Title Page
 Biographical sketch
 Chapter I
 Chapter II
 Chapter III
 Chapter IV
 Chapter V
 Chapter VI
 Chapter VII
 Chapter VIII
 Chapter IX
 Chapter X
 Chapter XI
 Chapter XII
 Chapter XIII
 Chapter XIV
 Chapter XV
 Chapter XVI
 Chapter XVII
 Chapter XVIII
 Chapter XIX
 Chapter XX
 Chapter XXI
 Chapter XXII


Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073613/00001
 Material Information
Title: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Series Title: Classics for children
Physical Description: vi, 257 p. : ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lambert, William H ( William Harrison ), 1842-1912
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Ginn and Company
J.S. Cushing Co ( Printer )
AGP Matthews, Inc ( Engraver )
Publisher: Pub. by Ginn & Co.
Place of Publication: Boston U.S.A
Manufacturer: J.S. Cushing & Co.
Publication Date: 1889, c1883
Copyright Date: 1883
Subjects / Keywords: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- 1889   ( rbgenr )
Imaginary voyages -- 1889   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Juvenile literature   ( rbgenr )
Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe ; edited for the use of schools by W.H. Lambert.
General Note: Cover ill. with title: Robinson Crusoe; on spine: Robinson Crusoe / Lambert.
General Note: Publisher's statement on cover: Ginn, Heath & Co.
General Note: Series from cover.
General Note: An abridged version of part I of Robinson Crusoe with a brief biographical sketch of Defoe. Cf. Pref.
General Note: Probably a reissue of Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 657.
General Note: Cover ill. engraved(?) by Matthews.
General Note: Part I of Robinson Crusoe retold.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26812739
System ID: UF00073613:00001


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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Biographical sketch
        Page v
        Page vi
    Chapter I
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Chapter II
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Chapter III
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Chapter IV
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Chapter V
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Chapter VI
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Chapter VII
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Chapter VIII
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Chapter IX
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Chapter X
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Chapter XI
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Chapter XII
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Chapter XIII
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Chapter XIV
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
    Chapter XV
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
    Chapter XVI
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
    Chapter XVII
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
    Chapter XVIII
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
    Chapter XIX
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
    Chapter XX
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
    Chapter XXI
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
    Chapter XXII
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page A-3
        Page A-4
        Page A-5
        Page A-6
        Page A-7
        Page A-8
        Page A-9
        Page A-10
Full Text







Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1883, by
in the Odice of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

PRESSWORIC By GINu &L Co., liossex U.S.A.


GREAT improvements have been made within recent years in the
methods of instruction employed in schools; but in no direes-
tion has the progress been greater than in the manner in which read-
ing is taught. Formerly the scholar was confined to a single reader
for one, and often for two or three years, until the language of the
book, by mere repetition, had been memorized, and for lack of variety,
a distaste for reading had been created. It is now admitted that the
interest can be kept alive, and a desire to read implanted only by the
perusal of many books. But there are objections to the ordinary
series of readers. The selections are brief, and though often taken
from classic and famous works, yet they are mere fragments, without
unity, and incapable of holding the attention. Besides, many of the
pieces, and in some cases, the contents of the whole book, are written
especially for the occasion, not by authors of good repute, but by men
and women whose trade it is to make books. If we wish to form in
children a taste for good reading, to create in them an appetite which
craves only the healthiest literary food, we must make them, as early
as possible, familiar with the best English classics.
To increase the facilities for supplementary reading, and to enable
teachers to make their pupils acquainted with the most CIPL
books, the present volume has been prepared. Robinson Crusoe e8s
stands at the head of books which are adapted to interest the young.
No book in the English language has been more popular, or more
fully possesses the elements of immortality. The simplicity of the


diction, the verisimilitude of the incidents, and the natural unfolding
of the events of the narrative, are calculated to excite in the youthful
reader an extraordinary degree of fascination.
The original work has been abridged by omitting a few of the
more uninteresting episodes, and by condensing many of the lengthy
moral reflections, where they seem to impede the onward flow of the
story. All the gross terms and allusions, which render the unexpur-
gated text unfit for schools, have been removed; and the long and
involved sentences, which characterize the writers of the age of Defoe,
have been cast into a simpler form, while the diction of the author has
been carefully preserved. The story has been divided into chapters,
and judicious notes have been added, sufficient to explain the text.


DANIEL DEFOE, the author of Robinson Orusoe, was born
in London in the year 1881. His father was a butcher,
and his grandfather a Northamptonshire farmer. The name of
the family was Foe, but Daniel, who in early life was accus-
tomed to subscribe himself D. Foe, changed it fist to De Foe,
and then to Defoe, the form in which it is now known in liter-
Defoe's school education was very limited. At fourteen
years of age he was sent by his father to an academy to be pre-
pared for the ministry; but after remaining there five years, he
concluded that the profession for which he was intended was
not to his liking, and was therefore withdrawn from school.
He was engaged at various times in business. He was a hose
merchant, a brick manufacturer, and a woollen importer, but in
none of these occupations did he prosper. It was as an author
that he gained success. He began to write political pamphlets
at twenty-two years of age, and at the time of his death the
different books and pamphlets that he had written numbered
nearly two hundred and fifty volumes. Some of his best-known
works are ThLe True-Born Englishm~an, a poem, The ~Shortest
Way waith the Dissenters, A Journal of the Plague of 1665, .KllT
Flanders, and the Memoirs ofa Cavalier.
His greatest work, and that on which his fame rests, is
Robinson Crusoe. The story is founded upon an actual occur-
rence. In 1704 a sailor, Alexander Selkirk by name, was, aban-
doned by the captain of his vessel on the Island of Juan Fernan-


dez, off the coast of Chili, where he remained in solitude for
four years, when he was taken off by a passing vessel, and
carried to England. The account of his strange experience
excited among his countrymen a good deal of interest, and
Defoe created out of it his celebrated narrative. Robinson Cru-
soe, when first published, was so popular that the author imme-
diately wrote a second book, called Futrther Adventur~es of Bob-
inson Crusoe. This was followed by a third book, entitled
Serious Reflections of Robinson Crusoe. Neither of these
latter possessed any great interest, and only the first book is
now much road.
Defoe's last years were passed in concealment, probably to
escape his creditors, of whom he is said to have had a great
many. He died in an obscure lodging in London in 17i31, at
the age of seventy.





I WAS born in the year 1632, in the pity of York.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any
trade, my head began to be filled very early with rambling
thoughts. My father had given me a competent share of
learning, as far as house education and a country free
school generally go, and designed me for the law; but I
would be satisfied with nothing but going to sera. My
father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excel-
lent counsel against what he saw was my design. He
called me one morning: into his chamber, where he was
confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with
me upon the subject. He pressed me earnestly, and in the
most affectionate manner, not to hurry myself into miseries
which nature and the station of life I was born in seemed
to have provided against; but if I did takre this foolish
step, God would not bless me, and I would have leisure
hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his
when there might be none to assist in my recovery.
While my father was talking, Iobserved the terja-
down his face very plentifuly; and when be eor~~ n hn Ls o


my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he
was so moved that he broke off the discourse, and told
me his heart was so full he could say no more. I was
sincerely affected with this discourse, and resolved not
to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at home
according to my father's desire. But, alas! a few days
wore it all off, and in a few weeks after, I resolved to run
quite away.
Being one dlay at Hull, and one of my companions being
about to sail to London in his father's ship, and prompt-
ing me to go with him, with the common allurement of
seafaring men, namely, that it should cost me nothing
for my passage, I consulted neither father nor mother any
more, nor so much as sent them a word of my journey,
but leaving them to hear of it, as they might, without
asking God's blessing or my father's, without any con-
sideration of circumstances or consequences, on the first
of September, 1651, I went on board a ship bound for
London. Never any young adventurer's misfortunes, I
believe, began sooner or continued longer than mine. f-The
ship was no sooner gotten out of the Humber than the
wind began to blow and the waves to rise in a most
frightful manner. As I had never been to sea before, I
was most inexpressibly sick in body and terrified in mind.
I began now to seriously reflect upon what I had done, and
how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of heaven for
leaving my father's house and abandoning my duty. All
the good counsel of my parents, my father's tears and my
mother's entreaties, came now fresh into my mind, and
my conscience reproached me with the contempt of advice,
and the breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea went


very high, though~ nothing like what I have seen many
times since; no, nor like what I saw a few days after.
But it was enough to affect me then, who was but a young
sailor, and had never known anything of the matter. I
expected every wave would swallow us up, and that every
time the ship fell down, as I thought, in the trough or
hollow of the sea, we should never rise more. In this
agony of mind I made many vows and resolutions, that if
it would please God here to spare my life this one voyage,
if ever I got once more my foot upon dry land again, I
would go directly home to my father, and never set foot
into a ship again while I lived; that I would take his
advice, and never run myself into such miseries as these
any more. These wise and sober thoughts continued all
the while the storm continued, and indeed some time after;
but the next day the wind was abated and the sea calmer,
and I began to be a little inured to it. However, I was
very grave for all the day, being also a little sea-sick still.
But towards night the weather cleared up, the wind, was
quite over, and a charming fine evening followed. Th;e
sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morn-
ing; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the
sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most
delightful that I ever saw.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yar-
mouth roads. The wind having been contrary, and the
weather calm, we had made but little way since the
storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and
here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, namely, at
south-west, for seven or eight days, during which time a
great many ships from Newcastle came into the samne-
roads, as the common harbor where the ships m~ight wait .
for a wind from the river.


After we had lain here four or five days, the wind again
blew very hard. However, the roads being reckoned as
good as a harbor, thle anchorage good, and our ground-
tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned and not in
thle least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest
anld mirth, after the manner of the sea. B3ut the eighth day in
the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at
work to strike our top~masts, and make everything anug
and close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible.
By noon the sea went very high indeed, and we thought
once or twice our anchor had come home; upon which
our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we rode
with two anchors ahead, and the cables were veered out
to the endi.y
B3y this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now
I began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of
the seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant in
thle business of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and
out of hris cabinl by me, I could hear him softly to himself
say several times, Lord~ be mnerciful to us; we shall be
atll l0st, we shall be all undone!" and the like. I could
ill re-assume the first penitence which I had so apparently
trampled upon and hardened myself against. I thought
thle bitterness of death had been passed and that this
would be nothing like the first. But when the master
himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we should
be all lost, I was dreadfully frightened. I got up out of
my cabin and looked out, but such a dismal sight I never
saw. The sea went mountains high, and broke upon us
every three or four minutes. When I could look about, I
could see nothing but distress around us. Two ships that
rode nearl us we found hlad cut their masts by the board,


being deeply laden; and our men oried out that a ship
which rode about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two
more ships being driven from their anchors, were run out
of the roads to sea with not a, mast standing. The light
ships fared the best, as not so much laboring in the sea;
but two or three of them drove and came close by us, run-
ning away with only their spritsatil out before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the
master of our ship to let them cut away the foremast,
which he was very unwilling to do. But the boatswain
protesting to him that if he did not, the ship would founder,
he consented. When they had out away the foremast, the
mainmast stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they
were obliged to cut that away also, and make a clear deck.
But the worst was not come yet. The storm continued
with such fury, that the seamen themselves acknowledged
they had never known a worse. We had a good ship, but
she was deeply laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the
seamen every now and then cried out she would founder.
It was my advantage in one respect that I did not know
what they meant by founder, till I inquired. However,
the storm was so violent, that I saw what is not often
seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more sen-
sible than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every
moment when the ship would go to the bottom. In the
middle of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses8,
one of the men who had been down on purpose to see,
cried out, we had sprung a leak. Another said there
were four feet of water in the hold; then all hands were
called to the pump. At that very word my heart, as I
thought, died within me, and I fell backwards upon the
side of my bed where I sat. However, the men roused ijne,


and told me that I, who was able to do nothing before,
was as well able to pump as another; at which I stirred
up, and went to the pump and worked very heartily.
While this was doing, the master seeing some light colliers,
which, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip
and run away to sea, and would not come near us, ordered
a gun to be fired as a signal of distress. I, who knew not
what that meant, was so surprised, that I thought that the
ship had broken, or some dreadful thing had happened.
In a word, I was so surprised that I fell in a swoon. As
this was a time when everybody had his own life to think
of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me; but
another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me
aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead,
and it was a great while before I came to myself. 0
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder, though the
storm began to abate a little. Yet, as it was not possible
she could swim till we might run into a port, the master
continued to fire guns for help. A light ship, that had
ridden out the storm just ahead of us, ventured out a
boat to help us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat
came near us; but it was impossible for us to get on board,
or for the boat to lie near the ship's side. At last, the
men rowing very heartily, and venturihg their lives to
save ours, our men cast them a rope over the stern with
the buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length, which
they, after great labor and hazard, took hold of, and we
hauled them close under our stern and got all into their
boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were
in the boat, to think of reaching their own ship; so, all
agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards N

or RoBINBox caBUsor 7

shore as much as we could. Our master promised them
that if the boat were wrecked he would make it good to
their master; so, partly rowing and partly driving, our
boat went away to the northward.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out
of our ship before we saw her sink, and then I understood
for the first time what was meant by a ship foundering in
the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look
up when the seamen told me she was sinking. My heart
was as it were dead within me, partly with fright, and
partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was
yet before me.
At last, though not without much difficulty, we all got
safe on shore, and walked on foot to Yarmouth, where, as
unfortunate men, we were used with great humanity, as
well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good
quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships,
and had money given us sufficient to carry us either to
London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have-gonri~home, I had been happy, and my father, an
embblem of our blessed Savior's parable, had even kmled
the fatted calf for me; for, hearing that the ship I was in
had been cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great
while before he had any assurance that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud
calls from my reason and my more composed judgment to
go home, yet I had no power to do it. Having some
money in my pocket, I travelled to London by land; and
having quite laid aside the thought of returning to my
parents, I began to look out for a voyage.



