Title Page
 The life and adventures of Robinson...

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073626/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Alternate Title: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 132 p., 6 leaves of plates : ill. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Geo. A. Tuttle & Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: Geo. A. Tuttle & Co.
Place of Publication: Rutland Vt
Publication Date: 1890?
Subject: Castaways -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1890   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Vermont -- Rutland
Citation/Reference: Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
General Note: Cover title: Robinson Crusoe; caption title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Date from inscription.
General Note: Col. ill. t.p.
General Note: Part I of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073626
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26812743

Table of Contents
    Title Page
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    The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
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Full Text



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I WAs born in York, in the year 1632, of a reputable
family. My father was a native of Bremen; who by mer-
chandising at Hull for some time, gained a very plentiful
fortune. He married my mother at York, who received
her first breath in that country: and as her maiden name was
Robinson, I was called Robinson Kreutznaer, which not
being easily pronounced in the English tongue, we are
commonly known by the name of Crusoe.
I was the youngest of three brothers. The eldest was a
lieutenant-colonel in Lockhart's regiment, but slain by the
Spaniards; what became of the other I could never learn.
No charge nor pains were wanting in my education.
My father designed me for the law, yet nothing could serve
me but I must go to sea, both against the will of my father,
the tears of my mother, and the entreaties of friends. One
morning, my father expostulated very warmly with me.
What reason, says he, have you to leave your native coun-
try, where there must be a more certain prospect of con-
tent and happiness, to enter into a wandering condition of
uneasiness and uncertainty? He recommended to me

A l *


Agar's wish, neither to desire poverty nor riches; that a
middle state of life was the most happy; and that the high
towering thoughts of raising our condition by wandering
abroad, were surrounded with misery and danger, and
often ended with confusion and disappointment. I entreat
you, nay, I command you (says he,) to desist from these
intentions. If you will go, (added he,) my prayers siall,
however, be offered for your preservation; but a time may
come, when desolate, oppressed, or forsaken, you may wish
you had taken your poor despised father's counsel.-He
pronounced these words with such a moving and paternal
eloquence, while floods of tears ran down his aged cheeks,
that it seemed to stem the torrent of my resolution. But
this soon wore off; and a little after, I informed my mother
that I could not settle at any business, my resolutions were
so strong to see the world, and begged she would gain my
fathe-r's consent only to go one voyage; which if it did not
prove prosperous, I would never attempt a second. But
my desire was as vain as my folly in asking. My mother
passionately expressed her dislike to this proposal, telling
me that as she saw I was bent on my own destruction, con-
:rary to their will and my duty, she would say no more, but
leave me to myself to do whatever I pleased.
I was then, I think, nineteen years old, when one time
being at Hull, I met a school-fellow of mine going along
with his father, who was master of a ship, to London; and
acqquainting him with my wandering desires, he assured me
of a free passage, and a plentiful share of what was neces-
sary. Thus, without imploring a blessing, or taking fare-
well of my parents, I took shipping on the 1st of Septem-
ber, 1651.
Upon the 6th day, we came to an anchor in Harwich
road, where we lay wind-bound with some Newcastle ships;




and there being a good anchorage, and our cables sound,
the seamen forgot their late toil and danger, and spent the
time as merrily as if they had been on shore. But on the
eighth day, there arose a brisk gale of wind, which pre
vented our tiding it up the river; and it still increasing,
our ship rode forecastle in, and shipped several large seas
It was not long before horror seized the seamen them-
selves, and I heard the master express this melancholy
ejaculation, Lord have mercy upon us, we shall all be lost
and undone For my part, sick unto death, I kept my
cabin, till the universal and terribly dreadful apprehensions
of our speedy fate made me get upon deck, and there I
was affrighted indeed. The sea went mountains high : I
could see nothing but distress around us: two ships had
cut away their mqpts, and another had foundered; two
more that had lost their anchors, were forced out to the
mercy of the ocean; and, to save our lives, we were forced
to cut our foremast and mainmast quite away.
Who is there so ignorant as not to judge of my dreadful
condition? I was but a fresh-water sailor, and therefore
seemed more terrified. Our ship was very good, but
overloaded; which made the sailors often cry out, She
will founder: words I then was ignorant of. All this
while, the storm continuing, and rather increasing, the
master and the more sober part of the men went to prayers,
expecting death every moment. In the middle of the night
one cried out, We had sprung a leak: another, That there
was four feet water in the hold. I was just ready to ex-
pire with fear, when immediately all hands were called to
the pump; and the men forced me also in that extremity to
share with them in their labor. While thus employed, the
master espying some colliers, fired a gun as a signal of
distress; and I not understanding what it meant, and think


ing that either the ship broke, or some dreadful thing hap-
pened, fell into a swoon. Even in that condition of wo,
nobody minded me, excepting to thrust me aside with their
feet, thinking me dead; and it was a great while before I
Happy it was for us, when upon the signal given, they
ventured out their boat to save our lives. All our pump-
ing had been in vain, and vain had all our attempts been,
had they not come to our ship's side, and our men cast them
a rope over the stern with a bouy to it, which after great
difficulty they got hold of, and we hauling them to us, got
into their boat, and left our ship which we perceived sink
within less than a quarter of an hour; and thus I learnt
what was meant by foundering at sea. And now the men
incessantly labored to recover their own ship; but the sea
ran so high, and the wind blew so hard, that they thought
it convenient to haul in shore, which with great difficulty
and danger at last we happily effected, landing at a place
called Cromer, not far from Winterton light-house; from
whence we all walked to Yarmouth, where, as objects of
pity, many good people furnished us with the necessaries
to carry us either to Hull, or London.
Strange that after all this, I did not, like the prodigal
son, return to my father; who hearing of the ship's calam-
ity, for a long time thought me entombed in the deep. No
doubt but I should have shared in his fatted calf, as the
Scripture expresseth it; but my wayward disposition still
pushed me on, in spite of the powerful convictions of rea-
son and conscience. When we had been at Yarmouth
three days I met my old companion, who had given me the
invitation to go on board along with his father. His beha-
viour and speech was altered, and, in a melancholy manner
he asked me how I did? telling his father who I was, and


how I had made this voyage for a trial only to proceed
farther abroad. Upon which the old gentleman turning
to me, said, Young man, you ought never to go to sea any
more, but to take this for a certain sign, that you will never
prosper in a sea-faring condition. Sir, answered I, will
you take the same resolution? It is a different case, said
he, it is my calling, and consequently my duty; but as you
have made this voyage for a trial, you see what ill luck
heaven has set before your eyes; and perhaps our miseries
have been on your account,-like Jonah in the ship of Tar-
shish. But pray what are you, and on what account did
you go to sea? Upon which, I very freely declared my
whole story; at the end of which he made this exclamation,
Ye sacred powers! what had I committed, that such a
wretch should enter into my ship, to heap upon me such a
deluge of miseries? But soon recollecting himself, Young
man, said he, if you do not go back, depend upon it, wher-
ever you go, you will meet with disasters, and disappoint-
ments, till your father's words are fulfilled upon you. And
so we parted.
I thought at first to return home; but shame opposed
that good notion, as thinking I should be laughed at by my
neighbors and acquaintances. So strange is the nature
of youth! They are not ashamed to sin, but yet ashamed
to repent; and so far from being sorry for those actions for
which they may be accounted fools, they think it folly to
return to their duty, which is the principal mark of wisdom.
In short, I travelled up to London, resolving upon a voy-
age, and a voyage I soon heard of, by my acquaintance
with a captain who took a fancy to me, to go to the coast
of Guinea. Having some money and appearing like a
gentleman, I went on board, not as a common sailor or
foremast-man; nay, the commander agreed I should go


that voyage with him without any expense; that I should
be his messmate and companion, and that I was welcome
to carry any thing with me, and make the best merchan-
dise I could.
I blessed my happy fortune, and humb.y thanked my
captain for his offer, and acquainting my friends in York-
shire, forty pounds were sent me, the greatest part of which
my dear father and mother contributed, with which I bought
toys and trifles as the captain directed me. My captain
also taught me navigation, how to keep an account of the
ship's course, take an observation, and led me into the
knowledge of several useful branches of the mathematics.
And indeed this voyage made me both a sailor and a mer-
chant; for I brought home five pound nine ounces of gold
dust, for my adventure, which produced, at my return to
London, almost three hundred pounds; but in this voyage
I was extremely sick, being thrown into a violent fever,
through excessive heat, trading upon the coast from the
latitude of fifteen degrees north, even to the line itself.
But, alas! my dear friend the captain soon departed this
life after his arrival. This was a sensible grief to me;
yet I resolved to go another voyage with his mate, who
had now got command of the ship. This proved a very
unsuccessful one; for though I did not carry a hundred
pounds of my late acquired wealth, (so that I had two
hundred pounds left, which I reposed with the captain's
widow, who was an honest gentlewoman,) yet my misfor-
tunes in this unhappy voyage were very great. For oil
ship sailing towards the Canary Islands, we were chased b%
a Salee rover; and in spite of all the haste we could make
by crowding as much canvass as our yards could spread,
or our masts carry, the pirate gained upon us, so that we
Prepared ourselves to fight. They had eighteen guns, and


we had but twelve. About three in the afternoon there
was a desperate engagement, wherein many were killed
and wounded on both sides: but finding ourselves over-
powered with numbers, our ship disabled, and ourselves
too impotent to have the least hopes of success, we were
forced to surrender; and accordingly we were all carried
prisoners into the port of Salee. Our men were sent to the
Emperor's court to be sold there; but the pirate captain
taking notice of me, kept me to be his own slave.
In this condition, I thought myself the most miserable
creature on earth, and the prophecy of my father came
afresh into my thoughts. However, my condition, was
better than I thought it to be, as will soon appear. Some
hopes, indeed, I had that my new patron would go to sea
again, where he might be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese
man of war, and then I should be set at liberty. But in
this I was mistaken; for he never took me with him, but
left me to look after his little garden, and do the drudgery
of his house, and when he returned from sea, would make
me lie in the cabin and look after the ship. I had no one
that I could communicate my thoughts to, which were con-
tinually meditating my escape. No Englishman, Irishman,
or Scotchman here but myself: and for two years I could
see nothing practicable, but only pleased myself with the
After some length of time, my patron as I found, grew
so poor, that he could not fit out his ship as usual; and
then he used constantly, once or twice a week, if the
weather was fair, to go out a fishing, taking me and a
young Moorish boy to row the boat; and so much pleased
was he with me for my dexterity in catching the fish, that
he would often send me with a Moor, who was one of his
kinsmen, and the youth before-mentioned, to catch a disL
of fish f,,- L:-.


One morning, as we were at sport, there arose such a
thick fog, that we lost sight of the shore; and rowing, we
knew not which way, we labored all the night, and in the
morning we found ourselves in the ocean, two leagues from
land. However, we attained there at length, and made
the greatest haste, because our stomachs were exceedingly
sharp and hungry. In order to prevent such disasters for
the future, my patron ordered a carpenter to build a little
state-room or cabin in the middle of the long-boat: with a
place behind it to steer and haul home the mainsheet, with
other conveniences to keep him from the weather, as also
lockers to put in all manner of provisions; with a handsome
shoulder-of-mutton sail gibing over the cabin.
In this, he frequently took us out a fishing; and one
time, inviting two or three persons of distinction to go with
him, laid in provisions extraordinary; providing also three
fusees, with powder and shot, that they might have some
sport fowling along the seacoast. The next morning, the
boat was made clean, her ancients and pendants out, and
every thing ready: but their minds altering, my patron
ordered us to go a fishing, for that his guests would cer-
tainly sup with him that night.
And now I began to think of my deliverance indeed. In
order to this, I persuaded the Moor to get some provisions
on board, and to procure some powder and shot, pretending
to kill sea-curlews, which he innocently and readily agreed
to. In short, being provided with all things necessary,
we sailed out.
When we had passed the castle, we fell to fishing; but
though I knew there was a bite, I concealed the matter, in
order to put farther out to sea. Accordingly we ran a
league farther, when, giving the boy the helm, and preten-
ding to stoop for something. I seized Muley by surprise


and threw him overboard. As he was an excellent swim-
mer, he soon arose and made towards the boat; upon which
I took out a fusee, and presented it at him: Muley,"said
I, I never yet designed to do you any harm, and seek
nothing now but my freedom. I know you are able enough
to swim to shore, and save your life; but if you are resolv-
ed to follow me to the endangering of mine, the very mo-
ment you proceed, I will shoot you through the head."
The harmless creature, at these words, turned himself from
me and I make no doubt, got safe to land. Then turning
to the boy Xury, I perceived he trembled at the action;
but I put him out of all fear, telling him, that if he would
be true and faithful to me, I would do well by him and not
hurt him.
We then pursued our voyage: I kept to the southward,
to the truly Barbarian coast; but in the dark of the evening,
I changed my course, that I might keep near the shore,
and having a fresh gale of wind, with a very pleasant smooth
sea, by three o'clock next day, I was one hundred and fifty
miles beyond the Emperor of Morocco's dominions. I
continued sailing for five days successively, till such time
as the wind shifting to the southward, made me conclude,
what if any vessel was in chase of me, they would proceed
no farther.
After so much fatigue and thought, I anchored at t ie
mouth of a little river, I knew not what or where, ne.ther
did I then see any people. What I principally wanted was
fresh water; and I was resolved about the dusk of the
evening to swim ashore: but no sooner the gloomy clouds
of night began to succeed the declining day, than we heard
such barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, that
one might have thought the very strongest monsters of
nature had their residence there. Poor Xury, who was


almost dead with fear, entreated me not to go on shore
that night. Suppose I don't Xury," said I, and in the
morning we should see men who are worse than those we
fear, what then? () den we may give them the shoot
gun," said he, laughing, and the gun make them all run
away." The wit, and broken English which the boy had
learned among the captives of our nation pleased me en-
tirely, and made me still fonder of him than before. We
could get but little sleep all night for the terrible howling
they made; and indeed we were very much affrighted.
The next morning, I was resolved to go on shore to get
in fresh water, and venture myself among the beasts or
savages, should either attack me. Xury said he would
take one of the jars and bring me some. I asked him why
he would go and not I? The poor boy answered, If wild
mans come, they eat me, you go away." This, indeed,
increased my affection for the child. Well, dear Xury,"
said I, we will both go ashore, both kill wild mans, and
they shall eat neither of us." So giving Xury a piece of
bread to eat, we waded ashore, carrying nothing with us
but our arms, and two jars for water. I did not go out of
sight of the boat, as dreading the savages coming down the
river in their canoes: but the boy seeing a low descent or
vale about a mile in the country, he wandered to it; and
then running back to me with great precipitation, I thought
he was pursued by some savages or wild beasts; upon
which I approached, resolving to perish, or protect him
from danger. As he came nearer to me, I saw something
hanging over his shoulder, which was a creature he had
shot, like a hare, but different in color, and with longer
legs; however we were glad of it, for it proved wholesome
and nourishing meat; but what added to our joy was, my
boy assured me there was plenty of water, and that he


' saw no wild mans." And greater still vas our comfort
when we found fresh water in the creek where we were
when the tide was out, without going so far up into the
In this place I began to hope that I should meet some
of the English trading vessels, owho would relieve and take
us in.
The place I was in, was no doubt, that wild country in
habited only by a few, that lies between the Emperor of
Morocco's dominions and the negroes. It is filled with
wild beasts, and the Moors use it for hunting chiefly.
From this place I thought I saw the top of the mountain
Teneriffe, in the Canaries, which made me try twice to
attain it, but as often was I driven back, and so forced to
pursue my fortune along shore.
Early one morning we came to an anchor under a little
point of land, but pretty high; and the tide beginning to
flow, we lay ready to go further in; but Xury whose youth-
ful and penetrating eyes were sharper than mine, in a soft
tone desired me to keep far from land, lest we should be
devoured; For look yonder master, and see de dreadful
monster fast asleep on de side of de hill." Accordingly
looking where he pointed, I espied a fearful monster in-
deed. It was a terrible great lion that lay on shore, cover-
ed as it were by a shade of a piece of the hill. Xury,"
said I, you shall go on shore and kill him." But the boy
looked amazed. Me kill him!" says he, he eat me at
one mouth," meaning one mouthful. Upon which I bid
him lie still, and charging my biggest gun with two slugs,
and a good charge of powder, I took the best aim I could
to shoot him through the head: but his leg lying over his
nose, the slug broke his knee-bone. The lion awaking
with the pain, got up, but soon fell down, giving the most


hideous groan I ever heard; but taking my second piece I
shot him through the head, and then he lay struggling for
life. Upon this Xury took heart, and desired my leave to
go on shore. Go then," said I. Upon which, taking a
little gun in one hand, he swam to shore with the other,
and coming close to the lion put a period to his life, by
shooting him again through the head.
But this was spending our ammunition in vain, the flesh
not being good to eat. Xury was like a champion, and
comes on board for a hatchet to cut off the head of his
enemy; but wanting strength to perform it, he cut off and
brought me a foot. I bethought me, however, that this
skin would be of use. This cost Xury and me a whole
day: when spreading it on the top of our cabin, the hot
beams of the sun effectually dried it in two days time, and
it afterwards served me for a bed to lie on.
And now we sailed southerly, living sparingly on our
provisions, and went no oftener on shore than we were
obliged for fresh water, in hopes to meet some European
ship. If providence did not favor me, my next course was
to seek for the islands, or lose my life among the negroes;
in a word, either I must meet with some ship, or certainly
One day as we were sailing along, we saw people stand
on the shore looking at us; we could also perceive they
were black, and stark naked. I was inclined to go on
shore; but Xury cried, No, no; however, I approached
nearer, and I found they ran along the shore by me a long
way. They had no weapons in their hands, except one,
who held a long stick, which Xury told me was a lance,
with which they could kill at a great distance. I talked to
them by signs, and made them sensible I wanted something
to eat; they beckoned to me to stop my boat, while two of


