself down into the water, and swam
across the channel which lay between the
ship and the sand, and even that with diffi-
culty enough, partly through the weight of
the things I had about me, and partly the
roughness of the water; for the wind rose
very hastily, and before it was quite high
water it blew a storm.
Now, however, I was safe in my little
tent, where I lay with all my wealth about
me very secure. It blew very hard all that
night, and in the morning, when I looked






ADVENTURES OF


out, behold no more of the ship was to be
seen. I was a little surprised, but recovered
myself with this satisfactory reflection,
namely, that I had lost no time, nor abated
diligence, in getting everything out of her
that could be useful to me; and that, indeed,
there was little left in her that I was able to
bring away, if I had had more time. I now
gave over all thoughts of the ship, or of
anything out of her, except what might drive
on shore from her wreck, as, indeed, various
pieces of her afterwards did; but those
things were of little use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed
on securing myself against either savages, if
any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were
in the island; and I had many thoughts of
the method how to do this, and what kind
of dwelling to make, whether I should make
me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the
earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both,
the manner and description of which it may
not be improper to describe.
I soon found the place I was in was not
fit for a settlement, particularly because it
was upon a low marshy ground near the sea,
which I thought would not be wholesome,
and more particularly because there was no
fresh water near it; so I resolved to find a
more healthy and more convenient spot of
ground.
I considered several things in my situa-






ROBINSON CRUSOE


tion, which I found would be proper for
me: first, health and fresh water, as I just
now mentioned; secondly, shelter from the
heat of the sun; thirdly, security from
ravenous creatures, either man or beast;
fourthly, a view of the sea, that if God sent
any ship in sight, I might not lose any
chance of deliverance, of which I was not
willing to banish all hopes.
In search of a place proper for this, I
found a little plain on the side of a rising
hill, whose front towards this little plain was
steep as a house-side, so that nothing could
come down upon me from the top. On the
side of this rock there was a hollow place
worn a little way in, like the entrance or
door of a cave, but there was no cave, or
way into the rock.
On the flat of the green, just before this
hollow place, I resolved to pitch my tent.
This plain was not above a hundred yards
broad, and about twice as long, and lay like
a green before my door, and at the end it
descended irregularly to the low grounds by
the sea-side. It was on the NNW. side of
the hill, so that I was sheltered from the
heat every day, till it came to a W. and by
S. sun, or thereabouts, which in those
countries is near the setting. Before I set
up my tent, I drew a half circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards
in semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty







ADVENTURES OF


yards in its diameter from its beginning and
ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of
strong stakes, driving them into the ground
till they stood very firm like piles, the
biggest end being out of the ground about
five feet and a half, and sharpened at the
top; the two rows stood about six inches
from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I
had cut in the ship, and laid them in rows
upon one another, within the circle between
these rows of stakes, up to the top, placing
other stakes in the inside, leaning against
them, about two feet and a half high, like a
spur to a post; and this fence was so strong
that neither man nor beast could get into it
or over it: this cost me a great deal of time
and labour, especially to cut the piles in the
wood, bring them to the place, and drive
them into the earth.
The entrance to this place I made to be,
not by a door, but by a ladder to go over
the top; which ladder, when I was in, I
lifted over after me, and so I was com-
pletely fenced in, and fortified, as I thought,
from all the world, and consequently slept
secure in the night, which otherwise I could
not have done, though, as it afterwards ap-
peared, there was no need of all this caution.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite
labour, I carried all my riches, all my pro-






ROBINSON CRUSOE


visions, ammunition, and stores; and I
made a large tent also, which, to preserve
me from the rains, that in one part of the
year are very violent there, I made double,
namely, one smaller tent within, and one
large tent above it, and covered the upper-
most with a large tarpaulin, which .1 had
saved among the sails.
And now I lay no longer in the bed that
I had brought on shore, but in a hammock,
which was a very good one, and which
belonged to the mate.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions,
and everything that would spoil by the wet;
and having thus enclosed all my goods, I
built up the entrance, which till now was
left open, and so passed and repassed, as I
said, by a ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work
my way into the rock, and bringing all the
earth and stones out through my tent, I laid
them up within the fence in the nature of a
terrace, so that it raised the ground within
about a foot and a half, and thus I made ne
a cave just behind my tent, which served as
a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour, and many days,
before all these things were brought to
perfection; and, therefore, I must go back
to some other things which'took up some of
my thoughts. At the same time it happened,
after I had laid my scheme for setting up