IT was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good com-
1_pany in London, which does not always happen to such
u~gruidedl young fellows as I then was. I first fell ac-
quainted with the master of a ship who hlad been on the
coast of Guinea, and who, having hadt very good success
there, was resolvedl to br;go agin. Hearing me say I had a
mindl to see thle worldl, hie told mec if I would go the voyage
withl him, I should be at nlo expense. I should be his
messmate andl his comlpanion, andl if I could carry anything
w-ith me, I should have- the adlvantatge of it that the trade
woullld adlmit. llr andpe~rhapsn I ruigrht meet withl some encour-
I emlbraced the offer, and entering into a, strict fpiendl-
sh~ip with the cap~tain, who wats an honest and plain-dealing
man, I went the voyage w~ith him, and carried a small
advl~enture with m~e, whlichl, by the dlisinterestedl honesty of
my friend the captain, I increased considlerably; for I
carried about forty poundlcs in such toys and trifles as the
captain directed me to buy.
This was the only voyage which, I may say, was suc-
cessful in all my adventures. This success I owe to the
integrity and honesty of mly friend the captain, under
whlom also I got a competent knowledge of the mathe-
matics andl the rules of navigation. I learned how to keep
an accountI of thle ship's course, to take an observation,
and, in short, to understand some -tl~ings that were needful
to be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to in-


struct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voy-
age made me both a sailor and a merchant. I brought
home five pounds nine ounces of gold dust for my adven-
ture, which yielded me in ]London at my return almost
three hundred pounds. Yet even in this voyage I had my
misfortunes, too. I was continually sick, being thrown
into a violent fever by the excessive heat of the climate;
our principal trade being upon the coast, from the latitude
of fifteen degrees north even to the line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader. My rt~nh
my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrilral, I r;e-
solved to go the same voyage again, and I extharked I11
the same vessel with one who was his mate in the fornier
voyage, and hadl now got command of the ship. This was ,
the unhappiest voyage that ever man made.
My first misfortune was this, namely: our ship, maki~i
her course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between
those islands and the African shore, was surprised in the
gray of the morning by a Turkish~ rover of Sallee,' who
gave chase to us with all the sail she could make. We
crowded also as much canvas as our yards would spread
or our masts carry. But finding the pirate gained upon
us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours,
we prepared to fight, our ship having twelve guns and
the rogue eighteen. About three in thea~fternoon he
came up with us, and bringing~ to, just athwart our quar-
ter instead of athwart our stern, as he intended,- we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured
in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again,
after returning our fire, and pouring in also his small shot
'A port on the west coast of Morocco; at one time a stronghold of
the pirates wvho infested the Medite'rranean.


from near two hundred men whom he had on board,
However, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping
close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend
ourselves; but the next time, coming upon our quarter,
he entered sixty men upon our decks, who immediately
fell to cutting the decks and rigging. We plied them with
small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and
cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short
this melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled,
and three of our men killed and eight wounded, we were
obliged to yield, and were all carried prisoners into Sallee,
a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I
apprehended. Nor was I carried up the country to the
emperor's court, as the rest of our men were, but was
kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and
made his slave, being young and nimble and fit for his
business. At this surprising change of my circumstances,
from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly over-
whelmed. Now I looked back upon my father's prophetic
discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have none
to relieve me, which, I thought, was now so effectually
brought to pass, that TI could not be worse. The hand
of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone without
Redemption. But, alas this was but a taste of the misery
I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of the
As my new patron or master had taken ine home to his
house, so I was in hopes that he w rL-Jke me with him
when he went to sea again, believing it would some time
or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portu-
guese ma~n-of-war~itud that then I should be set at liberty.


But this hope of mine was soon taken away; for, when he
went to sea, he left me on shore to look after his little
garden and do the common drudgery of slave about his
house; and, when he came home again from his cruise, he
ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what
method I might take to effect it, but found no way that
had the least probability in it. Nothing presented to
make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to
communicate it to, who would embark with me. No fel-
low-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotchman was
there but myself; so that for two years, though I often
pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the
least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented
itself, which put the old thought of making some attempt
for my liberty again in my head. My patron lying at
home longer than usual, without fitting out his ship,--
which, I heard, was for want of money,-he used con-
stantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the
weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnace, and go out
into the road a-fishing. And, as he always took me and
a young Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him
very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching fish;
insomuch, that sometimes he would send me with a Moor,
one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Maresco, as they
called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not
half a league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and
rowing, we knew not whither or which way, we labored
all day' and all the next night. When the morning came,


we found we had pulled off to sea instead of pulling
in for the shore, and that we were at least two leagues
from the shor~e. However, we got well in again, though
with a great deal of labor and some danger; for the wind
beganl to blow pretty fresh in th~e morning, but particularly
we were all very hunngry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to
take more care of himself for the future; and having lying
by him the long-boat of our English ship he had taken,
he resolved he wouldl not go at-fishing any more without a
compass and somle provision. So he ordered the carpenter
of his ship, who was also an English slave, to build a little
state-room or cabin inl thle middle of the long-boat, like
that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer
and haul home the main-sheet, and room before for a hand
or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what
we call a shoulder-of-mnutton sail, and the boom gibed over
the top of thle cabin, whichl lay very snug and low, and
had in it room for hliml to lie, with a slave or two, and a
table to eat on, with somne small lookers to put in some
bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink, particu-
larly hris bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and as
I was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went
without me. It happened that he had appointed to go out
in thlis boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or
three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for
whom he had provided extraordinarily. He had sent on
board the boat over night a larger store of provisions than
ordiinary;, and had ordered me to get ready three small
fusees, with powder and shot, which he had on board his
ship, for they designed some sport at fowling; as well as


I got all things ready as he directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat washed clean, her flag and pendants
out, and everything to accommodate his guests. By and
by my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests
had put off going, and ordered me, with the man and boy,
as usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some
fish, for his friends were to sup at his house. He com-
mlanded that as soon as I got some fish, I should bring it
home to his house. All which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance! darted
into my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a
little ship at my command. My master being gone, I pre-
pared to furnish myself, not for a fishing business, but for
a voyage, though I knew not, neither did I so much as
consider, whither I should steer; for anywhere to get out
of that place was my way.



M\/Y first contrivance was to make a pretense to speak to
LV this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on
board; for I told him wve must not presume to eat our pat-
ton's bread. He saidthut was true. So he brought large
basket of rusk, or biscuit of their kind, and three jars with
fresh water into the boat. I knew where my patron's case
of bottles stood, which it was evident by the make were
taken out of some English prize; and I conveyed them
into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had
been there before for our master. I conveyed also a great
lump of bees-wax into the boat, which weighed above a
hundred weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a
hatchet, a saw~l, and a hammer, all which were of great use
to us afterwards, especially him who was to make candles.
Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came
into also. His name was Ismatel, which they call Muly, or
Moley; so l called to himn, "Moley," said I, "' our pat-
ron's guns are on board the boat. Can you not get a little
powder and shot ? It may be we mayr kill some alcamies
(al fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he
keeps ~the gunn~er's stores in the ship." Yes," says he,
" I'll bring some "; and accordingly he brought a great
leather pouch which held about a pound and a half of
powder, or rather more; and another with shot, that had
five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the
boat. At the same time I had found some powder of my


master's in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the
large bottles in the case, which was almost empty, pouring
what was in it into another. Thus furnished with every-
thing needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The castle
which is at the entrance of the port knew who we were,
and took no notice of us. We were not above a mile out;
of the port before we hauled in our sail, and set us down
to fish. The wind blew from the north-northeast, which
was contrary to my desire; for had it blown southerly I
had been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at
least reached to the Bay of Cadiz. But my resolutions
were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from that
horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and caught nothing (for
when I had fish on my hook, I would not pull them up,
that he might not see them), I said to the Moor, "This will
not do, our master will not be thus served. We must
stand farther off." He, thinking no harm, agreed, and
being in the head of the boat, set the sails. As I had
the helm, I ran the boat out near a league further, and
then brought her to as if I would fish. Giving the boy
the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and
making as if I stooped for something behind him, I took
him by surprise with my arm under his legs, and tossed
him clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately,
for he swam like a cork, and calling to me, begged to be
taken in. He told me he would go all over the world
with me. He swam so strong after the boat that he would
have reached me very quickly, there being but little wind.
I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-
pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had done n R
hurt, and if he would be quiet, I would do h'im~ none.


6L But," said I, "( you swim well enough to reach the shore.
The sea is calm. Make the best of your way to the shore,
and I will do you no harm. But if you come near the
boat, I'll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved to
ha~ve my liberty." So he turned himself about and swam
for the shore, and I make no doubt that he reached it with
ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to take the Moor with me
and drown the boy, but there was no venturing to trust
him. When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they
called Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you will be faith-
ful to me, I'll make you a great man. But if you will not
stroke your heard to me," (that is, swear by Mahomet and
his father's beard), I must throw you into the sea, too."
The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently that I
could not mistrust himn. He swore to be faithful to me,
and to go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor, who was swimming, I
stood directly out to sea with the boat, that they might
think me gone towards the strait's mouth (as indeed any
one who had been in their wits must have been supposed
to do). For who would have supposed we would sail south-
ward to the truly barbarian coast, where whole nations of
negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes and
destroy us; where we could never once go on shore but
we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless
savages of human kind ?
But as soon as it grew dusk, I changed my course, and
steered directly south and by east, bending my course a
little toward the east, that I light keep in with the shore.
Having a, fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea,
I made such sail that I believe by the next day at three


o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I
could not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south
of Sallee, quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco's domin-
ions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts, for we saw
no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and
the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands,
that I would not stop nor go on shore, nor come to anchor.
The wind continuing fair till I had sailed in that manner
five days, and the wind shifting to the southward, I con-
cluded that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they
would now give over. So I ventured to make the coast,
and came to anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew
not what or where. I neither saw nor desired to see any
people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water.
We came into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim
on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the country.
But as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful
noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild crea-
tures of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was
ready to die with~ fear, and begged of me not to go on
shore till day. Well, Xury," said I, then I won't; but
it may be we may see men by day, who will be as bad to
us as those lions." Then we give them the shot gun,"
says Xury, laughing; make them run away." Such Eng-
lish Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. After all,
his advice was good, and I took it. We dropped our little
anchor and lay still all night. I say still, for we slept
none; for in two or three hours we saw vast creatures (we
knew not what to call them) of many sorts, coming down
to the sea-rshore and running into the water, wallowing
and washing themselves for the pleasure of cooling, them-


selves. They made such hideous howlings and yelling
as I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was I,
too; but we were both more frightened when we heard one
of these mighty creatures swimming towards our boat.
WVe could not see him, but we knew by his blowing that
he was a monstrous and furious beast. Xury said it was
a lion, and it might be so for aught I knew. Poor Xury
cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away. No,
Xury," says I; "we can slip our cable with a buoy to it and
go off' to sea.; they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner
said so than I perceived the creature (whatever it was)
within two oars' length. I immediately stepped to the
cabin door, and, taking up my gun, fired at him, upon which
he immediately turned about and swam towards the shore
But it is imlpossibsle to describe th~e horrible noises, and
hideous cries and howlingrs that were raised, as well upon
the edge of thle shore as higher within the country, upon
the noise or report of the gun,-- a thing I have some rea-
son to believ-e those creatures had never heard before.
This convinced me that there was no going on shore for
us in thle night up~on that coast; and how to venture on
shore in the dlay was another question too. For, to have
la11len into the hands of anly of the savages, had been as
bad as to have fallen into the hlandls of lions and tigers; at
least, we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it may, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the
boat. When or where to get it was the point. Xury
said, if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars,
he would find if there was any water, and bring some to


me. I asked him why he would go ? Why I should not
go, and he stay in the boat ? The boy answered with
so much affection that it made me love him ever after.
Says he, If wild mans come, they eat me, you go away."
" Well, Xury," said I, we will both go, and if the wild
mans come, we will kill them. They shall kill neither of
us." So we hauled the boat in as near the shore as we
thought was proper, and waded on shore, carrying nothing
but our guns and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river. But the
boy, seeing a low place about a mile up the country, ram-
bled to it. By and by, I saw him come running towards
me. I thought he was pursued by some savage, or fright-
ened by some wild beast, and I ran forward towards. him
to help him. But when I came nearer to him, I saw some-
thing hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature
that he had shot; like a hare, but different in color, and
longer legs. However, we were very glad of it, and it
was very good meat. But the great joy that poor Xury
came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and
had seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such
pains for water; for, a little higher up the creek where we
were, we found the water fresh when the tide was out,
which flowed but a little way up. So we filled our jars,
and feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go
on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human crea-
ture in that part of the country.