tnem ran up into the country, and in less than half an hour
came back and brought with them two pieces of dry flesh,
and some corn, which we kindly accepted; and to prevent
any fears on either side, they brought the food to the shore,
laid it down, then went and stood a great way off, till we
fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.
But while we were returning thanks to them, being all
we could afford, two mighty creatures came from the
mountains, one as it were pursuing the other with great
fury, which we were the rather inclined to believe, as they
seldom appear but in the night, and both these swiftly pas-
sing by the negroes, jumped into the sea, wantonly swim-
ming about, as though the diversion of the waters had put
a stop to their fierceness. At last one of them coming
nearer to my boat than I expected, or desired, I shot him
directly through the head, upon which he sunk immediate-
ly, yet rising again, he would have willingly made to the
shore, but between the wound and the struggling of the
water, he died before he could reach it.
It is impossible to express the consternation the poor
negroes were in at the firing of my gun; much less can I
mention their surprise, when they perceived the creature
to be slain by it. I made signs to them to draw near it
with a rope, and then gave it to them to haul on shore. It
was a beautiful leopard, which made me desire its skin;
and the negroes seeming to covet the carcass, I freely gave
it to them. As for the other leopard, it made to shore, and
ran with a prodigious swiftness out of sight. The negroes
having kindly furnished me with water, and with what roots
and grains their country afforded, I took my leave, and,
after eleven days sail came in sight of the Cape de Verd.
But the great distance I was from it, and fearing contrary
winds would prevent me reaching them, I began to grow

v-a^JJ^.^._^*iii.*'^.*-. "*-- *-'*''^niraail


melancholy and dejected, when upon a sudden Xury cried
out, Master, Master," looking as affrighted as if it was
his master's ship sent in search of us. But I soon dis-
covered she was a Portuguese ship. Upon which I strove
for life to come up to them. But in vain had it been, if
through their perspective glasses, they had not perceived
us, and shortened tleir sail to let us come in. Encouraged
at this, I set up my patron's ancient, and fired a gun, both
as signals of distress; upon which they very kindly lay to,
so that in three hours time I came up with them. They
spoke to me in Portuguese, Spanish, and French, but
none of these did I understand, till at length a Scots sailor'
called, and then I told him I was an Englishman, who had
escaped from the Moors at Salee, upon which they took
me kindly on board, with all my effects.
Having a pleasant voyage to the Brazils, we arrived in
the Bay de Todos los Santos, or, All Saints Bay, in twenty-
two days after. And here I cannot forget the generous
treatment of the captain. He would take nothing for my
passage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and
thirty for the lion's. Every thing he caused to be deliver-
ed, and what I would sell, he bought. In short, I made
220 pieces of my cargo, and with this stock I entered once
more, as I may say, into the scene of life.
To be brief, I bought a settlement next to an honest and
kind neighbor, born at Lisbon, of English parents, whose
plantation joining to mine, we improved very amicably to-
gether. Both our stocks were low: and for two years we
planted only for food; but the third year we planted some
tobacco, and each of us dressed a large piece of ground
the ensuing year for planting sugar-canes.
I was in some measure settled, before the captain who
took me up departed fr;,m the Brazils. One day I went to



him, and told him what stock I had in London, desiring
his assistance in getting it sent out to me; to which the
good gentleman readily consented, but would only have
me send for half my money, lest it should miscarry, which,
if it did, I might still have the remainder to support me;
and so taking letters of procuration from me, bid me trou-
ble myself no further about it.
And indeed, he not only procured the money I had
drawn for upon my captain's widow, but sent me over a
servant, with a cargo proportionable to my condition. He
also sent me tools of all sorts, iron work and utensils
necessary for my plantation.
Wealth now increasing on me, and uncommon success
crowning my prosperous labors, I might have rested happy
in that middle state of life my father so often recommended;
yet nothing would content me. Having lived four years in
Brazil, I had not only learned the language, but contracted
acquaintance with the most eminent planters, and even
with the merchants of St. Salvadore, three of whom came
one morning to me saying they had a secret proposal to
make. After enjoining me to secrecy, they told me they
had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea, in order to
stock the plantation with negroes, which as they could not
be publicly sold, they would divide among them; and if I
would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trad
ing part, I should have an equal share of the negroes,
without providing any stock. The thing indeed was fair
enough, had I been in another condition: however, I could
not resist the proposal, but accepted the offer, upon condi
tion of their looking after my plantation.
The ship being fitted out, and all things ready, we set
sail the first of September 1659. We sailed northward
upon the coast, from whence going farther into the ocean

. I


out of the sight of land, we steered as though we were
bound for the island Fernand de Noremba, leaving the is-
lands on the east, and then it was we met with a terrible
tempest, which continued for twelve days successively, so
that the winds carried us wheresoever they pleased. In
this perplexity one of our men died, and a man and a boy
were washed overboard. When the weather cleared up a
little, we found ourselves upon the coast of Guinea. Upon
this the captain gave reasons for returning; which I oppos-
ed, counselling him to stand away for Barbadoes, which as
I supposed might be attained in fifteen days. So altering
our course, we sailed northwest and by west in order to
reach the Leeward Islands; but a second storm succeeding,
drove us to the westward, so that we were justly afraid of
falling into the hands of cruel savages, or the paws of the
devouring beasts of prey.
In this great distress, one of the men, early in the morn-
ing, cried out, Land! land! which he had no sooner said,
than our ship struck upon a sand bank, and, in a moment,
the sea broke over her in such a manner that we expected
we should perish immediately. We knew not where we
were, or upon what- land we were driven, whether it was
an island, or the main, inhabited or not inhabited, and we
could not so much as hope that the ship would hold out
many minutes, without bi eating in pieces, unless the wind
by a miracle should turn about immediately. While we
stood looking at one another, expecting death every mo-
ment, the mate lays hold of the boat, and with the help of
the rest got her flung over the ship's side; into this we all
got being eleven in number, and committed ourselves to
God's mercy, and the wild sea. And now we saw that this
last effort would not be a sufficient protection from death;
so high did the sea rise, that it was impossible the boat


should live. As to making a sail, we had none, neither if
we had could we make use of any. So that when we had
rowed or rather were driven about a league and a half, a
raging wave, like a lofty mountain came rolling astern of
us, and took us with such fury, that at once it overset the
boat. Thus being swallowed up in a moment, we had only
time to call upon the awful name of God, and to implore,
in dying ejaculations, his infinite mercy to receive our de-
parting souls.
Men are generally counted insensible, when struggling
in the pangs of death; but while I was overwhelmed with
water, I had the most dreadful apprehensions imaginable,
for the joys of heaven, and the torments of hell, seemed to
present themselves before me in these dying agonies, and
even small space of time, as it were, between life and death.
I was going I thought I knew not whither, in a dismal
gulf unknown, and as yet unperceived, never to behold
my friends, nor the light of this world any more! I strove
however to the last extremity, while all my companions
were overpowered and entombed in the deep; and it was
with great difficulty I kept my breath till the wave spent
itself, and, retiring back, left me on the shore half dead
with the water I had taken in. As soon as I got on my
feet, I ran as fast as I could, lest another wave should pur-
sue me, and carry me back again. But for all the haste
I made, I could not avoid it, for the sea came after me like
a high mountain, or a furious enemy; so that my business
was to hold my breath, and by raising myself on the water,
to save myself by swimming. The next dreadful wave
buried me at once twenty or thirty feet deep, but, at the
same time, carried me with a mighty force and swiftness
towards the shore, when raising myself, I held out as well
as possible, till, at length, the water having spent itself,



began to return, at which I struck forward, and feeling
ground again with my feet, I took to my heels. Thus be-
ing served twice more, I was at last dashed against a piece
of rock, in such a manner as left me senseless, but recover-
ing a little before the return of the wave, which no doubt
would then overwhelm me, I held fast by the rock till those
succeeding waves abated; and then fetching another run,
was overtaken by a small wave, which was soon conquered.
But before any more could overtake me, I reached the main
land, where clambering up the cliffs of the shore, tired and
almost spent, I sat down on the grass, free from the danger
of the foaming ocean.
No tongue can express the transports that my soul felt
at this happy deliverance. I was rapt up in contemplation,
and often lifted up my hands with the profoundest humility,
to the Divine Power for saving my life; when the rest of
my companions were all drowned. And now I began to
cast my eyes around, and to behold what place I was in,
and what I had next to do. I could see no house nor peo-
ple; I was wet, yet had no clothes to shift me; hungry and
thirsty, yet had nothing to eat or drink, no weapon to de-
stroy any creature for my sustenance, nor defend myself
against devouring beasts; in short I had nothing but a knife,
a tobacco pipe, and a box half filled with tobacco. The
darksome night coming upon me, increased my fears of be-
ing devoured by wild creatures, my mind was plunged into
despair, and having no prospect, as I thought, of life be-
fore me, I prepared for another kind of death than what I
had lately escaped. I walked about a furlong, to see if I
could find any fresh water, which I did, to my great joy;
and taking a quid of tobacco to prevent hunger, I got up
into a thick bushy tree, and seating myself so that 1 could
not fall, a deep sleep overtook me, and for that night, buri-
ed my sorrows in a quiet repose.


It was broad day the next morning before I awoke, when
I not only perceived the tempest was ceased, but saw the
ship driven almost as far as the rock before-mentioned,
which was about a mile from the place where I was.-
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I per-
ceived the ship's boat two miles distant on my right hand,
lying on shore as the waves had cast her. I thought to
have got to her; but there being an inlet of water about
half a mile's breadth between it and me, I returned again
towards the ship, as hoping to find something for my more
immediate subsistence. About noon when the sea jvas
so calm that I could come within a quarter qf a mile of her,
it was to my grief I perceived, that if we had kept on board,
all our lives would have been saved. These thoughts, and
my solitude, drew tears from my eyes, though all in vain.
So resolving to get to the ship, I stripped and leaped into
the water; when swimming round her, I was afraid I could
not get any thing to lay hold of; but it was my good for-
tune to espy a small piece of rope hanging down so low,
that, by the help of it, though with great difficulty, I got
into the ship. Here I found that the ship was bilged, and
had a great deal of water in her, her stern was lifted up
against a bank, and her head almost in the water. "All her
quarter, and what was there, were free and dry. The pro-
visions I found in good order, and losing no time, ate while
I was doing other things. I also found some rum, of which
I took a little; and now I wanted for nothing except a boat,
which indeed was all, to carry away what was needful for
Necessity occasions a quickness of thought. We had
several spare yards, a spare topmast or two, and two or
three large spars of wood. With these I fell to work, and
slung as many of them overboard as I could manage, tying


every one of them with a rope that they might not drive
away. This done, I went down the ship's side and tied
four of them fast together at both ends, in form of a raft,
and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them
cross ways, I found it would bear me but not any consid-
erable weight. Upon which I went to work again, cutting
a spare topmast into three lengths, adding them to my rati
with a great deal of labor and pains. I then first laying
upon it all the planks and boards I could get, next lowered
down three of the seamen's chests after I had filled them
with bread, rice, three Dutch cheese, five pieces of dried
goat's flesh, and some European corn, what little the rats
had spared; and for liquors, I found several cases of bottles,
in which were some cordial waters, and four or five gallons
of arrack. By this time the tide beginning to flow, I per-
ceived my coat, waistcoat and shirt swim away which I had
left on shore; as for my linen breeches and stockings, I
swam with them to the ship; but I soon found clothes
enough, though I took no more than I wanted for the pres-
ent. My eyes were chiefly on tools to work with, and af-
ter a long search, I found out the carpenter's chest, whici
I got safe down on my raft. I then looked for arms ar
ammunition, and in the great cabin, found two good fowl
ing pieces, two pistols, several powder horns filled, a small
bag of shot, and two rusty swords. I likewise found three
barrels of powder, two of which were good, but the third
had taken water, also two or three broken oars, two saws
an axe, and a hammer. I then put to sea, and in getting
to shore had three encouragements. 1. A smooth calm sea:
2. The tide rising and setting in to the shore: 3. The lit-
tle wind there was, blowing towards land: After I had
sailed about a mile, I found the raft driving a little distance
from the place where I first landed, and when I perceived



an opening of the land, with a strong current of the tide
running into it, upon which I kept the middle of the stream.
But great was my concern, when on a sudden the forepart
of my raft ran aground. But after some time, the rising
of the water caused the raft to float again, and coming up
a little river, with land on both sides, I landed in a little
cave, as near the mouth as possible, the better to discover
a sail, if any such providentially passed that way.
Not far off, I espied a hill of stupendous height, sur-
rounded with smaller hills about it, and thither I was re-
solved to go and view the country, that I might see what
part was best to fix my habitation in. Accordingly, arming
myself with a pistol, a fowling piece, powder, and ball, I
ascended the mountain. There I perceived I was in an is-
land, encompassed by the sea, no distant lands to be seen,
but scattering rocks that lay to the west; that it seemed to
be a barren place, and as I thought only inhabited by wild
beasts. I perceived abundance of fowls, but was ignorant
of what kind, or whether good for nourishment. I shot one
of them at my return, which occasioned a confused scream-
ing among the other birds, and I found it, by its color and
beak, to be a kind of hawk, but its flesh was perfect carrion.
When I came to my raft I brought my effects on shore,
which work spent that day entirely; and fearing that some
cruel beast might devour me in the night time while I slept,
I made a kind of hut, or barricade, with the chests and
boards I had brought on shore. That night I slept very
comfortably; and. the next morning my thoughts were
employed to make a further attempt to the ship, and bring
away what necessaries I could find, before another storm
should break her in pieces. Accordingly, I got on board
as before, and prepared a second raft far better than the
first; upon which, I brought away the carpenter's stores



two or three bags full of nails, a great jack-screw, a dozen
or two of hatchets, and a grind-stone. I also took two or
three iron crows, two barrels of musket-bullets, another
fowling piece, a small quantity of powder, and a large bag
full of small shot. Besides these, I took all the men's
clothes I could find, a spare fore-top-sail, a hammock, and
some bedding; and thus completing my second cargo, I
made all the haste on shore I could, fearing some wild
beast might destroy what I had there already. But I only
found a little wild cat sitting on one of the chests, who not
seeming to fear me or the gun that I presented at her, I
threw her a piece of biscuit, which she instantly ate and
When I had got these effects on shore, I went to work,
in order to make me a little tent with the sail and some
poles, which I had cut for the purpose, and having finished
it, what things might be damaged by the weather, I brought
in, piling all the empty chests and casks in a circle, the
better to fortify it against any sudden attempt of man or
beast. After this I blocked up the doors with some boards,
and an empty chest turned the long way out. I then
charged my gun and pistol, and laying my bed'on the ground,
slept as comfortably till the next morning, as though I had
been in a christian country.
Now, though 1 had enough to subsist me a long time,
yet despairing of a sudden deliverance, and fearing that
both ammunition and provision might be spent before such
a thing happened, I saved as much as I- could, and so long
as the ship remained in that condition, I daily brought away
one necessary or other; particularly, the rigging, sails, and
cordage, some twine, a barrel of wet powder, some sugar,
a barrel of meal, three casks of rum, and indeed what was
most welcome to me, a whole hogshead of bread.


The next time I went, I cut the cables in pieces, carried
off a halser whole, with a great deal of iron work, and
made another raft; but this being so unwieldy, by the too
heavy burden upon it, and I not being able so dexterously
to guide it as the former, both my cargo and myself were
overturned. For my part all the damage I sustained was
a wet skin; and at low water, after much labor in diving,
I got up most of the cables, and some pieces of iron.
Thirteen days had I now been on the island, and eleven
days on board, bringing away all that was possible. As
I was going the twellth time, the wind began to rise;
however, I ventured at low water, and rummaging the cabin,
in a locker, I found several razors, scissors, and some
dozens of knives and forks, and in another, thirty-six pounds
in pieces of eight, silver and gold. I wrapt the money up
in a piece of canvass, and began to think of making an-
other raft; but I soon perceived the wind beginning to rise,
a fresh gale blowing from the shore, and the sky overcast
with clouds and darkness. So thinking a raft to be in vain,
I let myself into the water with what things I had about me;
and it was with great difficulty I got ashore, when soon
after it blew a fearful storm.
That night I slept very contentedly in my little tent,
surrounded with all my effects; but when I looked out in
the morning, no more ship was to be 'seen. This much
surprised me for the present: yet, when I considered that I
had lost no time, abated no pains, and had got every thing
useful out of her, I comforted myself in the best manner,
and entirely submitted to divine Providence.
My next thoughts were, how I should defend and secure
myself from savages and wild beasts, if any such were in
the island.
When I considered the ground where I was, that it was


marshy, and had no fresh water near it, my resolutions
were to search for a soil healthy and well watered, where I
might not only be sheltered fromi the sun's scorching heat,
but be more conveniently situated, as well to be secured
ifomi wild men, and beasts of prey, as more easily to dis-
cover any distant sail, should it ever so happen.
And indeed it was not long before I had my desire. I
fund a little plain near a rising hill, the front towards
which, being as steel) as a house-side, nothing could descend
on me from the top.
On the side of this rock was a little hollow place, resem-
bling the entrance or door of a cave. Just before this
place, on the circle of the green, 1 resolved my tent should
stand. This plain did not munch exceed a hundred yards
broad, and about twice as long, like a delightful green
before my door, with a pleasing, though irregular descent
every way to the low grounds by the seaside, sheltered
from the excessive heat of the sun. After this, I drew a
semicircle, twenty yards in diameter, driving down two rows
of strong stakes not six inches from each other. Then,
with the pieces of cable which I had cut on board, I regu-
larly laid tliem in a circle between the piles, up to their tops,
which were more than live feet out of the earth, and then
drove another row of piles, looking within side against them,
between two or three feet high, which made me conclude it
a little castle, impregnable by men and beasts. And for my
better security I would have no door, but entered in and
came out by the help of a ladder, which I also made.
Here was my fence and fortress, into which I carried all
my riches, ammunition and stores. After which, working
on the rock, what with the dirt and stones I dug out, I not
only raised my ground two feet, but made a little cellar to
my mansion-house; and this cost me many days labor and


pains. One day in particular, a shower of rain falling,
thunder and lightning ensued, which put me in terror lest
my powder should take fire, and not only hinder my neces-
sary subsistence, by killing my food, but even blow up me
and my habitation. To prevent which, I fell to making
boxes and bags, in order to separate it, having by me near
1501b. weight. And thus being established as king of the
island, every day I went out with my gun to see what I
could kill that was fit to eat. I soon perceived numbers of
goats, but very shy; yet having watched them narrowly,
and seeing I could better shoot oft the rocks than when in
the low grounds, I happened to shoot a she-goat suckling
a young kid; which, not thinking its dam slain, stood by
her unconcerned; and when 1 took the dead creature up,
the young one followed me even to the enclosure. I lifted
the kid over the pales, and would willingly have kept it alive,
but finding it could not be brought to eat, I was forced to
slay it also for my subsistence.
Thus, entered into as strange a state as ever any man
was in, I had most melancholy apprehensions concerning
my deplorable condition; and many times the tears would
plentifully run down my face, when I considered how I was
debarred from all communication with human kind. Yet
while these desponding cogitations would seem to make me
accuse Providence, other good thoughts would interpose
and reprove me after this manner; Well, supposing you
are desolate, is it not better to be so, than totally perish?
Why should you complain, when not only your life is pre-
served, but the ship driven into your reach, in order to
take what was necessary out of her for a subsistence? "
But to proceed: it was, by the account I kept, the thirtieth
of September, when I first landed on this island. About
twelve days after, fearing lest I should lose my reckoning



of time, nay even forget the sabbath days for want of pen,
ink, and paper, I carved with a knife upon a large post
in great letters, 1 came on shore, Sep. 30U, 1659, and set il
up in tile similitude of a cross, on tile sea shore where I
landed. Every day I cut a notch with imy kni f on the sides
of the square post, and that on the sabbath was as long
again as the rest, and every first day of the month as long
again as that long one. In this manner I kept my calendar,
weekly, monthly, or yearly reckoning of time. But had I
made a more strict search (as I did afterwards,) 1 need not
have set up this mark. For among the parcels belonging
to the gunner, carpenter, and captain's mate, I found those
very things 1 wanted; particularly pens, ink, and paper
also I found two or three compasses, sone mathematics~
instruments, dials, perspective glasses, books of navigation,
tree English Bibles, and several other good books, which
I carefully put lup. Here I cannot but call to mind, our
having a dog and two cuts on board, whom 1 made inhabi-
tants with me in my castle. Though one might think I had
all the necessaries that were desirable, yet still I found sev-
eral things wanting. My ink was daily wasting: I wanted
needles, pins, and thread, to mend or keep my clothes to-
gether: and particularly a spade, pick-axe, or shovel, to
remove tile earth. It was a year before 1 finished my little
bulwark; and having some intervals of relaxation, after my
daily wandering abroad for provision, 1 drew up this plan
alternately, as creditor and debtor, to remind me of the
miseries and the blessings of my life, under so many various



I am cast upon a desolate
island, having no prospect
of a welcome deliverance.
How miserable am I, sing-
led out from the enjoyment
or company of all mankind.

Like a hermit (rather
should I say a lonely ancho-
rite,) am I forced forced from
human conversation.
My clothes, after some
time will be worn out, and
then I shall have none to
cover me.

When my ammunition is
wasted, then shall I remain
without any defence against
wild men and beasts.

I have no creature, no
soul to speak to; none to beg
assistance from. Some com-
fort would it be to resound
my woes where I am under-
stood, and beg assistance
where I might hope for relief.


But yet I am preserved
while my companions have
perished in the raging sea.
Yet set apart to be spared
from death, And He, who
has so preserved me can de-
liver me from this condition.
However, I have food to
eat, and even a happy pros-
pect of subsistence whilst life
At present I enjoy what is
absolutely needful; and the
climate is so hot, that had I
ever so many I should hard-
ly wear them.
Yet even thus, I see no
danger c "any to hurt me, as
in Africa; and what if I had
been cast away upon that
Is there not God to con-
verse with, and is not he able
to deliver thee? already has
he afforded thee sustenance
and put it in thy power to
provide for thyself, till he
sends thee a deliverance.

And now, easing my mind a little by these reflections, I
began to render my life as easy as possible.



I must here add to the description I have given of my
habitation, that having raised a t urf wall against the outside
of it, I thatched it so close as might keep it trom the incle-
imencey of the weather; I also improved it within, enlarged
iny cave, and made a passage and a door in the rock, which
came out beyond the pale of' my fortification. I next pro-
ccted to make a chair and table, and so began to study
such mechanical arts as seemed to me practicable. When
I wanted a plank or board, I viewed down a tree with Imy
hatchet, making it as thinly with il) axe as possible, and then
smooth enough with an adz, to ;aswer miy designs; yet
though I could make no more this way than one board out
of a tree, in length of time 1 got boards enough to shelter
all mly stores, every thing being regularly placed, and nmy
guns securely hanging against the side of a rock. This
Ilmade it a very pleasant sighit to ime, being the result of vast
labor and great diligence; which leaving for awhile, and
iime to the enjoymlient of, 1 shall give the reader an account
of some parts of lmy journal from the day of lly landing, till
the setting of my habitation, as heretofore shown.


SEPTEMBER 30th, 1659, I, unhappy Robinson Crusoe,
having sull'ered shipwreck, was driven on this desolate isl-
and, which I named the )Desolate Island of Despair, the
rest of my companions being swallowed up in the tempest-
uous ocean. The next day 1 spent in consideration of my
unhappy circumstances, having no prospect but of death,
either to be starved with hunger, or devoured by wild
beasts or merciless savages.


Oct. 1. That morning, with great comfort, I beheld the
ship drove ashore. Some hopes I had, that when the
storm was abated I might be able to get some food and
necessaries out of her; which 1 conceived were not dam-
aged, because the ship did stand upright. At this time, I
lamented the loss of my companions, and our misfortune
in leaving the vessel. When I perceived the ship, as it
were, to lie dry, I waded through the sands, then swam
aboard, the weather being very rainy, and with scarcely
any wind.
To the 14th of this month, my time was employed in
making voyages every tide, getting what I could out of the
ship. The weather very wet and uncertain.
Oct. 15. My raft, and all the goods thereon were over-
set; yet I recovered most again at low water.
Oct. 25. It blew hard, and rained night and day, when
the ship went in pieces, so that nothing was seen of her
but the wreck at low water. This day 1 secured my goods
from the inclemency of the weather.
Oct. 26. I wandered to see where I could find a place
convenient for my abode: I fixed upon a rock in the eve-
ning, marked out a half moon, intending to erect a wall
fortified with piles, lined within with pieces of cables, and
covered with turft
.Nov. 3. I shot two wild-fowls, resembling ducks, which
were good to eat, and in the afternoon made me a table.
JNov. 4. I began to live regularly. In the morning I
allowed myself two or three hours to walk out with my
gun; I then worked till near eleven o'clock; and after-
wards refreshed myself with what I had to eat. From
twelve to two, I would lie down to sleep. Extreme sultry
weather. In the evening go to work again.
Nov. 5. Went out with my gun and dog, shot a wild cat


with a soft skin, but her flesh was good for nothing. The
skins of those killed I preserved. On my return I perceiv-
ed many wild birds, and was terrified by some seals which
made oll'to sea.
ov. (. Completed my table.
i orv. 7. Fair weather. I worked to thel2th, but omit-
ted the 11th, which according to my calculation, 1 suppos-
ed to be Sunday.
oiiv. 17. 1 began to dig in the rock, yet was obliged
to desist for want of a pick-axe, shovel and wheel-barrow.
Iron crows I used to supply the place of the first, but with
all my art I could not make a wheel-barrow.
Novr. 1). It was my fortune to find a tree resembling what
toe Brazilians call an iron tree. I had like to spoil my axe
with cutting it, it being very hard, and exceedingly heavy;
vet with much labor and industry I made a sort of spade
out of it.
NJVc. 23. These tools being made, 1 daily carried on my
business; eighteen days I allowed bfor enlarging my cave,
that it might serve me, not only tbr a ware-house, but kitch-
en, parlor and cellar. I commonly lay in the tent, unless
the weather was so rainy that I could not lie dry. So wet
would it be at certain seasons, that I was obliged to cover
all within the pale with long poles, in the form of rafters,
leaning against the rock, and load them with flags and large
hlaves of trees resembling a thatch.
Dec. 10. No sooner did I think my habitation finished,
but suddenly a great deal of the top broke in, so that it was
a mercy I was not buried in the ruins. This occasioned a
great deal of pains and trouble to me before I could make
it firm and durable.
Dec. 17. I nailed up some shelves, and drove nails and
staples in the wall and posts, to hang every thing out of the


Dec. 20. Every thing I got into its place, then made a
sort of dresser, and another table.
Dec. 27. I chanced to light on some goats, shot one,
wounded another; I led it home in a string, bound up its
leg, and cured it in a little time; at length, it became so
tame and familiar as to feed before .he door, and follow
me where I pleased. This put me in mind to bring up
tame creatures, in order to supply me with food after my
ammunition was spent.
Dec..28, 29, 30. The weather being excessively hot,
with little air, obliged me for the most part to keep within
Jan. 3, to 14. My employment this time was to finish
the wall before described, and search the island. I discov-
ered a kind of pigeons, like our house-pigeons, in a nest
among the rocks. I brought them home, nursed them till
they could fly, and then they left me. After this, I shot
some, which proved excellent food. Some time I spent
vainly contriving to make a cask, I may well say it was in
vain, because I could neither joint the staves, nor fix the
heads, so as to make it tight; so leaving that, I took some
goat's tallow I had by me, and a little oakum for the wick,
and provided myself with a lamp, which served instead of
But now a very strange event happened. For being in
the height of my search, what should come into my hand,
but a bag which was used to hold corn (as I supposed,)
for the fowls; so immediately resolving to put gunpowder
into it, I shook all the husks and dirt upon one side of
a rock, little expecting what the consequence would be.
The rain had fallen plentifully a few days before; and
about a month after, to my great amazement, something
began to look out very green and flourishing; and when


came to view it more nicely, every day as it grew, I found
about ten or twelve ears of green barley of the very same
shape and make as that in England.
1 can scarcely express the agitation of my mind at this
sight. Hitherto, I had looked upon the actions of this life
no otherwise than only as the events of blind chance and
fortune. But now, tile appearance of this barley, flourish-
ing in a barren soil, and mny ignorance in not conceiving
how it should come there, made me conclude, that mira-
cles were not yet ceased;" nay, I even thought that God
had appointed it to grow there without any seed, purely for
my sustenance in this miserable and desolate island. And
indeed such great effect had this upon me, that it often
made me melt into tears through a grateful sense of God's
mercies; and the greater still was my thankfulness, when
I perceived about this little field of barley, some rice stalks,
also wonderfully flourishing.
While thus pleased in mind, I concluded there must be
some more corn in the island; and therefore made a dili-
gent search narrowly among the rocks; hut not being able
to lind any, on a sudden it came into my mind, how I had
shaken the husks of corn out of the bag and then my
admiration ceased, with my gratitude to the Divine Being,
as thinking it was but natural, and not to be conceived a
miracle; though even the manner of its preservation might
have made me own it as a wonderful event of God's kind
It was about the latter end of June when the ears of the
corn ripened, which 1 laid up very carefully, together with
20 or 30 stalks of rice; expecting one day I should reap
the fruit of my labor; yet four years were expired before
I could allow myself to eat any barley bread, and much
longer time before I had any rice. After this, with in'p-


fatigable pains and industry for three or four months, at
last I finished my house on the 14th of April, having no
way to go into it, but by a ladder against the wall.
April 16. I finished my ladder, and ascended it; after-
wards pulled it up, then let it down on the other side, and
descended into my new habitation, where I had space
enough, and so fortified, that nothing could attack me
without scaling the walls.
But what does all human art and industry avail, if the
blessing of God does not crown our labors? Or who can
stand before the Almighty, when he stretcheth forth his
arm? For, one time as I was at the entrance of my cave,
there happened such a dreadful earthquake, that not only
the roof of the cave came tumbling about my ears, but the
posts seemed to crack terribly at the same time. This put
me in a great amazement; and running to the ladder and
getting over the wall, I then plainly knew it was an earth-
quake, the place I stood on sustaining three terrible shocks
in less than three minutes. But judge of my terror when
I saw the top of a great rock roll into the sea; I then ex-
pected the island would be swallowed up every moment:
and what made the scene still more dreadful, was to see
the sea thrown into the most violent agitations and disor-
ders by this tremendous accident.
For my part, I expected every moment to be swallowed
up. At the moving of the earth, I was, as it were, sea-
sick; and very much afraid lest the rock, under which was
my fence and habitation, should overwhelm me and it in a
lasting tomb.
It was not long after, when a horrible tempest arose at
the same time attended with a hurricane of wind. Three
hours did this storm continue, and in so violent a manner
as to tear the very trees up by the roots, which was suo-


ceeded by abundance of rain. When the tempest was
over, I went to my tent; but the rain coming on in a furious
manner, I was obliged to take shelter in the cave, where I
was forced to cut a channel through my fortification, to
let the water out. It continued raining all that night, and
some time the next day. These accidents made me re-
solve, as soon as the weather cleared up, to build me a
little hut in some open place, walled round, to defend me
from wild creatures and savages; not doubting, but at the
next earthquake, the mountain would fall on my habitation
and me, and swallow up all in its bowels.
April 16-20. These days I spent in contriving how
and in what manner I should fix my place of abode. All
this while, I was under the most dreadful apprehensions.
When I looked round my habitation, every thing I found
in its proper place. I had several debates whether I should
move or not; but at length resolved to stay where I was,
till I found out a convenient place where I might pitch my
April 22. When I began to put my resolutions in prac-
tice, I was stopped for want of tools and instruments to
work with. Most of my axes and hatchets were useless,
occasioned by cutting the hard timber that grew on the
island. It took me up a full week to make my grindstone
of use to me; and at last I found out a way to turn it about
with my foot, by help of a wheel and a string.
April 30. My bread falling short, I allowed myself but
one biscuit a day.
JMay 1. As I walked along the seashore I found a bar-
rel of gunpowder, and several pieces of the wreck which
the sea had flung up. Having secured these, I made to
the ship, whose stern was torn off, and washed a great
distance ashore; but the rest lay ir the sands This, I

I- __


suppose, was occasioned by the earthquake. I now re-
solved to keep my old place of abode: and also to get to
the ship that day, but found it impossible.
May 3. This day I went on board, and with my saw
sawed off one of the beams, which kept her quarter-deck.
I then cleared the sand till flood.
May 4. I caught some fish, but they were not whole-
some. The same day, I also caught a young dolphin.
May 5. This day also I repaired to the wreck, and
sawed another piece of timber; and when the flood came,
I made a float of three great planks, which were driven
ashore by the tide.
May 6-9. These days, I brought off the iron bolts,
opened the deck with the iron crow, and carried two planks
to land, having made a way into the very' middle of the
May 10-13. All this time I spent in bringing off great
quantities of iron and timber.
May 15. Took with me two hatchets on purpose to cut
off some lead from the roll but all in vain, for it lay too low
under water.
JMay 24. To this day, I worked on the wreck, and with
great difficulty loosened some things so much with the crow,
that at the first blowing tide, several casks floated out, and
several of the seamen's chests; yet that day nothing came
to land but pieces of timber, and a hogshead which had
some pork in it. I continued working to the 15th of June;
(except necessary times for food and rest,) and had I known
how to build a boat, I had timber and planks enough; I
had also near 100 weight of sheet lead.
June 16. As I was wandering towards the'seaside, I
found a large tortoise or turtle, being the first I had seen
on the island, though, as I afterwards found, there were
many on the other side of it



June 17. This day I spent in cooking it, found in her
threescore eggs, and her flesh the most savory and pleasant
I ever tasted in my life.
June 18. I staid within this day, there being a continual
rain; and it was somewhat more chilly and cold than usual.
June 19. Exceedingly ill, taken with a trembling and
June 20. Awake all night, my head racked with pain,
and feverish.
June 21. Sick unto death, and terrified with dismal ap-
prehensions of my condition. Prayed to God more fre-
quently, but very confusedly.
June 22. Something better, but still uneasy in my mind.
June 23. Again relapsed much as before.
June 24. Mended a second time.
June 25. A violent ague for seven hours, cold and hot
fits, succeeded with faint sweats.
June 26. Better, but very weak; yet I scrambled out,
shot a she goat, brought it home, and broiled some of it; I
would willingly have stewed it and made some broth, but
had no pot.
June 27. All this day I was afflicted with an ague;
thirsty, yet could not help myself to water; prayed to God
in these words: Lord; in pity look upon me: Lord, have
mercy upon me, have mercy upon me! After this I fell
asleep, which, when I awaked, I found had much refreshed
I rose up, in a pensive manner, being so thoughtful that
I could not go to sleep: and fearing the dreadful return of
my distemper, it caused me to remember, that the Brazil-
ians use tobacco for almost all diseases. I then went to
my chest, in order to find some, where heaven, no doubt.
directed me to find a cure, both for soul and body; for



there I found one of the bibles, which, till this time, I had
neither leisure nor inclination to look into; I took both the
tobacco and that out of my chest, ard laid them on the
table. Several experiments did I try with the tobacco.
First, I took a piece of leaf, and chewed it; but it being
very green and strong, almost stupified me: next 1 steeped
it in some rum an hour or two, resolving when I went to
bed, to take a dose of it: and, in the third place, I burnt
some over a pan of fire, holding my nose over it so long as
I could endure it without suffocation.
In the intervals of this operation, though my head was
giddy and disturbed by the tobacco, I took up the Bible to
read. No sooner did I open, but there appeared to me
these words, Call on me in the day of trouble and I will
deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me."
At first, this sentence made a very deep impression on
my heart: but it soon wore off again when I considered
the word deliver was foreign to me. And as the child-
ren of Israel said, when they were promised flesh to eat,
" Can God spread a table in the wilderness? in the like
.nanner I began to say, Can God himself deliver me from
this desolate Island? However, the words would still return
to my mind, and afterwards made a greater impression upon
me. As it now was very late, and the tobacco had dozed
my head, I was inclined to sleep; but before I would lie
down, I fell on my knees, and implored the promise that
God had made to me in the holy Scriptures, that "if
I called on him in the day of trouble, he would deliver
With much difficulty I afterwards drank the rum, where-
in 1 had steeped the tobacco, which flying into my head,
threw me into such a profound sleep, that it was three
o'clock the next day before I awoke; or rather I believe,


I slept two days, having certainly lost a day in my account,
and I could never tell any other way.
When I got up, my spirits were lively and cheerful; my
stomach much better, being very hungry; and, in short no
fit returned the next day, which was the 29th, but I found
myself much altered for the better.
July 3. The fit quite left me, but very weak. In this
condition, I often thought of these words, I will deliver
thee: and while at sometimes I would thiliK of the impos-
sibility of it, other thoughts would reprehena me, for dis-
regarding the deliverances I had received even from the
most forlorn and distressed condition. 1 asKed myself,
what regard have I had to God for his abundant merciest
Have I done my part? He has delivered me, but I have
not glorified him; as if I had said I had not owned and
been thankful for these as deliverances, and how could I
expect greater? So much did this sensibly touch my heart,
that I gave God thanks for my recovery from sickness in
the most humble posture.
July 4. This morning I began seriously to ponder on
what is written in the New Testament, resolving to read
a chapter every morning and night, as long as my thoughts
would engage me.
As soon as I set about this work seriously, I found my
heart deeply affected with the impiety of my past lite.
After this, I begged of God to assist me with his holy
Spirit in returning to my duty. One day, in perusing the
Scriptures, I came to these words, He is exalted a
Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance, and to give
remission: Immediately I laid down the book, and, with
uplifted hands to heaven, loudly cried, 0 blessed Jesus,
thou son of David! Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Sav-
iour, give me repentance:" And, now indeed, I prayed


with a true sense of my condition, and a more certain hope,
founded on the word of God. Now I had a different sense
of these words, "Call on me, and I will deliver thee,"
that is from the dreadful load of guilt, which oppressed my
sinful soul, and not from a solitary life: in a word, I came
to this conclusion, that a deliverance from sin was a much
greater blessing than a deliverance from affliction.
To the 14th of July, I walked about with my gun, little
and little at a time, having been reduced to the greatest ex-
tremity of weakness. The applications and experiments I
used were perfectly new: neither could I recommend them
to any one's practice. For though it carried off the fit, it
very much weakened me; and I had frequently convulsions
in my nerves and limbs for some time. From hence I
learned, that going abroad in rainy weather, especially
when it was attended with storms and hurricanes of wind
was most pernicious to health. I had now been above ten
months in the island; and as I never had seen any of the
human kind, I therefore accounted myself as sole monarch;
and as I grew better, having secured my habitation to my
mind, I resolved to make a tour round my kingdom, in
order to make new discoveries.
The 15th of July, I began my journey. I first went to
the creek, where I had brought my rafts on shore: and
travelling farther found the tide went no higher than two
miles up, where there was a little brook of running water,
on the bank of which were many pleasant savannas or
meadows, smooth, plain and covered with grass. On the
rising parts, where I supposed the water did not reach, I
perceived a great deal of tobacco growing to a very strong
stalk. Several other plants I likewise found, the virtue
'which I did not understand. I searched a long time for
the cassava root, which I knew the Indians in that climate



made their bread of; but all in vain. There were several
plants of aloes, though at that time I knew not what they
were: likewise I saw several sugar-canes, but imperfect
for want of cultivation. With these few discoveries, I came
back that night, and slept contentedly in my little castle.
The next day, being the 16th, going the same way, bu
farther than the day before, I found the country more
Adorned with woods and trees. Here I perceived different
fruits in great abundance. Melons in plenty lay on the
ground, and clusters of grapes, ripe and very rich, spread
over the trees. You may imagine I was glad of this dis-
covery, yet ate very sparingly, lest I should throw myself
into a flux or fever. The grapes I found of excellent use;
S for when I dried them in the sun, which-preserved them
as dried raisins are kept, they proved very wholesome and
nourishing, and served me in those seasons when no grapes
were to be had.
The night drawing on apace, I ascended up a tree, and
slept very comfortably, though it was the first time I had
slept out of my habitation. And when the morning came,
I proceeded with great pleasure on my way, travelling
about four miles, as I imagined, by the length of the val-
ley. At the end of this valley I came to an opening, where
the country seemed to descend to the west; there I found
a spring of fresh water, proceeding out of the side of the
hill, with its crystal streams running directly east. And
indeed here mry senses were charmed with the most beauti-
ful landscape nature could afford; for the country appeared
so flourishing, green and delightful, that to me it seemed
like a planted garden. I then descended on the side of
that delicious vale, when I found abundance of cocoa,
orange, lemon, and citron trees, but very wild and barren
at that time. As for the limes, they were delightful and


wholesome, the juice of which I afterwards used to mix in
water, which made it very cool and refreshing. And now
I was resolved to carry home and lay up a store of grapes,
limes and lemons, against the approaching wet season. So
laying them up in separate parcels, and then taking a few
of each with me, I returned to my little castle, after having
spent three days in this journey. Before I got home, the
grapes were so bruised that they were utterly spoiled; the
limes indeed were good, but of those, I could bring only a
July 19. Having prepared two bags, I returned thither
again, but to my great surprise, found all the grapes spread
about, trod to pieces, and abundance eaten, which made
me conclude there were wild beasts thereabouts. To pre-
vent this happening again, I gathered a large quantity of
the grapes, and hung them upon the out branches of the
tree, both to keep them unhurt, and that they might cure
and dry in the sun; and having well loaded myself with
limes and lemons, I returned once more to my old place of
And now, reflecting on the fruitfulness of this valley,
the pleasantness of its situation, its security from storms,
and the delightfulness of the adjacent woods, I concluded I
was settled in the worst part of the country, and therefore
was thinking to remove my habitation.
But when I considered again, that though it was plea-
sant, it was off from the sea-side, where there was a possi-
bility, some time or other, a ship might either be driven or
sail by; and that to enclose myself among hills and woods
must certainly put an end to my hopes of deliverance; I re-
solved to let my castle remain where Providence had first
placed it. Yet, so delighted was I with this place, that
I made me a little kind of bower, surrounding it with a




double hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked and
tiHled with bulrushes: and having spent a great part of the
month of July, I think it was the first of August before
began to enjoy my labor.
t/August 3. Perceiving my grapes to be dry, I took them
from the trees, and they proved excellent good raisins of
the sun: the most of which I carried to my cave: and hap-
py for me I did so, by which 1 saved the best part of my
winter food.
dlgiust 14. This day it began to rain; and though I
had made me a tent like thle other, yet having no shelter
of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me to
retreat to, I was obliged to return to my old castle, the rain
continued more or less every day, till the middle of Octo-
ber; and sometimes so violently, that I could not stir out
of my cave for several days. This season I found my fim-
ily to increase; for one of my cats that had ran away from
me, and which I thought had been dead, returned about
August, with three kittens at her heels, like herself; from
these eats proceeded such numbers, that I was forced to
kill and destroy them as 1 would do wild beasts or vermin
To the ;2tlh of this month, I could not stir out. it raining
incessantly; when beginning to want food, I was compelled
to venture twice, the first of which times I shot a goat, and
afterwards found a very large tortoise. The manner of
regulating my food was thus; a bunch of raisins served me
for my breakfitst; a piece of goat's flesh or turtle boiled for
my dinner, and two or three turtle eggs for my supper.
While the rain lasted, I daily worked two or three hours at
enlarging my cave, and, by degrees worked it on towards
one side of the hill, and made a door or way out, which
came beyond my fnce or wall, and so 1 came in and out
this way But after I had done this, I was troubled to see




myself thus exposed; though I could not perceive any thing
to fear, a goat being the biggest creature I had seen upon
this island.
September 30. Casting up the notches on my post, they
amounted to 365, I concluded this to be the anniversary
of my landing; and therefore, humbly prostrating myself
on the ground confessing my sins, acknowledging God's
righteous judgments upon me, and praying to Jesus Christ
to have mercy upon me, I fasted for twelve hours till the
going down of the sun; and then eating a biscuit and a
bunch of grapes, laid me on a bed, and with great comfort
took my night's repose. Till this time, I seldom had dis-
tinguished the Sabbath-day; but now I made a longer
notch than ordinary for the days of rest, and divided the
weeks as well as I could, though I found I had lost a day
or two in my account. My ink failing soon after, I omitted
in my daily memorandum, things of an indifferent nature,
and contented myself to write down only the most remark-
able events of my life. The rainy and dry seasons appear-
ed now regular to me, and experience taught me how to
provide for them; yet in one thing I am going to relate,
my experience very much failed me. You may call to
mind, what I have mentioned of some barley and rice which
I had saved; about thirty stalks of the former, and twenty
of the latter; and, at that time, the sun's being in its south-
ern position, going from me, together with the rains, made
me conclude it a very proper season to sow it. Accordingly
I dug up a piece of ground, with my wooden spade, and
dividing it in two parts, sowed about two thirds of myseed,
preserving by me a handful of each. And happy it was I
did so; for no rains falling, it was choked up, and never
appeared above the earth till the wet season came again,
and then part of it grew, as if it had been newly sown


I was resolved still to make another trial; and seeking
for a moister piece of ground near my bower, I there sow-
ed the rest of my seed in February, which, by having the
rainy months of March and April to water it, yielded a
noble crop, and sprung up very pleasantly. I had still
saved part of the seed, not daring to venture all; and by
the time 1 found out tile proper seasons to sow it in, and
that I might expect every year two seed-times and two
harvests, my stock amounted to above half a peck of each
sort of grain.
No sooner were the rains over, but the stakes which I
had cut from the trees, shot out like willows, the first year
after lopping their heads. 1 was ignorant of the tree I cut
themI from; but they grew so regularly beautiful, that they
made a most lively appearance, and so flourished in three
years' time, that 1 resolved to cut more of them; and these
soon growing made a glorious fence, as afterwards I shall
And now I perceived that the seasons of the year might
generally be divided, not into summer and winter, as in
Europe, but into wet, and dry seasons, as in this manner.
From February 15, Rainy, sun coming near the
To April 15, Equinox, 2 months.
From JApril 15, Dry, sun getting north from the
To August 15, line, 4 months.
From J lugust 15, Wet, the sun being then come
To Ocober 15, back, 2 months.
From ( October 15, Dry, sun running south of the
To February 15, line, 4 months.
The wet seasons would continue longer or shorter, as
the wind continued or ceased to blow. But having found
the ill consequences of being abroad in the rain, I took
care before hand to furnish myself with Drovisions: and.



v.uring the wet months, sat within doors as much as possible.
4t this time I contrived to make many handy things that I
canted, though it cost me much labor and pains, before I
outld accomplish them The first I tried was to make a
assket; but all the twigs I could get, proved so brittle, that
could not then perform it. It now proved of great use to
ne, that when a boy, 1 took great delight in standing at a
basket maker's, in the same town where my father lived,
,o view his men at work: like other boys, being curious to
,,ce the manner of their working these things, and very
idticious to assist, I perfectly learned the method of it, and
wantedd nothing but the tools. And it coming into my mind,
hat the twigs of that tree of which I made my stakes, might
te as tough as a sallow, willow, or osiers growing in Eng-
,and, I resolved to make an experiment, and went the next
aay to my country seat, and found some fit for my turn;
and after cutting down a quantity with my hatchet, I dried
them in my pale, and when fit to work with, carried them
to my cave, where I employed myself in making several
sorts of baskets, insomuch that I could put in whatsoever
I pleased. It is true, they were not cleverly made, yet
they served my turn upon all occasions.
But still I wanted two necessary things. I had no cask
to hold my liquor, except two almost full of rum, a few
bottles of an ordinary size, and some square case bottles;
neither had I a pot to boil any thing in, only a large kettle,
unfit to make broth, or stew a bit of meat: I wanted like-
wise at the beginning of this dry season a tobacco-pipe;
but for this I afterwards found an expedient.
I kept myself employed in planting my second row of
stakes. But remembering that when I travelled up to the
brook I had a mind to see the whole island, I now resumed
my intention, and taking my dog, gun, hatchet, two bis-



cuit cakes, a great bunch of raisins, with a larger quantity
of mwder and shot than usual, I began my journey. Hav-
ing passed the vale where my shower stood, 1 came within
view of the sea lying to the west; when, it being a clear
day, I 'iirly described land, extending from the west to the
southwest about 10 or 15 leagues, as I concluded; but
could not say whether it was an island or a continent.
Neither could I tell what this place might be; only thought
it was part of America, and where I might have been in
a miserable condition had I landed. Again 1 considered,
that if this was the Spanish coast, certainly, one timo or
the other, 1 should see some ships pass by; and if it was
not, then it must he the savage coast, between the Spanish
country and Brazil, which abounds with cannibals or man
As I proceeded forward, I found this side of the island
much more pleasant than mine; the fields fragrant, adorned
with sweet flowers and verdant grass, together with several
very fine woods. There were parrots in plenty which made
me long for one to be my companion; but it was with great
difficulty I could knock one down with my stick; and I kept
him at home some years, before I could get him to call me
by name.
In the low grounds I found various sorts of hares and
foxes as 1 took them to be, but much different from those
in England. Several of these I killed, but never ate them;
neither indeed had I any occasion; for abounding with
goats, pigeons, turtle, and grapes, I could defy any mar-
ket to firnish me a better table. In this journey I did not
travel above two miles a day, because I took several turns
and winding, to see what discoveries I could make, re-
turning weary enough to the place where I designed to
rest all night, which was either in a tree, or to a place
which I surrounded with stakes, that no wild creature

____ __) .._._...__


might suddenly surprise me. When I came to the sea-
shore, I was amazed to see the splendor of it. Its strand
was covered with shells of the most beautiful fish, and
constantly abounding with innumerable turtles, and fowls
of many kinds, which I was ignorant of, except those call-
ed penguins. I might have shot as many as 1 pleased, but
was sparing of my ammunition, rather choosing to kill a
she-goat, which I did with much difficulty, on account of
the fatness of the country.
Now, though this journey produced the most pleasing
satisfaction, yet my habitation was so much to my liking,
that I did not repine at my being seated on the worst part
of the island. I continued my journey, travelling about
twelve miles further towards the east, where I set a great
pile on the shore for a mark, concluding that my next
journey should bring me tothe other side of the island,
east from my castle, and so round till I came to my post
again. As I had a constant view of the country, I thought
I could not miss my way; but scarce had I travelled three
miles, when I descended into a very large valley, so sur-
rounded with hills covered with wood, that having no guide
but the sun, and to add to my misfortune, the weather prov-
ing very hazy, I was obliged to return to my post by the
seaside, and so backwards the same way I came. In this
journey my dog surprised a kid, and would have killed it
had I not prevented him. As I had often been thinking of
getting a kid or two, and so raising a breed of tame goats
to supply me after my ammunition was spent, I took this
opportunity of beginning: and, having made a collar for
this little creature, with a string made of rope-yarn, I
brought it to my bower, and there enclosed and left him;
and having spent a month in this journey, at length I re-
turned to my old habitation.


Nobody can doubt of my satisfaction, when I retu:ne'
to my little castle, and reposed myself in my hammock
After my journey I rested myself a week, which time J
employed in making a cage for my pretty poll. I now be
gan to recollect the poor kid I had left in the bower, an'
immediately went to fetch it home. When I came there
I found the young creature almost starved; I gave it some
food, and tied it as before; but there was no occasion, foi
it followed me like a dog; and as I constantly fed it, became
so loving, gentle, and fond, that it commenced one of my
domestics, and would never leave me.
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox being now
come, I kept the 30th of September in the most solemn
manner, as usual, it being the third year of my abode in
the island. I spent the whole day in acknowledging God's
mercies, in giving thanks for making this solitary life as
agreeable, and less sinful, than that of human society; and
for the communication of his grace to my soul, in support-
ing, comforting, and encouraging me to depend upon his
Providence, and hope for his eternal presence in the world
to come.
Indeed, I often did consider how much more happy:
was, in this state of life, than in that accursed manner of
living I formerly used; sometimes, however, when hunting
or viewing the country, the anguish of my soul would break
out upon me, and my very heart would sink within me, to
think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was in;
and how I was a prisoner locked up within the eternal bars
and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, with-
S out hopes, and without redemption. In this condition, I
would often wring my hands, and weep like a child: and
even sometimes in the middle of my work, this fit would
often take me; and then I would sit down and sigh, looking


on thb ground for an hour or two together, till such time
as my grief got vent in a flood of tears.
One morning, as I was fully employed in this manner I
opened my Bible, when immediately I fixed my eyes upon
these words, "I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee!"
Surely, if God does not forsake me, what matters it, since
he can make me more happy in this state of life, than if I
enjoyed the greatest splendor in the world? And whenever
I opened or shut the Bible, I blessed kind Providence,
that directed my good friend in England to send it among
my goods without my order, and for assisting me to save it
from the power of the raging ocean.
And now beginning my third year, my several daily em-
ployments were these: First, My duty to Heaven, and dili-
gently reading the Holy Scriptures which I did twice or
thrice every day; Secondly, Seeking provisions with my
gun, which commonly took me up, when it did not rain,
three hours every morning; Thirdly, The ordering, curing,
preserving, and cooking what I had killed, or catched for
my supply, which took me up a great part of the day; for
in the middle of the day, the sun being in its height, it
was so hot, that I could not stir out; so that I had but four
hours in the evening to work in: and then the want of tools,
of assistance, and skill, wasted a great dal of time to little
purpose. I was no less than two and forty days, making a
board fit for a long shelf which two sawyers, with their
tools and saw-pit, would have cut out of the same tree in
half a day. It was of a large tree, as my board was to be
broad. I was three days in cutting it down, and two more
in lopping off the boughs, and reducing it to a piece of
timber. Thus I hacked and hewed off each side, till it be-
came light to move; then 1 turned it, made one side of it
smooth and flat as a board from end to end then turned it



downward, cutting the other side, till I brought the plank
to be about three inches thick, and smooth on both sides.
Any body may judge my great labor and fatigue in such a
piece of work; but this 1 went through with patience, as
also many other things, that my circumstances mad ne ces-
sary for me to do.
The harvest months, November and December, were
now at hand, in which I had the pleasing prospect of a very
good crop. But here I met with a new misfortune, flr the
goats and hares, having tasted of the sweetness of the
blade, kept it so short that it had no strength to shoot up
into a stalk. To prevent this, I enclosed it with a hedge,
and by day shot some of its devourers; and mly dog, which
1 had tied to tie field-gate, keeping harking all night, so
frightened these creatures that 1 got entirely rid of them.
But, no sooner did I get rid of these, than other enemies
appeared; to wit, whole flocks of several sorts of birds,
who only waited till my back was turned, to ruin me. So
much did this provoke me, that 1 let fly, and killed three
of the malefactors; and afterwards served them as they do
notorious thieves in England, hung them up in chains as a
terror to others. And, indeed, so good an effect had this,
that they not only forsook lite corn. but all that part of the
island, so long as these criminals hung there.
My corn having ripened apace, the latter end of De-
cember, which was my second harvest, I reaped it with a
scythe, made of one of my broad swords. I had no fatigue
in cutting down my first crop, it was so slender. The ears
I carried home in a basket, rubbing the grain out with my
hands, instead of threshing it; and, when my harvest was
over, found my half peck of seed had produced nearly two
bushels of rice, and two bushels and a half of barley. And
now I plainly foresaw, that, by God's goodness, I should


be furnished with bread: but yet I was concerned, because
I knew not how to grind or make meal of my corn, neither
knew I how to bake it into bread. I would not, however,
taste any of the crop, but resolved to preserve it against
next season, and, in the meanwhile, use my best endeav-
ors to provide myself with other food.
But where were my labors to end? the want of a plough
to turn up the earth,,or shovel to dig it, I conquered by
making me a wooden spade. The want of a harrow I sup-
plied, by dragging over the corn a great bough of a tree
When it was growing, I was forced to fence it: when ripe,
to mow it, carry it home, thresh it, part it from the chaff
and save it. And, after all, I wanted a mill to grind it, a
sieve to dress it, yeast and salt to make it into bread, and
an oven to bake it. This set my brains to work, to find
some expedient for every one of these necessaries, against
the next harvest.
And now having more seed, my first care was to pre-
pare me more land. I pitched upon two large flat pieces of
ground, near my castle, for that purpose, in which I sowed
my seed, and fenced it with a good hedge. This took me
up three months: by which time, the wet season coming
on, and the rain keeping me within doors, I found several
occasions to employ myself; and, while at work, used to
divert myself with talking to my parrot, teaching him to
know and speak his own name Poll, the first welcome word
I ever heard spoken in the island. I had been a long time
contriving how to make earthen vessels, which I wanted
extremely; and when I considered the heat of the climate,
I did not do, bt but, if I could find any such clay, I might
botch up a pot, strong enough, when dried in the sun, to
bear handling, and to hold any thing that was dry, as corn,
meal, and other things.


To 1c short, tile c'lay I toilil; but it would occ'lsionl the
almost serious person to slilile, to s(ee whait awkward IwayIts I
took, and what ugly mIisshapen things I inmaide; how nyil)"
either fell out or cracked by ilhe violent hleat olf tllhe sun,
indl fell ill pieces whIen Ihe were removed, so that I think
it, wits two months before I coul lI'rlct lilly telling; and
evel tlen but two ('lmsy tii (lilings in imitation of earthen'
jirs. 'l'These, however, I vt'r' i vnlly placed in wicker
llskets, lmade onil purpose lor thelll, llid betw'eenl Ihli pot
ailnd tlhet baskets, stilled it 111i orf rice 1iild ih rlely strnw;
anilid hese I l)pres' med would hill miy dried corn, liand Iper-
hapsli' tile mIll'i, w I ti rl'll was bruised. As for tilh
smaller tliings, I made tlicih wilh 'better SlIlti ce ; sucli as
little round Ilots, hilt dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, tle sutn
baking tlshemi very ilard.
\et still I wanted oiie (lhing absolutely necessary, and
that was ilan earthen pt, not only to liold lily liquid, but
lso to bear lthe fire, whlic'h noille of' these could do. It
once happillened liat as I was putting out iy lire, I tlnd
therein ai broken piece of' one of iny vessels, lllurnt lihard tas
a rock, and red is a tile. This miad, me tlhhink of' bilrniill
some pots; and having no notion of a kiln, or olf glazing
then will lead, I fixed three l'illr pipkilns, and two or three
pots in a pile oe uponl another. The fire 1 piled round
tile outside, aind dry wood olil tlhe top, till I saw the pots in
the inside red hiot, anid otillnd thailt they did not crack ati all:
and when 1 perceived thliem perfiectly red, I let thleiln stulnd
in the fire about live or six hours, till tile clay melted by
the extremity of the heat, and would Ihave ul, to glass4iad
I sullered it; upon which, I slacked lily (ire by degrees
till the redness abated ; IIand( wilatlhilng them till the morning,
I found I had three very good pipkins, and two earthen
pots, as well burnt and fit for my turn as I could desire.


The first use to which I turned my pipkins was to make
some salt, which 1 had long wanted. For this purpose, I
filled them with sea-water, and kept it slowly boiling over
the fire, till the whole of the water had boiled away in
steam, leaving, at the bottom of the vessel, a thin crust of
salt, which I found very good for giving a relish to my food.
The next concern I had, was to get me a stone-mortar
to beat some corn in, instead of a mill to grind it. Here,
indeed, I was at a great loss, as not being fit for a stone-
cutter; and many days I spent to find out a great stone big
enough to cut hollow and make fit for a mortar and strong
enough to bear the weight ot'a pestle, that would break the
corn without filling it with sand. But all the stones of the
island being of a mouldering nature, rendered my search
fruitless; and then I resolved to look out a great block of
hard wood; which having found, I formed it by my axe and
hammer, and then, with infinite labor, made a hollow in it,
just us the Indians of Brazil make their canoes. When I
had finished this I made a great pestle of iron-wood, and
then laid them up against my succeeding harvest.
My next business was to make me a sieve, to sift my
meal and part it from the bran and husk. Having no fine
thin canvass to search the meal through, I could not tell
what to do. What linen I had was reduced to rags; I had
goat's hair enough, but neither tools to work it, nor did I
know how to spin it. At length, I remembered I had some
neckcloths of calico or muslin of the sailors, which I had
brought out of the ship, and with these, I made three small
sieves proper enough for the work.
I come now to consider the baking part. The want of
an oven I supplied, by making some earthen pans very
broad, but not deep. When I had a mind to bake, I made
a great fire upon my hearth, the tiles of which I had made

---~1_11___ -1_1_ :~~-----


myself, and when the wood was burnt into live coals, I
spread theCl over it, till it became very hot; then sweeping
them away, I set down my loaves, and whelming down the
earthen pots upon them, drew the ashes and coals all around
the outsides of the pots to continue the heat; and in this
manner I baked my barley loaves, as well as if I had been
a complete pastry cook, and also made of the rice, several
cakes and puddings.
It is no wonder that all these things took me up the best
part of a year, since what intermediate time 1 had, was be-
stowed in managing my new harvest and husbandry; for in
the proper season, I reaped my corn, carried it home and
laid it up in the ear, in my large baskets, till 1 had time to
rub, instead of thrashing it. And now indeed, my corn in-
creased so much, that it produced me twenty bushels of
oarley, and as much of rice, that I not only began to use it
freely, but was thinking how to enlarge my barns, and re-
solved to sow as much at a time as would be sufficient for
a whole year.
All this while, the prospect of land, which I had seen
from the other side of the island, ran in my mind. I still
meditated a deliverance from this place, though the fear of
greater mislfrtunes might have deterred me from it. For
allowing that 1 had attained that place, I ran the hazard of
being killed and eaten by the devouring cannibals; and if
they were not so yet I might be slain, as other Europeans
had been, who fell into their hands. Notwithstanding all
this,'my thoughts ran continually upon that shore. I now
wished for the long boat with the shoulder of mutton sail.
I went to the ship's boat, that had been cast a great way on
the shore in the late storm. She was removed but a little;
and her bottom being turned up by the impetuosity and
surge of the waves and wind, I fell to work with all the


strength I had, and with levers and rollers I had cut from
the wood, to turn her, and repair the damages she had sus-
tained. This work took me up three or four weeks, when
finding my little strength all in vain, I fell to undermining
it by digging away the sand, and so to make it fall down,
setting pieces of wood to thrust and guide it in the fall.
But after this was done, I was still unable to stir it up, or
to get under it, much less to move it forward towards the
water, and so I was forced to give it over.
This disappointment, however, did not frighten me. I
began to think, whether it was not possible for me to make
a canoe or Perigua, such as the Indians make of the trunk
of a tree. But here I lay under particular inconveniences;
want of tools to make it, and want of hands to move it into
the water, when it was made. However, to work I went
upon it, stopping all the inquiries I could make with this
very simple answer I made to myself, let's first make it,
I'll warrant I'll find some way or other to get it along when
it is done.
1 first cut down a cedar tree, which was five feet ten
inches diameter at the lower part next the stump, and four
feet eleven inches diameter at the end of twenty-two feet,
after which it lessened for a space, and then parted into
branches. Twenty days was I hacking and hewing it at
the bottom, fourteen more in cutting off the branches and
limbs, and a whole month in shaping it like the bottom of
a boat. As for the inside, I was three weeks with a mallet
and chisel, clearing it in such a manner, as that it was big
enough to carry 26 men, much bigger than any canoe 1
ever saw in my life, and consequently sufficient to transport
me and all my effects to that wished for shore I so ardently
Nothing remained now, but indeed the greatest difficul-

_4 *t


ty, to get it into the water, it ly ing about 100 yards from it
'To remedy tilhe first iniconvelieice, which wis a rising hill
between tie boat anti tlie creek, with wonderful pains and
labor I dug into the surface of tthe earth, and made a de-
clivity. But when llhis was done, ull tlih strength I iad
wass s insullficieni to IImove it, as it wns when I lirst made
the attemiilt. I then proceeded to measure the distance of
ground, resolving to mIake a canal, in order to bring the
water to thlie canoe, sin'c I could not bring tle canoe to the
water. But as this seemed to be impracticable to inyself
alone Iunder tilh spaceC ofc even or twelve years, it brought
tle into sonue sort of consideration; so that I concluded
tins also to be impossible, and the attempt vain. I now
saw, and not belbre, what stupidity it is to begin work be-
fore we reckon its costs, or j.idgec rightly our own abilities
to go thlromgh with its p(rtoriiiance.
In tlihe ltheighlt of this work mnv fourth vear expired from
tilh' linc I was !ilst on this island. At tills tinc I did not
tobrvt iny anniiversary; but kept it with ratlhr greater de-
votlionl than before. lIor now niy holi s being frustrated, I
looked upon this world as a thing I had nothliill to do with;
and very well might I sav, as falihtr Abrahliam said unto
Dives, lietween ine, and tli'e there is a gulfl fixed."
And indeii d I was setli'aratd from its wickedness too, hav-
inlg neither tlihe lst of the Ilesh, lihe lust of'the eye, nor the
pride of life; I had notlhiig to ctovet, being lord, king and
emiiperor over the whole voiuiiiry I had in possession, with-
out dispute and without controll: I had loadings of corn,
plenty of turtles, timber ill abundance, and grapes above
Miea sure. Whaiit was all the rest to me ? tlie money I had
lay by nle as despicable dross, which I would freely have
given for a gross of tobacco pipes or a hand-mill to grind
my corn: in a word, the nature and experience of these




things dictated to me this just reflection. That the good
things of this world are no further good to us than as they
are for our use; and that whatever we may heap up, we
can but enjoy as much as we use and no more.
These thoughts rendered my mind more easy than usual:
every time I sat down to meat, 1 did eat with thankfulness,
admiring the providential hand of God, who, in this wilder-
ness had spread a table to me. And now I considered what
I enjoyed, rather than what I wanted, compared my pre-
sent condition with what I at first expected it should be;
how I should have done, if I had got nothing out of the ship;
that I must have perished before I had caught fish or tur-
tles; or lived, had 1 found them, like a mere savage, by
eating them raw, and pulling them to pieces with my claws,
like a beast. I next compared my station to that which 1
deserved; how undutiful I had been to my parents; how
destitute of the fear of God; how void of every thing that
was good; and how ungrateful for those abundant mercies
I had received from heaven, being fed, as it were by a mir-
acle, even as great as Elijah's being fed by ravens; and
cast on a place where there are no venomous creatures to
poison or devour me; in short, making God's tender mer-
cies matter of great consolation, I relinquished all sadness,
and gave way to contentment.
As long as my ink continued, which with water I made
last as long as I could, I used to minute down the days
of the month on which any remarkable thing happened.
The next thing that wasted after my ink, was the biscuit,
which I had brought out of the ship; and though I allowed
myself but one cake a day for about a twelvemonth, yet I
was quite out of bread for nearly a year, before I got any
corn of my own.
In the next place, my clothes began to decay, and my


-- ^^ia^faS^t^


linen had been gone long before. However, I had preserv-
ed about three dozen of the sailors' checkered shirts which
proved Ia great refreshinent to ime, when the violent beams
of tlhe s11n would not suffer me to bear lany of the seamenlls'
heavy watclh-coats; which lmalde ime turn tailor, anild, after
a miserable botching i illner, convert tihe n to jackets. To
preserve mily head, I iiade a (call of goatskins, with the hair
loutwards to keep out tihe rain; which indeed served me so
well, tliat alftrward I inade a waistcoat and open-kneed
breeches of thll same: and then I contrived a sort of u111-
brella, covering it with skills, which not only kept out the
heat of the sull, but tile rain also. Tius being easy and
settled in lly mind, mly chief ilhippinless wa1s to converse with
God, in most heavenly ind comfortable ejaculations.
For live years alter this, I cannot say any extraordillary
thing occurred to nme. My chieflt eploylet wasll to cure
ily raisins, and plant lily barley llad rice, lof both which I
had a year's provision belfore-hand. But though I was dis-
appointed in mlily first canoe, I made it, at intermediate times,
lily business to make a second (oft uchl inferior size: and it
was two years before I had finished it. lBlt as I perceived it
would il nowise answer ilmy design of sailing to the other
shore, my thoughts were confined to take a tour round the
island, to see whllt further discoveries I could make. To Itis
intent, after having inoved her t the water, and tried how
she would sail, liltted up a little mast to liy boat, land
made a sail of the ship's sails that lay by me. I then made
lockers or boxes at the end of it to put in necessaries, pro-
vision and tammunlition, which would preserve then dry
either from the rain, or the spray of the sea; and, in the
inside of tle boat, 1 cut ime a long hollow place to lay my
gun, and to keep it dry, made a cover for it. My umbrella,
Fixed in a step in the stern, like a mast, to keep the heat


of the sun off me. And now resolving to see the circum
ference of my little kingdom, I victualled my ship for the
voyage, putting in two dozen of my barley bread loaves, an
earthen pot full of parched rice, a little bottle of rum, half
a goat, powder and shot, and two watch-coats. It was the
sixth of November, in the sixth year of my reign, or cap-
tivity, that I set out on this voyage; which was much
longer than I expected, being obliged to put farther out,
by reason of the rocks that lay a great way in the sea.
And indeed, so much did these rocks surprise me, that I
was for putting back, fearing that if I ventured farther, it
would be out of my power to return: in this uncertainty I
came to anchor just off the shore, to which I waded with
my gun on my shoulder, and then climbing up a hill, which
overlooked that point, I saw the full extent of it, and so
resolved to run all hazards.
In this prospect from the hill, I perceived a violent
current running to the east, coming very close to the point;
which I the more carefully observed, thinking it dangerous,
and that when I came to it, I might be driven into the sea
by its force, and not able to return to the island: and cer-
tainly it must have been so, had I not made this observa-
tion; for on the other side was a like current, with this
difference, that it set off at a greater distance; and I
perceived there was a strong eddy under the land; so that
my chief business was to work out of the first current,
and conveniently get into the eddy. Two days I staid here,
the wind blowing very briskly east southeast, which being
contrary to the current, leaves a great breach of the sea
upon the point; so it was neither fit for me to keep too
near the shore, on account of the breach; nor stand at
too great distance for fear of the streams. That night
the wind abating, it grew so calm, that I ventured out: and


here I may be a monument to all rash and ignorant pilots"
tlr 1 was no sooner come to the point, and not above tile
boat's length fro shore, but I was got into deep water,
with a current like a inill-race, which drove my boat along
so violently, that it was impossible for me to keep near the
edge ot it, for it forced ime more and more out from the
eddy to the left of tme; and all 1 could do with my paddles
owas useless, there being no wind to help iie.
Now I began to look upon myself as quite lost, since, as
the current ran ont both sides ftl'te island, I was very certain
they must join again, and then I had no hopes but of per-
ishing for want, in the sea, after %%hat provision I had was
spent, or before, if a storm should happen to arise.
W\\ho can conceive tle present anguish of my mind at
this calamity? with longing eyes thd I look upon my little
kingdom, and thought the island thie pleasantest place in
the universe. Happy, thrice ha ppy desert, said 1, shall I
never see thee more? Wretched creature! whither am I
going? Why did I murmur at miy lonesome condition, when
now I would give the wlhle wide world to be thither again?
While I was thus complaining, I found mysellfto be driven
about two leagues into the sea; however, I labored till my
strength was flir spent, to keep my boat as far north as I
possibly could, to that side of the current where the eddy
lay. About noon 1 perceived a little breeze of wind, spring
up from the south southeast, which overjoyed my heart;
and 1 was still more elated, when in about half an hour, it
b!ew a gentle fine gale. Had any thick weather sprung
up, I had been lost another way: for having no compass on
board, I should never have fund the way to steer towards
the island, ift once it had disappeared; but it proving the
contrary, I set up my iast again, spread my sail and stood
away northward, as much as I could, to get rid of the



current. And no sooner did the boai begin to stretch away,
but I perceived by the clearness of the water, a change of
the current was near; for, where it was strong, the water
was foul; and where it was clear the current abated.
Those who have been in the like calamities with my
own, may guess my present excess of joy, how heartily I
ran my boat in the stream of this eddy, and how joyfully I
spread my sail to the refreshing wind, standing cheerfully
before it, with a smart tide under foot. By the assistance
of this eddy, I was carried above a league home again,
when, being in the wake of the island, betwixt the two
currents, I found the water to be in a sort of a stand.
About four o'clock in the afternoon, I reached within a
league of the island, and perceived the points of the rock,
which caused this disaster, stretching out, as I observed
before, to the southward, which throwing off the current
more southerly, had occasioned another eddy to the north.
But having a fair brisk gale, I stretched across this eddy,
and in an hour came within a mile of the shore, where
I soon landed to my unspeakable comfort; and after an
humble prostration, thanking God for my deliverance, with
a resolution to lay all thoughts of escaping aside, I brought
my boat safe to a little cove, and laid me down to take a
welcome repose. When I awoke, I was considering how I
might get my boat home; and coasting along the shore 1
came to a good bay, which ran up to a rivulet or brook,
where, finding a harbor, I stowed her as safe as if she had
been in a dry dock, made on purpose for her.
I now perceived myself not far from the place, where
before I had travelled on foot: so taking nothing with me,
except my gun and umbrella, I began my journey, and in
the evening came to my bower, where I again laid me
down to rest. I had not slept long before I awakened in


great surprise, by Ii siranige voice that called me se~tial
li 'es, liohin, ol iiin, Noliinson Crusoe, poor Rt.ii!
Wh\Vlirear youi, oliiison Croile ? VWhlere are you? WVl1re
have vouII Ilt' l?7 "
So tfast was I asleep, thlia at first I did no awake
lthoroughily; but half' asleep, andl halt awake, I ti ought I
i'dreamed Itha Mt.atsollilt'lno spoke to li utll a li te voice rt'-
|l 'lted, -" ol iinson Cris~SO ," sVc\ ril lin'me Ib'iii ter'i'ribly
i frl 'lteiedl, I stari'lel uil il 11ti' ill iimost :conifiisioll; anli, 1no
.soonei r were miy eyes fill oll'n, butl I I llihd lily ipr'telly poll
silling o llthe top ol'lli, l hl' ll(it called i11; I11r iiu t in suih ll tw iliig liiigulag',
I l s il to tailk iil Ite chi limh ; hi S\\l ii so xite;'llv riirilrCd,

i't l ire tl'l, aind Ic'\r I p ioo ir IRo iliisonl (rils (' wl'i'er ar yolu?
wniert h, i\'tv on 1 'llbe ? how i 'll ot l l( N hl I cr? ind R C sucl
lik prattlell I had coil nstalit Nll laiihi;li m. But, even tliouglh
I tknew it to be the patlrrotl, itl w Nas a r'atill lii l l i 'bor I
'o lid idjust liyscll': leilln aillazeld lhow lit c lhithern', and thalt i' saioul fix about tll It pI( lac;t anlid to
whN're clse. But ni ow, bl'i ii assiur'd it could ; e no othcr
hall iinv hollest Poll," mily wonder hout, my hi llnd, ilnd cailling IPoll," thlie reat' re callime to
Ile' li nili.irly, aii lt irchlt 'd poIl i ly II t el I I i t), as th wi as
Sont, constantly pratiiuto il, wiith "poor I Robins on Crlsoo,
I iand how did I colii here, and where lad I been? as it
Iltle bird was overjoyed to see ine, and so I took him hoiei
ialonl with lme. I wvas nlow pjr'tty well cured of rambling
to sea: yet I could wish iny olit, which had cost ille so
mili'Ch tro blle anid IUains, oln this side the islanild o011,e more,
but this, indeed wvas ip>ractica.lle. I thereflore began to
lead at very retired lit, livinlw nearly ait twelve month in v
very contented manner, wanting for nothing but converse


tion. As to mechanic labors, which mynecessiies obbgsd
me to, I fancied I could, upon occasion, make a tolerable
carpenter, were the poor tools I had to work withal, but
good. Besides, as I improved in my earthen ware, I con-
trived to make them with a wheel, which I found much
easier and better, making my work shapely, which before
was rude and ugly. But, I think I never was so much
elevated with my own performance or project as when able
to make a tobacco-pipe, which, though it proved an awk
ward clumsy thing, yet it was very sound, and carried the
smoke perfectly well, to my great satisfaction.
I also improved my wicker ware, made me abundance
of necessary baskets, which, though not very handsome,
were very handy and convenient to fetch things home in,
as also for holding my stores, barley, rice, and other pro-
My powder beginning to fail, made me examine after
what manner I should kill the goats or birds, to live on,
after it was all gone. Upon which I contrived many ways
to ensnare the goats, and see if I could catch them alive,
particularly a she-goat with young.
At last I had my desire; for, making pit-falls and trape,
baited with barley and rice, I found, one morning, in one
of them, an old he goat, and in the other, three kids, one
male, and two females.
So boisterous was the old one, that I could not bring him
away. But I forgot the old proverb, "That hunger will
tame a lion:" for, had I kept him three or four days without
provisions, and then given him some water with a little corn,
he would have been as tame as a young kid. The other
creatures I bound with strings together; but I had great
difficulty, before I could bring them to my habitation. It
was some time before they would feed; but, throwing them


sweet corn, it so much tempted them, that they began to
be tamer. From hence I concluded, that if I designed to
furnish myself with goat's flesh, when my ammunition was
spent, the tamely breeding them up, like a flock of sheep
about my settlement, was the only method I could take. I
concluded also that I must separate the wild from the tame,
or else they would always run wild as they grew up; and
the best way for this, was to have some enclosed piece of
ground, well fenced, either with a hedge or pale, to keep
them so effectually, that those within might not break out,
nor those without break in. Such an undertaking was
very great for one pair of hands; but as there was an ab-
solute necessity for doing it, my first care was to find a
convenient piece of ground, where there was likely to be
herbage for them to eat, water to drink, and cover to keep
them from the sun.
jlere again, I gave another instance of my ignorance
and inexperience, pitching upon a piece of meadow land so
large, that had I enclosed it, the hedge or pale must have
been at least two miles about. This thought came into my
head, after I had carried it on, I believe, about fifty yards:
I therefore altered my scheme, and resolved to enclose a
piece of ground about 150 yards in length, and 100 in
breadth, large enough for as many as would maintain me,
till such time as my flock increased, and then I could add
more ground. I now vigorously prosecuted my work, and
it took me about three months in hedging the first piece;
in which time I tethered the three kids in the best part of it;
feeding them as near me as possible, to make them fami-
liar: and, indeed, I very often would carry some ears of
barley, or a handful of rice, and feed them out of my hand;
by which they grew so tame, that when my enclosure was
finished, and I had let them loose, they would run after me


for a handful of corn. This indeed answered my end:
and in a year and a half's time, I had a flock of about
twelve goats, kids and all; and in two years after, they
amounted to forty-three, besides what I had taken and
killed for my sustenance.
After which, I enclosed five several pieces of ground to
feed them in, with pens to drive them into, that I might
take them as I had occasion.
In this project I likewise found additional blessings; for
I not only had plenty of goat's flesh, but milk too, which, in
the beginning, I did not so much as think of. And, indeed,
though I had never milked a cow, much less a goat, or
seen butter or cheese made, yet, after some essays and mis-
carriages, I made me both, and never afterward wanted.
How mercifully can the Almighty comfort his creatures,
even in the midst of their greatest calamities? How can
he sweeten the bitterest evils, and give us reason to mag-
nify him in dungeons and prisons; what a bounteous table
was here spread in the wilderness for me, where I expected
nothing at first, but to perish for hunger.
Certainly any one would have smiled to see me at dinner.
There sat my royal majesty, an absolute prince and ruler
of my kingdom, attended by my dutiful subjects, whom if
I pleased, I could either hang, draw, quarter, give them
liberty, or take it away. When I dined, I seemed a king,
eating alone, none daring to presume to do so till I had
done. Poll as if he had been my principal court favorite,
was the only person permitted to talk with me. My old
but faithful dog, now grown exceedingly crazy, continually
sat on my right hand; while my two cats sat on each side
of the table, expecting a bit from my hand, as a principal
mark of my royal favor. These were not the cats I had
Drought from the ship; they had been dead long before,

i a _


and interred near my habitation by mine own hand. But
a couple of their young I had made tame; the rest ran
wild into the woods, and in time grew so impudent, as to
return and plunder me of my stores, till such time as I shot
a great many, and the rest left me without troubling me
any more. In this plentiful manner did I live, wanting for
nothing but conversation. One thing indeed concerned
me, the want of my boat; I knew not which way to get her
round the island. One time I resolved to go along the
shore by land to her; but had any one at home met such
a figure, it would either have affrighted him, or made him
burst into laughter; nay, I could not but mile myself at ,
my habit, which I think in this place will be very proper
to describe.
The cap I wore upon my head, was great, high, and
shapeless, made of a goat's skin, with a flap or pent-house
hanging down behind, not only to keep the sun from me,
but to shoot the rain off from running into my neck, nothing
being more pernicious than the rain falling upon the flesh
in these climates. I had a short jacket of goat's skin,
whose hair hung down such a length on each side, that it
reached down to the calves of my legs. As for shoes and
stockings, I had none, but made a resemblance of some-
thing, know not what to call them; they were made like
buskins, and laced on the-sides like spatterdashes, barba-
rously shaped, like the rest of my habit. I had a broad
belt of goat's skin dried, girt round me with a couple of
thongs, instead of buckles; on each of which, to supply
the deficiency of sword and dagger, hung my hatchet and
saw. I had another belt, not so broad, yet fastened in the
same manner, which hung over my shoulder, and at the
end of it, under my left arm, hung two pouches, made of
goat's skin, to hold my powder and shot. My basket I


carried on my back, and my gun on my shoulder; and
over my head a great clumsy ugly goat's skin umbrella,
which however, next to my gun, was the most necessary
thing about me. As for my face, the color was not so
swarthy as the Mulattoes, or as might have been expected
from one who took so little care of it, in a climate within
nine or ten degrees of the line. At one time my beard
grew so long that it hung down above a quarter of a yard;
but as I had both razors and scissors in store, I cut it all
off, and suffered none to grow except a large pair of Ma-
hometan whiskers, the like of which I had seen worn by some
Turks at Salee, not long enough indeed to hang a hat upon,
but of such a monstrous size, as would have amazed any in
England to have seen.
But all this was of no consequence here, there being
none to observe my behavior or habit. And so, without
fear and without control, I proceeded on my journey, the
prosecution of which took me up five or six days. I tra-
velled along the sea-shore, directly to the place where I
first brought my boat to an anchor, to get upon the rocks;
but now having no boat to take care of, I went over land,
a nearer way to the same height that I was before upon;
when looking forward to the point of the rock, which lay
out, and which I was forced to double with my boat, I was
amazed to see the sea so smooth and quiet, there being no
rippling motion, nor current, any more than in other places.
And now I was convinced that by observing the ebb and
flow of the tide, I might easily bring my boat round the
island again. But when I began to think of putting it in
practice, the remembrance of the late danger struck mI
with such horror that I took another resolution, though more
laborious; and this was to make a second canoe, and s~
have one for one side of the island, and one for the c'v


I had now two plantations in the island; the first my little
fortification, fort, or castle, with many large and spacious
improvements, for by this time I had enlarged the cave
behind me with several little caves, one within another, to
hold my baskets, corn, and straw. The piles with which
I made my wall were grown so lofty and great, as obscured
my habitation. And near this commodious and pleasant
settlement, lay my well cultivated and improved corn fields,
which kindly yielded me their fruit in their proper season.
Mly second plantation was that near my country seat or
little bower, where my grapes flourished, and where, hav-
ing planted my takes, I made enclosures for my goats,
so strongly fortified by labor and time, that it was much
stronger than a wall, and, consequently, impossible for
them to break through. As for my bower itself, I kept it
constantly in repair, and cut the trees in such a manner, as
made them grow wild, and form a most delightful shade.
In the centre of this, stood my tent, thus erected. I had
driven four piles in the ground, spreading over it a piece
of the ship's sail, beneath which, I made me a sort of
couch with the skins of the creatures 1 had slain, and other
things; and having laid thereon one of the sailor's blan-
kets, which I had saved from the wreck of the ship, and
covering myself with a great watch-coat, I took up this
place for my country retreat.
Very frequently, from this settlement did I use to visit
my boat, and keep her in very good order. And sometimes
would I venture in her a cast or two from shore, but no
farther. But now I entreat your attention, whilst I pro-
ceed to inform you of a new, but most surprising scene of
life which here befell me.
You may easily suppose, that, after having been here so
long, nothing could be more amazing than to see a human

~_~__~ __~_ __~___ __~~


creature. One day it happened, that going to my boat,
I saw the print of a man's naked foot on the shore, very
evident on the sand, as the toes, heels, and every part of
it. Had I seen a monster of the most frightful shape, 1
could not have been more confounded. My willing ears
gave the strictest attention. I cast my eyes around, but
could satisfy neither the one nor the other, I proceeded
alternately to every part of the shore, but with equal effect;
neither could I see any other mark though the sand about
it was as susceptible to take impression as that which was
so plainly stamped. Thus struck with confusion and hor-
ror, I returned to my habitation, frightened at every bush
and tree, taking every thing for men; and possessed with
the wildest idea! That night my eyes never closed. I
formed nothing but the most dismal imaginations. In a
word, all my religious hopes vanished, as though I thought
God would not now protect me by his power, who had
wonderfully preserved me so long.
What various chains of events are there in the life of
man How changeable are our affections, according to
different circumstances! We love to-day, what we hate
to-morrow; we shun one hour, what we seek the next.
This was evident in me in the most conspicuous manner;
for I, who had so much before lamented my condition, in
being banished from all human kind, was now ready to
expire, when I considered that a man had set his foot on
this desolate island. But when I considered my station of
life, decreed by the infinitely wise and good providence of
God, that I ought not to dispute my Creator's sovereignty,
who had an undoubted right to govern and dispose of his
creatures as he thinks convenient; and that his justice and
mercy could either punish or deliver me, I say, when I
considered all this, I comfortably found it my duty to trust


sincerely in him, pray ardently to him, and humbly resign
myself to his divine will.
One morning, lying on my bed, these words of the sacred
writings came into liy mind, Call upon me in tihe day of
trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me."
Upon this sentence, rising more chceriflly from my bed,
I offered up my prayers in the most devout manner; and
when I had done, taking up my Bible to read, these words
appeared first in my sight, Wait on the Lord, and be of
good cheer, and he shall strengthen thy heart: Wait, I
say, on the Lord." Such divine comfort did this give me,
as to remove all cause of sadness upon that occasion.
Thus, after a world of apprehensions and fears for three
days and nights, I at last ventured out of my castle, and
milked my goats, one of which was almost spoiled for want
of it. I next (though in great fear,) visited my bower, and
milked my flocks there also; when growing bolder, I went
down to the shore again, and measuring the print of the
foot to mine, to see perhaps whether I myself had not
occasioned that mark, I found it much superior in large-
ness: and so returned home, absolutely convinced, that
either some men had been ashore, or that the island must
be inhabited; and therefore that I might be surprised be-
fore I was aware.
I now began to think of providing for my security, and
resolved in my mind many different schemes for that pur-
pose. I first proposed to cut down my enclosures, and
turn my tame cattle wild into the woods, that the enemy
might not find them, and frequent the island in hopes of
killing the same. Secondly, I was for digging up my corn-
fields for the very same reason. And, lastly, I concluded
to demolish my bower, lest, seeing a place of human con-
trivance, they might come farther, and find out and attack
me in my castle.


Sleep was an utter stranger to my eyes that night; yet
nature, spent and tired, submitted to a silent repose the
next morning, and then joining reason with fear, I consid
ered, that this delightful and pleasant island might not be
so entirely forsaken as I might think; but that the inhab-
itants from the other shore might sail, either with design or
from necessity, by cross winds; and, if the latter circum-
stance, I had reason to believe they would depart the first
opportunity. However, my fear made me think of a place
of retreat upon an attack. I now repented that I had
made my door to come out beyond my fortification; to
remedy which, I resolved to make me a second one: I fell
to work, therefore, and drove betwixt that double row of
trees, which I planted above twelve years before, several
strong piles, thickening it with pieces of timber and old
cables, and strengthening the foot of it with earth which I
dug out of my cave; I also made me seven holes, wherein
I planted my muskets like cannon, fitting them into frames
resembling carriages. This being finished with indefatiga-
ble industry, for a great way every where, I -planted sticks
of osiers like a wood, about twenty thousand of them, leav-
ing a large space between them and my wall, that I might
have room to see an enemy, and that they might not be
sheltered among the young trees, if they offered to approach
the outer wall. And indeed, scarce two years had passed
over my head, when there appeared a lovely shady grove,
and in six it became a thick wood perfectly impassable.
For my safety I left no avenue to go in or out; instead of
which, I set two ladders, one to a part of the rock which
was low, and then broke in, leaving room to place another
ladder upon that; so that when I took those down, it was
impossible for any man to descend without hurting himself;
and if they had, they would still be at the outside of my


outer wall. But while I took all these measures of human
prudence for my own preservation, I was not altogether
unmindful of other affairs. To preserve my stock of tame
goats, that the enemy should not take all at once, I looked
out for the most retired part of the island, which was the
place where I had lost myself before mentioned, and there
finding a clear piece of land, containing three acres, sur-
rounded with thick woods, I wrought so hard, that in less
than a month's time, I fenced it so well round, that my
flocks were very well secured in it, and I put therein two
he goats and ten she ones.
All this labor was occasioned purely by fearful apprehen-
sions, on account of seeing the print of a man's foot. And
not contented yet with what I had done, I searched for
another place towards the west part of the island, where I
might also retain another flock. Then wandering on this
errand more to the west of the island than ever I had yet
done, and casting my eyes towards the sea, methought I
perceived a boat at a great distance; but could not possibly
tell what it was for want of my spy-glass. I considered
then, it was no strange thing to see the print of a man's
foot; and concluding them cannibals, blessed God for be-
ing cast on the other side of the island, where none of tile
savages, as I thought, ever came. But when I came down
the hill to the shore, which was the south-west point of the
island, I was soon confirmed in my opinion; nor can any
one describe my horror and amazement, when I saw the
ground spread with sculls, hands, feet, and bones of human
bodies; and particularly, 1 perceived a space like a circle,
in the midst of which had been a fire, about which I con-
jectured those wretches sat, and unnaturally sacrificed and
devoured their fellow creatures.
The horror and loathsomeness of this dreadful spectacle,


both confounded my senses, and made me discharge from
my stomach in an excessive manner. I then returned
towards my habitation; and in my way thither shedding
floods of tears, and falling down on my bended knees,
gave God thanks for making my nature contrary to those
wretches, and delivering me so long out of their hands.
Though reason and my long residence here had assured
me, that the savages never came up to the thick woody
part of the country, and that I had no reason to be appre-
3ensive of a discovery, yet such an abhorrence did I still
retain, that for two years after, I confined myself only to
my three plantations; I mean my castle, country seat, and.
enclosure in the woods, though in process of time my dread-
ful apprehensions began to wear away.
Thus my circumstances for some time remained very
calm and undisturbed; though indeed, the terror which the
savages had put me in, spoiled some inventions for my own
conveniences. One of my projects was to brew me some
beer: a very whimsical one indeed, when it is considered,
that I had neither casks sufficient, nor could I make any
to preserve it in; neither had I hops to make it keep, yeast
to make it work, nor a copper or kettle to make it boil.
Perhaps, indeed, after some years, I might bring this to
bear, as I had done other things. But now my inventions
were placed another way; and day and night I could think
of nothing but how I might destroy some of these cannibals,
when proceeding to their bloody entertainments; and so
saving a victim from being sacrificed, that he might after-
wards become my servant. Many were my contrivances
for this purpose, and many more objections occurred, after
I had hatched them. I once contrived to dig a hole under
the place where they made their fire, and put therein five
or six pounds of gunpowder, which would conse'aently


blow up all those that were near it; but then 1 was loth to
spend so much upon them, lest it should not do that certain
execution I desired, and only affright and not kill them.
Having laid this design aside, I again proposed to myself
to lie privately in ambush in some convenient place, with
my three guns double loaded, and let fly at them in the
midst of their dreadful ceremony; and having killed two
or three of them at every shot, fall upon the rest suddenly
with my three pistols, and let not one mother's son escape.
This imagination pleased my fancy so much that 1 used to
dream of it in the night time. To put my design in execu-
tion I was not long seeking for a place convenient for my
purpose, where unseen 1 might behold every action of the
savages. HIere I placed my two muskets, each of which
was loaded with a brace of slugs, and four or five smaller
bullets about the size of pistol bullets; the fowling piece
was charged with nearly a handful of the largest swan shot,
and in every pistol about four bullets. And thus all things
being prepared, no sooner (lid the welcome light spread
over the element, but I would issue forth from my castle,
and from a lofty hill, three miles distant, try if I could see
Sany invaders approach unlawfully to my kingdom. But
having waited in vain two or three months, it grew very
tiresome to me.
I now argued with myself, it was better for me never to
attack, but to remain undiscovered as long as I possibly
could; that an opposite conduct would certainly prove de-
structive; for as it was scarcely to be supposed I could kill
them all, I might be either overpowered by the remainder,
or that some escaping might bring thousands to my certain
destruction. And, indeed, religion took their part so much
as to convince me how contrary it was to my duty, to be
guilty of shedding human blood, innocent blood, innocent

amaiOnON a waVSa.

as to me in particular, whatever they are to one another;
that I had nothing to do with it, but leave it to the God
of all power and dominion, as I said before, to do therein
what seemed convenient to his heavenly wisdom. And,
therefore, on my knees, I thanked the Almighty for deliver-
ing me from bloody guiltiness, and begged his protection
that I might never fall into their hands.
Thus giving over an attempt which I had rashly begun,
I never ascended the hill on that occasion afterward; 1
only removed my boat, which lay on the other side of the
island, and every thing that belonged to her, towards the
east, into a little cove, that there might not be the least
shadow of any boat near, or habitation upon the island.
My castle then became my cell, keeping always retired in
it, except when I went out to milk my she-goats, or my
little flock in the wood, which was quite out of danger: for
sure I was, that these savages never came here with ex-
pectation to find any thing, and consequently never wan-
dered from the coast; however, as they might have several
times been on shore, as well before as after my dreadful
apprehensions, I looked back with horror to think in what
state I might have been, had I suddenly met them, slen-
derly armed, with one gun. only loaded with mall shot;
and how great would have been my amazement, if, instead
of seeing the print of one man's foot, I had perceived
fifteen or twenty savages, who, having once set their eyes
upon me, by the swiftness of their feet, would have left me
ao possibility of escaping? These thoughts would sink my
very soul, so that I would Call into a deep melancholy, till
much time as the consideration of my gratitude to the divine
Being moved it from my heart. I then fell into a ceatan-
plation of the secret springs of Providence; and how woa-
derfully we are delivered. when insensible of it; and whea

y ~I .


in uncertain mazes or labyrinths of doubt or hesitation,
what secret hint directs us in the right way, when we in-
tended to go out of it; nay perhaps contrary to our busi-
ness, sense, or inclination.
Anxieties of mind, and the care of my preservation, put
a period to all future inventions and contrivances, either
for accommodation, or convenience, I now cared not to
drive a nail, chop a stick, fire a gun, or make a fire, lest
either the noise should be heard, or the smoke discover
me. And on this account I used to burn my earthen ware
privately in a cave, which I found in the wood, and which
Made convenient for that purpose; the principal cause
that brought me here was to make charcoal, so that I
might bake and dress my bread and meat without any
At that time a curious accident happened to me, which
I shall now relate.
While I was cutting down some wood for making my
charcoal, I perceived a cavity behind a very thick branch
of underwood. Curious to look into it, I attained its mouth,
and perceived it sufficient for me to stand upright in.
But when I had entered, having crept upon my hands
and feet through this strait, I found the roof higher up,
I think about twenty feet. But surely never mortal saw
such a glorious sight before! the roof and walls of this
cave reflected a hundred thousand lights to me from my
two candles, as though they were indented with shining
gold, precious stones, or sparkling diamonds. And indeed
it was the most delightful cavity or grotto of its kind that
could be desired, though entirely dark. The floor was
dry and level, and had a kind of gravel upon it; no nau-
seous venomous creatures to be seen here, neither any
damp or wet about it I would fiad ao bok bat in tie

H, i i


entrance, and I began to think, that even this might be very
necessary for my defence, and therefore resolved to make
it my principal magazine. I brought hither two fowling
pieces and three muskets, leaving only five pieces at my
castle, planted in the nature of cannon. In a barrel ofgun-
powder, which I took out of the sea, I brought away about
sixty pounds of good powder, which was not damaged; and
this, with a great quantity of lead for bullets, I removed
from my castle to this retreat, now fortified both by art and
I fancied myself now like one of the giants of old, who
were said to live in caves and holes among the rocks, inac-
cessible to any but themselves, or, at least, most dangerous
to attempt. And now I defied both the cunning and
strength of the savages, either to find me out or to hurt me.
I think I was now in the twenty-third year of my reign,
and my thoughts much easier than formerly, having .con-
trived several pretty amusements, and diversions to pass
away the time in a pleasant manner. By this time my
pretty Poll had learned to speak English, and pronounce
his words very articulately and plain; so that for many
hours we used to chat together after a very familiar manner,
and he lived no less than twenty-six years. My dog, which
was nineteen years old, sixteen of which he lived with me,
died some time ago, of mere old age. As for my cats,
they multiplied so fast, that I was forced to kill or drive
them into the woods, except two or three which became
my particular favorites. Besides these, I continually kept
two or three household kids about me, which I taught to
feed out of my hand, and two more parrots which could
talk indifferently, and call Robinson Crusoe, but not so
excellently as the first, by my not taking so much pains
with them. I had also several sea fowls which I had


wounded and cut their wings;: and growing tame they used
to breed among the low trees about my castle walls, all of
which made my abode very agreeable.
But what unforeseen events suddenly destroy the enjoy-
ments of this uncertain state of life, when we least expect
them! It was now the month of December, and the particu-
lar time in my harvest, which required my attendance in
the fields; when going out pretty early in the morning, be-
fore it was day-light, there appeared to me from the sea-
shore, a flaming light, about two miles from me at the east
end of the island, where I had observed some savages had
been before, not on the other side, but to my great affliction
it was on my side of the island.
Struck with a terrible surprise, and my usual apprehen-
sions, that the savages would perceive my improvements, I
returned directly to my castle, pulled the ladder after me,
making all things look as wild and natural as I possibly
could. In the next place, I put myself in a posture of de-
fence, loaded my muskets and pistols, and committing my-
self to God's protection, I resolved to defend myself till my
last breath. Two hours after, impatient for intelligence, I
set my ladder up to the side of the hill, where there was a
flat place, and then pulling the ladder after me, ascended
to the top, where laying myself on my belly, with my per-
spective glass I perceived no less than nine naked savages,
sitting round a small fire, eating as I supposed, human flesh,
with their two canoes hauled on shore, waiting for the flood
to carry them off again. The consternation I was in at this
sight, especially seeing them near me, was very great; but
when I perceived their coming must be always with the
current of the ebb, I became more easy in my thoughts,
being fully convinced, that I might go abroad with security
all the time of flood, if they were not before landed. And,



indeed, this proved just as I imagined; for no sooner did
they all take boat and paddle away, but the tide made north-
west. When I saw them gone, I took two guns upon my
shoulders, and placing a couple of pistols in my belt, with
my great sword hanging by my side, I went to the hill,
where at first I made a discovery of these cannibals, and
then saw there had been three canoes more of the savages
on shore at that place, which with the rest, were making
over to the main land.
But nothing could be more horrid to me, when going to
the place of sacrifice, the blood, the bones, and other man-
gled parts of human bodies appeared in my sight; and so
fired was I with indignation, that I was fully resolved to be
revenged on the first that came there, though I lost my
life in the execution. It then appeared to me, that the visits
which they made to this island are not very frequent, it
being fifteen months before they came again: but still I
was very uneasy, by reason of the dismal apprehensions of
their surprising me unawares; nor dared I offer to fire a
gun on that side of the island where they used to appear,
lest, taking the alarm, they might return with many hundred
canoes, and then God only knows in what manner I should
have made my end. Thus was I a year or more before I
saw any of these devouring cannibals again.
But to wave this, the following accident, which demands
attention, for a while, eluded the force of my thoughts in
revenging myself on those heathens.
On the 16th of May accordingg to my wooden calendar,)
the wind blew exceedingly hard, accompanied with abun-
dance of thunder and lightning all day, and succeeded by
a very stormy night. fhe seeming anger of the heavens
made me have recourse to my Bible. Whilst 1 was serious-
ly pondering upon it, I was suddenly alarmed with the noise


of a gun, which I conjectured was fired upon the ocean.
Such an u unusual surprise made me start up in a minute;
when, with my ladder, ascending the miounitain as before,
that very Ulmoment Uta filsh of tire presaged tihe report of
another gun, which I presently heard, and found it was
froin tie part of the sea where the current drove mle away,
I could not but then think, that this must be a ship in dis-
tress, and that these were the melancholy signals lor a
speedy deliverance. Great, indccd, was my sorrow upon
this occasion; but ily labors to assist them inust have
proved altoget liher vtain and fruiiless. However, I brought
togetlier all thlie dry wood thlt wns at lianld, and imakiing a
pretty large pile, set it o liire on tlie hill. I was certain
they plainly perceived it, by their firing another g(nll as1 soon
as it lbe'gu to blaze, land after tliat several Ilore from the
saine quarter. All night long I kept ilp lmy fire; and when
thie air cleared ull, I lerceived something a great way at
sea, directly east, but could not distinguish whlut it was,
even with my glass, the weather being so very foggy out
at sea. However, keeping my eyes directly fixed upon it,
and perceiving it did not stir, I presently concluded it must
he a ship at anchor, and so very hasty was I to be satisfied,
that, taking my gun, I went to the south-west part of the
island, to the samie rocks where I had been formerly driven
away by the current; in which time, the weather being
perfectly cleared up, to ily great sorrow, I perceived the
wreck of' a ship cast away upon those hidden rocks I had
found when 1 was out with mly boat; and which, by mInking
a kind of all eddy, were the occasion of my preservation.
When I considered seriously every thing concerning this
wreck, and could perceive no room to suppose any of them
saved, I cannot explain, by any possible force of words,
what longings my soul felt on this occasion, often breaking


out in this manner. Oh! that there had been but two or
three, nay, even one person saved, that we might have lived
together, conversed with, and combfrted one another! and
so much were my desires moved, that when I repeated
these words, oh! that there had been but one my hands
would so clench together, and my fingers press the palms
of my hands so close, that, had any soft thing been be-
tween, they would have crushed it, while my teeth would
strike together, and set against each other so strong, that
it required some time for me to part them.
Till the last year of my being on this island, I never
knew whether or not any had been saved out of this ship.
I had the affliction, some time after, to see the corpse of
a drowned boy come on shore, at the end of the island
which was next the shipwreck; there was nothing on
him but a seaman's waistcoat, a pair of open-kneed linen
drawers, and a blue linen shirt, but no particular mark to
guess what nation he was of. In his pocket were two pieces
of eight, and a tobacco pipe, the last of which I preferred
much more than I did the first. And now the calmness of
the sea tempted me to venture out in my boat to this wreck,
not only to get something necessary out of the ship, but
perhaps, some living creature might be on board, whose
life I might preserve. This had such an influence upon
my mind, that immediately I went home, and prepared
every thing necessary for the voyage, carrying on board
my boat, provisions of all sorts, with a good quantity of
rum, fresh water, and a compass: so putting off, I paddled
the canoe along the shore, till I came to the northeast part
of the island, from whence I was to launch into the ocean;
but here the current ran so violently, and appeared so
terrible, that my heart began to fail me; foreseeing, that
if I was driven into any of these currents, I might be carried


not only out of the reach or sight of the island, but even
inevitably lost in the boiling surges of the ocean.
So oppressed was I at these troubles, that I gave over
my enterprise, sailing to a little creek on the shore, where,
stepping out, I sat me down on a rising hill, very pensive
andthoughtful. I then perceived that the tide was turned,
and the flood come on, which made it impracticable for me
to go out for so many hours.
That night, I reposed myself in my canoe, covered with
my watch-coat instead of a blanket, the heavens being my
tester. I set out with the first of the tide full north, till I
felt the benefit of the current, which carried me at a great
rate eastward, yet not with such impetuosity as before, as
to take from me all government of my canoe: so that in two
hours I came up to the wreck, which appeared to me a most
melancholy sight. It seemed to be'a Spanish vessel by its
building, stuck fast between two rocks; her stern and quar-
ters beaten to pieces by the sea; her main-mast and fore-
mast were brought off by the board; that is, broken short
off. As I approached nearer, I perceived a dog on board,
who, seeing me coming, yelped and cried: and no sooner
did I call him, but the poor creature jumped into the sea,
out of which I took him up almost famished with hunger
and thirst: so that when I gave him a cake of bread, no
ravenous wolf could devour it more greedily; and he drank
to that degree of fresh water, that he would have burst him-
self had I suffered him.
The first sight I met with in the ship, were two men
drowned in the cock-room, or forecastle, enclosed in one
another's arms: hence I very probably supposed, that when
the vessel struck in the storm, so high and incessantly did
the waters break in and over her, that the men not being
able to bear it, were strangled by the constant rushing of


I _-i


the waves. There were several casks of liquor, whether
wine or brandy I could not be positive, which lay in the
lower hold, as were plainly perceptible by the ebbing out of
the water, yet were two large for me to pretend to meddle
with: likewise I perceived several chests, which I supposed
belonged to the seamen, two of which I got into my boat,
without examining what was in them. What became of
the sailors I could not certainly tell; and all her riches sig-
nified nothing at that time to any body.
Searching farther, I. found a cask, containing about
twenty gallons full of liquor, which with some labor I got into
my boat; in the cabin were several muskets, which I let
remain there; but took away with me a great powder horn,
with about four pounds of powder in it. I took also a fire-
shovel and tongs, with two brass kettles, a copper pot to
make chocolate, and a grid-iron; all which were extremely
necessary to me, especially the fire-shovel and tongs. And
so with this cargo, accompanied by my dog, I came away,
tne tide serving for that purpose: and the same evening,
about an hour within night, I attained the island, after th.
greatest toil and fatigue imaginable.
That night I reposed my weary limbs in the boat, resolve
ing the next morning to harbor what I had gotten, in m)
new found under-ground grotto; and not carry my cargo
home to my ancient castle. Having refreshed myself, and
got all my effects on shore, I next proceeded to examine
the particulars; and so tapping the cask, I found the liquor
to be a kind of rum, but not like what we had at the Bra-
zils, nor indeed near so good. At the opening of the
chest, several things appeared very useful to me; for in-
stance, I found in one, a very fine case of bottles, contain-
ing the finest and best sort of cordial waters; each bottle
.eld about three pints, curiously tipt with silver. I found



also two pots full of the choicest sweetmeats, and two more
which the water had utterly spoiled. There were likewise
several good shirts, exceedingly welcome to me, and about
one dozen and a half of white linen handkerchiefs, and
colored neckcloths, the bornmer of which were absolutely
necessary for wiping my lace in a hot day; and in the till,
1 found three bugs ofl money, in one of which, decently
wrapt up in a piece of paper, were six doubloons of gold,
and some small bars and wedges of the same metal, which
I believe might weigh near a pound. In the other chest, 1
only found some clothes of very little value, and about two
pounds of tine glazed powder, in three flasks, kept as I
believe, for charging their ftwling pieces on any occasion,
so that, on the whole, 1 mado very little of this voyage.
The money was indeed as mere dirt to me, useless and
unprofitable, all which I would have freely parted with,
ftr two or three pair of English shoes and stockings, things
that for many years I had not worn, except those which I
had lately taken off the feet of the unfortunate men 1 tbund
drowned in the wreck, yet not so good as English shoes
either for case or service. I fund no gold in the second
chest; so concluded that what 1 took from the first belong-
ed to an officer, the latter appearing to have a much infe-
rior person tfr its owner. However, as despicable as the
money seemed, I likewise lugged it to my cave, laying it
up securely, as I did the rest of my cargo, and intending
to seek out, and return it to the family of the unfortunate
owner, if ever I should return to Europe; and after 1 had
done all this, I returned back to my boat, rowing or pad-
dling her along till 1 came to my old harbor, where I
carefully laid her up, and so made the best of my way to
my castle. When 1 arrived there, every thing seemed safe
and quiet; so that now, my only business was to repose


myself after my wonted manner, and take care of my
domestic affairs. But though I might have lived very easy,
as wanting for nothing absolutely needful; yet still I was
more vigilant than usual, upon account of the savages,
never going much abroad; or if 1 did, it was to the east
part of the island, where I was well assured that the sav-
ages never came, and where I might not be troubled to
carry such a heavy load of weapons for my defence, as I
was obliged to do if I went the other way.
Two years did I live in this anxious condition, in all
which time, contrary to my former resolutions, my head
was filled with nothing but projects and designs how I
might escape from this island; and so much were my
wandering thoughts bent upon a rambling disposition, that
had I had the same boat that I went from Salee in, I
should have ventured once more to the uncertainty of the
raging ocean.
Having retired to my castle, after my late voyage to the
ship, my frigate laid up and secured, as usual, and my
condition the same as before, except being richer, though I
had as little occasion for riches as the Indians of Peru had
for gold, before the cruel Spaniards came among them;
one night in March, being the rainy season, in the four
and twentieth year of my solitude, I lay down to sleep,
very well in health, without distemper, pain, or uncommon
uneasiness either of body or mind; yet notwithstanding, I
could not compose myself to sleep all the night long. All
this tedious while, it is impossible to express what innumer-
able thoughts came into my head. I traced quite over,
the whole history of my life in miniature, from my utmost
remembrance of things till I came to this island; and then
proceeded to examine every action and passage that had
occurred since I had taken possession of my kingdom. In


my reflections upon the latter, I was comparirg the happy
posture of my affairs in the beginning of my reign, to this
life of anxiety, fear, and concern, since I had discovered
the print of a foot in the sand; that while I continued
without apprehension. I was incapable of feeling the dread
and terror I now suffered. How thankful rather ought I
to have been for the knowledge of my danger, since the
greatest happiness a man can be possessed of is to have
sufficient time to provide against it? How stupendous is
the goodness of Providence, which set such narrow bounds
to the sight and knowledge of human nature, that while
men walk in the midst of so many dangers, they are kept
serene and calm, by having the events of things hid from
their eyes, and knowing nothing of those many dangers
that surround them, till perhaps they are dissipated and
vanished away.
About a year and a half after, one morning early, I was
very much surprised by seeing no less than five canoes
all on shore together, on my side of the island, and the
savages that belonged to them all landed, and out of
my sight. Upon which, much dispirited and perplexed,
I lay still in my castle; which, however, I put in a proper
posture for an attack; and having formerly provided all
that was necessary, was soon ready to enter upon an
engagement, should they attempt it. Having waited for
some time, my impatient temper would let me bear it no
longer; I set my guns at the foot of my ladder, and, as
usual, ascended up to the top of the hill at two stages,
standing, however, in such a manner, that my head did
not appear above the hill, so that they could not easily
perceive me: and here, by the assistance of my perspec-
tive glass, I observed no less than thirty in number around
a fire, feasting upon what meat they addressed: how they


cooked it, or what it was, I could not then perfectly tell;
but they were all dancing and capering about the flames,
using many frightful and barbarous gestures.
But while, with a curious eye, I was beholding these
wretches, my spirit sunk within me, when I perceived them
drag two miserable creatures from the boats, to act afresh
the dreadful tragedy, as I supposed they had done before.
It was not long before one of them fell upon the ground,
knocked down as I suppose, with a club or wooden sword,
for that was their manner; while two or three others went
immediately to work, cutting him open for their cookery,
and then fell to devour him as they had done the former:
while the last unhappy captive was left by himself, till such
time as they were ready for him. The poor creature
looked round him with a sorrowful eye, trembling at the
thoughts of death; yet seeing himself a little at liberty,
nature, that very moment, as it were, inspired him with
hopes of life: he started away from them, and ran, with in-
credible swiftness, along the sands, directly to that part of
the coast where my ancient and venerable castle stood.
You may well imagine I was dreadfully affrighted upon
this occasion, when as I thought, they pursued him in a
whole body, all running towards my palace. And now,
indeed, I expected that he would certainly fly to my grove
for protection. However, my spirits beginning to recover,
I still kept upon my guard; and I now plainly perceived,
there were but three men out of the number that pursued
him. I was infinitely pleased at the swiftness with which
Ihe poor creature ran from his pursuers, gaining so much
ground upon them, that I plainly perceived, could he thus
hold it out for half an hour, there was not the least doubt
but he would save his life from the power of his enemies
Between them and my castle, there was a creek, the


very same which I sailed into with all my effects from the
,vreck of tilhe ship, on the steeply banks of which, 1 very
luch feared their poor victim would be taken, if he could
inot swilm for his escape: but soon was I out of pain for
hliml, when I perceived ihe illmade nothing of it, though lat
li ll tide, but with an intrepid courage, spurred on by the
sense of danger, he plunged int6 the flood, swimming over
in about thirty strokes, and then' landing, ran with tlhe same
incredible strength and swillness its before. When the
thIree tpulrsiuers .catni to the creek, two of them, who I per-
ceived could not swiml, happily Ibr themselves, returned to
their nomlpany, while tihe other, with ian equal courage but
much less switllness attaintied the other side, us though he
was resolved never to give over the pursuit. And now or
Never, I thought, was the time fior ime to procure ime a
servant, companion, or assistant, and that I was decreed
by Providence to be the instrument to save this poor
k creature's life. 1 imnnediately descended my two ladders
with the greatest expedition; 1 took up my two guns,
which, 1 said before, were at the bottom of them; and
getting up again with the same haste towards tr he hill, 1
made nearer the sea. In a word, taking a short cut down
the Ihill, I interposed between the pursuer and pursued, hal-
looing aloud to the latter, who venturing to look back, was
no doubt, as much terrified at me as at the enemy from whom
he fled. I beckoned to him, with my hand, to return back,
and, in the meantime, advanced towards the pursuer. 1
was very unwilling to tire lest the rest should hear, though,
at that distance, I questioned whether they could or no;
and being out of sight of the smoke, they could not easily
have known what to make of it. The savage stopped as
if he had been amazed; when, advancing towards him, I
could perceive him take his bow from his back, and,

--1- ~ ~ ` -


after fixing an arrow to it, preparing to shoot at me, and,
without dispute, he might have lodged it in my breast;
but in this absolutely necessary case of self-preservation, I
immediately fired, and shot him dead, just as his hand was
going to draw the fatal string. All this while, the savage,
who had fled before, stood still, and had the satisfaction to
see his enemy killed, as he thought, who designed to take
away his life; so affrighted was he with the fire and noise
of my piece, that he stood as it were like Lot's wife, fixed
and immovable without either sense or motion. This
obliged me to halloo to him again, making the plainest
signs I could to him to draw nearer. I perceived he under-
stood these tokens, by his approaching to me a little way,
when, as if afraid I should kill him too, he stopped again.
Several times did he advance, and as often stop in this
manner, till, coming more to my view, I perceived him
trembling, as if he was to undergo the same fate. Upon
which I looked upon him with a smiling countenance, and
still beckoning to him; at length he came close to me, and
kneeled down, kissed the ground, laid his head upon it, and
taking me by the foot, set it upon his head; which, as I
understood afterwards, was a token of swearing to be my
slave for ever. I took him up, and making much of him,
encouraged him in the best manner I could. The greatest
astonishment that my new servant conceived, was at the
manner of killing the savage at such a distance, without a
bow and arrow; and such was his longing desire to know
it, that he first pointed to the dead carcass, and then made
signs to me to grant him leave to go to it. Upon which I
bid him go, and, as well as I could, made him sensible I
granted his request. But when he came there how wonder-
fully was he struck with amazement! First, he turned it on
one side. then on another, wondering he could perceive no

___ _II~


quantity of blood, he bleeding inwardly: and after suf
liciently admiring the wound the bullet had made in their
breast, he took up his bow and arrows, and came back
again; upon which, I turned to go away, making signs to
him to follow, lest the rest missing their companion, might
come in pursuit of him, and this I found he understood very
well, by making me to understand that his design was to
bury it, that it might not be seen; and which by signs again
1 made him sensible I very much approved of. Immediate-
lv le feIll to work, and never was grave-digger more dex-
terous in the world than he was; for in an instant, as I
mighlit say, he scraped a large hole in the sands with his
hands, suHlicient to bury it in; there he dragged it, and,
without any ceremony, covered it over. I then called him
away, and instead of carrying him directly to my castle at
lirst, I conveyed him to my cave on the l'a ter art of the
Weary and faint, hungry and thirsty, undoubtedly must
this poor creature be, supported chiefly by the vivacity
of spirit, and uncommon transports of joy that his deliv-
erance occasioned. Here I gave him bread and a bunch
of raisins to eat, and water to drink, on which he fed very
cheerfully, to his exceeding refreshment. I then made him
a convenient bed, with a parcel of rice straw, and a blanket
upon it, (a bed which I used myself sometimes,) and then
pointing to it, made signs for him to lie down to sleep, upon
which the poor creature went to take a welcome repose.
Indeed he was a very comely, handsome, young fellow,
extremely well made, with straight long limbs, not too
large, but tall and well shaped, and, as near as I could
reckon, about twenty-six years of age. His countenance
had nothing in it fierce or sarly, but rather a sort of majesty
in his face; and especially when he smiled, he had all the


sweetness of a European. His hair was not curled like
wool, as many of the blacks are, but long and black, with
the most beautiful, yet careless tresses spreading over his
shoulders. He had a very high and large forehead, with
a great vivacity and sparkling sharpness in his eyes. His
skin was not so tawny as that of the Americans; but rather
of a light dun olive color, that had something agreeable
in it, though not very easy to give a description of. His
face was round and plump, with a small nose, very different
from the flatness of the negroes, a pretty small: mouth, thin
lips, fine teeth, very well set, and white as the driven snow.
Int a word, such handsome features, and exact symmetry in
every part, made me consider, that I had saved the life of
an Indian prince, no less graceful and accomplished than
the great Oroonoke, whose memorable behavior and un-
happy contingencies of life, have charmed the world, both
to admiration of his person, and compassion for his suffer-

iHe had not, I think, slept above an hour, when he awak-
ed again, and while I was milking my goats, hard by, out
he runs from the cave towards me in my enclosure, and
laying himself down on the ground, in the lowest prostration,
made all the antic gestures imaginable, to express his thank-
fulness to me for being his deliverer. He laid down his
head again upon the ground, close to my foot, and set my
other foot upon his head, as he had done before, making all
the signs of subjection, servitude, and submission imagina-
ble, to let me understand he would serve me as long as his
life endured. As I understood him in many things, I made
him sensible I was very well pleased with him; and, in a
little time, I began to speak to him, and teach him how to
talk to me again.
In the first place, I made him understand his name was to


be Friday, because it was upon that day I saved his life; I
then taught him to say Master, which I made him sensible
was to be my name; I likewise taught him to say yes and
no, and to know what they meant. I gave him some milk
in an earthen pot, making him view me while I drank it
before him, and soaked my bread in it; I gave him a cake
of bread, and caused him to soak it likewise, to which he
readily consented, making signs of the greatest satisfac-
tion imaginable.
All that night did I keep him there; but no sooner did
the morning light appear, than I ordered him to arise and
come along with me, with certain tokens that I would give
him some clothes like mine, at which he seemed very
glad, being stark naked, without the least covering what-
ever. As we passed by the place where the man had been
interred, my man pointed directly to his grave, showing me
the marks that he had made to find it again, giving me to
understand, by signs, that we should dig him up and devour
him. At this I appeared extremely displeased, expressed
my utmost abhorrence, as if I would vomit at the apprehen-
sions of it, beckoning with my hand to come away, which
he did with the greatest reverence and submission. After
this, I conducted him to the top of the hill, to view if the
rest of the savages were yet remaining there; but when I
looked through my perspective glass, I could see no ap-
pearance of them, nor of their canoes; so that it was very
evident they never minded their deceased companion whom
we had slain; which if they had, they would surely have
searched for or left one boat behind for him to follow, after
he returned from his pursuit.
Curiosity, and a desire of satisfaction, animating me
with courage, to see this scene of barbarity, I took my man
Friday with me to the place of their bloody entertainment


But when I came there, I was struck with the utmost horror
at so dreadful a spectacle, whilst Friday was no way con-
cerned about it, being no doubt in his turn, one of these
devourers. Here lay several human bones, there several
pieces of mangled flesh, half eaten, mangled and scorched,
whilst streams of blood ran promiscuously as water from a
fountain. As I was musing on this dreadful sight, Friday
took all the pains he could by particular signs, to make me
understand that they had brought over four prisoners to feast
upon, three of whom they had eaten up, and that he was
the fourth, pointing to himself: that there having been a
bloody battle between them and his great king, in the just
defence of whom he was taken prisoner, with many others;
all of these were carried off to different places to be de-
voured by their conquerors; and that it was his fortune to
be brought hither by these wretches for the very same pur-
After I was made sensible of these things, I caused Fri-
day to gather those horrid remains, and lay them together
upon a heap, which I ordered to be set on fire, and burnt
them to ashes; my man, however, still retained the nature
of a cannibal, having a hankering stomach after some of
the flesh: but such an extreme abhorrence did I express
at the least appearance of it, that he durst not but conceal
it; for I made him very sensible, that if he attempted any
such thing, I would certainly shoot him.
This being done, I carried my man with me to my castle,
and gave him a pair of linen drawers, which I had taken out
of the poor gunner's chest before mentioned; and which,
with a little alteration, fitted him very well: in the next
place, I made him a jerkin of goat skin, such as my skill
was able to manage, and indeed I thought myself then a
tolerably good tailor I gave him also a cap, which I made


of a hare's skin, very convenient and fashionable. Thus
being clothed tolerably well, my man was no less proud of
his habit than I was at seeing him in it. Indeed he went
very awkwardly at first, but by use, at length he took to
them very well.
My next concern was, where I should lodge him; and
that I might do well by him, and yet be perfectly easy my-
sell, 1 erected a tent tbr himi in the vacant place between
my two fortifications, in the inside of the last, and the out-
side of the first; and as there was an entrance or door into
miy cave, 1 made a tbrmal framed door-case, and a door to
open on the inside; I barred it up in the night-time, taking
in my ladders too, so that, was my man to prove treacher-
ous, there could be no way to come at me in the inside of
my innermost wall, without making so much noise in getting
over, that it must needs waken me; for my first wall had
now a complete roof over it of long poles, spreading over
my tent, and leaning up to the side of' the mountain, which
was again laid across with smaller sticks instead of laths,
and thatched over to a great thickness with the rice straw,
which was as strong as reeds; and at the hole of the place,
lell on purpose to go in or out by the ladder, I had placed
a kind of a trap-door, which, if it had been attempted on
the outside, would not have opened at all, but have fallen
down, and made a great noise; and as to my weapons,
every night I took them all to my bed-side.
But there was no occasion for this precaution; for surely
never Master had a more sincere, faithful, and loving servant
than Friday proved to me. Without passion, sullenness,
or design, perfectly obliging and engaging, his affections
were as much tied to me as those of a child to his parents;
and I might venture to say, he would have sacrificed his
life for the saving of mine, upon any occasion whatsoever,

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