ADVENTURES OF


my tent and making the cave, that a storm
of rain falling from a thick dark cloud, a
sudden flash of lightning occurred, and then
a clap of thunder, which is naturally the
effect of it. I was not so much surprised at
the lightning as with the thought which
darted into my mind-O my powder My
heart sank within me, to think that at one
blast all my powder might be destroyed;
on which, not my defence only, but the pro-
viding me food, as I thought, entirely de-
pended: I was not nearly so anxious about
my own danger.
Such impression did this make upon me,
that after the storm was over, I gave up all
my work, my building and fortifying, and
applied myself to making bags and boxes
to separate my powder, and to keep it a
little and a little in a parcel in the hope that,
whatever might happen, it might not all take
fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that it
should not be possible to make one part fire
another. I finished this work in about a
fortnight, and my powder, which in all was
about 240 lbs. weight, was divided into not
less than a hundred parcels. As to the
barrel that had been wet, I did not appre-
hend any danger from that, so I placed it in
my new cave, which in my fancy I called my
kitchen, and the rest I hid in holes among
the rocks, that no wet might get to it, care-
fully marking where I laid it.






ROBINSON CRUSOE


In the interval of time while this was
being done, I went out once every day with
my gun, as well to divert myself as to see if
I could kill anything fit for food, and as
nearly as I could, to acquaint myself with
what the island produced. The first time I
went out, I discovered that there were goats
on the island, which was a great satisfaction
to me; but then the circumstance was
attended with this misfortune, namely, that
they were so shy, so cunning, and so swift
of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in
the world to get at them. But I was not
discouraged at this, not doubting but I
might now and then shoot one, as soon
happened; for after I had found their
haunts a little, I lay wait for them in this
manner: I observed, if they saw me in the
valleys, though they were upon the rocks,
they would run away in a terrible fright;
but if they were feeding in the valleys,
and I was upon the rocks, they took no
notice of me; whence I concluded, that
by the position of their optics, their sight
was so directed downward, that they did
not readily see objects that were above
them; so I always climbed the rocks
first to get above them, and then had fre-
quently a fair mark. The first shot I made
among these creatures I killed a she-goat,
which had a little kid by her, which she was
giving suck to. This grieved me heartily;






ADVENTURES OF


but when the old one fell, the kid stood
stock still by her till I came and took her
up, and not only so, but when I carried the
old one with me upon my shoulders, the kid
followed me quite to my enclosure; upon
which I laid down the dam, and took the
kid in my arms, and carried it over my
paling, in the hope of having it bred up tame ;
but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill
it, and eat it myself. These two supplied
me with flesh a great while; for I ate
sparingly, and saved my provisions, my
bread especially, as much as I possibly
could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found
it absolutely necessary to provide a place to
make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what
I did for that, as also how I enlarged my
cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall
give a full account of in its place; but I
must first give some little account of myself
and of my thoughts about living, which were
not a few.
I had a dismal prospect before me; for as
I was not cast away upon that island without
being driven, as is said, by a violent storm
quite out of the course of our intended
voyage, and a great way, namely, some
hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary
course of the trade of mankind, I had great
reason to consider it as a determination of
Heaven, that in this desolate place, and in






ROBINSON CRUSOE


this desolate manner, I should end my life.
The tears would run plentifully down my
face when I made these reflections; and
sometimes I would expostulate with myself,
why Providence should thus completely ruin
His creatures, and render them so absolutely
miserable, without help, abandoned, and so
entirely depressed, that it could hardly be
rational to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift
upon me to check these thoughts, and to
reprove me; and particularly one day, walk-
ing with my gun in my hand by the sea-side,
I was very pensive upon the subject of my
present condition, when Reason, as it were,
put in, expostulating with me the other way,
thus:-Well, you are in a desperate con-
dition, it is true, but pray remember where
are the rest of you? Did not you come
eleven of you into the boat ? where are the
ten ? why were they not saved and you lost ?
why were you singled out ? is it better to be
here or there ? And then I pointed to the
sea. All evils are to be considered with the
good that is in them, and with what worse
attended them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I
was provided with the means of subsistence,
and what would have been my case if it had
not happened, which was a hundred thousand
to one, that the ship floated from the place
where she first struck, and was driven so