AS I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew
very well that the islands of the Canaries, and the
C'ape de Verde Islands also, lay not far off from the coast.
B3ut as I hadl no instruments to take an observation, to
know what latitude we were in, I knew not where to look
for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them. My
hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to that
part whvlere the English traded, I should find some of their
vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve
and taLke us inl.
B3y the best of mly calculation, the place where I now
was must be that country which, lying between the
Emperor of Morocco's dominions and the negroes, lies
waste and uninlhaited\, except by wild beasts; the negroes
having abandoned it and gone further south for fear of the
M~oors, who did not thinke it worth inhabiting by reason of
its barrenness.
Once or twice in the daytime I thought I saw the peak
of Teneriffe, being the hligh1 top of the mountain Teneriffe
in the Canaries. I had a, great mind to venture out in
hopes of reaching thither; but, having tried twice, I was
forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too
high for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first
design, and keep along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water after
we had left this place. Once, in particular, being early inl


the morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of
land which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to
flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were
more about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to
me, and tells me that we had best go further oil the shore.
" Fior," say~s he, "look yonder lies a dreadful monster on
the side of that hillook, fast asleep." I looked where he
pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a
great lion that lay on the side of the shore, under the
shade of a piece of the hill that hung, as it were, a little
over him. Xury," says I, you shall go on shore
and kill him." Xury looked frightened, and said, Me
kill he eat me at one mouth "; one mouthful he meant.
However, I said no more to the boy, but bade him lie atil.
I took our biggest gun, and loaded it with a good charge
of powder and with two slugs, and laid it down. Then I
loaded another gun with two bullets; and the third (for
we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets.
I took the best aim I could, with the first piece, to shoot
the lion in the head; but he lay so, with his leg raised a
little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the
knee, and broke the bone. He started up, growling at'
first, but finding his leg broken, fell down again, and then
got up upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar
that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not
hit him on the head. However, I took up the second piece
immediately, and though he began to move off, fired again,
and shot him fa the head, and had the pleasure to see him
drop. Then Xury took heart, and would have me let him
go onshore. Well, go," said I. So the boy jumped into
the water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to the
shore with the other hand; and coming close to the crea-


ture, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him
in the head again, which dispatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but no food. I was very
sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a
creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury
said he would have some of him. So be comes on board,
and asked me to give him the hatchet. For what,
Xury ? said I. Me cut off his head," said he. How-
ever, Xury could not cut off his head, but he out off a foot,
and brought it with him. It was a monstrous one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of
the lion might one way or another be of some value to us;
and I resolved to take it off if I could. So Xury and I
went to work. But Xury was much th~e better workman
at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us
both the whole day; but at last we got the hide off, and
spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually
dried it in two days' time, and it afterwards served me
to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward contin-
nazlly for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our
provisions, which began to abate very much, and going no
oftener in to the shore than we were obliged to for fresh
water. M~y design in this was to make the Rtiver Gambia
or Senegal, that is to say, anywhere about the Cape De
Verde, where I was in hopes to meet with some European
ship. If I did not, I knew not what course I had to take,
but to seek for the islands, or perish thik-e among the
negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe, which
sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to Brazil, or to the
East Indlies, made this cape, or those islands. In a word,
I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point,--
either that I must meet with some ship or must perish.


When I had pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, as I have said, I began to see that the land was
inhabited. In two or three places, as we sailed by, we
saw people stand upon the shore to look at us. We could
also perceive they were quite black. I was once inclined
to go on shore to them; but Xury was my better coun-
sellor, and said to me, No go, no go." However, I
hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to them, and
I found they ran along the shore by me, a good way. I
observed they had no weapons in their hands, except one,
who had a long, slender stick, which Xury said was a
lance, and that they would throw them a great way with
good aim. So I kept at a distance, but talked with them
by signs as well as I could, and particularly made signs
for something to eat. They beckoned to me to stop my
boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this
I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by. Two of them
ran up into the country, and in less than half an hour
came back, and brought with them two pieces of dried
flesh and some corn, as is the produce of their country.
But we neither knew what the one nor the other was.
However, we were willing to accept it, but how to come
at it was our next dispute; for I was not venturing on
shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us. But
they took a safe way for us all; for they brought it to the
shore and laid it down, and went and stood a great way
off till we fetched it down on board, and then came close
to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing
with which to repay them. But an opportunity offered
that very instant to oblige them wonderfully; for, while
we were lying by the shore, there came two mighty crert


tures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great
fury, from the mountains towards the sea. Whether they
were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than
we could tell whether it was usual or strange; but I
believe it was the latter; because, in the first place, those
ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and,
Sin~ the second place, we found the people terribly fright-
enied. The manl who hlad the lance or dart did not fly
from them, but the rest did. However, as the two crea-
tures ran directly into the water, they did not seem to
offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but plunged into
the sea, and swam about as if they had come for their
diversion. At last, one of them began to come nearer our
boat than at first I expected. But I lay ready for him;
for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and
bade Xury to load both the others. As soon as he came
fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in
the head. Immediately he sunk down into the water, but
rose instantly, and plunged up and down as if he was
struggling for life. So, indeed, he was. He immediately
made for the shore; but, between the wound, which was
his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died
just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these
poor creatures at the noise and the fire of my gun. Some
of them were even ready to die of fear, and fell down as
dead with the very terror. But when they saw the crea-
ture dlead, and sunk in the water, and thit I made signs
to them to come to the shore, they took heart and came,
and began to search for the creature. I found~him by his
blood staining the water; and, by the help of a rope,
which I slung round him, and gave the negroes to haul,


they dragged him on shore. He was found to be a most
curious leopard, spotted and fine to an admirable degree,
and the negroes held up their hands with admiration to
think what it was I had killed him with.
The other creature, frightened with the flash of fie and
the noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly
to the mountains from whence they came, nor could I at
that distance know what it was. I found quickly the
negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was
willing to have them take it as a favor from me. Whben
I made signs to them that they might take him, they were
very thankful. Immediately they fell to work with him,
and though they had no knife, yet with a sharpened piece
of wood they took off his skin as readily, and much more
readily, than we could have done with a knife. They
offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, making
as if I would give it them; but I made signs for the skin,
which they gave me very freely, and brought me a great
deal more of their provision, which, though I did not
understand, yet I accepted. Then I made signs to them
for some water, and held out one of my jars to them,
turning it bottom upward, to show that it was empty, and
that I wanted to have it filed. They called immediately
to some of their friends; and there came two women, and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I
supposed, in the sun. This they set down for me, as
before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled
them all three.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it
was, and water; and, leaving my friendly negroes, I made
forward for about eleven days more, without offering to
go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a great


length into the sea, at about the distance of four or five
leagues before me; and, the sea being very calm, I kept
a large offing to make this point. At length, doubling
the point at about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side to seaward. Then I con-
cluded that this was the Cape de Verde, and those the
islands called from thence the Cape de Verde Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could not
tell what I had best do; for, if I should be taken with a
fresh wind, I might reach~neither the one nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stept into
the cabin and set me down, Xury having the helm. On
a sudden the boy cried out, "' Master Master i a ship with
a sail! And the foolish boy was frightened out of his
wits, thinking it needs must be some of his master's ships
sent to pursue us. I jumped out of the cabin, and saw
not only the ship, but that it was a Portuguese ship, and,
as I thought, wvas bound to the coast of Guinea for ne-
groes. But when I observed the course she steered, I
was soon convinced they were bound some other way, and
did not design to come any nearer to the shore; upon
which I stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolv-
ing to speak with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be
able to come in their way, but they would be gone by
before I could make any signal to them. But, after I had
crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it
seems, saw me by the help of their perspective glasses; so
they shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged
with this, and, as I had my patron's flag on board, I made
a waft of it to them for a signal of distress, and fired a
x An ofng is a part of the open sea at a good distance of the shore.


gun, both which they saw; for they told me they saw the
smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these
signals, they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me,
and in about three hours' time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, in. Spanish,
and in French. But I understood none of them. At last
a Scottish sailor, who was on board, called to me, and I
answered him, and told him I was an Englishman, and
that I had made my escape out of slavery from the Moors
at Sallee. Then they bade me come on board, and very
kindly took me in, and all my goods.
It was inexpressible joy to me, as any one would believe,
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a
miserable and almost hopeless condition as I was in. I
immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship,
as a return for my deliverance. But he generously told
me he would take nothing from me, but that all I had
should be delivered safe to me when I came to the Bra-
zils. "'For," says he, "I have saved your life on no other
terms than I would be glad to be saved myself ; and it
may one time or other be my lot to be taken up in the
same condition. Besides," says he, when I carry you
to the Brazils, so great a way from your own country, if
I should take away from you what you have, you will be
starved there, and then I only take away that life I have
given. No, no, Seignor, Mr. Englishman; I will carry
you thither in charity, and those things will help you to
buy your subsistence there, and your passage home again."
As he was charitable in his proposal, so he was just in
the performance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen
that none should offer to touch anything I had. Then he
took everything into his own possession, and gave me back


an exact inventory of them, that I might have them;
even so much as my earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he
saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the ship's use,
and asked me what I would have for it. I told him he
had been so generous to me in everything, that I could
not offer to make any price on the boat, but would leave
it entirely to him. He told me he would give me a note
of his hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at
Brazil; and when it came there, if any one offered to give
more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty
pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loath
to take; not that I was not willing to let the captain
have him, but I was very loath to sell the poor boy's lib-
erty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my
own. However, when I let him know my reason, he'
owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that he
would give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten
years, if he turned Christian. Upon this, and Xury say-
ing he was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.
W~e had a good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in
All Saints Bay in about twenty-two days after. And now
I was once more delivered from the most miserable of all
conditions of life, and what to do next with myself I was
now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can
never enough remember. He would take nothing of me
for my passage, gave me twenty ducatsa for the leopard's

IA Spanish piece of eight reals is equivalent to a dollar in our money.
O A ducat was a coin used in many countries of Europe, and Ipd a
greatly varying value. A silver ducat was nearly equivalent to an
American dollar.

~- .. ~b .. _~~-~-L -

29 L

or RBNosmor causoE.

skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I had in mily boat,
and caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually
delivered me. What I was willing to sell he bought,--
such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece
of the lump of bee's-wax, for I had made candles of the
rest. In a word, I made about two hundred and twenty
pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock I went
on shore in the B3razils.



IHAD not been long in the Brazils, when I was recom-
mended to the house of a good and honest man, who
had an ingenio, as they call it, that is, a plantation and a
sugar house. I lived with him some time, and acquainted
myself by that means with the manner of planting and
making of sugar. Seeing how the planters lived, and
how they grew rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get
license, to settle there. I would turn planter among them,
resolving in the meantime to find out some way to get
my money, which I had left in London, remitted to me.
To this purpose, getting a kind of letter of naturalization,
I purchased as much land that was uncured a~s my money
would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and
settlement, and such a one as might be suitable to the
stock which I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbor, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of
English parents, whose name was Wells, who was in
much such circumstances as I was. I call him neighbor,
because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on
very sociably together. My stock was but low, as well as
his; and we rather planted for food than anything else,
for about two years. However, we began to increase,
and our land began to come into order; so that the third
year we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a
large piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year


to come. But we both wanted help; and now I found,
more than before, I had done wrong in parting with my
boy Xury.
I had now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and
began to thrive and prosper very well upon my planta-
tion. I had not only learned the language, but had con-
tracted acquaintance and friendship among my fellow
planters, as well as among the merchants at St. Salvadore,
which was our port. In my discourses among them I had
frequently given them an account of my two voyages to
the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the ne-
groes there, and howy easy it was to purchase upon the
coast, for trifles, such as beads, toys, knives, scissors,
hatchets, bits of glass, and the like, not only gold dust,
Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, etc., but negroes for the
service of the Brazils in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses
on these heads, but especially to that part which related
to the buying of negroes.
It happened, being in company with some merchants
and planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those
things very earnestly, three of them came to me the next
morning and told me they had been musing very much
upon what I had discoursed with them of the last night,
and they came to make a secret proposal to me. After
enjoining secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to
fit out a ship to go to Guinea,; that they had all plantations
as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so much
as servants; that as this was a trade that could not be
carried on, because they could not publicly sell the ne-
groes when they came home, so they desired to make but
one voyage, to bring the negroes on shore privately, and


divide them among their own plantations. In a word, the
question was, whether I would go as their super cargo t in
the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of
Guinea. They offered me that I should have my equal
share of the negroes, without providing anly part of the
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it
been made to any one that had not hadl a settlement and
plantation of his own to look after, which was in a fair way
of becomilgr very considerable, andl with a good stock
upon it. But for me, who had nothing to do but go on
as I had begun, for three or four years more, in order to
be worth three or four thlousandl pounds sterling, -for me
to think. of such a voyage, was the most preposterous
thing that ever man in such circumstances could be
guilty of.
But I, who was born to be my own destroyer, could no
more resist the offer, than I could restrain my first ram-
bling designs, when my father's good counsel was lost
upon me. Inz a ord, I told them I would go with all my
heart, if they would undertake to look after my p~lanta-
tion in xuy absence, and would dispose of it to such as
I should direct if' I miscarried. This they all engaged to
do, and entered into writings or covenants to do so. I
made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects,
in case of my death, makings the captain of the ship who
saved my life, as before, my universal heir; but obliging
him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will,
one-half of the produce being to himself, and the other
to be shipped to England.
A person appointed, by the owners of a ship to have charge of
the cargo.


In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my
effects, and keep up my plantation. Had I used half as
much prudence in looking into my own interest, and
making a judgment of what I ought to have done and not
to have done, I had certainly never gone away from so
prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the probable views
of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon a voyage to
sea, attended with all its common hazards; to say nothing
of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates
of my fancy rather than my reason. Accordingly, the
ship being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all
things done as by agreement by my partners in the
voyage, I went on board in an evil hour, the first of Sep-
tember -being the same dlay eight years that I went
from my father and mother at Hull, in order to act the
rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own interest.



OUR ship was about one hundred and twenty tons
burden, carried six guns, and fourteen men, besides
the master, his boy, and myself. We had on board no
large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for
our trade with the negroes, such as beads, bits of glass,
shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses,
knives, scissors, hatchets, anld the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing
away to the northward upon our own coast, with design
to stretch over for the African coast when we should
reach about tenl or twelve degrees of northern latitude.
We had very good weather, only excessively hot, all the
way upon our own coast till we came to the height of
Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping farther off at
sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound
for the isle Fernand de Noronha, holding our course N. E.
by N. and leaving those isles on the east. In this course
we passedl the line' in about twelve days' time, and were
by our last observation in seven degrees twenty-two min-
utes northern latitude, when a violent tornado or hurri-
cane took us quite out of our knowledge. It began from
the south-east, came about to the north-west, and then
settled into the north-east, from whence it blew in such a
terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could
do nothing but drive. Scudding away before it, we let it
1 The line of the equator.


carry us whither ever fate and the fury of the winds
directed. During these twelve days I need not sary that
I expected every day to be swallowed up, nor indeed did
any in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress, besides the terror of the storm, one of
our men died of fever, and one man and the boy were
washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather
abating a little, the master made an observation as well as
he could, and found he was in about eleven degrees north
latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude
west from Cape St. Augustino; 2 so that he found he was
gotten upon the coast of Guinea, or the north part of
Brazil, beyond the river Amazou, toward that of the river
Oronoco, commonly called the Great River, and began to
consult with me what course he should take, for the ship
was leaky and very much disabled, and he was going
directly back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and, looking over the
charts of the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded
there was no inhabited country for us to have recourse
to, till we came within the circle of the Carribee Islands.
Therefore, we resolved to stand away for Barbadoes,
which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the indraught of
the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily reach, as we
hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; whereas, we could not
possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without
some assistance, both to our ship and to ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and steered
away N. WY. by WT. in order to reach some of our English
islands, where I hoped for relief. But our voyage was
a The young reader should trace upon the map the course of the
ship, as shown byr the latitude and longitude mentioned in this chapter.


otherwise determined; for, being in the latitude of twelve
degrees eighteen minutes, a second storm came upon us,
which carried us away with the same impetuosity west-
ward, and drove us so out of the very way of all human
commerce, that had all our lives been saved, as to the sea,
we were rather in danger of being devoured by savages
than ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of
our men early in the morning cried out, Land! We
had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes
of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, but the ship
struck upon sand, and, in a moment, her motion being
so stopped, the sea. broke over her in such a manner, that
we expected we should all have perished immediately.
We were immediately driven into our close quarters, to
shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the like
condition, to describe or conceive the consternation of
men in such circumstances. We knew nothing where we
were, or upon what land it was we were driven, whether
an island or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited.
As the rage of the wind was still great, though rather
less than at first, we could not so much as hope to have
the ship hold many minutes without breaking in pieces,
unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn imme-
diately about. In a word, we sat looking one upon
another, expecting death every moment, and every man
acting as if preparing for another world, for there was lit-
tle or nothing more for us to do in this. That which was
our present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was, that
contrary to our expectation the ship did not break yet, and
that the master said the wind began to abate.


Now, though we found that the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and stick-
ing too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a
dreadful condition indeed, and had noth-ing to do but to
think of saving our lives as well as we could. We had a
boat at our stern just before the storm, but she was first
stove by dashing against the ship's rudder, and in the next
place she broke away, and either sunk or was driven off to
sea, so there was no hope from her. We had another boat
on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a doubt-
ful thing. However, there was no room to debate, for we
fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute, and
some told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the
boat, and with the help of the rest of the men, got her
over the ship's side, and getting all into her, we let go,
and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's
mercy and the wild sea. h
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all
saw plainly, that the sea went so high, that the boat could
not live, and that we should be inevitably drowned. As
to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could we have
done anything with it. So we worked at the oar towards
the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going to
execution; for we all knew, that when the boat came
nearer the shore she would be dashed in a thousand pieces
by the breach of the sea. However, we committed our
souls to God in the most earnest manner, and the wind
driving us towards the shore, we hastened our destruction
with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards
What the shore was, whether rook or sand, whether


steep or shoal, we knew not. The only hope that could
rationally give us the least shadow of expectation was, if
we might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of
some river, where by great chance we might run our boat
in, or get under the lee of the land, and perhaps make
smooth water.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league
and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-
like, came rolling a-stern of us, and plainly bade us expect
the cou~p-de-grace.l In a word, it took us with such a fury,
that it overset the boat at once; and we were all swal-
lowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I
felt when I sunk into the water. Though I swam very
well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as
to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather
carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having
spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost
dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had so
much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that seeing
myself nearer the main land than I expected, I got upon
my feet, and endeavored to make on towards the land as
fast as I could, before another wave should return and
take me up again. But I soon found it was impossible to
avoid it; for I saw th~e sea come after me as high as a
great hill, and as furious as an enemy which I had no
means or strength to contend with. My business was to
hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could;
and so by swimming to preserve my breathing, and pilot
myself towards the shore, if possible. My greatest con-
cern now being that the sea, as it would carry me a great
SThe blow that would kill us.


way towards the shore when it came on, might not carry
me back again with it when it gave back towards the
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could
feel myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness
towards the shore a very great way; but I held my breath,
and assisted myself to swim still forward with all my
might. I was ready to burst with holding my breath,
when, as I felt myself rising up, to my immediate relief,
I found my head and hands shoot out above the surface
of the water. Though it was not two seconds of time
that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly,
gave me breath and new courage. I was covered again
with water a good while, but not so long but I held it
out. Finding the water had spent itself, and began to
return, I struck forward against the return of the waves,
and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few
moments to recover breath, and till the water went from
me, and then took to my heels and ran with what strength
I had farther towards the shore. But neither would this
deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring
in after me again, and twice more I was lifted up by the
waves and carried forwards as before, the shore being
very flat.
The last time of these two had well near been fatal to
me. The sea having hurried. me along as before, landed
me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of a rook, and that
with such force, that it left me senseless, and indeed help-
less, as to my own deliverance; for, the blow taking my
side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of
my body. Had it not returned again immediately, I must


have been strangled in the water; but I recovered a little
before the return of the waves, and seeing I should be
covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a
piece of the rock, and so hold my breath, if possible, till
the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so
high as at first, being near land, I held my hold till the
wave abated, and then fetched another run, which brought
me so near the shore that the next wave, though it went
over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me
away. The next run I took I got to the mainland, where,
to my great comfort, I clambered up the clefts of the
shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger,
and quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed and safe on shore, and began to look
up and thank God that my life was saved in a case where-
in there was, some minutes before, scarce any room to
hope. I believe it is impossible to express to the life
what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are, when it
is so saved, as I may say, out of the very grave. I walked
about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole
being, as I may say, wrapt up in the contemplation of my
deliverance, making a thousand gestures and motions
which I cannot describe, reflecting upon all my comrades
that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul
saved but myself. As for them, I never saw them after-
wards, or any sign of them, except three of their hats, one
cap, and two shoes that were not fellows



AFTER I had solaced my mind with the comfortable
part of my condition, I began to look around me
to see what kind of place I was iq, and what was next to
be done. I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in
a word, I had a dreadful deliverance. For, I was wet,
had no' clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat
or drink to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect
before me, but that of peris~hing with hunger, or being.
devoured by wild beasts/ That which was particularly
af~ioting to me, was that I had no weapon either to hunt
and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend
myself against any other creature that might desire to
kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me
but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box;
this was all my provision, and this threw me into terrible
agonies of mind, that for a while I ran about like a mad-
man. Night coming upon me, I began with a heavy
heart to consider what would be my lot if there were any
ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night they
always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that~offered to my thoughts at that time
was, to get up into a thick, bushy tree like a fir but
thorny, which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit
all night, and consider the next day what death I' should
die, for, as yet, I saw no prospect of life. I walked about
a furlong from the shore, to see if I could A~nd any.ire


water to drink, which I did, to my great joy. Having
drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeav-
ored to place myself so that if I should sleep I might
not fall. Having out me a short stick, like a truncheon,
for my defence, I took up my lodging, and being exces-
sively fatigued, fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably
as I believe few could have done in my condition.
When I awoke, it wats broad day, the weather clear,
and the storm abated, so that the sea, did not rage and
swell as before; but that which surprised me most was,
that the ship was lifted off in the night from tbe sand
where she lay, by thle swelling of the tide, and was driven
up almost as far as the rock which I first mentioned,
where I had been so bruised by dashing against it.
This being within about a mile from the shore where
I was, anld the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished
myself on board, that, at least, I might save some neces-
sary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I
looked about me again, and the first thing I found was
the boat, which lay as the wind and the sea, had tossed
her, up upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I
walked as far as I could upon the shore to get to her, but
found a neck or inlet of water between me and the boat,
which was about half a mile broad; so I came back for the
present, being more intent upon getting at the ship, where
I hoped to find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon I found the sea, very calm, and the
tide ebbed so far out that I could come within at quarter of
a mile of the ship. Here I found a fresh renewing of my
grief; for I saw, evidently, that if we had kept on board,


we had been all safe, that is to say, we had all got safe
on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be left
entirely destitute of all comfort and company, as I now
was. This forced tears from my eyes again; but, as there
was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible to get to
the ship; so I pulled off mly clothes, for the weather was
hot to extremity, and took the water. But, when I camle
to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to
get on board, for as she layr aground, and high out of the
water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of.
I swam round her twice, and thle second time I spied a
small piece of rope, which I wondered I did nlot see at
first, hanging dlown by the fore-chains so low, that with
great difficulty I got hold of it, and by thle help of that
rope got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found
that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water
in her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a bank of
hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up
upon the bank, and her head low almost to the water.
By this means all her quarter was free, and all that was
in that part was dry; for, you may be sure, my first work
was to search and see what was spoiled and what was
free. I found that all the ship's provisions were dry and
untouched by the water; and, being very well disposed
to eat, I went to the bread-room and filled my pockets
with biscuit, and ate it as I wrent about other things, for
I had no time to lose. Now I wanted nothing but a boat
to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would
be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to
be had, and this extremity roused m-y application. We
ha;d several spare yards, and two or three large spars of


wuood, andc a spanre topmast or two in the ship. I resolved
to fall to wTorkl w-ithl these, and flung as many of them
overboardl as I could mannagre for their weight, tying every
onle withl a rope that they might not drive away. When
thlis was done I wenlt dlown thle ship's side, and pulling
thlem to mne, I tied four of them fast together at both
ends, as w-ell as I could inl the form of a raft. Layingr
two or three short pieces of p'lank upon them cross-wanys,
I foundl I could walk up~on it very well, but that it
w-as not able to bear anly great wTeighlt, thle pieces being
too light. So I w-ent to w-ork;, a~ndl ithl the carp~enter's
saw I cut a spare top~mast inlto three lengths, and adldedl
them to my raft w\ithl a great dleal of labor and p~ainls.
But hope o~f funishling myself with necessaries encour-
algedl mle to go beyocnd whant I shlouldl have been able to
have done up~on another occasion. c
My? raft was now\\ strong enloughrl to bear anly reasonable
w\eighlt. Mly nlext cae nro as what to, loadl it withl, andl how
to preserve what I laid up~on it froml thle surf orf thle sea;
b~ut I w-as nlot lonlg considering this. I first laid all the
p~lankls or boards up~on it thant I couldl get, andl having
consideredl well whlat I molst wanlted, I first got three of
the sc~leame's chlests, whlich I hlad b~rokien op~en andc emp,-
tied, and lloweredc thleml dlownl ulonl my ra3ft. Thle first of
these 1 filled w\ithl p~rovisi~ns~, namely, breadl, rice, three
Dutch chleeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh, which we
lived mluch upon, andc a little remainder of Europ~ean1 corn
which hlad beenl laid by- for some fowls whichl we brought
to sea with us. Thlere hand been some barley and wheat
together; but, to mly great disappointment, I found after-
wardis that thle rats hadl beaten or sipoiledi it all. As for
liquors", I found several cases of bottles belonging to our


skipper, in which were some cordial waters, and in all
about five or six gallons of rack 1; these I stowed by them-
selves, there being no need to put them into the chest,
nor no room for them. While I was doing this, I found
the tide began to flow, though very calm; and I had the
mlortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I
hlad left on shore, upon the sand, swim away. As for my
breeches, which were only linen and open-kneed, I swam
o~n board in them and my stockings. However, this put
mne upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found enough,
but took no more than I wanted for present use; for I
hlad other things which my eye was more upon: as, first,
tools to work with on shore. It was after long searching
thalt I found out the carpenter's chest, which was indeed
at very useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a
ship-10ad of gold would have been at that time. I got it
dlown to my raft, even whole as it was, without losing time
to look into it, for I knew in general what it contained.
M\y next care was for some amulunition and arms.
TLhere were two very godod fowling-pieces in the great
caLbin, and two pistols; these I secured first, with some
p'owder-horns, and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty
swords. I knew there were three barrels of powder in
the ship), but knew not where our gunner had stowed
them; but with much search I found them, two of them
dlry and good, the third had taken water. Those two I
got to m"y raft with the arms. And now I thought myself
pretty well freighted, and began to think how I should
get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rud-
der,, a44 the least capful of wind would have overset aUl
my navigation.
SSpirituous liquors.


I had three encouragements: a smooth, calm sea, the
tide rising and setting into the shore, and what little
wind there was blew me towards the land. Thus, having
found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat,
and, besides the tools which were in the chest, two saws,
an axe, and a hammer, with this cargo I put to sea. For
a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I
found it rinve a little distant from the place where I had
landed before, by which I perceived that there was some
indrazft of the water, and consequently I hoped to find
some creek or river there, which I might make use of as a
port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a
little opening of the land, and I found a strong current of
the tide setting into it, so I guided my raft as well as I
could to keep in the middle of the stream. But here I
had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if
I had, I think verily would have broke my heart. Know-
ing nothing of the coast, one end of my raft ran aground
upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it
wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off
towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the
water. I did my utmost, by setting my back against the
chests, to keep them in their places, but could not thrust
off the raft with all my strength, neither durst I stir from
the posture I was in; but, holding up the chests with all
my might, stood in that manner near half an hour, in
which time the rising of the water brought me a little
more upon a level. A little after, the water still rising,
my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I
had into the channel. Then, driving up higher, I at
length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with


land on both sides, and a strong current or tide running
up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to get to
shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high up the
river, hoping in time to see some ship at sea, and there-
fore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the
creek, to which, with great pain and diffhoulty, I guided
my raft, and at last got so near, that, reaching ground
with my oar, I could thrust her directly in. But here
I had liked to have dipped all my cargo in the sea again;
for that shore lying pretty steep, that is to say, sloping,
there was no place to land, but where one end of the
float, if it run on shore, would lie so high, and the other
sink so low, that it would endanger my cargo again. All
that I could do, was to wait till the tide was at the high-
est, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor to hold
the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground,
which I expected the water would flow over; and so it
did. As soon as I found water enough (for my raft drew
about a foot of water), I thrust her on upon that flat piece
of ground, and there fastened or moored her by sticking
my two broken oars into the ground, -one on one side near
one end, and one on the other side near the other end.
Thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and
all my cargo safe on shore.



M YT nlext workr w3s to view- thle country, and seek a
propler placeo for my~ habitationl, and wh-lere to stow-
mly goods tol secureI thlem fr~om w-hatever might happen.
WVhere I wa-s I yet k;lnew not; wh-lethler onl thle continent
or onl an islandlc, whlethler inhab~itedl or not inhanbited,
whlethler inl danlger o~f w\ildl beasts or not. Ther~e wans a
hlill noct aIbove a mlile' from)11 me, whichI rose up1 very steep~
andit high, anid whlich~ seemedl to overtop, some other hiills
whiclx lay- as in a bridge froml it north-ardl. I took out
one of thle fowling-p~ieces anld one( of thle p~istls andt a hlornl
of pow"der, and thuts armedct, I travelledl for discovery up
to the top of thant hiill. After I hand withi great labor andl
difficulty got to the top, I saw that I was on an islandt
environedl evcryw-ay w\ithl thle sea. Thlere was no land to
be seenl, except somne rocks whlich 1lay a great wayl~ off, andi
two small islands less thaln this, which lay about three
leagues to the west.
I foundc also that thle islandc I was on was barren, andi,
as I sawm good~ reasonl to b~eliev-e, uninhlab~itedl except by
wcild beasts, of whlichl, however, I saw nlone. I saw ablun-
dlance of fowls, but knlew nlot their kiindsu, neither when I
killed thlem could I tell what wvas fit for foodl, andi wha1t
not. At my coming backr, I shot at a great bird, which I
saw sitting upon a tree on thle sid~e of a great wood, I
believe it wvas thle first grun that hadc been fired there since
the creation of the worlld. I had no sooner fired, but fromt


all parts of the wood there arose an inlnumerable number
o~f fowls of many sorts, making a confused screaming, and
crying every one according to his usual note; but not one
of them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I
killed, I took it to be a kind of hawk, its color and beak
resembling it, but hand no talons or claws more than com-
mlon; its flesh was carrion and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft,
and fell to work to bring mly cargo on1 shore, which took
me up the rest of that day. What to do w~ith~ myself at
nigrht I knew not, nor indeed did I know where to rest;
for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing
but some wild beast might devour me, though, as I after-
watrds foundl, there waLs really no need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricadedl myself round
w-ith thle chests and boards that I had brought on shore,
and made a kind of a. but for that night's lodging. As
for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself,
except that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares,
run out of thle wood where I shot the bird.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great
many thlingrs out of the ship which would be useful to me,
and particularly some of the rigging and sails, and such
other thlings as might come to land, and I resolved to
make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible. As I
knlew that the first storm that blew must necessarily break
her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart
till I got everything out of the ship that I could get.
Then I called a council, that is to say~, in my thoughts,
whether I should take back the raft. But this appeared
impracticable; so I resolved to go as before, when the tide
was down. I did so, only that I stripped before I went


from my hut, having nothing on but a checkered shirt,
and a pair of linen trousers, and a pair of pumps on my
I got on board the ship, as before, and prepared a seo-
o~nd raft. Having had experience of the first, I neither
made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard; but yet
I brought away several things very useful to me. In the
carpenter's stores, I found two or three bags full of nails
and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets,
and, above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone.
All these I secured, together with several things belong-
ing to the gunner, particularly two or three iron crows,
and two barrels of musket-bullets, seven muskets, and
another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of pow-
der more, a large bag full of small shot, and a great roll
of sheet lead. This last was so heavy, I could not hoist
it up to get it over the ship's side. Besides these things,
I took all the men's clothes that I could find, and a spare
foretop-sail, hammocki, and some bedding. With this I
loaded my second raft, and brought all safe on shore, to
my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions during my absence
from the land, that, at least, my provisions might be
devoured on shore. But, when I came back, I found no
sign of any visitor, only there sat a creature like a wild
cat upon one of the chests, which, when I came towards
it, ran away a little distance, and then stood stil. She
sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full in
my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me.
I presented my gun at her, but, as she did not understand
it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer
to stir away. I tossed her a bit qf biscuit; though, by the

way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not great.
However, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it,
smelled it, ate it, and looked as pleased for more; but I
thanked her, and could spare no more, so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore, though I was
fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by
parcels (for they were too heavy, being large casks), I
went to work to make me a little tent with the sail and
some poles which I cut for that purpose. Into this tent
I brought everything that I knew would spoil, either with
rain or sun, and I piled all the empty' chests and casks up
in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden
attempt, either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the
tent with some boards within, and an empty chest set
up on end without. Spreading one of the beds on the
ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my
gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first time,
and slept very quietly all night, being very weary; for
the night before I had slept little, and had labored very
hard all day, as well to fetch all those things from the
ship as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds, now, that ever
was laid up, I believe, for one* man, but I was not satis-
fled still; for, while the ship sat upright in that posture,
I thought I ought to get everything out of her that I
could. So every day at low water I went on board, and
brought away something or other. The third time I
went, I brought away as much of the rigging as I could,
as, also, all the small ropes and rope twine I could get,
with a piece of spare canvawt hc omn h
sais uon ccaion an barrel of wet gunpowder.



In a word, I brought away all the sails, first and last,
only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as
much at a time as I could; for they were no more useful
to be sails, but as mere canvas only.
But that which comforted mle more still, was that, last
of all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these,
and thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship
that was worth my meddling with, I say, after all this, I
found a great hogrshead of bread, and three large runlets 1 of
rum or spirits, and a bsox of sugar, and a barrel of fine
flour. This was surprisilgr to me, because I had given
over expecting any more provisions, except what was
spoiled by thle water. I soon emptied the hogshead of
that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces
of the sails which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this
safe on shore also.
The next dlay I made another voyage. Having plun-
deredd the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out,
I began with the cables. Cutting the great cable into
pieces such as I could move, I got two cables and a
hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could get; and
having cut dlown the spritsail-yard, and the mizzen-yard,
and everything I could to make a large raft, I loaded it
with all those heavy goods and came away. But my
good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so
unwieldy and so overladen, that after I had entered the
little cove where I had landed the rest of my goods, not
being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it
overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the~ water.
As for myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the
shore; but, as to my cargo, it was great part of it lost,
i Small ca\sks.


especially the iron, which I expected would have been of
great use to me. However, when the tide was out, I got
most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron,
though with infinite labor; for I was fain to dip for it
into the water a work which fatigued me very much.
After this, I went every day on board, and brought away
what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been
eleven times on board the ship, in which time I had
brought away all that one pair of hands could be well
supposed capable to bring; though I believe verily, had
the calm weather held, I should have brought away the
whole ship, piece by piece. But, preparing the twelfth
time to go on board, I found the wind begin to rise.
H-owever, at low water I went on board, and, though I
thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually that
nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker
wvith drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three
razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a
dozen of good knives and forks. In another I found
about thirty-six pounds value in money, some European
coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, some
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. O
Drug !" said I, aloud, what art thou good for ? Thou
art not worth to me, no, not the taking off the ground.~
One of these knives is worth all this heap. I have no
manner of use for thee. Remain where thou art, and go
to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth say-
ing." However, upon second thoughts, I took it away,
and wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I began to
think of making another raft. But, while I was preparing


this, I foundc the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise,
and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the
shore. It presently occurred to me, that it was in vain
to pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore, and
that it was my business to be gone before the tide of flood
began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at
all. Accordingly, I let myself down into the water, and
swam across the channel, which lay between the ship and
the sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly
with the weight of things I had about me, and partly the
roughness of the water; for the wind rose very hastily,
and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.
But I wa~s gotten home to my little tent, where I lay
with all my wealth about me very secure. It blew very
hard all that night, and in the morning when I looked
out, behold, no more ship was to be seen. I was a little
surprised, but recovered myself with this satisfactory re-
flection; namely, that I had lost no time, nor abated any
diligence, to get everything out of her that could be use-
ful to me; and that, indeed, there was little left in her
that I was able to brings away, if I had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of
anything out of her, except what might drive on shore
from her wreck, as indeed divers pieces of her afterwards
did; but those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about secur-
ing myself against either savages (if any should appear)
or wild beasts, if any wvere in the island. I had many
thoughts of the method how to do this, and what kind of
dwelling to make; whether I should make me a cave in
the earth or a tent upon the earth. I resolved upon both,
of the manner and description of which it may not be
improper to give an account.


I soon found the place I was in was not for my settle-
ment, particularly because it was upon a low moorish
ground near the sea, and I believed would not be whole-
some, and more particularly because there was no fresh
water near it; so I resolved to find a more healthy and
more convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation which I
found would be proper for me. Health and fresh water,
I just now mentioned; shelter from the heat of the sun;
security from ravenous creatures, whether man or beast;
a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I
might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of
which I was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little
plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this
little plain was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could
come down upon me from the top. On the side of this
rock there was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like
the entrance or door of a cave; but there was not really
any cave or way into the rook at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place,
I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above an
hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay
like a green before my door. At the end it descended
irregularly every way down into the low grounds by the
sea-side. It was on the N. N. WT. side of the hill, so that
I was sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a
W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which in those countries
is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-
diameter, from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter,
from its beginning and ending.


In this half circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into th~e ground till they stood very firm,
lik~e piles, the biggest end being out of the ground about
five feet andl a half, and shar~pened on the top. The two
row\s did not stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took thle pieces of cable which I had cut in the
ship,, and laid thlem inl rows one upon another, within the
circle between these two row-s of stakies, up to the top,
placing other stakecs in the inside, leaning against them,
about two feet and a half hligrh, like a spur to a post.
This fence was so strong, that neither man nor beast
could get into it or over it. This cost me a great deal
of time and labor, especially to cu~t the piles inl the woods,
brings theml to- the place, andi driv-e them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a
door, but by a short aladder to go over the top. When
I was inl, I liftedl the nladder over after me. So I was com-
pletely fenlced inl andt for~tifie~, as I thloughlt, fr~om all the
world, anld conlsequlenltly sleptD secure in thle night, which
othcrw-ise I could not hanve done; though, as it appeared
afterwardl, thcre was nlo need of all this caution from the
enemies that I aIpprehlended clanger from.
Inlto this fenlce or fortress, w-ithl infinite labor, I carried
all my- richels, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores,
of whlichl yo(u ha;ve the account above. I made me a large
tent, wh-lichl, to preserve mue from the rains, that in one
part of thle year are very violent there, I made double;
namely, one smaller tent wvithlin, and one larger tent-
above it, and covered thle uppermost wTith a large tatrpau-
lin l which I hard saved amongr the sails;-
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which
IA piece of canvas covered with tar to makre it water-proof.


I had brought on shore, but inl a hammock, which was
indeed a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the
Into this tent I brought all my provisions and every-
thing that would spoil by the wet. Having thus enclosed
all my goods, I made up the entrance, which till now I
ha;d left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said,
by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work mly way into
the rock; and bringing all the earth and stones that I
dug out through my tent, I laid them up within my fence
in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground
within about a foot and a half. Thus I made me a cave
just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my
It cost me much labor, and many days, before all these
thling~s were brought to perfection, and therefore I must
go0 back to some other things which took up some of my
thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid
mny scheme for setting up my tent and making the cave,
that, a storm of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a
sudden flash of lightning happened, and after that a great
clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not
so much surprised with the lightning, as I was with a
thought which darted into my mnindl as swift as the light-
ning itself : "O my powder!" My very heart sunk within
me, when I thought that at one blast all my powder might
be destroyed; on which, not my defence only, but the
providing me with food, as I thought, entirely depended.
I was nothing near so anxious about my own danger;
though, had the powder taken fire, I had never known
what had hurt me.


Such impression did this make upon me, that after the
storm was over I laid aside all my works, my building,
and fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes
to separate the powder, and keep it a little and a little
in a parcel, in hope that whatever might come, it might
not all take fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that it
should not be possible to make one part fire another. I
finished this wTor~k in about a fortnight; and I think my
powder, which in all was about two hundred and forty
pounds' weight, was divided in not less than a hundred
parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not ap-
prehend any danger from that, so I placed it in my new
cave, which in my fancy I called my kitchen. The rest I
hid up and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet
might come to it, marking vei-y carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out
once, at least, every day wYith my gun, as well to divert
myself, as to see if I could kill anything fit for food, and,
as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the
island produced. The first time I went out, I presently
discovered that there were goats in the island, which was
a great satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with
this misfortune to me, namely, that they were so shy, so
subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult
thing in the world to come at them. B3ut I was not dis-
couraged at this, not doubting but I might now and then
shoot one, as it soon happened; for, after I had found
their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for them:
I observed, if they saw me in the valleys, though they
were upon the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible
fright; but, if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was
upon the rocks, they took no notice of me. From this


I concluded that, by the position of their optics, their
sight was so directed downward, that they did not readily
see objects that were above them. So afterwards I took
this method: I always climbed the rooks first, to get
above them, and then I had frequently a fair mark. The
first shot I made among these creatures I killed a she
goat. This grieved me heartily, because she had a little
kid by her, to which she gave suck. But when the old one
fell, the kid stood stockstill by her till I came and took
her up. When I carried the old one with me upon my
shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure.
I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms and
carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up
tame; but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it and
eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great
while, for I ate sparingly, and saved my provisions (my
bread especially) as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel
to burn. What I did for that, as, also, how I enlarged
my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a
full account of in its place; but I must first give some
little account of myself, and of my thoughts about living,
which, it may well be supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for, as I was
not cast away upon that island without being driven, as
is said, by a violent storm quite out of the course of our
intended voyage, and a great way, some hundreds of
leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of man-
kind, I had great reason to consider it as a determination
of Heaven that, in this desolate place and in this desolate
manner, I should end my life. The tears would run


plentifully down my face when I made these reflections,
and sometimes I would expostulate with myself, why
Providence should thus completely ruin his creatures,
and render them so absolutely miserable, so without help,
abandoned, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be
rational to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to checks
these thoughts and reprove me. One day, walking with
my gun in my hand by the seaside, I was very pensive upon
the subject of my present condition, when reason, as it
were, expostulated with me the other way, thus: Well,
you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but pray
remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you come
eleven of you into the boat ? Where are the ten ? Why
were they not saved and you lost ? Why were you sin-
gled out ? Is it better to be here or there ?" and then
I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered with
the good that is in them, and with what worse attends
Then it occurred to me again how well I was furnished
for my subsistence, and what would have been my case
if the ship had not floated from the place where she first
struck, so near the shore that I had time to get all these
things out of her ? What would have been my case if I
hlad been obliged to live in the condition in which I first
came on shore, without necessaries of life, or necessaries
to supply and procure them? "Particularly," said I aloud
(though to myself), what should I have done without a
gun, without ammunition, without anly tools to make any-
thing, or to work with;j without clothes, bedding, a tent,
or any manner of covering?" Ifow I had all these to a
sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide

rr~-.JCu ri~i~u~..YY YI~~---

or RoBIntsoN CaUsoE. 61

myself in such a manner, as to live without my gun when
my ammunition was spent, so that I had a tolerable view
of subsisting without any want, as long as I lived. For
I considered from the beginning how I should provide for
the accidents that might happen, and for the tinie that
was to come, even not only after my ammunition should
be spent, but even after my health or strength should



AND now, being about to enter into a melancholy rela-
tion of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was
never heard of in the world before, I shall take it from its
beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my ac-
count, the 30th of September, when, in the manner as above
said, I first set foot upon this horrid island, when the sun
being to us, in its autumnal equinlox, was almost just over
my head; for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in
the latitude of 9 degrees and 22 minutes north of the line.
After I had been there about tenl or twelve days, it
came into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning
of time for want of books and pen and ink, and should
even forget the sabbath days from the working days. To
prevent this, I cut it with my knife upon a large post in
capital letters, and making it into a great cross, I set it
up on the shore where I first landed; namely, I CAME ON
SHORE HERE ON TH~E 30TH or SEPT., 1659. Upon the
sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with my
knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the
rest, and every first day of the month as long again as
that long one. Thus I kept my calendar, or weekly,
monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place, we are to observe, that, among the
many things which I brought out of the ship in the several
voyages, which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got


several ~things of less value, but not all less useful to me,
which I omitted setting down before; as, in particular,
pens, ink, and paperl; several parcels in the captain's,
mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keeping; three or four
compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials, perspeo-
tive glasses, charts, and books of navigation; all which I
huddled together, whether I might want them or no. I
found, also, three very good Bibles which came to me in
my cargo from England, and which I had packed up
among my things; some Portuguese books also, and among
them two or three prayer-books, and several other books,
all which I carefully secured. I must not forget, that
we had inl the ship a dog and two cats, of whose eminent
history I may have occasion to say something in its place;
for I carried both the cats with me. As for the dog, he
jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam on shore to
me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and
was a trusty servant to me many years. I wanted nothing
that he could fetch me, or any company that he could
make up to me; I only wanted to have him talk to me,
but that he could not do. As I observed before, I found
pen, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost.
I shall show, that while my ink lasted, I kept things very
exact; but after that was gone I could not, for I could
not make any ink, by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things,
notwithstanding all that I had amassed together; and of
these, this of ink was one, as also spade, pickaxe, and
shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and
thread. As for linen? I soon learned to want that with-
out much difficulty.
1 He had very little need of linen, and so was easily reconciled to
the loss of it.


This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily,
and it was nearly a whole year before I had entirely fin-
ished my little pale or surrounded habitation. The piles
or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were
a long time inl cutting and preparing in the woods, and
more by far in bringing home. I spent, sometimes, two
days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and
a th~irdi day in driving it into the ground.
But why need I have been concerned at the tediousness
of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do
it inl? nor had I any other employment if that had been
over, at least that I could foresee, except ranging the
island to seek for food, which I did more or less every day.
I have already described my habitation, which was a
tent under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong
pale of posts and cables. I might now rather call it a
wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs,
about two feet thick on the outside, and, after some time,
I think it was a year and a half, I raised rafters from it,
leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs
of trees, and such things as I could get to keep out the
rain, which I found at some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods
into this pale, and into the cave which I had made behind
me; but I must observe, too, that at first this was a con-
fused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order, took
up all my place, and I had no room to turn myself. So
I set to work to enlarge my cave and work farther into
the earth; for it was a loose, sandy rock, which yielded
easily to the labor I bestowed on it. When I found I
was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways to
the right hand into the rook; and then, turning to the


right again, worked quite out, and made me a door to
come out, on the outside of my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were,
a back way to my tent and to my store-house, but gave
me room to stow my goods.
And now I begari to apply myself to make such neces-
sary things as I found I most wanted, as, particularly, a
chair and a table; for, without these, I was not able to
enjoy the few comforts I had in the world. I could not.
write or eat, or do several things with so much pleasure
without a table.
So I went to work; and here I must needs observe,
that, as reason is the substance and original of the mathe-
matics, so, by stating and squaring everything by reason,
and by making the most rational judgment of things,
every man may be, in time, master of every mechanic art.
I had never handled a tool in my life, and yet, in time,
by labor, application, and contrivance, I found that I
wanted nothing but I could have made it, especially if I
had had tools. However, I made abundance of things,
even without tools, and some with no more tools than an
adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made that
way before, and that with infinite labor. For example, if
I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a
tree, set it on a hedge before me, and hew it flat on either
side with mly axe, til I had brought it to be as thin as a
plank, and then smcoth it with my adze. It is true, by
this method I could make but one board out of a whole
tree; but this I had no remedy for but patience, any
more than I had for the prodigious deal of time and labor
which it took me to make a plank or board. But my
time or labor was little worth, and so it was as well
employed one way as another.


low-ever, I made me a table and a chair, and this I did
out of the short pieces of boards which I brought on my
raft from t-he ship. When I had wrought out some boards,
as above, I made large shelves, of the breadth of a foot
and a half, o~ne over another, all along one side of my
cave, on whlichI to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work,
and, in a word, to separate everything at large in their
places, that I might come easily at them. I knocked
pieces into the wall of the rock, to hang my guns and all
things that w-ouldl hang up.
So that had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a
general magazine of all necessary things. I had every-
thing so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to
me to see all any goods inl such order, and especially to
find mly stock of all necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every
day's employment; for, indeed, at first I was in too much
hurry, and nlot only hurry as to labor, but in too much
dliscomposure of mind, and my journal would have been
full of many dull things.
I shall here give you the copy (though in it will be told
many particulars over again) as long as it lasted; for,
having no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.


S~eptember 30, 1659. I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm in the offing,
camve on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which
I called the Island of Despair, all the rest of the ship's
company beings drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself, at


the dismal circumstances I was brought to; namely, I had
neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to,
and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before
me, either that I should be devoured by wild beasts,
murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of food.
At the approach of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild
creatures, but slept soundly, though it rained all night.
October 1. In the morning I saw, to my great surprise,
the ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven
on shore again much nearer the island. This was some
comfort; for, seeing her sit upright, and not broken to
pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board,
and get some food or necessaries out of her for my relief.
On the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my
comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on board,
might have saved the ship, or at least that they would not
have been all drowned, as they were; and that, had the
men been saved, we might, perhaps, have built us a boat
out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us to some
other part of the world. I spent great part of this day
in perplexing myself on these things; but, at length, seeing
the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I
could, and then swam on board. This day, also, it con-
tinued raining, though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days
entirely spent in making several voyages to get all I could
out of the ship, which I brought on shore, every tide of
flood, upon rafts. Much rain also in these days, though
with some intervals of fair weather. It seems this was
the rainy season.
Oct. 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got
upon it; but, being in shoal water, and the things being


chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide
was out.
Oct. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some
gusts of wind, during which time the ship broke in pieces,
and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and
that onlly at low water. I spent this day in covering and
securing the goods which I had saved, that the rain might
nlot spoil theml.
Oct. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day, to
find out a place to fix mny habitation, greatly concerned to
secure myself fromn any aLttack in the night, either from
wild beasts or men. Towrardl night I fixed upon a proper
place under a, rooki, and mar~ked out a semicircle for my
encampin"ent, which I resolvedl to strengthen with a, work,
wall, or fortification mnade of double piles, lined within
with cables and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carry-
ing all my goods to my new habitation, though some part
of the time it rained exceeding hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island
with my gun, to seek for some food, and discover the
country, when I killed a shre-goat, and her kid followed
me home; which I afterward killed also because it would
not feed.
November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay
there for the first night, making it as large as I could with
stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2. I set up all mjr chests and boards, and the
pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with them
formed a fence round me, a little within the place I had
marked out for my fortification.
Nov. 3. I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls



like ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon
went to work to make me a table.
Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times of
work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time
of diversion. Every morning I walked out with my gun
for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then employed
myself to work till about eleven o'clock; then ate what I
had to live on, and from twelve to two I lay down to
sleep, the weather being excessive hot; and then, in the
evening, to work again. The working part of this day,
and of the next, was wholly employed in making my
table; for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though
time and necessity made me a complete natural mechanic
soon after, as I believe it would do any one else.
Nov. 5. This day went abroad with my gun and my
dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her
flesh good for nothing. Every creature I killed I took off
the skins and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-
shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not
understand; but was surprised and almost frightened with
two or three seals, which, while I was gazing, not well
knowing what they were, got into the sea, and escaped me
for that time.
Nov. 6. After my morning walk I went to work with
my table again, and finished it, though not to my liking;
nor was it long before I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled, fair weather. The
7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and a part of the 12th (for the 11th
was Sunday), I took wholly up to make me a chair, and
with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but never
to please me; and even in the making I pulled it in pieces
several times. Note.--I soon neglected my keeping Sun-


days; for, o~mittinlg mly mark for them on my post, I forgot
which was which.
Nov. 13. This dayg it rained, which refreshed me ex-
ceedingly, and cooled the earthl; but it was accompanied
with terrible thlundier and lightning, which frightened me
dlreadfully for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over,
I resolved to separate my stock of powder into as many
little parcels as possible, that it light not be in danger.
Nov.14,15,16.These three days I spent in making
little square chests or boxes, which might hold about a
pound or two pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting
the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote
from one another as possible. On one of these three days
I killed a large birdc that was good to eat, but I know not
what to call it.
Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent into
the rock, to mlake room fo~r muy farther conveniency.
Note.--Three things I wanted exceeding for this workr;
namely, a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow or basket;
so I diesisted fromt my work, and began to consider how to
supply that want, and make me some tools. As for a
pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows, which were proper
enough, though hleavy; but the next thing was a shovel
or spade. This was so absolutely necessary, that, indeed,
I could do nothing without it; but what kind of one to
make I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I
found a tree of that wood, or like it, which in the Brazils
they call the iron tree, for its exceeding hardness. Of
this, with great labor and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a
piece and brought it home too with dif~culty enough, for
it was exceeding heavy.


The excessive hardness of the wood made me a long
while upon this machine; for I worked it effectually by
little and little into the form of a shovel or spade, the
handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the
broad part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would
not last me so long. However, it served well enough for
the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but never was
a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so long in
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheel-
barrow. A basket I could not make by any means, hav-
ing no such things as twigs that would bend to make
wicker ware, at least none yet found out; and as to a
wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel,
but that I had no notion of, neither did I know how to go
about it; besides, I had no possible way to make the iron
gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in, so
I gave it over. For carrying away the earth which I dug
out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod, which the
laborers carry mortar in, when they serve the bricklayers.
This was not so difficult to me as the making the
shovel; and yet this, and the shovel, and the attempt
which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up
no less than four days; I mean always excepting my morn-
ing walk with my gun, which I seldom failed; and very
seldom failed, also, bringing home something to eat.
Nov. 23. My other work having now stood still be-
cause of my making these tools, when they were finished,
I went on, and working every day, as my strength and
time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening
and deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods


Note. During all this time, I worked to make this
room or cave spacious enough to accommodate me as a
warehouse or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a
cellar; as for my lodging, I kept to the tent, except that
sometimes in the wet season of the year it rained so hard
that I could not keep myself dry, which caused me after-
wards to cover all my place within my pale with long
poles in the form of rafters, leaning against the rook, and
load them with flags and large leaves of trees like a
December 10. I began now to think my cave or vault
finished; when, on a sudden (it seems I had made it too
large), a great quantity of earth fell down from the top
and one side, so much, that, in short, it frightened me, and
not without reason, too; for, if I had been under it, I had
never wanted a. grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had
a great deal of work to do over again; for, I had the loose
earth to carry out, and, which was of more importance, I
had thle ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no
more would come down.
Dec. 11. This dayr I went to work with it accordingly,
and got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with
two pieces of boards across over each post. This I fin-
ished the next day, and setting more posts up with boards,
in about a week more I had the roof secured. The posts,
standing in rows, served me for partitions to part off my
Dec. 17. From this day to the twentieth I placed shelves,
and knocked up nails on the posts to hang everything up
that could be hung up; and now I began to be in some
order within doors.
Dec. 20. Now I carried everything into the cave, and


began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of
boards, like a, dresser, to order my victuals upon; but
boards began to be very scarce with me; also, I made me
another table.
Dec. 24. Much rain all light and all day; no stirring
Dec. 25. Rain all day.
Dec. 26. No rain; and the earth much cooler than
before, and pleasanter.
Dec. 27. Killed a young goat, and lamed another, so
that I caught it, and led it home by a string. When I
had it home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which was
broken. N.B. I took such care of it that it lived, and
the leg grew well and as strong as ever; but, by nursing
it so long, it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at
my door, and would not go away. This was the first time
that I entertained a thought of breeding up some tame
creatures, that I might have food when my powder and
shot was all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30. Great heats and no breeze, so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening for
food. This time I spent in putting all my things in order
within doors.
January 1. Very hot still, but I went abroad early and
late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day.
This evening, going farther into the valleys, which lay
towards the centre of the island, I found there was plenty
of goats, though exceeding shy and hard to come at;
however, I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to
hunt them down.
Jan. 2. Accordingly, the next day I went out with
my dog, and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken,


for they all faced about upon the dog; and he knew his
danger too well, for he would not come near them.
Ja~n. 3. I began my fence or wall; which, being still
jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to
make very thick and strong. ,
N; B. This wall beings described before, I purposely
omit what was said in the Journal. It is sufficient to
observe, that I was no less time than from the 3d of
January to the 14th of April, working, finishing, and per-
fectinlg this wall, though it was no more than about twen-
ty-four yards in length, being a half-circle from one place
in the rock to another place about eight yards from it, -
the door of thle cave being in the centre behind it.
All this timne I worked very hard, the rains hindering me
many days, nlay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought
I should never be perfectly secure until this wall was fin-
ished; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labor
everything was done with, especially the bringing piles
out of the woods, and driving them into the ground, for
I made them much bigger than I nleedl to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double
fence with a turf-wall raised up close to it, I persuaded
myself that if anly people were to come on shore there,
they would not perceive anything like a habitation; and
it was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter
upon a very remarkable occasion.
During this nmae I made my rounds in the woods for
game every day, when the rain permitted me, and made
frequent disco series in these walks of something or other
to my advantage. Particularly I found a kind of wild
pigeons, who built, not as wood pigeons, in a tree, but
rather as house pigeons, in the holes of the rocks. Taking


some young ones, I endeavored to bjreed them up tame,
and did so; but, when they grew older, they flew away,
which, perhaps, was at first from want of feeding them,
for I had nothing to give them. However, I frequently
found their nests, and got their young ones, which were
very good meat.
And now, in managing my household affairs, I found
myself wanting in many things, which I thought at first it
was impossible for me to make, as indeed, as to some of
them, it was; for instance, I could never make a cas~k to
be hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I observed
before, but I could never arrive to the capacity of making
one by them, though I spent many weeks about it. I could
neither put in the heads, or joint the staves so true to one
another as to make them hold water, so I gave that also
In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so
that as soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by
seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered
the lump of bee's-wax with which I made candles in my
African adventure, but I had none of that now. The only
remedy I had was, that when I killed a goat I saved the
tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which I baked
in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I
made me a lamp. This gave me light, though not a clear,
steady light like a candle. In the middle of all my labors,
it happened that, rummaging my things, I found a little
bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn
for the feeding of poultry, not for this voyage, but before,
as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon. WC~hat
little remainder of corn had been in the bag was all
devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but


husks and dust. Being willing to havce the bag for some
other use (I think it was to put powder in, when I divided
it for fear of lightning, or some such use), I shook the
husks of corn out of it on one side of my fortification
under thle rock.
It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned,
that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of anything,
and not so much as remembering that I had thrown any-
thing there. About a month after, or thereabouts, I saw
some few stalks of something green shooting out of the
ground, whlich I fancied mlig~ht be some plant I had not
seen; but I was surprised and perfectly astonished, when,
after a little longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears
c~ome out, which were perfect green barley of the same
kind as our European, nay, as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confu-
sion of m~yT thloughrts on this occasionl. I had hitherto
aIctedl uponl no religious foundaltionl at all; indeed, I had
very few nlotionls of religion in my head, or had enter-
tained anly sense of anything that had befallen me, other-
wise than as a chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases
Grod, without so mnuch as inquiring into the end of Provi-
dencee inl these things, or his order in governing events inl
the world; but after I saw barley grow there in a climate
which I knew was not proper for corn, and especially that
I knew nlot howm it came there, it startled me strangely ;
andc I began to suggest that God had miraculously caused
this grain to grow without any .help of seed sown, and
that it w~as so directed purely for my sustenance on that
wild, miserable place.
This touchledl my heart a little, and brought tears out of
mly eyes; and I began to bless myself, that such ai prodigy


of nature should happen upon my account. This was the
more strange to me, because I saw near it still, all along
by the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which
proved to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I
had seen it grow in Africa, when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Provi-
dence for my support, but not doubting but that there was
more in the place, I went all over that part of the island,
where I had been before, peeping in every corner and
under every rock to see for more of it, but I could not find
any. At last it occurred to my thought, that I had shook
a bag of chicken's meat out in that place, and then the
wonder began to cease. And I must confess, my religious
thankfulness to God's providence began to abate too, upon
discovering that all this was nothing but what was com-
mon; though I ought to have been as thankful for so
strange and unforeseen a providence as if it had been mira-
culous. For it was really the work of Providence as to me,
that should order or appoint ten or twelve grains of corn
to remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the
rest, as if it had been dropped from heaven; as also, that
I should throw it out in that particular place, where, it
being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up immedi-
ately; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else at that
time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure,
in their season, which was about the end of June, and lay-
ing up every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hop-
ing in time to have some quantity sufficient to supply me
with bread. It was not till the fourth year that I could
allow myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even
then but sparingly, as I shall say afterwards in its order.


I lost all that I sowed the first season, by not observing
the proper time; for I sowed it just before the dry season,
so that it never came up at all, at least, not as it would
hanve done: of which in its place.
Besides the barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty
stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care, and
whose use wats of the same kind or to the same purpose;
namely, to make me bread, or rather food; for I found
ways to cook it up without baking, though I did that also
after some time. But to return to my Journal.
I worked excessively hard these three or four months to
get my wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up,
contriving to go into it, not by a door, but over the wall
by a ladder, that there might be no sign in the outside
of my habitation.



APRIL 16. I finished the ladder, so I went up with the
ladder to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and
let it down on the inside. This was a complete inclosure
to me; for within I had room enough, and nothing
could come at me from without, unless it could first
mount my wall.
The very next dayr after this wall was finished, I had
almost had all my labor overthrown at once, and myself
kmled. The case was thus. As I was busy in the inside
of it, behind my tent, just in the entrance into my cave,
I was terribly frightened with a most surprising thing;
for, on a sudden, I found the earth come crumbling
down from the roof of my cave, and from the edge
of the hill, over my head, and two of the posts I had
set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I
was heartily scared, but thought nothing of whrt~ was
really the cause, only thinking that the top of my cave
was falling in, as some of it had done before; and, for fear
I should be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder. Not
thinking myself safe there either, I got over my wall for
fear of the pieces of the hill which I expected might roll
down upon me. I was no sooner stepped down upon the
firm ground, but I plainly saw it was a terrible earth-
quake, for the ground I stood on shook three times at
about eight minutes' distance, with three such shocks as
would have overturned the strongest building that could


be supposed to have stood on the earth. A great "iece
of the top of a rock, which stood about half a mile from
me, next the sea, fell down with such a terrible noise as I
never heard in all my life. I perceived also the very sea
was put into violent motion by it; and I believe the
shocks were stronger under the water than on the island.
I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt
the like, or discoursed with any one that had, that I was
like one dead or stupefied; and the motion of the earth
made my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea.
B3ut the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, as it
were, and rousing me from the stupefied condition I was
in, filled me with horror. I thought of nothing then
but the hill falling upon my tent, and all my household
goods, and burying all at once; and this sunk my very
soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for
some time, I began to take courage, and yet I had not
heart enough~ to get over my wall again, for fear of being
buried alive; but sat still upon the ground, greatly cast
down and disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All
this while I had not the least serious religious thought, -
nothing but the common, Lord, have mercy upon me ";
and when it was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grown
cloudy, as if it would rain. Soon after that the wind rose
by little and little, so that in less than half an hour it
blew a most dreadful hurricane. The sea was all on a
sudden covered over with foam and froth; the shore was
covered with the breach of the water; the trees were torn
up by the roots, and a terrible storm it was. This held
about three hours, and then began to abate; and in two
hours more it was stark calm, and began to rain very hard.


All this while I sat upon the ground very much~ terri-
fled and dejected, when, on a sudden, it came into my
thoughts, that these winds and rain being the consequences
of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and
over, and I might venture into my cave again. With this
thought my spirits began to revive, and the rain also
helping to persuade me, I went in and sat down in my
tent; but the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready
to be beaten down with it, and I was forced to go into my
cave, though very much afraid and uneasy for fear it
should fall on my head.
This violent rain forced me to a new work, namely, to
cut a hole through my new fortification like a sink to let
water go out, which would else have drowned my cave.
After I had been in my cave some time, and found still no
more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be more
It continued raining all that night, and a great part of
the next day, so that I could not stir abroad. But my mind
being more composed, I began to think of what I had best
do, concluding, that if the island was subject to these
earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a cave,
but I must consider of building me some little hut in an
open place, which I might surround with a wall as I had
done here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts or
men. If I stayed where I was, I concluded, I abould cer-
tainly, one time or other, be buried alive.
With these thoughts I resolved to remove my ~tent from
the place where it stood, which was just under the hang-
ing precipice of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken
again, would certainly fall upon my tent. Anld I spent
the next two days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in
contriving where and how to remove my habitation.


The fear of being swallowed up alive, prevented me
from sleeping in quiet; and yet the apprehension of lying
abroad, without any fence, was almost equal to it. Still,
when I looked about and saw how everything was put in
order, how p~leasantly concealed I was, and how safe from
danger, it made me very loth to remove.
In the meantime, it occurred to me that it would re-
quire a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I must
be contented to run the venture where I was, til I had
formed a camp for myself, and had secured it so as to re-
move to it. WIith this resolution I composed myself for a
time, and resolved that I would go to work with all speed
to build me a wall with piles and cables, in a circle as be-
fore, and set my tent up in it when it was finished; but
that I would venture to stay where I was till it was fin-
ished and fit to remove to. This was the 21st.
April 22. The next morning I began to consider of
means to put this resolve in execution; but I was at a
great loss about my tools. I had three large axes and
abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for
traffic with the Indians), but with much chopping and
cutting knotty hard wood, they were full of notches and
dull; and, though I had a grindstone, I could not turn it
anld grind my tooltooo. This cost me as much thought
as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point
of politics, or a judge upon the life and death of a man.
At length, I contrived a wheel with a string, to turn it with
my foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty. I
had never seen any such thing in England, or at least not
to take notice how it was done, though since, I have ob-
served, it is very common there; besides that, my grind-
stone was very large and heavy. This machine cost me a
full week's work to bring'it to perfection.


April 28, 29. These two whole days I took up in grindl-
ing my tools, my machine for turning my grindstone per-
forming very well.
April 30. Having perceived my bread had been low a
great while, now I took a survey of it, and reduced my-
self to one biscuit eake a day, which made my heart very
M~ay 1. In the morning, looking towards the sea-side,
the tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore big-
ger than ordinary, and it looked like a cask. WVhen I came
to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the
wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by the late
hurricane. Looking towards the wreck itself, I thought
it seemed to lie higher out of the water than it used to do.
I examined the barrel which was driven on shore, and soon
found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken
water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone.
However, I rolled it farther on shore for the present, and
went on upon the sands as near as I could to the wreck of
the ship, to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely re-
moved. The forecastle, which lay~before buried in sand,
was heaved up at least six feet; and the stern, which was
broken to pieces and parted from the rest by the force of
the sea, soon after I had left rummaging her, was tossed
up, as itwere, and cast on one side. The sand was thrown
so high~ on that side next her stern, that, whereas there
was a great place of water before, so that I could not
come within a ~quarter of a mile of the wreck without
swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when the
tide was out. I was surprised with this at first, but soon
concluded it must ~be done by the earthquake. As by this


violence the ship was more broken open than formerly, so
many things came daily on shore, which the sea had
loosened, and which the winds and water rolled by de-
grees to the land.
This wholly diverted mly thoughts from the design of
removing my habitation. I busiedl myself mightily, that
day especially, in searching whether I could make any
way into the ship; but I found nothing was to be ex-
pected of that kind, for all the inside of the ship was
choked up with sand. However, as I had learnt not to
despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything to
pieces that I could of the ship, concluding that every-
thing I could get from her would be of some use or other
to me.
May 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or
quarter-deck together. When I had cut it through, I
cleared away the sand as well as I could from the side
which lay highest; but, the tide coming in, I was obliged
to give over for that time.
May 4. I went a fishing, but caught not one fish that I
durst eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just
going to leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made
me a long line of some rope yarn, but I had no hooks, yet
I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat;
all which I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.
May 5. Worked on the wreck. Cut another beam
asunder, and brought three great fir planks off from the
decks, which I tied together, and made swim on shore
when the tide of flood came on.
May 6. Worked on the wreek. Got several iron bolts
out of her, and other pieces of iron-work. Worked very


hard, and came home very much tired, and had thoughts
of giving it over.
May T. Went to the wreck again, but with an intent
not to work; but found the weight of the wreck hadl
broke itself down, the beams being out, that several pieces
of the ship seemed to lie loose. The inside of the hold
lay; so open that I could see into it; but it was almost full
of water and sand.
May 8. Went to the wreek, and carried an iron crow
to wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the
water or sand. I wrenched open two planks, and brought
them on shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in
the wreck for next day.
May 9. Went to the wreck, and with the crow made
way into the body of the wreck, and felt several casks,
and loosened them with the crow, but could not break
them up. I felt, also, the roll of English lead, and could
stir it; but it was too heavy to remove.
May 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. Went every day to the wreck,
and got a great many pieces of timber, and boards or
plank, and two or three hundred weight of iron.
May 15. I carried two hatchets to try if I could not
cut a piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one
hatchet, and driving it with the other; but, as it lay about
a foot and a half in the water, I could not make any blow
to drive the hatchet.
May 16. It had blowed hard in the night, and the
wreck appeared more broken by the force of the water;
but I staid so long in the woods to get pigeons for food,
that the tide prevented me going to the wreck that day.
11ay 17. I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on
abore, at a great distance, nearly two miles oft. I


resolved to see what they were, and found it was a piece
of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.
May 24. Every day to this day, I worked on the wreck,
and with hard labor I loosened some things so much with
the crow, that the first blowing tide several casks floated
out, and two of the seamen's chests. The wind blowing
from the shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces
of timber, and a, hogrsheadc, which had some Brazil pork in
it; but the salt water and sand had spoiled it.
I continued this work every day to the 15th of June,
except the time necessary to get food, which I always
appointed, during this part of my employment, to be when
the tide was up, that I might be ready when it was ebbed
out. By this time I had gotten timber, and plank, and
iron-work enough to have built a good boat, if I had
known how. I also got, at several times, and in several
pieces, near a hundred weight of thle sheet lead.
June 10. Going down to the sea-side, I found a large
tortoise or turtle. This was the first I had seen, which,
it seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect of the
place, or scarcity; for, had I happened to be on the other
side of thle island, I might have had hundreds of them
every day, as I found afterwards; but, perhaps, had paid
dear enough for them.
June 17. I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her
threescore eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that time,
the most savory and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life,
having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed
in this horrid place.
June 18. Rained all day, and I stayed within. I
thought at this time the rain felt cold, and I was some-
thing chilly, which I knew was not usual in that latitude.


Aune 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had
been cold.
Aune 20. No rest all night, violent pains in my head,
and feverish.
Aune 21. Very ill, frightened almost to death with the
apprehensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and no help.
Prayed to God for the first time since the storm off Hull,
but scarce knew what I said, or why, my thoughts being
all confused.
Aune 22. A little better, but under dreadful apprehen-
sions of sickness.
Aune 23. Very bad again, cold and shivering, and then
a violent headache.
Aune 24. Much better.
Aune 25. An ague, very violent. The fit held me
seven hours, cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it.
Aune 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat, took
my gun, but found myself very weak. However, I killed
a she-goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and
broiled some of it, and ate. I would fain have stewed it,
and made some broth, but had no pot.
Aune 27. The ague again so violent, that I lay abed all
day, and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for
thirst, but so weak I had not strength to stand up, or to
get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God again, but
was light-headed; and, when I was not, I was so ignorant
that I knew not what to say; only I lay and cried, Lord,
look upon me; Lord, pity me; Lord, have mercy upon
me." I suppose I did nothing else for two or three hours,
till, the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did nort wake till
far in the night. When I waked I found myself much
refreshed, but weak and exceedingly thirsty. However, as



I had no water in my whole habitation, I was forced to lie
till morning, and went to sleep again. In this second
sleep I had this terrible dream.
I thought that I was sitting on the ground on the out-
side of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the
earthquake, and that I saw a man descend from a great,
black cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and alight upon the
ground. He was all over as bright as a flame, so that I
could but just bear to look towards him. His counte-
nance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for words
to describe. When he stepped upon the ground with his
feet, I thought the earthly trembled, just as it had done
before in the earthquake, andi all the air looked to my
apprehension as if it had been filled with flashes of fire.
He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved
forward toward me, with at long spear or weapon in his
hand, to kill me. When he came to a rising ground, at
some distance, he spoke to me, or I heard a voice so terri-
ble that it is impossible to express the terror of it. All
that I can say3 I understood was this, Seeing all these
things have not brought thee to repentance, now thou
shalt die "; at which words I thought he lifted up the
spear that was in his hand to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account, will expect
that I should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at
this terrible vision. I mean, that even while it was a
dream, I even dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it any
more possible to describe the impression that remained
upon my mind, when I awaked, and found it was but a
June 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with the
sleep I had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up;

I r


and though the fright and terror of my dream was very
great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would
return again next day, and now was my time to get some-
thing to refresh and support myself when I should be ill.
The first thing I did, I filled a large square case-bottle
with water, and set it upon my table, in reach of my bed.
Then I got me a piece of the goat's flesh and broiled it on
the coals, but could eat very little. I walked about, but
was very weak, and, withal, very sad and heavy-hearted
under a sense of my miserable condition, dreading the
return of my distemper the next day. At night Imade my
supper of three of the turtle's eggs, which I roasted in the
ashes, and ate, as we call it, in the shell. This was the
first bit of meat I had ever asked God's blessing on, even,
as I could remember, in my whole life.
After I had eaten, I tried to walk; but found myself
so weak that I could hardly carry the gun (for I never
went out without that). So I went but a little way, and
sat down upon the ground, looking out upon the sea,
which was just before me, very calm and smooth.
I rose up pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat,
and went up over my wall, as if I had been going to bed.
But my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no incli-
nation to sleep; so I sat down in my chair, and lighted
my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehen-
sion of the return of my distemper terrified me very much,
it occurred to my thought, that the Brazilians take no
physic but their tobacco for almost all distemfpers; and I
had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests, which
was quite cured, and some also that was green, and not
quite oured.
I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt s for in this chest


I found a cure both for soul and body. I opened the
chest, and found what I looked for, namely, the tobacco;
and, as the few books `I hlad saved lay there too, I took out
one of the Bibles which I mentioned before, and which
to this time I had not found leisure, or so much as incli-
nation, to look into. I say I took it out, and brought
both that and the tobacco with me to the table.
What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my
distemper, or whether it was grood for it or no; but I tried
several exp~erimlents with it, as if I resolved it should hit
one way or other: I first took a piece of a leaf, and
chlewed it in my mouth, wh'lich, indeed, at first, almost
stupefied my brain, the tobacco being green and strong,
anld I ha~d not been used to it. Then I took some, and
steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and resolved to
takie a dose of it when I lay down; and lastly, I burnt
some upon a panl of coals, and held my nose close over
the smoke of it, as long as I could bear it, and I held
almost to suffocation.
In the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible,
and began to read; but my head was too much disturbed
with thle tobacco to bear r~eading, at least at that time.
Only hanvingr opened the book casually, the first words
that occurred to mle were these: Call on me in the day~
of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify
The words were very apt to my case, and made some
impression upon my thoughts at the time of reading them,
though not so much as they did afterwar~ds; for, as for
being delivered, the word had no sound, as I may say, to
me. The thing was so remote, so impossible, in my appre-
hension of things, that I began to say, as the children of


Israel did when they were promised flesh to eat, Can
God spread a table in the wilderness ?" so I began to say,
"( Can God himself deliver me from this place ?" And as
it was not for many years that any hope appeared, this
prevailed very often upon my thoughts. However, the
words made a very great impression upon me, and I
mused upon them very often. It grew, now, late, and
the tobacco had, as I said, dosed my head so much, that
I inclined to sleep. So I left my lamp burning in the
cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and went
to bed. But, before I lay down, I did what I never had
done in all my life; I kneeled down and prayed to God
to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called upon him in
the day of trouble, he would deliver me. After my
broken and imperfect prayer was over, I drank the rum
in which I had steeped the tobacco, which was so strong
and rank of the tobacco, that, indeed, I could scarce get
it down. Immediately upon this I went to bed, and I
found, presently, it flew up into my head violently; but I
fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more, till noon the
next day. Nay, to this hour, I am partly of the opinion
that I slept all the next day and night, and till almost
three the day after; for, otherwise, I know not how I
should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the
week, as it appeared some years after I had done. If I
had lost it by crossing and recrossing the line, I should
have lost more than one day. But certainly I lost a day
in my account and never knew which way.
Be that, however, one way or other, when I waked I
found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively
and cheerful. When I got up, I was stronger than I was
the day before, and my stomach better, for I was hungry.


I had no fit the next day, but continued muuch altered for
the better. This was the 29th.
The 30th was mly well day, of course; and I went
abroad with my gun, but dlid not care to travel too far.
I killed a sea-fowl or tw-o, something like a brand goose,
and brought th~eml home, but was not very forward to eat
them; so I ate somne more of thle turtle's eggs, which were
very good. This evening I renewed the medicine which
I had supposed dlidl me good the day before, namely, the
tobacco steep~ed inl rum; only I dlid not take so much as
before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head
over thle smoke. However, I was not so well the next
day, which was the first of July, as I hoped I should have
been; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was
not munch.
July 2. I renewed thle medicine all the three ways,
and closed myself with it at first, and doubled the quan-
tity which I drank.
July 3. I missed the fit for good and all, though I did
not recover mly full strenlgthl for some weeks after. While
I was thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceed-
ingly upon the scripture, I will deliver thee "; and the
impossibility of my deliveranlce lay much upon my mind,
in bar of my ever expecting it. B~ut, as I was discour-
agringr myself with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind-
that I poredi so muchl on mly dleliverance from the main af-
11iction, that I disregarded the deliverance I hlad received;
aInd I was, as it w~ere, madce to ask myself such questions
aIs these; namely, Ha1ve I not been delivered, and won-
dlerfully, too, from sickness? from the most distressed con1-
dition that could be, and that was so frightful to me ?
A~nd what notice hadl I taken of it ? Had I done my


part ? God had delivered me; but I had not glorified
him:' that is to say, I had not owned and been thankful
for that as a deliverance; and how could I expect greater
deliverance? "
This touched my heart very much; and immediately I
kneeled down and gave God thanks aloud for my recovery
from my sickness.
July 4. In the morning I took the Bible, and, begin-
ning at the New Testament, I began seriously to read it,
and imposed upon myself to read awhile every morning
and every night, not tying myself to the number of chap-
ters, but as long as my thoughts should engage me. It
was not long after I set seriously to this work, but I found
my heart more deeply and sincerely affected with the
wickedness of my past life.
Now I began to construe the words mentioned above,
" Call on me, and I will deliver thee," in a different sense
from what; I had ever done before; for then I had no no-
tion of anything being called deliverance, but my being
delivered from the captivity I was in. For, though I was
indeed at large inl the place, yet the island was certainly
a prison to me, and that in the worst sense in the world;
but now I learned to take it in another sense. Now I
looked back upon my past life with such horror, and my
sins appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of
God but deliverance from the load of guilt that bore down
all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was nothing;
I did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think
of it; it was all of no consideration in comparison of this.
And I add this part here, to hint to whoever shall read it,
that whenever they come to a true sense of things, they
will find deliverance from sin a much greater blessing than
deliveratnce from affliction.


But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal:--
My condition began now to be, though not less miser-
able as to my way of living, yet much easier to my mind.
My thoughts being directed, by a constant reading of the
scripture, and praying to God, to things of a higher nature,
I had a great deal of comfort within, which till now I k~newv
nothing of. Also, as my health and strength returned, I
bestirred myself to furnish myself with everything that I
wanted, and to make my way of living as regular as I could.
From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed
in walking about with a gun in my hand, a little and a lit-
tle at a time, as a man that was gathering up his strength
after a fit of sickness; for it is hardly to be imagined how
low I was, and to what weakness I was reduced. The ap-
plication which I made use of was perfectly new, and per-
haps what had never cured an ague before. Nor can I
recommend it to any one. Though it did carry off the fit,
yet it rather contributed to weaken me; for I had fre-
quent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time.
I learnt from it also this, in particular: that being abroad
in the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my
health that could be, especially in those rains which came
attended with storms and hurricanes ofwind. Fobr, as the
rain which came inl the dry season was always most ac-
companied with such storms, so I found this rain was much
more dangerous than the rain which fell in September and