ADVENTURES OF


near to the shore, that I had time to get all
these things out of her. What would have
been my case if I had been forced to have
lived in the condition in which I at first
came on shore, without the necessaries of
life, or any means to supply and procure
them ? Particularly, said I (aloud, though
to myself), what would I have done without
a gun, without ammunition, without any
tools to make anything, or to work with ?
without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any
manner of coverings ? And now I had all
these in sufficient quantity, and was in a
fair way to provide myself in such a manner
as to live without my gun when my ammuni-
tion was spent; so that I had a tolerable
prospect of subsisting without any want, as
long as I lived, for I considered from the
beginning how I should provide for the
accidents that might happen, and for the
time that was to come, even not only after
my ammunition should be spent, but even
after my health or strength should decay.
I confess I had not then entertained any
notion of my ammunition being destroyed
at one blast, I mean my powder being
blown up by lightning; and this made the
thoughts of it so surprising to me, when it
lightened and thundered, as I observed just
now.
And now, being about to enter into a
melancholy relation of a scene of silent life,







ROBINSON CRUSOE 77

such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the
world before, I shall take it from its begin-
ning, and continue it in its order. It was,
by my account, the 3oth of September, when,
in the manner above said, I first set foot
upon this horrid island, when the sun, being
to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost















just over my head; for I reckoned myself by
observation to be in the latitude of 9 22'
N. of the Line.
After I had been here about ten or twelve
days, it came into my head that I should
lose my reckoning of time for want of books,
and pen and ink, and should even forget to
distinguish my Sabbath days from working
days ; but to prevent this, I cut the reckon-
ing with my knife upon a large post, in







ADVENTURES OF


capital letters, and making the post into a
great cross, I set it up on the shore where I
first landed, headed, I came on shore here
the 3oth of Sept., 1659.' Upon the sides of
this square post I cut every day a notch with
my knife, and every seventh notch was as
long again as the rest, and every first day of
the month as long again as the long one;
and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly,
monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place, among many things
which I brought off the ship in the several
voyages which, as above mentioned, I made
to it, I got several things of less value,
but not at all less useful to me, which
I omitted setting down before: as in par-
ticular, pens, ink, and paper, several parcels
in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and car-
penter's keeping, three or four compasses,
some mathematical instruments, dials, per-
spectives, charts, and books of navigation,
all which I huddled together, careless
whether I might want them or not. Also I
found three very good Bibles, which came
to me in my cargo from England, and which I
had packed up among my things, some Por-
tuguese books also, and among them two or
three Popish prayer-books, and several other
books, all which I carefully secured. And
I must not forget that we had in the ship a
dog and two cats, of whose eminent history
I may have occasion to say something in its






ROBINSON CRUSOE


place, for I carried both the cats with me, and
as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship
himself, and swam on shore to me the day
after I went there with my first cargo, and
he was a trusty servant to me for many
years. I wanted nothing that he could fetch
me, nor any company that he could make
up to me, I only wanted to have him talk
to me, but that he could not do. As I
observed before, I found pens, ink, and
paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost:
and I shall show, that while my ink lasted,
I kept things very exact; but after that was
gone, I could not; for I could not make any
ink by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted
many things; and of these, this of ink was
one, as also a spade, pick-axe, and shovel,
to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins,
and thread : as for linen, I soon learned to
want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did
go on heavily, and it was nearly a whole
year before I had entirely finished my little
paling, or surrounded habitation; the piles,
or stakes, which were as heavy as I could
well lift, were a long time in being prepared
in the woods, and more by far in bringing
home; so that I spent sometimes two days
in cutting and bringing home one of these
posts, and a third day in driving it into the
ground. For which purpose I got a heavy






ADVENTURES OF


piece of wood at first, but at last bethought
myself of one of the iron crows, which, how-
ever, though I found it, yet made driving
those posts or palings very laborious and
tedious work.
But what need had I to be concerned at
the tediousness of anything I had to do,
having time enough to do it in ? Nor had
I any other employment, that I could foresee,
except ranging the island to seek for food,
which I did more or less every day.
I now began to consider ny condition
seriously, and the circumstances I was re-
duced to, and I drew up the state of my
affairs in writing, not so much to leave them
to any that were to come after me (for I was
likely to have but few heirs), as to deliver my
thoughts from daily poring upon them, and
afflicting my mind; and as my reason began
now to master my despondency, I began to
comfort myself as well as I could, and to set
the good against the evil, that I might have
something to distinguish my case from
worse; and I stated it very impartially, like
debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed,
against the miseries I suffered, thus :-

EVIL. GOOD.
I am cast upon a hor- But I am alive, and
rible desolate island, void not drowned, as all" my
of all hope of deliverance, ship's company was.
I am singled out and But I am singled out,







ROBINSON CRUSOE


separated, as it were, too, from all the ship's
from all the world to be crew, to be spared from
miserable, death; and He that mira-
culously saved me from
death, can deliver me
from this condition.
I am divided from But I am not starved
mankind, a solitary one, and perishing on a barren
banished from human place, affording no sus-
society, tenance.
I have no clothes to But I am in a hot
cover me. climate, where, if I had
clothes, I could hardly
wear them.
I am without any de- But I am cast on an
fence or means to resist island where I see no
any violence of man or wild beasts to hurt me.
beast.
I have not a soul to But God wonderfully
speak to, or relieve me. sent the ship near enough
to the shore, that I have
gotten out so many neces-
sary things as will either
supply my wants, or en-
able me to supply my-
self, even as long as I
live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted
testimony that there was scarce a condition
in the world so miserable but there was
something negative, or something positive,
to be thankful for in it; and let this stand
as a direction from the experience of the
most miserable of all conditions in this world,
that we may always find in it something to
derive comfort from, and to set, under the






ADVENTURES OF


head of good and evil, on the credit side of
the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to
relish my condition, and given over looking
out to- sea, to see if I could spy a ship; I
say, having given over these things, I began
to apply myself to arrange my way of living,
and to make things as easy to me as I
could.
I have already described my habitation,
which was a tent under the side of a rock,
surrounded with a strong fence of posts and
cables, but I might rather call it a wall, for
I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs,
about two feet thick, on the outside. After
some time (I think it was a year and a half)
I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock;
and thatched or covered it with boughs of
trees, and such things as I could get to keep
out the rain, which I found at some times
of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought
all my goods into this enclosure, and into
the cave which I had made behind; but I
must observe, too, that at first this was a
confused heap of goods, which, as they lay
in no order, so they took up all my space:
I had no room to turn myself; so I set my-
self to enlarge my cave, and work farther
into the earth. Thus, when I found I was
pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked
sideways to the right hand into the rock,






ROBINSON CRUSOE


and then turning to the right again, worked
quite out, and made a door to come out at
on the outside of my fortification. This
gave me not only egress and regress, as it
was a back way to my tent and to my store-
house, but gave me room to stow away my
goods. And now I began to apply myself
to make such necessary things as I found I
most wanted, particularly a chair and a
table, for without these I was not able to
enjoy the few comforts I had in the world;
I could not write or eat, or do several things,
with so much pleasure, without a table.
So I went to work; and here I must
needs observe, that as reason is the substance
and original of the mathematics, so by stat-
ing and squaring everything by reason, and
by making the most rational judgment of
things, every man may be in time master of
every mechanic art. I had never handled a
tool in my life, and yet in time, by labour,
application, and contrivance, I found, at
last, that I wanted nothing but I could have
made it, especially if I had had tools : how-
ever, I made abundance of things, even
without tools, and some with no more tools
than an adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps,
were never made in that way before, and
that with infinite labour. For example, if I
wanted a board, I had no other way but to
cut down a tree, set it on end before me, and
hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs