Half Title
 Title Page
 Title Page
 The life and adventures of Robinson...
 The farther adventures of Robinson...

Group Title: Young folks' series
Title: The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073607/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Series Title: Young folks' series
Physical Description: xx, 555, <16> p., <15> leaves of plates : ill. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Dobson, Austin, 1840-1921
Stothard, Thomas, 1755-1834 ( Illustrator )
Heath, Charles, 1785-1848 ( Engraver )
D. Lothrop & Company ( Publisher )
Publisher: D. Lothrop and Co.
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: 1884
Copyright Date: 1884
Subject: Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Crusoe, Robinson (Fictitious character) -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1884   ( rbgenr )
Genre: fiction   ( marcgt )
Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston.\
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe ; with sixteen illustrations by Thomas Stothard, R.A.
Citation/Reference: Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
General Note: Spine and half-title: Robinson Crusoe; caption title, p. 289: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Introd. (p. <v>-xii) signed Austin Dobson.
General Note: Ill. engraved by C. Heath.
General Note: Series from verso of half-title p. and cover.
General Note: Contains reproduction of original t.p.: The life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York. Mariner ... Written by himself. London, Printed for W. Taylor, 1719.
General Note: Front. is included in the pre-paging.
General Note: Includes publisher's advertisements (<16> p.) at end.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073607
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 16836239
lccn - 22014561

Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Half Title
        Page i
        Page i-a
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    Title Page
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    Title Page
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        Page xx
    The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
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    The farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe
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Full Text


Emrig ~jolhs' edrits



Page a.









Copyright by



APREFACE to "Robinson Crusoe" has a certain air
of superfluity. The fame of the book is so well
established, and its popularity is so enduring, that
one is naturally reminded of the homely adage which warns
us that good wine needs no bush." Yet, although, in this
instance, criticism is unnecessary, and praise impertinent, it
is always profitable to remember from what source, and
under what conditions, a time-honored classic had its origin.
According to a depressing French epigram or rather a
French epigram that is depressing to middle-aged talent-
the man who has not succeeded before he is thirty is hope-
lessly doomed to failure. If success is to be measured by
greatest achievements only, and minor efforts are to count
for nothing, then Defoe is a striking instance of the fallacy
of this dictum. When "Robinson Crusoe" first appeared,
its author was in his fifty-eighth year, and already a volumi-
nous and very various writer. Mr. William Lee, his latest
and best biographer, whose labors have well-nigh made
further enquiry unnecessary, enumerates in his revised
catalogue of Defoe's works no less than one hundred and
ninety predecessors to this -his best-known book. Some
of these, it is true, are only pamphlets of two or three leaves,
but others are bulky volumes. The majority are on com-


mercial or political themes; but the list, taken as a whole,
and judged by the titles alone, affords an extraordinary idea
of the sleepless activity and unwearied versatility of the
author. It helps us, too, to comprehend from what wide
reserves of experience and what a vast magazine of facts he
drew the material for "Robinson Crusoe," and those less-
known fictions in fac simile of nature," which, during the
last decade of his life, followed so rapidly upon it. From
the first fugitive 4to sheet in double columns, to which in
1687 he had consigned his "Reflections on His Majesty's
Declaration for Liberty of Conscience," down to the "Family
Instructor" of 1718, he had written upon almost every sub-
ject that commends itself to the curiosity of the middle-class
intelligence; and when, in 1719, not long after he had been
stricken with apoplexy, he sat down undaunted to add fiction
to his current journalism (which, as Mr. Lee has shown, he
had never relinquished, but was only conducting clandes-
tinely), he had accumulated an inexhaustible store of mis-
cellaneous information. His habit of mind had accustomed
him to minute and almost unconscious stock-taking, even of
the trivial and commonplace; and his habit of the pen had
enabled him to record his impressions with the mechanical
precision of stenography. He could not only "report," in
short-hand writers' phrase, with literal fidelity, but, in the
absence of anything to report, he could invent a report,
which should exhibit all the petty negligence, the every-day
phraseology, the unlessoned aspect, and the inartistic bar-
renness of naked truth. Add to this a very pronounced
mental bias towards circumstantial forgeries like the Min-
utes of the Negotiations of Mons. Mesnager," or matter-of-


fact mystifications like the "True Relation of the Apparitioa
of one Mrs. Veal ;" and we have, superficially speaking, the
qualities which produced "Robinson Crusoe."
It is the inevitable characteristic of a mind of this type
that we do not find in it the highest creative gifts.. It collects
and adjusts rather than originates, and its invention is shown
chiefly in the ingenuity of its combinations. As a rule, it
has a tendency to be disconnected in its operations; but,
once furnished with a fitting central idea, its ability to supply
detail and supplement is practically unlimited. With
"Robinson Crusoe" this favorable germ was an actual
occurrence. In September, 1704, a certain moody and ill-
conditioned Alexander Selkirk or Selcraig, a sailor on board
one of Dampier's fleet, had quarrelled with his captain, who
had forthwith "marooned" him, as the phrase then was,
upon the desolate island of Juan Fernandez. Here he lived
alone for more than four years, being taken off at last it
February, 1709, by Captain Woods Rogers. He returned to
England in 1711, and when Captain Rogers. shortly after-
wards published an account of his voyage, due mention was
made of the interesting castaway whom he had rescued in
the Southern Seas. Somewhat later, in 1713, Selkirk was
"interviewed" in London by Steele, who gave an oft.
reprinted account of his adventures in No. 26 of the
"Englishman." Whether Defoe, too, saw Selkirk in the
flesh is not recorded; but it is most probable that the first
idea of his masterpiece came from Steele's paper.
However this may be, it was not until some, years after.
wards that "Robinson Crusoe" was actually published.
The date of its issue by William Taylor "at the Ship in


Paternoster-Row" was the 25th of April, 1719; and the
title, which is accurately reproduced in the present edition,
ran as follows:-"The Life and Strange Surprising Adven-
tures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, Mariner: Who lived
eight-and-twenty years all alone in an uninhabited island
on the coast of America, near the mouth of the great river
of Oroonoque; having been cast on shore by shipwreck,
wherein all the men perished but himself. With an account
how he was at last as strangely delivered by pirates. Written
by himself. The volume was an octavo of 364 pages,
preface and title (two leaves) not included, and it was embel-
lished by a rude copper-plate (here copied) in which Crusoe "
is represented on the sea-shore with his brace of guns and
his basket-hilted sword. At the end were two pages of ad-
vertisements, from which the reader may judge in what curious
companionship of dramas and sermons new editions of
Bysshe's "Art of Poetry" and continuations of the "Turkish
Spy "-the most popular book of the century made its entry
into the world. In the "preface," where Defoe masquerades
as editor, he gravely vouches for the authenticity of the
narrative. He calls attention to the modesty and seriousness
with which the tale is told; and he lays stress upon its
excellent morality. He believes it (he says) to be "a just
history of fact; neither is there any appearance of fiction
in it," and he considers that he does the world "a great
service in the publication." Its immediatee success showed
that he had not miscalculated. The book -as Byron said
of Gray's "Elegy"-" pleased instantly and eternally."
Before the middle of May, a second edition was called for.
A third followed in June, and a fourth in August.


With a forethought that was a part of his nature, Defoe
had not omitted to leave the ways open for a sequel. "All
these things," said Crusoe" in his concluding lines, "with
some very surprising incidents in some new adven-
tures of my own, for ten years more, I may perhaps give a
further account of hereafter." From this it is clear that the
author only waited for the success of the first part to prepare
a second; and, by the rapidity with which this second part
was produced, he must have set about it immediately. Only
twelve days after the issue of the fourth edition of Part I.,
appeared "The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe;
being the second and last part of his life, and of the strange
surprising accounts of his 'travels round three parts of the
globe. Written by himself. To which is added a map of
the world, in which is delineated the voyages of Robinson
Crusoe." To this a volume of 373 pages, with a title, pre-
face, and advertisements occupying four leaves, was prefixed
a somewhat longer announcement than that which ushered
in Part I. Retaining his editorial character, Defoe refers
with edifying complacency to the success of the preceding
volume, a success which he attributes "to the surprising
variety of the subject, and to the agreeable manner of the
performance. All the endeavors of envious people (he goes
on) to reproach it with being a romance, to search it for
errors in geography, inconsistency in the relation, and con-
tradictions in the fact, have proved abortive, and as impotent
as malicious. The just application of every incident, the
religious and useful inferences drawn from every part, are
so many testimonies to the good design of making it public;
and must legitimate all the part that may be called invention,


or parable, in the story." The remainder of the "preface,"
which begins by promising that ("contrary to the usage of
second parts,") the new volume will be "every way as enter-
taining as the first," is occupied by a protest against an
unauthorized abridgment of the book which, it appears, had
been put forth a few days before, from the Amsterdam
Coffee-House," by a piratical publisher. Defoe's unfeigned
indignation at this proceeding almost makes him forget his
editorial character. "The injury these men do the proprietor
of this work is a practice all honest men abhor; and he
believes he may challenge them to show the difference
between that and robbing on the highway, or breaking open
a house. If they can't show any difference in the crime,
they will find it hard to show any difference in the punish-
ment. And he will answer for it, that nothing shall be
wanting on his part to do them justice."
Despite the promises of the preface, the second part of
"Robinson Crusoe did not meet with the success of its
predecessor. Had it been equally well received, it is not
impossible that Defoe, who (unlike Addison and Cervantes)
had been careful not to kill his hero, might have discovered
a pretext for a fresh consignment of "surprising adven-
tures." As it was, he did attempt to divert the interest in a
new direction by a supplementary volume of "Serious
Reflections during the Life and Surprising Adventures of
Robinson Crusoe. With his Vision of the Angelic World.
Written by himself, 1720." The book made little or no
impression on the public, and is now seldom or never
associated with Parts I. and II. But the preface, which
purports to be from the pen of Crusoe himself, is even of


greater interest than those from which we have already made
extracts. It speaks of his previous biography as inculcating
"invincible patience under the worst of misery; indefatigable
application and undaunted resolution under the greatest and
most discouraging circumstances." The story, though
"Allegorical," is also declared to be "Historical." "Farther,"
says the writer (and it must be borne in mind that Crusoe"
is supposed to be speaking), "there is a man alive, and well-
known, too, the actions of whose life are the just subject of
these volumes, and to whom all or most part of the story
directly alludes." These words, taken in connection with
other passages of the same preface and of the book itself,
have generally been held to signify that, to some extent, Defoe
intended Robinson Crusoe to symbolize his own solitary
and self-reliant career. Whether this was a part of the
original plan, or merely the result of an afterthought, there
can be little doubt that in his practical character, his forti-
tude, his perseverance, and most of the qualities which have
endeared him and his adventures to so many generations of
Englishmen, there are manifest affinities between "Robinson
Crusoe and his creator, Daniel Defoe.
To give any account of the various forms under which
"Robinson Crusoe" has appeared since its first issue in
1719, would be impossible in this place. But one or two
particulars, chiefly in rectification of the earlier biographies
may be here added. Much debate has taken place as to
where the book was actually composed. Halifax, Gateshead
in Durham, Whitechapel, the village of Hartley in Kent,
have all claimed this honor. Mr. Lee, however, has shown
conclusively that, as his predecessor Mr. Wilson assumed,


it was planned and penned in Defoe's own house at Stoke
Newington. Further, it was alleged by Chalmers that the
MS. went the round of the trade before it found a purchaser.
Mr. Lee was unable to trace anything to support this state-
ment, which, moreover, the known talents of Defoe make
very improbable. Lastly, it was for some time supposed
that "Robinson Crusoe" first appeared in the Original
London Post," or Heathcote's Intelligencer." It was in
fact printed in the journal in question, but the publication
did not begin until the 7th October, 1719, at which date both
the first and second parts had been given to the world in
book form.



Who lived Eight and Twenty Years,
all alone in a un-inhabited Illand on the
Coaf of A~rxICA, near the Mouthof
the GreatRiver of 0 o o- o 'lo I
Having been ca on Shore by Shipwreck, where-
i all the Men perished biu hitfl.
An Account lowlcrs at laf as irangely dcIi
Written bylYmwfslf.
Printtd fotW. TAYvTL. rtthe ShipPater-N2fer-



IF ever the Story of any private Man's Adventures in the
World were worth making Publick, and were- acceptable
when Publish'd, the Editor of this Account thinks this
will be so.

The Wonders of this Man's Life exceed all that (he
thinks) is to be found extant; the Life of one Man being
scarce capable of a greater Variety.

The Story is told with Modesty, with Seriousness, and
with a religious Af#lication of Events to the Uses to which
wise Men always afply them (viz.) to the Instruction of
others by this Example, and to justify and honour the
Wisdom of Providence in all the Variety of our Circum-
stances, let them happen how they will.


The Editor believes the thing to be a just History of
Fact; neither is there any Appearance of Fiction in it:
And however thinks, because all such things are dispatch'd,
that the Improvement of it, as well to the Diversion, as to
the Instruction of the Reader, will be the same; and as
such, he thinks, without farther Compliment to the World,
he does them a great Service in the Publication.


THE Success the former Part of this Work has met with
in the World, has yet been no other than is acknowledged
to be due to the surprising Variety of the Subject, and to
the agreeable Manner of the Performance.

All the Endeavours of envious People to reproach it
with being a Romance, to search it for Errors in Geog-
raphy, Inconsistency in the Relation, and Contradictions
in the Fact, have proved abortive, and as impotent as

The just Application of every Incident, the religious and
useful Inferences drawn from every Part, are so many



Testimonies to the good Design of making' it fabeick;, nd
must legitimate all the Part that may be calL'd Inivetin,
or Parable in the Story.

The Second Part, if the Editor's Ofinion may pass,' i
(contrary to the Usage of Second Parts,) every Way as
entertaining as the First, contains as strange and sur-
frising Incidents, and as great a Variety of them; nor
is the Afplication less serious, or suitable; and doubtless
will, to the sober, as well as ingenious Reader, be every
way as profitable and diverting; and this makes the
abridging this Work, as scandalous, as it is knavish and
ridiculous, seeing, while to shorten the Book, that they may
seem to reduce the Value, they strip it of all those Reflec-
tions, as well religious as moral, which are not only the
greatest Beautys of the Work, but are calculated for the
infinite Advantage of the Reader.

By this they leave the Work naked of its brightest
Ornaments; and if they would, at the same Time pretend
that the Author has supply'd the Story out of his InventiI
they take from it the Improvement, which alone recom-
mends that Invention to wise and good Men.

The Injury these Men do the Proprietor of this Work,
is a Practice all honest Men abhor; and he believes
he may challenge them to skew the Diference between
that and Robbing on the Highway, or Breaking ofen a


If they can't shew any deference in the Crime, they
will find it hard to shew why there should be any
Difference in the Punishment: And he will answer for
it, that nothing shall be wanting on his Part, to do them




I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a
good family, though not of that country, my father
being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull.
He got a good estate by merchandise, and leaving off
his trade, lived afterward' at York, from whence he had
married my mother, whose relations were named Robinson,
a very good family in that country, and after whom I was
called Robinson Kreutznaer; but by the usual corruption
of words in England, we are now called, nay we call our-
selves, and write our name Crusoe, and so my companions
always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of which was lieutenant
colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, for-
merly commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was
killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards.
What became of my second brother I never knew any more
than my father and mother did know what was become
of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any
trade, my head began to be filled very early with rambling
thoughts; my father, who was very ancient, had given me
a competent share of learning, as far as house education
and a country free school generally goes, and designed me
for the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but
going to sea, and my inclination to this led me so strongly
against the will, nay the commands of my father, and
against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother

and other friends, that there seemed to be something fatal
in that propension of Nature tending directly to the life of
misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and
excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design.
He called me one morning into his chamber, where he was
confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with
me upon this subject. He asked me what reasons more
than a mere wandering inclination I had for leaving my
father's house and my native country, where I might be
well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortunes
by application and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure.
He told me it was for men of desperate fortunes on one
hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the other, who
went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and
make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of
the common road; that these things were all either too far
above me, or too far below me; that mine was the middle
state, or what might be called the upper station of low life,
which he had found by long experience was the best state
in the world, the most suited to human happiness, not
exposed to the miseries and hardships, the labor and suf-
ferings of the mechanic part of mankind, and not embar-
rassed with the pride, luxury, ambition and envy of the
upper part of mankind. He told me I might judge of the
happiness of this state, by this one thing, viz: That this
was the state of life which all other people envied; that
kings have frequently lamented the miserable consequences
of being born to great things, and wished they had been
placed in the middle of the two extremes, between the mean
and the great; that the wise man gave his testimony to this
as the just standard of true felicity, when he prayed to have
neither poverty or riches.
He bid me observe it, and I should always find, that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower
part of mankind; but that the middle station had the few-
est disasters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes
as the higher or lower part of mankind; nay, they were not
subjected to so many distempers and uneasinesses .either of

body or mind, as those were who, by vicious living, luxury
and extravagancies on one hand, or by hard labor, want of
necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet on the other hand,
bring distempers upon themselves by the natural cpnse-
quences of their way of living; that the middle station of
life was calculated for all kind. of virtues and all kind of
enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a
middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness,
health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all desirable
pleasures, were the blessings attending the middle station of
life; that this way men went silently and smoothly through
the world, and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with
the labours of the hands or of the head, not sold to the life
of slavery for daily bread, or harassed with perplexed cir-
cumstances, which rob the soul of peace, and the body of
rest; not enraged with the passion of envy, or secret burn-
ing lust of ambition for great things; but in easy circum-
stances sliding gently through the world, and sensibly tasting
the sweets of living, without the bitter, feeling that they are
happy, and learning by every day's experience to know it
more sensibly.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affec-
tionate manner, not to play the young man, not to precipitate
myself into miseries which nature and the station of life I
was born in, seemed to have provided against; that I was
under no necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do
well for me, and endeavor to enter me fairly into the sta-
tion of life which he had been just recommending to me;
and that if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it
must be my mere fate or fault that must hinder it, and that
he should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged
his duty in warning me against measures which he knew
would be to my hurt: in a word, that as he would, do very
kind things for me if I would stay and settle at home as he
directed, so he would not have so much hand in mny misfor-
tunes, as to give me any encouragement to go away. And
to close all, he told me I had my elder brother for an exam-
ple, to whom he had used the same earnest persuasions to
keep him from going into the low country wars but could

not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run into
the army where he was killed; and though he said he would
not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me,
that if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless me,
and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having
neglected his counsel when there might be none to assist in
my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was
truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know
it to be so himself; I say, I observed the tears run down
his face very plentifully, and especially when he spoke of
my brother who was killed; and that when he spoke of my
haing leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so
moved, that he broke off the discourse, and told me his
heart was so full he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed
who could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of
going abroad any more, but to settle at home according
to my father's desire. But alas! a few days wore it all
off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father's farther
importunities, in a few weeks after, I resolved to run quite
away from him. However, I did not act so hastily neither
as my first heat of resolution prompted, but I took my
mother, at a time when I thought her a little pleasanter
than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so
entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I should never
settle to anything with resolution enough to go through
with it, and my father had better give me his consent
than force me to go without it; that I was now eighteen
years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade,
or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure if I did, I should
never serve out my time, and I should certainly run away
from my master before my time was out, and go to sea;
and if she would speak to my father to let me go but one
voyage abroad, if I came home again and did not like it, I
would go no more, and I would promise by a double dili-
gence to recover that time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion. She told me
she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father


upon any such subject; that he knew too well what s my
interest to give his consent to anything so much fot my
hurt, and that she wondered how I could think of any such
thing after such a discourse as I had had with my father,
and such kind and tender expressions as she knew my
father had used to me; and that in short, if I would rain
myself there was no help for me; but I might depend I
should never have their consent to it. That for her part
she would not have so much hand in my destruction; and I
should never have it to say, that my mother was willing
when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet
as I have heard afterwards she reported all the discourse
to him, and that my father, after showing a great concern
at it, said to her with a sigh, that boy might be happy if he
would stay at home, but if he goes abroad he will be the
miserablest wretch that was ever born. I can give no
consent to it.
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,
though in the meantime I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostu-
lating with my father and mother, about their being so
positively determined against what they knew my inclina-
tions prompted me to. But being one day at Hull, where I
went casually, and without any purpose of making an
elopement that time; but I say, being there, and one of my
companions being going by sea, to London, in his father's
ship, and prompting me to go with them, with the common
allurement of seafaring men, viz: that it should cost me
nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father or mother
any more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but
leaving them to hear of it as they might, without asking
God's blessing, or my father's, without any consideration of
circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God
knows, on the first of September, I651, I went on board a
ship bound for London; never any young adventurer's
misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or continued longer
than mine. The ship was no sooner gotten out of the
Humber, but the wind began to blow, and the waves to risel

in a most frightful manner; and as I had never been at
sea before, I was most inexpressively sick in body, and
terrified in my mind. I began now seriously to reflect
upon what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by
the judgment of heaven for my wicked leaving my father's
house, and abandoning my duty; all the good counsel of
my parents, my father's tears, and my mother's entreaties
came now fresh into my mind, and my conscience, which
was not yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it has
been since, reproached me with the contempt of advice, and
the breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I
had never been upon before, went very high, though noth-
ing like what I have seen many times since; no, nor like
what I saw a few days after; but it was enough to affect
me then, who was but a young sailor, and had never known
anything of the matter. I expected every wave would have
swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as
I thought, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should
never rise more; and in this agony of mind, I made many
vows and resolutions, that if it would please God here to
spare my life this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot
upon dry land again, I would go directly home to my father,
and never set it into a ship again while I lived; that I would
take his advice, and never run myself into such miseries as
these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his
observations about the middle station of life, how easy, how
comfortably he had lived all his days, and never had been
exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles on shore; and I
resolved that I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go
home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while
the storm continued, and indeed some time after; but the
next day the wind was abated and the sea calmer, and I
began to be a little inured to it. However, I was very grave
for all that day, being also a little sea-sick still; but towards
night the weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and
a charming fine evening followed. The sun went down
perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and having

little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it,
the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that I ever
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-
sick, but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea
that was so rough and terrible the day before, and could be
so calm and so pleasant in so little time after. And now
lest my good resolutions should continue, my companion,
who had indeed enticed me away, comes to me, "Well
Bob," says he, clapping me on the shoulder, how do you
do after it? I warrant you were frightened, wa' n't you, last
night, when it blew but a cap full of wind?" "A cap full
d' you call it ?" said I, "'t was a terrible storm." "A storm,
you fool you," replies he, "do you call that a storm? Why
it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea room,
and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that! but
you're but a fresh water sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a
bowl of punch and we '11 forget all that; d'ye see what
charming weather 't is now?" To make short this sad part
of my story, we went the old way of all sailors, the punch
was made, and I was made drunk with it, and in that one
night's wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my
reflections upon my past conduct, and all my resolutions for
my future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its
smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the abate-
ment of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over,
my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up by the
sea being forgotten, and the current of my former desires
returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that I
made in my distress. I found indeed some intervals of
reflections, and the serious thoughts did, as it were, en-
deavor to return again sometimes, but I shook them off, and
roused myself from them as it were from a distemper, and
applying myself to drink and company, soon mastered the
return of those fits, for so I called them, and I had in five
or six days got as complete a victory over conscience as any
young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could
desire. But I was to have another trial for it still; and
Providence, as in such cases generally it does, resolved. to

leave me entirely without excuse. For if I would not take
this for a deliverance, the next was to be such a one as the
worst and most hardened wretch among us would confess
both the danger and the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
roads; the wind having been contrary, and the weather
calm, we had made but little way since the storm. Here
we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the
wind continuing contrary, viz: at south-west, for seven or
eight days, during which time a great many ships from
Newcastle came into the same roads, as the common harbor
where the ships might wait for a wind for the river.
We had not however rode here so long, but should have
tided it up the river, but that wind blew too fresh; and
after we had lain four or five days, blew very hard. How-
ever, the roads being reckoned as good as a harbor, the
anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our
men were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of
danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the man-
ner of the sea; but the eighth day in the morning, the wind
increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our top-
masts, and make everything snug and close, that the ship
might ride as easy as possible. By noon the sea went very
high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped several
seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor had come
home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet an-
chor; so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the
cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed, and now I
began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the
seamen themselves. The master though vigilant to the
business of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out
of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say
several times, Lord be merciful to us, we shall be all lost,
we shall be all undone; and the like. During these first
hurries, I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in
the steerage, and cannot describe my temper. I could ill
reassume the first penitence which I had so apparently
trampled upon, and hardened myself against. I thought

the bitterness of death had been past, and that this would
be nothing too like the first. But when the master himself
came by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all
lost, I was dreadfully frightened. I got up out of my cabin,
and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw. The
sea went mountain high, and broke upon us every three or
four minutes. When I could look about, I could see noth-
ing but distress round us. Two ships that rode near us we
found had cut their masts by the board, being deeply
laden; and our men cried out, that a ship which rode about
a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more ships being
driven from their anchors, were run out of the roads to sea
at all adventures, and that with not a mast standing. The
light ships fared the best, as not so much laboring in the
sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close by us,
running away with only their sprit-sail out before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the
master of our ship to let them cut away the foremast, which
he was very unwilling to. But the boatswain protesting to
him, that if he did not, the ship would founder, he con-
sented; and when they had cut away the foremast, the
mainmast stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they
were obliged to cut her away also, and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such
a fright before at but a little. But if I can express at this
distance the thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in
tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former
convictions, and the having returned from them to the reso-
lutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death
itself; and these, added to the terror of the storm, put me
into such a condition, that I can by no words describe it.
But the worst was not come yet, the storm continued with
such fury, that the seamen themselves acknowledged they
had never known a worse. We had a good ship, but she
was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the seamen
every now and then cried out, she would founder. It was
my advantage in one respect, that I did not know what they
meant by founder, till I enquired. However, the storm was

so violent, that I saw what is not often seen, the master, the
boatswain, and some others more sensible than the rest, at
their prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship
would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and
under all the rest of our distresses, one of the men that had
been down on purpose to see, cried out we had sprung a
leak; another said there was four foot water in the hold.
Then all hands were called to the pump. At that very
word my heart, as I thought, died within me; and I fell
backwards upon the side of my bed where I sat, into the
cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me, that
I that was able to do nothing before, was as well able to
pump as another; at which I stirred up, and went to the
pump and worked very heartily. While this was doing,
the master seeing some light colliers, who not able to ride
out the storm, were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and
would come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of
distress. I who knew nothing what that meant, was so
surprised, that I thought the ship had broke, or some dread-
ful thing had happened. In a word, I was so surprised,
that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when
everybody had his own life to think of, nobody minded me,
or what was become of me; but another man stepped up to
the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie,
thinking I had been dead; and it was a great while before I
came to myself.
We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder, and though the
storm began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible
she could swim till we might run into a port, so the master
continued firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had
rode it out just ahead of us ventured a boat out to help us.
It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near us, but
it was impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to
lie near the ship side, till at last the men rowing very
heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast
them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered
it out a great length, which they after great labor and hazard
took hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and

got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us
after we were in the boat, to think of reaching to their own
ship, so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her
in towards shore as much as we could, and our master
promised them, that if the boat was staved upon shore, he
would make it good to their master; so partly rowing and
partly driving, our boat went away to the norward, sloping
towards the shore almost as far as Winterton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of
our ship, but we saw her sink, and then I understood for
the first time what was meant by a ship foundering in the
sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up
when the seamen told me she was sinking; for from that
moment they rather put me into the boat than that I might
be said to go in, my heart was as it were dead within me,
partly with fright, partly with horror of mind and the
thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men- yet laboring at
the oar to bring the boat, near the shore, we could see,
when our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the
shore, a great many people running along the shore to
assist us when we should come near, but we made but slow
way towards the shore, nor were we able to reach the shore,
till being past the light-house at Winterton, the shore falls
off to the westward towards Cromer, and so the land broke
off a little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and
though not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore,
and walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as un-
fortunate men, we were used with great humanity as well by
the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good quarters,
as by particular merchants and owners of ships, and had
money given us sufficient to carry us either to London or
back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, I had been happy; and my father, an
emblem of our blessed Saviour's parable, had even killed
the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship I went away in
was cast away in Yarmouth road, it was a great while before
he had any assurance that I was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud
calls from my reason and my more composed judgment to
go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know not what to
call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree
that hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruc-
tion, even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it
with our eyes open. Certainly nothing but some such
decreed unavoidable misery attending, and which it was
impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me forward
against the calm reasoning and persuasions of my most
retired thoughts, and against two such visible instructions
as I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and
who was the master's son, was now less forward than I.
The first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth,
which was not till two or three days, for we were separated
in the town to -several quarters; I say, the first time he saw
me, it appeared his tone was altered, and looking very mel-
ancholy and shaking his head, asked me how I did, and
telling his father who I was, and how I had come this
voyage only for a trial in order to go abroad. His father
turning to me with a very grave and concerned tone,
"Young man," says he, you ought never to go to sea any
more. You ought to take this for a plain and visible token
that you are not to be a seafaring man." "Why, sir,"
said I, "will you go to sea no more?" "That is another
case," said he; "it is my calling, and therefore my duty;
but as you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste
Heaven has given you of what you are to expect if you
persist. Perhaps this is all befallen us on your account,
like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray," continues he,
"what are you, and on what account did you go to sea? "
Upon that I told him some of my story. At the end of
which he burst out with a strange kind of passion. "What
had I done," says he, that such an unhappy wretch should
come into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same
ship with thee again for a thousand pounds. This indeed
was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits which were yet

agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he
could have authority to go. However, he afterwards talked
very gravely to me, exhorted me to go back to my father,
and not tempt Providence to. my ruin; told me I might see
a visible hand of Heaven against me, "And young man,"
said he, depend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever
you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and disap-
pointments, till your father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and
I saw him no more; which way he went, I know not. As
for me, having some money in my pocket, I traveled to
London by land; and there, as well as on the road, had
many struggles with myself, what course of life I should
take, and whether I should go home, or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that
offered to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me
how I should be laughed at among the neighbors, and
should be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only,
but even every body else; from whence I have since often
observed, how incongruous and irrational the common temper
of mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason which
ought to guide them in such cases, viz: That they are not
ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not
ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be
esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the returning, which
only can make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life however, I remained some time, un-
certain what measures to take, and what course of life to
lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to going home;
and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the distress I
had been in wore off; and as that abated, the little motion
I had in my desires to a return wore off with it, till at last
I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a
That evil influence which carried me first away from my
father's house, that hurried me into the wild and indigested
notion of raising my fortune; and that impressed those con-
ceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good
advice, and to the entreaties and even command of my

father: I say the same influence, whatever it was, presented
the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view, and I
went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as
our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune, that in all these adventures I
did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might in-
deed have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at the
same time I had learned the duty and office of a fore-mast
man; and in time might have qualified myself for a mate or
lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it was always my fate
to choose for the worse, so I did here; for having money in
my pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I would always
go on board in the habit of a gentleman; and so I neither
had any business in the ship, or learned to do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company
in London, which does not always happen to such loose and
misguided young fellows as I then was; the Devil generally
not omitting to lay some snare for them very early. But it
was not so with me; I first fell acquainted with the master of
a ship who had been on the coast of Guinea, and who hav-
ing had very good success there, was resolved to go again;
and who taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not
at all disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I had a mind
to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage with him
I should be at no expense; I should be his messmate and
his companion, and if I could carry anything with me, I
should have all the advantage of it that the trade would
admit; and perhaps I might meet with some encourage-
I embraced the offer, and, entering into a strict friendship
with this captain, who was an honest and plain-dealing man,
I went the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure
with me, which by the disinterested honesty of my friend,
the captain, I increased very considerably; for I carried
about 40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed
me to buy. This 40 I had mustered together by the as-
sistance of some of my relations whom I corresponded with,
and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to
contribute so much as that to my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful
in all my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and
honesty of my friend the captain, under whom also I got a
competent knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of
navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship's
course, take an observation, and in short, to understand
some things that were needful to be understood by a sailor.
For, as he took delight to introduce me, I took delight to
learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor
and a merchant; for I brought home L. 5. 9 ounces of -gold
dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London at my
return, almost 300o, and this filled me with those aspiring
thoughts which have since so completed my ruin.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; par-
ticularly, that I was continually sick, being thrown into a
violent calenture by the excessive heat of the climate; our
principal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of
15 degrees North even to the line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to
my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved
to go the same voyage again, and I embarked in the same
vessel with one who was his mate in the former voyage, and
had now got the command of the ship. This was the un-
happiest voyage that ever man made; for though I did not
carry quite 1oo of my new gained wealth, so that I had
200 left, and which I lodged with my friend's widow, who
was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in
this voyage; and the first was this, viz: Our ship making
her course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between
those islands and the African shore, was surprised in the
grey of the morning, by a Turkish rover of Sallee, whigoye
chase to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded
also as much canvas as our yards would spread, or our masts
carry, to have got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon
us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we
prepared to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the
rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up
with us, and bringing to by mistake, just athwart our quarter,
instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought eight

of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside
upon him, which made him sheer off again, after returning
our fire, and pouring in also his small shot from near two
hundred men which he had on board. However, we had not
a man touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared to
attack us again, and we to defend ourselves; but laying us
on board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered
sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting
and hacking the decks and rigging. We plied them with
small-shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and
cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short this
melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled, and
three of our men killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged
to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port
belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I
apprehended, nor was I carried up the country to the
emperor's court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept
by the captain of the rover, as his proper prize, and made
his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business.
At this surprising change of my circumstances from a
merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed;
and now I looked back upon my father's prophetic dis-
course to me, that I should be miserable, and have none to
relieve me, which I thought was now so effectually brought
to pass, that it could not be worse; that now the hand of
heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone without re-
demption. But alas! this was but a taste of the misery I
was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron or master had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes that he would take me with him
when he went to sea again, believing that it would some
time or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or
Portugal man-of-war; and that then I should be set at
liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken away; for
when he went to sea, he left me on shore to look after his
little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves about
his house; and when he came home again from his-cruise,
he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what me-
thod I might take to effect it, but found no way that had
the least probability in it. Nothing presented to make the
supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to communi-
cate it to, that would embark with me; no fellow-slave, no
Englishman, Irishman, or Scotchman there but myself; so
that for two years, though I often pleased myself with the
imagination, yet I never had the least encouraging prospect
of putting it in practice.
After about two years an odd circumstance presented it-
self, which put the old thought of making some attempt for
my liberty again in my head. My patron lying at home
longer than usual, without fitting out his ship, which, as I
heard, was for want of money, he used constantly, once or
twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to
take the ship's pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing;
and as he always took me and a young Maresco with him to
row the boat, we made him very merry, and I proved very
dexterous in catching fish; insomuch that sometimes he
would send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the
youth the Maresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of
fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a stark calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a
league from the shore we lost sight of it; and rowing we
knew not whither or which way, we labored all day and all
the next night, and when the morning came we found we
had pulled off to sea instead of pulling in for the shore; and
that we were at least two leagues from the shore. However,
we got well in again, though with a great deal of labor, and
some danger; for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the
morning; but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take
more care of himself for the future; and having lying by
him the long-boat of our English ship which he had taken,
he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a
compass and some provision; so he ordered the carpenter
of his ship, who was also an English slave, to build a little
state-room or cabin in the middle of the long-boat, like that,

of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer and haul
home the main-sheet; and room before for a hand or two to
stand and work the sails; she sailed with what we call a
shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom gibed over the top of
the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had in it room
for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on,
with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such
liquor as he thought fit to drink; particularly his bread, rice
and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and as I
was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went
without me. It happened that he had appointed to go out
in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three
Moors of some distinction in that place, and for whom he
had provided extraordinarily; and had therefore sent on
board the boat over night, a larger store of provisions than
ordinary; and had ordered me to get ready three fuzees with
powder and shot, which were on board his ship; for that
they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had,directed, and waited the
next morning with the boat, washed clean, her ancient and
pendants out, and everything to accommodate his guests;
when by-and-by my patron came on board alone, and told
me his guests had put off going, upon some business that
fell out, and ordered me with the man and boy, as usual, to
go out with the boat and catch them some fish, for that his
friends were to sup at his house; and commanded that as
soon as I had got some fish I should bring it home to his
house; all which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted
into my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little
ship at my command; and my master being gone, I prepared
to furnish myself, not for a fishing business, but for a
voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so much as con-
sider whither I should steer; for anywhere to get out of that
place was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to
this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board;
for I told him we must not presume to eat of our patron's

bread; he said that was true. So he brought a large basket
of rusk or biscuit of their kind, and three jars with fresh
water into the boat. I knew where my patron's case of
bottles stood, which it was evident by the make were taken
out of some English prize; and I conveyed them into the
boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been there
before, for our master. I conveyed also a great lump of
bees-wax into the boat, which weighed about half a hundred
weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a-saw,
and a hammer, all which were of great use to us afterwards;
especially the wax to make candles. Another trick I tried
upon him, which he innocently came into also. His name
was Ismael, who they call Muly, or Moely, so I called to him,
" Moely," said I, "our patron's guns are on board the boat;
can you not get a little powder and shot, it may be we may
kill some alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves?
for I know he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship."
"Yes," says he "I'll bring some." And accordingly he
brought a great leather pouch which held about a pound and
half of powder, or rather more; and another with shot, that
had five or six pound, with some bullets, and put all into
the boat. At the same time I had found some powder of
my master's in the great cabin, with which I filled one of
the large bottles in the case, which was almost empty, pour-
ing what was in it into another; and thus furnished with
everything needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The
castle which is at the entrance of the port knew who we
were, and took no notice of us; and we were not above a
mile out of the port before we hauled in our sail, and set
us down to fish. The wind blew from the N. N. E., which
was contrary to my desire; for had it blown southerly I had
been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least
reached the Bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow
which way it would, I would be gone from the horrid place
where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for
when I had fish on my hook, I would not pull them up, that
he might not see them, I said to the Moor, "this will not
do, our master will not be thus served, we must stand far-

other off." He thinking no harm agreed, and being in the
head of the boat set the sails; and as I had the helm I run
the boat out near a league farther, and then brought her
to, as if I would fish. When giving the boy the helm, I
stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making as if I
stooped for something behind me, I took him by surprise
with my arm under his twist, and tossed him clear over-
board into the sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like
a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, told me he
would go all the world over with me. He swam so strong
after the boat that he would have reached me very quickly,
there being but little wind. Upon which I stepped into the
cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it
at him, ard told him I had done him no hurt, and if he
would be quiet, I would do him none; "but," said I, "you
swim well enough to reach to the shore, and the sea is calm;
make the best of your way to shore, and I will do you no
harm, but if you come near the boat I'll shoot you through
the head; for I am resolved to have my liberty." So he
turned himself about and swam for the shore, and I make
no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with
me, and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing
to trust him. When he was gone I turned to the boy, who
they called Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you will be
faithful to me I'll make you a great man, but if you will not
stroke your face to be true to me, that is, swear by
Mahomet and his father's beard, I must throw you into the
sea too." The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so inno-
cently that I could not mistrust him; and swore to be faith-
ful to me, and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the MoOr that was swimming, I
stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to
windward, that they might think me gone towards the strait's
mouth, (as indeed any one that had been in their wits must
have been supposed to do) for who would have supposed we
would sail on to the southward to the truly barbarian coast,
where whole nations of negroes were sure to surround us

with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could never
once go on shore but we should be devoured by savage
beasts, or more merciless savages of human kind.
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed
my course, and steered directly south and by east, bending
my course a little toward the east, that I might keep in with
the shore; and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a
smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe by the
next day at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made
the land, I could not be less than one hundred and fifty
miles south of Sallee; quite beyond the emperor of Mo-
rocco's dominions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts,
for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands,
that I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor;
the wind continuing fair, still I had sailed in that manner
five days. And then the wind shifting to the southward, I
concluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase of me,
they also would now give over; so I ventured to make to the
coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I
knew not what, or where; neither what latitude, what
country, what nation, or what river. I neither saw, or
desired to see any people, the principal thing I wanted was
fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening,
resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and dis-
cover the country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we
heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and
howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that
the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not
to go on shore till day. "Well Xury," said I, "then I won't,
but it may be we may see men by day, who will be as bad to
us as those lions." Then we give them the shoot gun," says
Xury, laughing, "make them run away." Such English Xury
spoke by conversing among us slaves; however, I was glad
to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of
our patron's case of bottles) to chear him up. After all,
Xury's advice was good, and I took it; we dropped our little
anchor and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept none!

for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we
knew not what to call them), of many sorts, come down to
the sea-shore and run into the water, wallowing and washing
themselves for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and they
made such hideous howlings and yelling, that I never
indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too;
but we were both more frighted when we heard one of these
mighty creatures come swimming towards our boat; we
could not see him, but we might hear him by his blowing to
be a monstrous, huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a
lion, and it might be so for ought I knew; but poor Xury
cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away; "no," says I,
" Xury, we can slip our cable with the buoy to it and go off to
sea; they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner said so, but
I perceived the creature (whatever it was) within two oars'
length, which something surprised me; however, I immedi-
ately stepped to the cabin-door, and taking up my gun fired
at him, upon which he immediately turned about and swam
towards the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises, and
hideous cries and howlings, that were raised as well upon
the edge of the shore as higher within the country, upon
the noise or report of the gun, a thing I have some reason
to believe those creatures had never heard before. This
convinced me that there was no going on shore for us in
the night upon that coast; and how to venture on shore in
the day was another question, too; for to have fallen into
the hands of any of the savages, had been as bad as to have
fallen into the hands of lions and tigers; at least we were
equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the
boat; when or where to get to it was the point. Xury said,
if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would
find it if there was any water and bring some to me. I
asked him why he would go? why I should not go and he
stay in the boat? The boy answered with so much affection
that made me love him ever after. Says he, "if wild mans

come, they eat me, you go way." "Well, Xury," said I, "we
will both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them, they
shall eat neither of us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk-bread
to eat, and a dram out of our patron's case of bottles which
I mentioned before; and we hauled in the boat as' near the
shore as we thought was proper, and so waded on shore,
carrying nothing but our arms and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy
seeing a low place about a mile up the country rambled to
it; and by-and-by I saw him come running towards me. I
thought he was pursued by some savage, or frightened with
some wild beast, and I run forward towards him to help him,
but when I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging
over his shoulders which was a creature that he had shot,
like a hare, but different in color, and longer legs; however
we were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the
great joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell me that he
had found good water and seen no wild men.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains
for water, for a little higher up the creek where we were,
we found the water fresh when the tide was out, which
flowed but a little way up; so we filled our jars and feasted
on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on our way,
having seen no footsteps of any human creature in that
part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
well that the Islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd
Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as I had *
no instruments to take an observation to know what latitude
we were in, and did not exactly know, or at least remember
what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for
them, or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise
I might now easily have found some of these islands. But
my hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to
that part where the English traded, I should find some of
their vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would re-
lieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was,





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L i

must be that country which, lying between the emperor of
Morocco's dominions and the negroes, lies waste and unin-
habited, except by wild beasts; the negroes having aban-
doned it and gone farther south for fear of the Moors; and
the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its
barrenness; and indeed both forsaking it because of the pro-
digious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards and other furious
creatures which harbor there; so that the Moors use it for
their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three
thousand men at a time; and indeed for near an hundred
miles together upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste,
uninhabited country, by day, and heard nothing but howlings
and roaring of wild beasts, by night.
Once or twice in the daytime, I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe,
in the Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out in
hopes of reaching thither; but having tried twice I was
forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too
high for my little vessel, so I resolved to pursue my first de-
sign and keep along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after
we had left this place; and once in particular, being early in
the morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of
land which was pretty high, and the tide beginning to flow,
we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more
about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and
tells me that we had best go farther off from the shore; for,"
says he, "look, yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of
that hillock, fast asleep." I looked where he pointed, and saw
a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion
that lay on the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece
of the hill that hung as it were a little over him. "Xury," says
I, you shall go on shore and kill him." Xury looked fright-
ened, and said, Me kill! he eat me at one.mouth;" one
mouthful he meant. However, I said no more to the boy,
but bade him lie still, and I took our biggest gun, which was
almost musket-bore, and loaded it with a good charge of
powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded
another gun with two bullets, and the third, for we had three

pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best
aim I could with the first piece to have shot him into the
head, but he lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose,
that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone.
He started up growling at first, but finding his leg broke fell
down again, and then got up upon three legs and gave the
most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little surprised
that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took up the
second piece immediately, and though he began to move off
fired again, and shot him in the head, and had the pleasure
to see him drop, and make but little noise, but lay struggling
for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have me let him
go on shore. Well, go," said I; so the boy jumped into the
water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to shore
with the other hand, and coming close to the creature, put
the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head
again, which despatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food, and I
was sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a
creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury
said he would have some of him; so he comes on board and
asked me to give him the hatchet. "For what, Xury?" said
I. "Me cut off his head," said he. However, Xury could
not cut off his head; but he cut off a foot and brought it
with him, and it was a monstrous great one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him
might, one way or other, be of some value to us, and I re-
solved to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went
to work with him; but Xury was much the better workman
at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us up
both the whole day; but at last we got off the hide of him,
and, spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually
dried it in two days' time, and it afterwards served me to lie
After this stop we made on to the southward continually
for ten or twelve days, living very sparing on our provisions,
which began to abate very much, and going no oftener into
the shore than we were obliged to for fresh water; my de-
sign in this way was to make the river Gambia or Senegal,


that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I
was in hopes to meet with some European ship, and if I did
not I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek out
for the islands, or perish there among the negroes. I knew
that all the ships from Europe which sailed either to the
coast of Guinea, or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made
this cape or those islands, and, in a word, I put the whole of
my fortune upon this single point,-either that I must meet
with some ship or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, as I have said, I began to see that the land was in-
habited, and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw
people stand upon the shore to look at us; we could also
perceive they were quite black and stark naked. I was
once inclined to have gone on shore to them, but Xury was
my better counsellor, and said to me, "No go, no go."
However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to
them, and I found they ran along the shore by me a good
way. I observed they had no weapons in their hands, ex-
cept one, who had a long slender stick, which Xury said was
a lance, and that they would throw them a great way with
good aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked with them by
signs as well as I could, and particularly made signs for
something to eat. They beckoned to me to stop my boat,
and that they would fetch me some meat. Upon this I
lowered the top of my sail and lay by, and two of them ran
up into the country, and in less than half an hour came
back and brought with them two pieces of dried flesh and
some corn, such as is the produce of their country; but we
neither knew what the one or the other was. However, we
were willing to accept it; but how to come at it was our next
dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to them, and
they were as much afraid of us; but they took a safe way
for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid it down,
and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on
board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends; but an opportunity offered that very
instant to oblige them wonderfully, for while we were lying

by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the
other (as we took it), with great fury, from the mountains
towards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the
female, or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could
not tell, any more than we could tell whether it was usual or
strange, but I believe it was the latter; because in the first
place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the
night; and, in the second place we found the people terribly
frighted, especially the women. The man that had the lance
or dart, did not fly from them, but the rest did; however, as
the two creatures ran directly into the water, they did not
seem to offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but plunged
themselves into the sea and swam about as if they had come
for their diversion; at last one of them began to come nearer
our boat than at first I expected, but I lay ready for him, for
I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and bade
Xury load both the others; as soon as he came fairly within
my reach, I fired, and shot him directly into the head;
immediately he sunk down into the water, but rose instantly
and plunged up and down as if he was struggling for life;
and so indeed he was; he immediately made to the shore;
but between the wound which was his mortal hurt, and the
strangling of the water, he died just before he reached the
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and the fire of my gun; some of them
were even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with
the very terror. But when they saw the creature dead and
sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them to come to
the shore, they took heart and came to the shore and began
to search for the creature. I found him by his blood staining
the water, and by the help of a rope which I slung round
him and gave the negroes to haul, they dragged him on
shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted
and fine to an admirable degree, and the negroes held up
their hands with admiration to think what it was I had killed
him with.
The other creature frighted with the flash of fire and the
noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the

mountains from whence they came, nor could I at that
distance know what it was. I found quickly the negroes
were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to
have them take it as a favor from me, which when I made
signs to them that they might take him, they were very
thankful for. Immediately they fell to work with him, and
though they had no knife, yet with a sharpened piece of
wood they took off his skin as readily, and much more
readily than we could have done with a knife; they offered
me some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I would
give it them, but made signs for the skin, which they gave
me very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their
provision, which though I did not understand, yet I accepted;
then I made signs to them for some water, and held out one
of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to show that
it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They
called immediately to some of their friends, and there came
two women, and brought a great vessel made of earth, and
burnt as I suppose in the sun; this they set down for me,
as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled
them all three. The women were as stark naked as the
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was,
and water, and leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward
for about eleven days more without offering to go near the
shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea.
at about the distance of four or five leagues before me, and
the sea being very calm I kept a large offering to make this
point; at length, doubling the point at about two leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side to sea-
ward; then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that
this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called
from thence Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at
a great distance, and I could not well tell what I had best to
do, for if I should be taken with a fresh of wind I might
neither reach one nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin and sat me down, Xury having the helm, when, on a
sudden, the boy cried out, "Master! master! a ship with a

saill" and the foolish boy was frightened out of his wits,
thinking it must needs be some of his master's ships sent to
pursue us, when I knew we had got far enough out of their
reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw not
only the ship but what she was, viz: that it was a Portu-
guese ship, and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of
Guinea for negroes. But when I observed the course she
steered I was soon convinced they were bound some other
way, and did not design to come any nearer to the shore;
upon which I stretched out to sea as much as I could, re-
solving to speak with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make I found that I should not
be able to come in their way, but that they would be gone
by before I could make any signal to them; but after I had
crowded to the utmost and began to despair, they, it seems,
saw me by the help of their perspective glasses, and that it
was some European boat, which, as they supposed, must
belong to some ship that was lost, so they shortened sail to
let me come up. I was encouraged with this, and as I had
my patron's ancient on board I made a waft of it to them for
a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both of which they saw,
for they told me they saw the smoke though they did not
hear the gun. Upon these signals they were kindly brought
to, and lay by for me, and in about three hours' time I came
up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese and in Spanish
and in French, but I understood none of them; but at last
a Scots sailor who was on board called to me, and I an-
swered him and told him I was an Englishman, that I had
made my escape out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee;
then they bade me come on board, and very kindly took me
in and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me that any one will be-
lieve that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such
a miserable and almost hopeless condition as I was in, and
I immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as
a return for my deliverance; but he generously told me he
would take nothing from me, but that all I had should be
delivered safe to me when I came to the Brazils. "For,"

says he, "I have saved your life on no other terms than I
would be glad to be saved myself, and it may, one time or
another, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition;
besides," said he, "when I carry you to the Brazils, so great
a way from your own country, if I should take from you
what you have, you will be starved there, and then I only
take away that life I have given. No, no, Seignor Inglese,"
says he, "Mr. Englishman, I will carry you thither in char-
ity, and those things will help you to buy your subsistence
there and your passage home again."
As he was charitable in his proposal so he was just in the
performance to a tittle, for he ordered the seamen that none
should offer to touch anything I had; then he took every-
thing into his own possession, and gave me back an exact
inventory of them, that I might have them, even so much as
my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw
and told me he would buy it of me for the ship's use, and
asked me what I would have for it. I told him he had been
so generous to me in everything that I could not offer to
make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him, upon
which he told me he would give me a note of his hand to
pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil, and when it
came there if anyone offered to give more he-would make it
up. He offered me, also, sixty pieces of eight more for my
boy Xury, which I was loth to take: not that I was not
willing to let the captain have him, but I was very loth to
sell the poor boy's liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully
in procuring my own. However, when I let him know my
reason, he owned it to be just and offered me this medium,
-that he would give the boy an obligation to set him free
in ten years, if he turned Christian. Upon this, and Xury
saying he was willing to go to him, I let the captain have
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in
the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints Bay, in about
twenty-two days after. And now I was once more delivered
from the most miserable of all conditions of life, and what
to do next with myself I was now to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never
enough remember; he would take nothing of me for my
passage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and
forty for the lion's skin which I had in my boat, and caused
everything I had in the ship to be punctually delivered me,
and what I was willing to sell he bought, such as the case
of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-
wax, for I had made candles of the rest; in a word, I made
about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my
cargo, and with this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, but being recommended to the
house of a good, honest man like himself, who had an in-
geino as they call it, that is, a plantation and a sugar house.
I lived with him some time, and acquainted myself by that
means with the manner of their planting and making of
sugar; and seeing how well the planters lived, and how they
grew rich suddenly, I resolved if I could get license to
settle there, I would turn planter among them, resolving in
the meantime to find out some way to get my money which
I had left in London remitted to me. To this purpose get-
ting a kind of a letter of naturalization, I purchased as much
land that was uncured, as my money would reach, and
formed a plan for my plantation and settlement, and such a
one as might be -suitable to the stock which I proposed to
myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbor, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of
English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. I call him my neighbor, because
his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very so-
ciably together. My stock was but low as well as his; and
we rather planted for food, than anything else, for about
two years. However, we began to increase, and our land
began to come into order, so that the third year we planted
some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground
ready for planting canes in the year to come; but we both
wanted help: and now I found more than before, I had
done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.
But alas for me to do wrong that never did right, was no
great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on. I was gotten

into an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly
contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook
my father's house, and broke through all his good advice.
Nay, I was coming into the very middle station, or upper
degree of low life, which my father advised me to before;
and which if I resolved to go on with, I might as well have
staid at home, and never have fatigued myself in the world
as I had done; and I used often to say to myself, I could
have done this as well in England among my friends, as
have gone five thousand miles off to do it among strangers
and savages in a wilderness, and at such a distance as never
to hear from any part of the world that had the least knowl-
edge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with but now and
then this neighbor; no work to be done, but by the labor of
my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast
away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but
himself. But how just has it been, and how should all men
reflect, that, when they compare their present conditions with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the
exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity, by their
experience. I say, how just has it been, that the truly soli-
tary life I reflected on in an island of mere desolation should
be my lot, who had so often unjustly compared it with the
life which I then led, in which had I continued, I had in all
probability been exceeding prosperous and rich.
I was in some degree settled in my measures for carrying
on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the
ship that took me up at sea, went back; for the ship remained
there in providing his loading, and preparing for his voyage,
near three months. When telling him what little stock I
had left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and
sincere advice, Seignor Inglese," says he, for so he always
called me, "if you will give me letters, and a procuration here
in form to me, with orders to the person who has your money
in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons
as I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this
country, I will bring you the produce of them, God willing,

at my return; but since human affairs are all subject to
changes and disasters, I would have you give orders but for
one hundred pounds sterling, which you say is half your
stock, and let the hazard be run for the first; so that if it
come safe, you may order the rest the same way, and if it
miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse to
for your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly,
that I could not but be convinced it was the best course I
could take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentle-
woman with whom I had left my money, and a procuration
to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all
my adventures, my slavery, escape, and how I had met with
the Portugal captain at sea, the humanity of his behavior,
and in what condition I was now in, with all other necessary
directions for my supply; and when this honest captain
came to Lisbon, he found means by some of the English
merchants there, to send over not the order only, but a full
account of my story to a merchant at London, who repre-
sented it effectually to her; whereupon, she not only deliv-
ered the money, but out of her own pocket sent the Portugal
captain a very handsome present for his humanity and charity
to me.
The merchant in London vesting this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had wrote for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to
me to the Brazils, among which, without my direction (for I
was too young in my business to think of them) he had taken
care to have all sorts of tools, iron-work, and utensils neces-
sary for my plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for
I was surprised with joy of it; and my good steward, the
captain, had laid out the five pounds which my friend haa
sent him for a present for himself, to purchase, and bring
me over a servant under bond for six years' service, and
would not accept of any consideration, except a little to-
bacco, which I would have him accept, being of my own

Neither was this all; but my goods being all English
manufactures, such as cloth, stuffs, bays, and things particu-
larly valuable and desirable in the country, I found means to
sell them to a very great advantage; so that I may say, I
had more than four times the value of my first cargo, and
was now infinitely beyond my poor neighbor, I mean in the,
advancement of my plantation; for the first thing I did, I
bought me a negro slave, and an European servant also;
I mean another besides that which the captain brought me
from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very
means of our greatest adversity, so it was with me. I went
on the next year with great success in my plantation. I
raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more
than I had disposed of for necessaries among my neighbors;
and these fifty rolls being each of about Ioo weight were
well cured and laid by against the return of the fleet from
Lisbon. And now increasing in business and in wealth, my
head began to be full of projects and undertakings beyond
my reach; such as are indeed often the suin of the best
heads in business.
Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room
for all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which
my father so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life, and
of which he had so sensibly described the middle station of
life to be full of; but other things attended me, and I was
still to be the wilful agent of all my own miseries; and
particularly to increase my fault, and double the reflections
upon myself, which in my future sorrows I should have
leisure to make; all these miscarriages were procured by
my apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination of
wandering abroad, and pursuing that inclination, in contra-
diction to the clearest views of doing myself good in a fair
and plain pursuit of those prospects and those measures of
life, which nature and Providence concurred to present me
with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my
parents, so I could not be content now, but I must go and
leave the happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man

in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoder-
ate desire of rising faster than the nature of the thing admit-
ted; and thus I cast myself down again into the deepest
gulf of human misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps
could be consistent with life and a state of health in the
To come then by the just degrees, to the particulars of
this part of my story, you may suppose, that having now
lived almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to
thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not
only learned the language, but had contracted acquaintance
and friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as among
the merchants at St. Salvadore, which was our port; and
that in my discourses among them, I had frequently given
them an account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea,
the manner of trading with the negroes there, and how easy
it was to purchase upon the coast, for trifles, such as beads,
toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like,
not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, etc., but
negroes for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to the
buying negroes, which was a trade at that time not only far
entered into, but as far as it was, had been carried on by the
assiento, or permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal,
and engrossed in the public, so that few negroes were
brought, and those excessive dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning, and
told me they had been musing very much upon what I had
discoursed with them of, the last night, and they came to
make a secret proposal to me; and after enjoining me
secrecy, they told me, that they had a mind to fit out a ship
to go to Guinea, that they had all plantations as well as I,
and were straitened for nothing so much as servants; that
as it was a trade that could not be carried on, because they
could not publicly sell the negroes when they came home, so
they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the negroes

on shore privately, and divide them among their own planta-
tions; and, in a word, the question was, whether I would go
their super-cargo in the ship to manage the trading part
upon the coast of Guinea? And they offered me that I
should have my equal share of the negroes, without provid-
ing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it
been made to anyone that had not had a settlement and
plantation of his own to look after, which was in a fair way
of coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock
upon it. But for me that was thus entered and established,
and had nothing to do but go on as I had begun for three or
four years more, and to have sent for the other hundred
pounds from England, and who, in that time and with that
little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth three
or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing, too,
for me to think of such a voyage was the most preposter-
ous thing that. ever man in such circumstances could be
guilty of.
But I that was born to be my own destroyer could no
more resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling
designs, when my father's good counsel was lost upon me.
In a word, I told them I would go with all my heart if they
would undertake to look after my plantation in my absence,
and would dispose of it to such as I should direct if I mis-
carried. This they all engaged to do, and entered into
writings or covenants to do so, and I made a formal will,
disposing of my plantation and effects in case of my death,
making the captain of the ship that had saved my life as be-
fore my universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of my
effects as I had directed in my will, one-half of the produce
being to himself and the other to be shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects
and keep up my plantation. Had I used half as much pru-
dence to have looked into my own interest, and have made
a judgment of what I ought to have done and not to have
done, I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous
an undertaking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving
circumstance, and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with

all its common hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had
to expect particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of
my fancy rather than my reason; and accordingly, the ship
being fitted out and the cargo furnished, and all things done as
by agreement by my partners in the voyage, I went on board
in an evil hour, the ist of September, 1659, being the same
day, eight year, that I went from my father and mother at
Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority, and the
fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burthen,
carried six guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his
boy and myself. We had on board no large cargo of goods,
except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the ne-
groes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells and odd trifles,
especially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets,
and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away
to the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch
over for the African coast, when they came about ten or
twelve degrees of northern latitude, which it seems was the
manner of their course in those days. We had very good
weather, only excessive heat all the way upon our own
coast, till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino,
from whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight of
land, and steered as if we were bound for the Isle Fernand
de Noronha, holding our course N. E. by N., and leaving
those isles on the east. In this course we passed the line
in about twelve days' time, and were, by our last observa-
tion, in seven degrees, twenty-two minutes, northern lati-
ituce, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite
out of our knowledge. It began from the south-east, came
about to the north-west, and then settled into the north-
east, from whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that for
12 days together we could do nothing but drive, and scudding
away before it, let it carry us whither ever fate and the
fury of the winds directed; and during these 12 days, I
need not say, that I expected every day to be swallowed up,
nor indeed did any in the ship expect to save their lives.

In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm,
one of our men died of the calenture, and one man and the
boy washed overboard; about'the 12th day the weather
abating a little, the master made an observation as well as
he could, and found that he was in about 1 degrees north
latitude, but that he was 22 degrees of longitude difference
west from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was
gotten upon the coast of Guinea, or the north part of Brazil,
beyond the river Amozones, toward that of the river
Oronoque, commonly called the Great River, and began to
consult with me what course he should take, for the ship
was leaky and very much disabled, and he was going directly
back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that, and looking over the charts
of the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there
was no inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we
came within the circle of the Carribbe-Islands, and therefore
resolved to stand away for Barbadoes, which by keeping off
at sea, to avoid the indraft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we
might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days
sail, whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to the
coast of Africa without some assistance, both to our ship
and to ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and steered away
N. W. by W. in order to reach some of our English islands,
where I hoped for relief; but our voyage was otherwise
determined, for being in the latitude of 12 deg. 18 min. a
second storm came upon us, which carried us away with the
same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the very
way of all humane commerce, that had all our lives been
saved, as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being
devoured by savages than ever returning to our own
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of
our men early in the morning, cried out, "land;" and we
had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out in hopes of
seeing whereabouts in the world we were, but the ship
struck upon a sand, and in a moment her motion being so
stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner, that we

expected we should all have perished immediately, and we
were immediately driven into our close quarters to shelter
us from the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for anyone, who has not been in the like
condition, to describe or conceive the consternation of men
in such circumstances; we knew nothing where we were, or
upon what land it was we were driven, whether an island or
the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as the
rage of the wind was still great, though rather less than at
first, we could not so much as hope to have the ship hold
many minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the winds
by a kind of miracle should turn immediately about. In a
word, we sat looking one upon another, and expecting death
every moment, and every man acting accordingly, as pre-
paring for another world, for there was little or nothing
more for us to do in this; that which was our present
comfort, and all the comfort we had, was, that contrary to
our expectation the ship did not break yet, and that the
master said the wind began to abate.
Now though we thought that the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking
too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dread-
ful condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of
saving our lives as well as we could; we had a boat at our
stern, just before the storm, but she was first staved by
dashing against the ship's rudder, and in the next place she
broke away, and either sunk or was driven off to sea, so
there was no hope from her; we had another boat on board,
but how to get her off into the sea, was a doubtful thing;
however, there was no room to debate, for we fancied the
ship would break in pieces every minute, and some told us
she was actually broken already.
In this distress the mate of our vessel laid hold of the
boat, and with the help of the rest of the men they got her
slung over the ship's side, and getting all into her, let go,
and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's
mercy and the wild sea; for, though the storm was abated
considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully high upon the

shore, and might well be called "Den wild Zee," as the
Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed, for we all saw
plainly that the sea went so high that the boat could not
live, and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to
making sail, we had none, nor, if we had could we have
done anything with it; so we worked at the oar towards the
land, though with heavy hearts, like men going to execution,
for we all knew that when the boat came nearer the shore
she would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of
the sea. However, we committed our souls to God in the
most earnest manner, and, the wind driving us towards the
shore, we hastened our destruction with our own hands,
pulling as well as we could towards land.
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep
or shoal, we knew not. The only hope that could rationally
give us the least shadow of expectation was if we might
happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river,
where, by great chance, we might have run our boat in, or
got under the lea of the land, or perhaps made smooth
water. But there was nothing of this appeared; but as we
made nearer and nearer the shore the land looked more
frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and
a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came
rowling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the
coup-de-grace. In a word, it took us with such a fury that
it overset the boat at once, and separating us as well from
the boat as from one another, gave us not time hardly
to say, "0 God!" for we were all swallowed up in a
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I
felt when I sunk into the water, for though I swam very
well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to
draw breath till that wave having driven me, or rather car-
ried me a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent
itself, went back and left me upon the land almost dry, but
half dead with the water I took in. I had so much presence
of mind as well as breath left that seeing myself nearer the

main land than I expected, I got upon my feet and endeav-
ored to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before
another wave should return and take me up again. But I
soon found it was impossible to avoid it, for I saw the sea
come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious as an
enemy which I had no means or strength to contend with.
My business was to hold my breath and raise myself upon
the water if I could, and so, by swimming, to preserve my
breathing and pilot myself towards the shore if possible,
my greatest concern now being that the sea, as it would
carry me a great way towards the shore when it came on,
might not carry me back again with it when it gave back
towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel
myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards
the shore a very great way; but I held my breath and as-
sisted myself to swim still forward with all my might. I
was ready to burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt
myself rising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my
head and hands shoot out above the surface of the water,
and though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep
myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and
new courage. I was covered again with water a good while,
but not so long but I held it out, and finding the water had
spent itself and began to return, I struck forward against
the return of the waves and felt ground again with my feet.
I stood still a few moments to recover breath and till the
water went from me, and then took to my heels and run
with what strength I had farther towards the shore. But
neither would this deliver me from the fury of the sea,
which came pouring in after me again, and twice more I was
lifted up by the waves and carried forwards as before, the
shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well near been fatal to me;
for the sea having hurried me along as before, landed me,
or rather dashed me against a piece of a rock, and that with
such force, as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as
to my own deliverance; for the blow taking my side and

breast, beat the breath as it were quite out of my body; and
had it returned again immediately, I must have been strangled
in the water; but I recovered a little before the return of
the waves, and seeing I should be covered again with the
water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so
to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back.
Now as the waves were not so high as at first, being near
land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched
another run which brought me so near the shore, that the
next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow
me up as to carry me away, and the next run I took, I got
to the main land, where, to my great comfort, I clambered
up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the grass,
free from danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look
up and thank God that my life was saved in a case wherein
there was some minutes before scarce any room to hope. I
believe it is impossible to express to the life what the ec-
stacies and transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as
I may say, out of the very grave; and I do not wonder now
at that custom, viz: Thatwhen a malefactor, who has the
halter-about his neck, is tied up, and just going to be turned
off, and has a reprieve brought to him. I say, I do not
wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him bleed
that very moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may
not drive the animal spirits from the heart and overwhelm
him. For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapped up in the contempla-
tion of my deliverance, making a thousand gestures and
motions which I cannot describe, reflecting upon all my
comrades that were drowned, and that there should not be
one soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw
them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three of their
hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the breach
and froth of the sea being so big I could hardly see it, it
lay so far off, and considered, Lord! how was it possible I
could get on shore ?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of
my condition, I began to look round me to see what kind of
place I was in, and what was next to be done, and I soon
found my comforts abate, and that in a word I had a dread-
ful deliverance. For I was wet, had no clothes to shift
me, nor anything either to eat or drink to comfort me,
neither did I see any prospect before me but that of
perishing with hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts;
and that which was particularly afflicting to me, was,
that I had no weapon either to hunt and kill any creature
for my sustenance, or to defend myself against any other
creature that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a
word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco pipe,
and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my provisions,
and this threw me into terrible agonies of mind, that for a
while I ran about like a mad man. Night coming upon me, I
began with a heavy heart to consider what would be my lot if
there were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at
night they always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time,
was to get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny,
which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night,
and consider the next day what death I should die, for as
yet I saw no prospect of life; I walked about a furlong from
the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink,
which I did, to my great joy; and having drank, and put a
little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the
tree, and getting up into it, endeavored to place myself so
as that if I should sleep I might not fall; and having cut
me a short stick, like a trucheon, for my defence, I took up
my lodging, and having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast
asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have
done in my condition, and found myself the most refreshed
with it, that I think I ever was on such an occasion.
When I woke it was broad day, the whether clear, and the
storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as
before; but that which surprised me most, was, that the
ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay,
by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far


as the rock which I first mentioned, where I had been so
bruised by the dashing me against it; this being within
about a mile from the shore where I was, and the ship seem-
ing to stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that, at
least,' I might have some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I
looked about me again, and,the first thing I found was the
boat, which lay as the wind and the sea had tossed her up
upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked
as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her, but
found a neck or inlet of water between me and the boat,
which was about half a mile broad, so I came back for the
present, being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I
hoped to find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a
mile of the ship; and here I found a fresh renewing of my
grief, for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board, we
had been all safe, that is to say, we had all got safe on shore,
and I had not been so miserable as to be left entirely desti-
tute of all comfort and company, as I now was; this forced
tears from my eyes again, but as there was little relief in
that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship, so I pulled off
my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and took
the water; but when I came to the ship, my difficulty was
still greater to know how to get on board, for as she lay
aground, and high out of the water, there was nothing
within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice,
and the second time I spied a small piece of a rope, which I
wondered I did not see at first, hang down by the fore-chains
so low, as that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by
the help of that rope, got up into the forcastle of the ship.
Here I found that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal
of water in her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a
bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted
up upon the bank, and her head low almost to the water; by
this means all her quarter was free, and all that was in that
part was dry; for you may be sure my first work was to
search and to see what was spoiled and what was free; and

first I found that all the ship's provisions were dry and un-
touched by the water, and being very well disposed to eat, I
went to the bread-room and filled my pockets with biscuit,
and eat it as I went about other things, for I had no time to
lose; I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I
took a large dram, and which I had indeed need enough of
to spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted noth-
ing but a boat to furnish myself with many things which I
foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be
had, and this extremity roused my application; we had seve-
ral spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a
spare top-mast or two in the ship. I resolved to fall to work
with these, and flung as many of them overboard as I could
manage for their weight, tying every one with a rope that
they might not drive away; when this was done I went down
the ship's side, and pulling them to me, I tied four of them
fast together at both ends as well as I could, in the form of
a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon
them crossways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but
that it was not able to bear any great weight, the pieces be-
ing too light; so I went to work, and with the carpenter's
saw I cut a spare top-mast into three lengths, and added
them to my raft, with a great deal of labor and pains; but
hope of furnishing myself with necessaries, encouraged me
to go beyond what I should have been able to have done
upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how to
preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I
was not long considering this. I first laid all the planks or
boards upon it that I could get, and having considered well
what I most wanted, I first got three of the seamen's chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered them
down upon my raft; the first of these I filled with provi-
sions, viz: bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of
dried goat's flesh, which we lived much upon, and a little re-
mainder of European corn which had been laid by for some
fowls which we brought to sea with us, but the fowls were






to wait until the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft
with my oar like an anchor to hold the side of it fast to the
shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I expected the
water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I found
water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of water, I
thrust her on upon that flat piece of ground, and there
fastened or moored her by sticking my two broken oars into
the ground; one on one side near one end, and one on the
other side near the other end; and thus I lay until the
water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods to
secure them from whatever might happen. Where I was I
yet knew not, whether on the continent or on an island,
whether inhabited or not inhabited, whether in danger of
wild beasts or not. There was a hill not above a mile from
me, which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed
to over-top some other hills which lay as in a ridge from it
northward; I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of
the pistols, and an horn of powder, and thus armed I
traveled for discovery up to the top of that hill, where, after
I had with great labor and difficulty got to the top, I saw my
fate to my great affliction, viz: that I was in an island
environed every way with the sea, no land to be seen, except
some rocks which lay a great way off, and two small islands
less than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and as I
saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild
beasts, of whom, however, I saw none, yet I saw abundance
of fowls, but knew not their kinds, neither when I killed
them could I tell what was fit for food, and what not; at my
coming back, I shot at a great bird which I saw sitting upon
a tree on the side of a great wood. I believe it was the first
gun that had been fired there since the creation of the
world; I had no sooner fired, but from all the parts of the
wood there arose an innumerable number of fowls of many
sorts, making a confused screaming, and crying every one
according to his usual note; but not one of them of any kind


that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took it to be a
kind of a hawk, its color and beak resembling it, but had no
talons or claws more than common; its flesh was carrion,
and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft,
and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me
up the rest of that day, and what to do with myself at night
I knew not, nor indeed where to rest; for I was afraid to
lie down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast
might devour me, though, as I afterwards found, there was
really no need for those fears.
However, as well I could, I barricaded myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and
made a kind of a hut for that night's lodging; as for food, I
yet saw not which way to supply myself, except that I had
seen two or three creatures like hares run out of the wood
where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and
particularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other
things as might come to land, and I resolved to make an-
other voyage on board the vessel, if possible; and as I
knew that the first storm that blew must necessarily break
her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart, till
I got everything out of the ship that I could get. Then I
called a council, that is to say, in my thoughts, whether I
should take back the raft, but this appeared impracticable;
so I resolved to go as before, when the tide was down, and
I did so, only that I stripped before I went from my hut,
having nothing on but a checkered shirt, and a pair of linen
drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship, as before, and prepared a second
raft, and having had experience of the first, I neither made
this so unweildy, nor loaded it so hard; but yet I brought
away several things very useful to me : as first, in the car-
penter's stores I found two or three bags full of nails and
spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and
above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone. All
these I secured, together with several things belonging to

the gunner, particularly two or three iron crows, and two
barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and another fowl-
ing-piece, with some small quantity of powder more; a large
bag full of small shot, and a great roll of sheet lead; but
this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it over
the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I
could find, and a spare fore-top-sail, a hammock, and some
bedding; and with this I loaded my second raft, and
brought them all safe on shore to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions during my absence from
the land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on
shore; but when I came back, I found no sign of any vis-
itor, only there sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the
chests, which when I came towards it, ran away a little dis-
tance, and then stood still. She sat very composed and
unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a
mind to be acquainted with me. I presented my gun at her,
but as she did not understand it, she was perfectly uncon-
cerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away. Upon which I
tossed her a bit of biscuit, though by the way, I was not very
free of it, for my store was not great. However, I spared
her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled of it, and ate it,
and looked as pleased for more; but I thanked her, and
could share no more; so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore, though I was fain
to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels,
for they were too heavy, being large casks, I went to work
to make me a little tent with the sail and some poles which I
cut for that purpose, and into this tent I brought everything
that I knew would spoil, either with rain or sun, and I piled
all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent,
to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from man or
When I had done this I blocked up the door of the tent
with some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end
without, and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, lay-
ing my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by
me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly



Page 5r.


all night, for I was very weary and heavy, for the night be-
fore I had slept little, and had labored very hard all day, as
well to fetch all those things from the ship, as to get them
on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever were
laid up, I believe, for one man, but I was not satisfied still;
for while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I
ought to get everything out of her that I could, so every day
at low water I went on board, and brought away some thing
or other. But particularly the third time I went, I brought
away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small
ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare can-
vas, which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the
barrel of wet gun-powder. In a word, I brought away all
the sails first and last, only that I was fain to cut them in
pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could; for they
were no more useful to be sails, but as mere canvas only.
But that which comforted me more still, was, that at last
of all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these,
and thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship
that was worth meddling with, I say, after all this, I found a
great hogshead of bread, and three large runlets of rum or
spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour; this
was surprising to me, because I had given over expecting
any more provisions, except what was spoiled by the water.
I soon emptied the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it
up parcel by parcel in pieces of the sails, which I cut out;
and in a word, I got all this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage; and now having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out,
I began with the cables, and cutting the great cable into
pieces, such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser
on shore, with all the iron work I could get; and having cut
down the spritsail-yard, and the mizzen-yard, and everything
I could to make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy
goods and came away. But my good luck began now to
leave me, for this raft was so unwieldy, and so overloaden,
that after I was entered the little cove, where I had landed
the rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as

I did the other, it overset, and threw me and all my cargo
into the water; as for myself it was no great harm, for I was
near the shore, but as to my cargo, it was great part of it
lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have been
of great use to me. However, when the tide was out, I got
most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron,
though with infinite labor; for I was fain to dip for it into
the water, a work which fatigued me very much. After this
I went every day on board, and brought away what I could
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been
eleven times on board the ship, in which time I had brought
away all that one pair of hands could well be supposed capa-
ble to bring; though I believe verily, had the calm weather
held, I should have brought away the whole ship piece by
piece. But preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I
found the wind begin to rise; however, at low water I went
on board, and though I thought I had rummaged the cabin
so effectually, as that nothing more could be found, yet I
discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I
found two or three razors, and one pair of large scissors,
with some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks; in an-
other I found about thirty-six pounds value in money, some
European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold,
some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. O drug! said
I, aloud, what art thou good for ? Thou art not worth to me,
no, not the taking off of the ground; one of those knives is
worth all this heap; I have no manner of use for thee; even
remain where thou art, and go to the bottom as a creature
whose life is not worth saving. However, upon second
thoughts, I took it away, and wrapping all this in a piece of
canvas, I began to think of making another raft, but while I
was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind
began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh
gale from the shore; it presently occurred to me, that it was
in vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore,
and that it was my business to be gone before the tide of
flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the

shore at all; accordingly I let myself down into the water,
and swam cross the channel, which lay between the ship and
the sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly with
the weight of the things I had about me, and partly the
roughness of the water, for the wind rose very hastily, and
before it was quite high water, it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay
with all my wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard
all that night, and in the morning when I looked out, behold
no more ship was to be seen. I was a little surprised, but
recovered myself with this satisfactory reflection, viz: that I
had lost no time, nor abated no diligence to get everything
out of her that could be useful to me, and that indeed there
was little left in her that I was able to bring away, if I had
had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of any-
thing out of her, except what might drive on shore from her
wreck, as indeed divers pieces of her afterwards did; but
those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing
myself against either savages, if any should appear, or wild
beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts
of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to
make, whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or
a tent upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both,
the manner and description of which it may not be improper
to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement,
particularly because it was upon a low moorish ground near
the sea, and I believed would not be wholesome, and more
particularly because there was no fresh water near it, so I
resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
I consulted several things in my situation which I found
would be proper for me. First, health, and fresh water I
just now mentioned. Secondly, shelter from the heat of the
sun. Thirdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether
men or beasts. Fourthly, a view to the sea, that if God sent
any ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for my

deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish all my
expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain
on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little
plain was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come
down upon me from the top; on the side of this rock there
was a hollow place worn a little way in, like the entrance or
door of a cave, but there was not really any cave or way into
the rock at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I
resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above an
hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a
green before my door, and at the end of it descended irregu-
larly every way down into the low grounds by the seaside.
It was on the N. N. W. side of the hill, so that I was shel-
tered from the heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S.
sun, or thereabouts, which in those countries is near the
Before I set up my tent I drew a half circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-
diameter from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter,
from its beginning and ending.
In this half circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into the ground till they stood very firm, like
piles, the biggest erid being out of the ground about five
feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two rows
did not stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the
ship and laid them in rows one upon another within the
circle, between these two rows of stakes, up to the top, plac-
ing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about
two feet and a half high, like a spur to a post, and this fence
was so strong that neither man.nor beast could get into it or
over it. This cost me a great deal of time and labor, espe-
cially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the place,
and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door,
but by a short ladder to go over the top, which ladder, when
I was in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely

fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and
consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I
could not have done, though, as it appeared afterward, there
was no need of all this caution from the enemies that I ap-
prehended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried
all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition and stores, of
which you have the account above; and I made me a large
tent, which, to preserve me from the rains that in one part
of the year are very violent there, I made double, viz: one
smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it, and covered
the uppermost with a large tarpaulin which I had saved
among the sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was, indeed, a
very good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything
that would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all
my goods, I made up the entrance, which till now I had left
open, and so passed and re-passed, as I said, by a short
When I had done this I began to work my way into the
rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down
out through my tent, I laid them up within my fence in the
nature of a terrace, that so it raised the ground within about
a foot and a half, and thus I made me a cave just behind my
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labor and many days before all these
things were brought to perfection, and therefore I must go
back to some other things which took up some of my
thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid
my scheme for the setting up my tent and making the cave,
that a storm of rain falling from a thick dark cloud, a sud-
den flash of lightning happened, and after that a great clap
of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not so
much surprised with the lightning as I was with a thought
which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning itself:
"Oh, my powder!" My very heart sunk within me when I
thought that at one blast all my powder might be destroyed,

on which not my defence only but the providing me food, as
I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so anx-
ious about my own danger, though, had the powder took
fire, I had never known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the
storm was over I laid aside all my works, my building and
fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes to
separate the powder and keep it a little and a little in a par-
cel, in hope that whatever might come it might not all take
fire at once, and to keep it so apart that it should not be
possible to make one part fire another. I finished this work
in about a fortnight, and I think my powder, which in all
was about two hundred and forty pounds weight, was di-
vided in not less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel
that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from
that, so I placed it in my new cave, which in my fancy I
called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and down in holes
among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking
very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out
once at least every day with my gun, as well to divert my-
self, as to see if I could kill anything fit for food, and as
near as I could to acquaint myself with what the island pro-
duced. The first time I went out I presently discovered
that there were goats in the island, which was a great sat-
isfaction to me; but then it was attended with this misfor-
tune to me, viz: That they were so shy, so subtle, and so
swift of foot, that it was the difficultest thing in the world to
come at them. But I was not discouraged at this, not
doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon
happened, for after I had found their haunts a little, I laid
wait in this manner for them. I observed if they saw me in
the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would
run away as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in
the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took no notice
of me, from whence I concluded, that by the position of
their optics, their sight was so directed downward, that they
did not readily see objects that were above them. So after-
ward I took this method: I always climbed the rocks first to

get above them, and then had frequently a fair mark. The
first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat,
which had a little kid by her which she gave suck to, which
grieved me heartily; but when the old one fell, the kid
stood stock still by her till I came and took her up, and not
only so, but when I carried the old one with me upon my
shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure, upon
which I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms,
and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up
tame, but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it and eat
it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while,
for I eat sparingly, and saved my provisions (my bread
especially) as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to
burn; and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my
cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full
account of in its place; but I must first give some little
account of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which
it may well be supposed were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition, for as I was not
cast away upon that island without being driven, as is said,
by a violent storm quite out of the course of oir intended
voyage, and a great way, viz: some hundreds of leagues out
of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great
reason to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in
this desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should
end my life. The tears would run plentifully down my face
when I made these reflections; and sometimes I would
expostulate with myself, why Providence should thus com-
pletely ruin its creatures, and render them so absolutely
miserable, so without help abandoned, so entirely depressed
that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a
But something always returned swift upon me to check
these thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly one
day walking with my gun in my hand by the seaside, I was
very pensive upon the subject of my present condition,
when reason as it were, expostulated with me the other

way, thus: Well, you are in a desolate condition, 't is true,
but pray remember, where are the rest of you ? Did not
you come eleven of you into the boat? where are the ten?
Why were not they saved, and you lost? Why were you
singled out? Is it better to be here or there? and then I
pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered with the
good that is in them, and with what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well 1 was furnished
for my subsistence, and what would have been my case
if it had not happened, which was an hundred thousand to
one, that the ship floated from the place where she first
struck and was driven so near to the shore that I had time
to get all these things out of her. What would have been
my case, if I had been to have lived in the condition in
which I at first came on shore, without necessaries of life,
or necessaries to supply and procure them? Particularly,
said I aloud (though to myself), what should I had done
without a gun, without ammunition, without any tools to
make anything, or to work with, without clothes, bedding, a
tent, or any manner of covering, and that now I had all
these to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to pro-
vide myself in such a manner, as to live without my gun
when my ammunition was spent; so that I had a tolerable
view of subsisting without any want as long as I lived; for
I considered from the beginning how I would provide for
the accidents that might happen, and for the time that was
to come, even not only after my ammunition should be spent,
but even after my health or strength should decay.
I confess I had not entertained any notion of my ammuni-
tion being destroyed at one blast, I mean my powder being
blown up by lightning, and this made the thoughts of it so
surprising to me when it lightened and thundered, as I
observed just now.
And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a
scene of silent life, such perhaps as was never heard of in
the world before, I shall take it from its beginning, and
continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 3oth of
September, when, in the- manner as abovesaid, I first set
foot upon this horrid island, when the sun being, to us, in

its autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head, for I
reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of 9
degrees 22 minutes north of the line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came
into my thoughts, that I should lose my reckoning of time
for want of books and pen and ink, and should even forget
the Sabbath days from the working days; but to prevent
this, I cut it with my knife upon a large post, in capital
letters, and making it into a great cross, I set it up on the
shore where I first landed, viz: I came on shore here on
the 3oth of September, 1659. Upon the sides of this square
post, I cut every day a notch with my knife, and every
seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every first
day of the month as long again as that long one, and thus I
kept my calender, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning
of time.
In the next place we are to observe, that among the many
things which I brought out of the ship in the several
voyages, which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got
several things of less value, but not all less useful to me,
which I omitted setting down before; as in particular, pens,
ink, and paper, several parcels in the captain's, mate's,
gunner's, and carpenter's keeping, three or four compasses,
some mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts,
and books of navigation, all which I huddled together,
whether I might want them or not; also, I found three very
good bibles which came to me in my cargo from England,
and which I had packed up among my things; some
Portuguese books also, and among them two or three Popish
prayer-books, and several other books, all which I carefully
secured. And I must not forget, that we had in the ship a
dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have
occasion to say something in its place; for I carried both the
cats with me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship
of himself, and swam on shore to me the day after I went
on shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me
many years; I wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor
any company that he could make up to me; I only wanted to
have him talk to me, but that would not do. As I observed

before, I found pen, ink and paper, and I husbanded them
to the utmost; and I shall show, that while my ink lasted, I
kept things very exact; but after that was gone, I could not,
for I could not make any ink, by any means that I could
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, not-
withstanding all that I had amassed together, and of these
this of ink was one, as also spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to
dig or remove the earth, needles, pins and thread; as for
linen, I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily,
and it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished
my little pale, or surrounded habitation. The piles, or
stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long
time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more by far
in bringing home, so that I spent sometimes two days in
cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and a third
day in driving it into the ground, for which purpose I got a
heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought myself of
one of the iron crows, which, however, though I found it,
yet it made driving those posts, or piles, very laborious and
tedious work.
But what need I have been concerned at the tediousness
of anything I had to do seeing I had time enough to do it
in; nor had I any other employment if that had been
over, at least that I could foresee, except the ranging
the island to seek for food, which I did more or less
every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the
circumstance I was reduced to, and I drew up the state of
my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that
were to come after me, for I was like to have but few heirs,
as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them and
affecting my mind; and as my reason began now to master
my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I
could, and to set the good against the evil, that I might have
something to distinguish my case from worse, and I stated
it very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I
enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus:


I am cast upon a horrible,
desolate island, void of all
hope of recovery.
I am singled out and sep-
arated, as it were, from all
the world, to be miserable.

I am divided from man-
kind, a solitaire, one ban-
ished from human society.
I have not clothes to cover

I am without any defence
or means to resist any vio-
lence of man or beast.

I have no soul to speak to
or relieve me.

But I am alive and not
drowned, as all my ship's
company were.
But I am singled out, too,
from all the ship's crew to be
spared from death; and He
that miraculously saved me
from death can deliver me
from this condition.
But I am not starved and
perishing on a barren place,
affording no sustenance.
But I am in a hot climate,
where, if I had clothes, I
could hardly wear them.
But I am cast on an island
where I see no wild beasts
to hurt me, as I saw on the
coast of Africa; and what
if I had been shipwrecked
But God wonderfully sent
the ship in near enough to
the shore that I have gotten
out so many necessary things
as will either supply my
wants or enable me to sup-
ply myself, even as long as
I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that
there was scarce any condition in the world so miserable,
but there was something negative or something positive to
be thankful for in it; and let this stand as a direction from
the experience of the most miserable of all conditions in
this world, that we may always find in it something to
comfort ourselves from, and to set in the description of
good and evil, on the credit side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my con-
dition, and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could
spy a ship; I say, giving over these things, I began to apply
myself to accommodate my way of living, and to make things
as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of
posts and cables, but I might now rather call it a wall, for I
raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two foot
.thick on the outside, and after some time, I think it was a
year and half, I raised rafters from it leaning to the rock,
and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and such
things as I could get to keep out the rain, which I found at
sometimes of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into
this pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me.
But I must observe too that at first this was a confused
heap of goods, which as they lay in no order, so they took
up all my place; I had no room to turn myself; so I set
myself to enlarge my cave and works farther into the earth;
for it was a loose sandy rock, which yielded easily to the
labor I bestowed on it. And so when I found I was pretty
safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways to the right
hand into the rock; and then turning to the right again,
worked quite out, and made me a door to come out, on the
outside of my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were a
back-way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room
to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, as particularly a chair and
a table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few
comforts I had in the world; I could not write or eat, or do
several things with so much pleasure without a table.
So I went to work; and here I must needs observe, that
as reason is the substance and original of the mathomati.s,
so by stating and squaring every thing by reason, and By
making the most rational judgment of things, every man
may be in time master of every mechanic art. I had never



Page ba.

handled a tool in my life, and yet in time by labor, applica-
tion and contrivance, I found at last that 1 wanted nothing but
I could have made it, especially if I had had tools; however,
I made abundance of things, even without tools, and some
with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which per-
haps were never made that way before, and that with infinite
labor. For example, if I wanted a board, I had no other
way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and
hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I had brought it
to be thin as a plank, and then dubb it smooth with my adze.
It is true by this method I could make but one board out of
a whole tree, but this I had no remedy for but patience, any
more than I had for the prodigious deal of time and labor
which it took me up to make a plank or board. But my
time or labor was little worth, and so it was as well employed
one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place, and this I did out of the short
pieces of boards that I brought on my raft from the ship.
But when I had wrought out some boards, as above, I made
large shelves of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over
another, all along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools,
nails, and iron-work, and in a word, to separate every thing
at large in their places, that I might come easily at them;
I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang my guns
and all things that would hang up.
So that had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a gen-
eral magazine of all necessary things, and I had everything so
ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see
all my goods in such order, and especially to find my stock
of all necessaries so great.
And now it was when I began to keep a journal of every
day's employment, for indeed at first I was in too much
hurry, and not only hurry as to labor, but in too much dis-
composure of mind, and my journal would have been full of
many dull things. For example, I must have said thus:
September the 3oth. After I got to shore and had escaped
drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliver-
ance, having first vomited with the great quantity of salt

water which was gotten into my stomach, and recovering
myself a little, I ran about the shore, wringing my hands and
beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery, and cry-
ing out I was undone, undone, till tired and faint I was forced
to lie down on the ground to repose, but durst not sleep for
fear of being devoured.
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the
ship, and got all that I could out of her, yet I could not for-
bear getting up to the top of a little mountain and looking
out to sea in hopes of seeing a ship, then fancy at a vast
distance I spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it,
and then after looking steadily until I was almost blind, lose
it quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase
my misery by my folly.
But having gotten over these things in some measure, and
having settled my household stuff and habitation, made me
a table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I
could, I began to keep my journal, of which I shall here give
you the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars
over again) as long as it lasted, for having no more ink I
was forced to leave it off.

September 30, 1659. I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm, in the offing,
came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which I
called the Island of Despair, all the rest of the ship's com-
pany being drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at the
dismal circumstances I was brought to, viz: I had neither
food, house, clothes, weapon, or place to fly to, and in de-
spair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me, either
that I should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by sav-
ages, or starved to death for want of food. At the approach
of night, I slept in a tree for fear of wild creatures, but slept
soundly though it rained all night.
October I. In the morning I saw to my great surprise
the ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on
shore again much nearer the island, which as it was some

comfort on one hand, for seeing her sit upright, and not
broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get bo
board, and get some food and necessaries out of her foritny
relief; so on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss
of my comrades, who I imagined if we had all staid On board
might have saved the ship, or at least that they would not
have been all drowned as they were; and that had the men
been saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat out of the
ruins of the ship, to have carried us to some other part of
the world. I spent great part of this day in perplexing my-
self on these things; but at length, seeing the ship almost
dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then swam
on board; this day also it continued raining, though with n6
wind at all.
From the Ist of October to the 24th. All these days en-
tirely spent in many several voyages to -get all I could out of
the ship, which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon
rafts. Much rain also in these days, though with some in-
tervals of fair weather. But it seems this was the rainy
October 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had
got upon it, but being in shoal water, and the things being
chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide was
October 25. It rained all night and all day, with some
gusts of wind, during which time the ship broke in pieces,
the wind blowing a little harder than before, and was no
more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at
low water. I spent this day in covering and securing the
goods which I had saved, that the rain might not spoil thea.
October 26. I walked about the shore almost all day to
find out a.place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned, to
secure myself from an attack in the night, either from wild
beasts or men. Towards night 1 fixed upon a proper place
under a rock, and marked out a semi-circle for my enoamp-
ment, which I resolved to strengthen with a work, waliar
fortification made of double piles, lined within with-vaMes,
and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 3oth I worked very hard isa cauig

all my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the
time it rained exceeding hard.
The 31st, in the morning I went out into the island with
my gun to see for some food, and discover the country;
when I killed a she goat, and her kid followed me home,
which I afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.
November r. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay
there for the first night, making it as large as I could with
stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.
November 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the
pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with them formed
a fence round me, a little within the place I had marked out
for my fortification.
November 3. I went out with my gun, and killed two
fowls like ducks which were very good food. In the after-
noon went to work to make me a table.
November 4. This morning I began to order my times
of work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time
of diversion, viz: Every morning I walked out with my gun
for two or three hours if it did not rain, then employed
myself to work till about eleven o'clock, then eat what I had
to live on, and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the
weather being excessive hot, and then in the evening to
work again; the working part of this day and of the next
were wholly employed in making my table, for I was yet but
a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made me
a complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe it would
do any one else.
November 5. This day went abroad with my gun and my
dog, and killed a wild cat, her skin pretty soft, but her flesh
good for nothing. Every creature I killed, I took off the
skins and preserved them. Coming back by the seashore, I
saw many sorts of sea fowls, which I did not understand;
but was surprised, and almost frighted with two or three
seals, which, while I was gazing at, not well knowing what
they were, got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.
November 6. After my morning walk I went to work
with my table again, and finished it, though not to my liking;
nor was it long before I learnt to mend it.

November 7. Now it begun to be settled fair weather.
The 7th, 8th, 9th, roth, and part of the I2th, (for the IIthwas
Sunday) I took wholly up to make me a chair, and with
much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to please
me; and even in the making I pulled it in pieces several
times. Note.--I soon neglected my keeping Sundays, for
omitting my mark for them on my post, I forgot which was
November 13. This day it rained, which refreshed me ex-
ceedingly, and cooled the earth, but it was accompanied with
terrible thunder and lightning, which frighted me dreadfully,
for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to
separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as
possible, that it might not be in danger.
November 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent 4n mak-
ing little square chests, or boxes, which might hold about a
pound, or two pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting
the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote
from one another as possible. On one of these three days I
killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I know not
what to call it.
November 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent
into the rock, to make room for my farther conveniency.
Note.--Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work,
viz: a pick-axe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow or basket, so I
desisted from my work and began to consider how to supply
that want and make me some tools. As for a pick-axe, I
made use of the iron crows, which were proper enough
though heavy. But the next thing was a shovel or spade.
This was so absolutely necessary that, indeed, I could do
nothing effectually without it; but what kind of one to make
I knew not.
November 18. The next day in searching the woods I
found a tree of that wood, or like it, which in the Brazils
they call the iron tree, for its exceeding hardness; of this,
with great labor and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece,
and brought it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was
exceeding heavy.
The excessive hardness of-the wood, and having another

way, made me a long while upon this machine, for I worked
it effectually by little and little into the form of a shovel of
spade, the handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only
that the broad part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it
would not last me so long. However, it served well enough
for the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but never
was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so long
a making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheel-
barrow; a basket I could not make by any means, having no
such things as twigs that would bend to make wicker ware,
-at least, none yet found out; and as to a wheelbarrow, I
fancied I could make all but the wheel, but that I had no
notion of, neither did I know how to go about it; besides I
had n( possible way to make the iron gudgeons for the
spindle or axis of the wheel to run in, so I gave it over;
and so for carrying away the earth which I dug out of the
cave I made me a thing like a hod which the laborers carry
mortar in when they serve the bricklayers.
This was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel;
and yet this, and the shovel, and the attempt which I made
in vain to make a wheelbarrow took me up no less than four
days,-I mean, always, excepting my morning walk with my
gun, which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed, also,
bringing home something fit to eat.
November 23. My other work having now stood still be-
cause of my making these tools, when they were finished I
went on, and working every day as my strength and time
allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening and
deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods com-
Note.- During all this time I worked to make this room,
or cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a ware-
house, or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room and a cellar.
As for my lodging, I kept to the tent, except that sometimes
in the wet season of the year it rained so hard that I could
not keep myself dry, which caused me afterwards to cover
all my place within my pale with long poles in the form of

rafters, leaning against the rock, and load them with flags
and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.
December o1. I began now to think my cave, or valt,
finished, when, on a sudden, (it seems I had made it too
large,) a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and
one side, so much that, in short, it frighted me, and not
without reason, too, for if I had been under it I had never
wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster I had a great
deal of work to do over again, for I had the loose earth to
carry out, and which was of more importance, I had the
ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would -
come down.
December I This day I went to work with it accord-
ingly, and got two shores or posts pitched upright to the
top, with two pieces of boards across over each post. This
I finished the next day, and setting more posts up with
boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured; and
the posts standing in rows served me for partitions to part
off my house.
December 17. From this day to the twentieth I placed
shelves, and knocked up nails on the posts to hang every-
thing up that could be hung up, and now I began to be in
some order within doors.
December 20. Now I carried everything into the cave,
and began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of
boards, like a dresser, to order my victuals upon, but boards
began to be very scarce with me; also I made me another
December 24. Much rain all night and all day, no stir-
ing out.
December 25. Rain all day.
December 26. No rain, and the earth much cooler than
before and pleasanter.
December 27. Killed a young goat, and lamed another
so that I caught it, and led it home in a string. When I
had it home, I bound and splintered up its leg which wAs
broke. N. B.- I took such care of it, that it lived, and thEi
leg grew well, and as strong as ever; but by my nursing it
so long it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at n '

door, and would not go away. This was the first time that
I entertained a thought of breeding up some tame creatures,
that I might have food when my powder and shot was all
December 28, 29, 30. Great heats and no breeze; so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening for food.
This time I spent in putting all my things in order within
January i. Very hot still, but I went abroad early and
late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day.
This evening, going farther into the valleys which lay to-
wards the center of the island, I found there was plenty of
goats, though exceeding shy and hard to come at; however,
I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them
January 2. Accordingly, the next day, I went out with
my dog, and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken,
for they all faced about upon the dog, and he knew his
danger too well, for he would not come near them.
January 3. I began my fence or wall; which, being still
jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to
make very thick and strong.
N. B.-This wall being described before, I purposely
omit what was said in the journal. It is sufficient to ob-
serve, that I was no less time than from the third of January
to the fourteenth of April, working, finishing and perfecting
this wall, though it was no more than about twenty-four
yards in length, being a half circle from one place in the
rock to another place about eight yards from it, the door of
the cave being in the centre behind it.
All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me
many days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought
I should never be perfectly secure till this wall was fin-
ished; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labor
everything was done with, especially the bringing piles out
of the woods, and driving them into the ground, for I made
them much bigger than I need to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double
fenced with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded

myself that if any people were to come on shore there, they
would not perceive anything like a habitation; and it was
very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter upon a very
remarkable occasion.
During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game
every day when the rain admitted me, and made frequent
discoveries in these walks of something or other to my ad-
vantage; particularly I found a kind of wild pigeons, who
built not as wood pigeons, in a tree, but rather as house
pigeons, in the holes of the rocks, and taking some young
ones I endeavored to breed them up tame, and did so; but
when they grew older they flew all away, which perhaps was
at first for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to give
them. However, I frequently found their nests and got
their young ones, which were very good meat.
And now, in the managing my household affairs I found
myself wanting in many things, which I thought at first it
was impossible for me to make, as, indeed, as to some of
them it was. For instance, I could never make a cask to be
hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I observed before,
but I could never arrive to the capacity of making one by
them, though I spent many weeks about it. I could neither
put in the heads or joint the staves so true to one another
as to make them hold water, so I gave that, also, over.
In the next place I was at a great loss for candles, so that
as soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by seven
o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the
lump of bees-wax with which I made candles in my African
adventure, but I had none of that now; the only remedy I
had was that when I had killed a goat I saved the tallow,
and with a little dish made of clay, which I baked in the
sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a
lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear, steady
light, like a candle. In the middle of all my labors it hap-
pened that, rummaging my things, I found a little bag,
which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn for the
feeding of poultry, not for this voyage but before, as I sup-
pose, when the ship came from Lisbon. What little re-
mainder of corn had been in the bag was all devoured with

the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks and dust, and
being willing to have the bag for some other use, (I think it
was to put powder in when I divided it for fear of the light-
ning, or some such use,) I shook the husks of corn out of it
on one side of my fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned
that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of anything,
and not so much as remembering that I had thrown any-
thing there, when, about a month after, or thereabout, I saw
some few stalks of something green shooting out of the
ground, which I fancied might be some plant I had not
seen; but I was surprised and perfectly astonished when,
after a little longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears
come out, which were perfect green barley, of the same kind
as our European, nay, as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confu-
sion of my thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted
upon no religious foundation at all; indeed, I had very few
notions of religion in my head, or had entertained any sense
of anything that had befallen me otherwise than as a chance,
or, as we lightly say, what pleases God, without so much as
enquiring into the end of Providence in these things, or his
order in governing events in the world. But after I saw
barley grow there, in a climate which I knew was not proper
for corn, and especially that I knew not how it came there,
it startled me strangely, and I began to suggest that God
had miraculously caused this grain to grow without any help
of seed sown, and that it was so directed purely for my sus-
tenance on that wild, miserable place.
This touched my heart a little and brought tears out of my
eyes, and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of
nature should happen upon my account; and this was the
more strange to me because I saw near it still all along by
the side of the rock some other straggling stalks, which
proved to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had
seen it grow in Africa when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Provi-
dence for my support, but not doubting but that there was
more in the place, I went all over that part of the island,

where I had been before, peering in every corner, and under
every rock, to see for more of it, but I could not find any;
at last it occurred to my thoughts, that I had shook a bag of
chicken's meat out in that place, and then the wonder began
to cease; and I must confess, my religious thankfulness to
God's providence began to abate, too, upon the discovering
that all this was nothing but what was common; though I
ought to have been as thankful for so strange and unfore-
seen Providence, as if it had been miraculous; for it was
really the work of Providence as to me, that should order or
appoint, that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain un-
spoiled (when the rats had destroyed all the rest), as if it
had been dropped from Heaven; as also that I should throw
it out in that particular place, where it being in the shade of
a high rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas, if I had
thrown it anywhere else at that time, it had been burnt up
and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure,
in their season, which was about the end of June; and lay-
ing up every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping
in time to have some quantity sufficient to supply me with
bread. But it was not till the fourth year, that I could allow
myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but
sparingly, as I shall say afterwards in its order; for I lost
all that I sowed the first season, by not observing the proper
time; for I sowed it just before the dry season, so that it
never came up at all, at least, not as it would have done.
Of which in its place.
Besides this barley, there was, as above, twenty or thirty
stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care, and
whose use was of the same kind or to the same purpose,
viz: to make me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to
cook it up without baking, though I did that also after some
time. But to return to my journal.
I worked excessive hard these three or four months to
get my wall done, and the I4th of April I closed it up, con-
triving to go into it, not by a door, but over the wall by a
ladder, that there might be no sign in the outside of my

April 16. I finished the ladder, so I went up with the lad-
der to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down
on the inside. This was a complete enclosure to me; for
within I had room enough, and nothing could come at me
from without, unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost
had all my labor overthrown at once, and myself killed;
the case was thus: As I was busy in the inside of it, behind
my tent, just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly
frighted with a most dreadful, surprising thing indeed; for
all on a sudden I found the earth come crumbling down from
the roof of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my
head, and two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked
in a frightful manner. I was heartily scared, but thought
nothing of what was really the cause, only thinking that the
top of my cave was falling in, as some of it had done before,
and for fear I should be buried in it, I ran forward to my
ladder, and not thinking myself safe there neither, I got over
my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill which I expected
might roll down upon me. I was no sooner stepped down
upon the firm ground, but I plainly saw it was a terrible
earthquake, for the ground I stood on shook three times at
about eight minutes distance, with three such shocks as
would have overturned the strongest building that could be
supposed to have stood on the earth; and a great piece of
the top of a rock, which stood about half a mile from me
next the sea, fell down with such a terrible noise as I never
heard in all my life. I perceived also, the very sea was put
into violent motion by it; and I believe the shocks were
stronger under the water than on the island.
I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt
the like, or discoursed with any one that had, that I was like
one dead or stupefied; and the motion of the earth made
my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea; but the
noise of the falling of the rock awakened me, as it were, and
rousing me from the stupefied condition I was in, filled me
with horror, and I thought of nothing then but the hill fall-
ing upon my tent and all my household goods, and burying

all at once; and this sunk my very soul within me a second
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for
some time, I began to take courage, and yet I had not heart
enough to go over my wall again, for fear of being buried
alive, but sat still upon the ground, greatly cast down and
disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All this while I had
not the least serious religious thoughts, nothing but the
common "Lord have mercy upon me;" and when it was
over that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow
cloudy, as if it would rain; soon after that the wind rose
by little and little, so that in less than half an hour it blew a
most dreadful hurricane. The sea was all on a sudden
covered over with foam and froth, the shore was covered
with the breach of the water, the trees were torn up by the
roots, and a terrible storm it was; and this held about three
hours, and then began to abate, and in two hours more it
was stark calm, and began to rain very hard.
All this while I sat upon the ground very much terrified
and dejected, when on a sudden it came into my thoughts,
that these winds and rain being the consequences of the
earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I
might venture into my cave again. With this thought my
spirits began to revive, and the rain also helping to per-
suade me, I went in and sat down in my tent, but the rain
was so violent, that my tent was ready to be beaten down
with it, and I was forced to go into my cave, though very
much afraid and uneasy for fear it should fall on my head.
This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz: To cut a
hole through my new fortification like a sink to let the water
go out, which would else have drowned my cave. After I
had been in my cave some time, and found still no more
shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be more corn
posed; and now to support my spirits, which indeed wanted
it very much, I went to my little store and took a small sup
of rum, which, however, I did then and always very spar-
ingly, knowing I could have no more when that was gone.
It continued raining all that night, and a great part of the

next day, so that I could not stir abroad, but my mind being
more composed, I began to think of what I had best do,
concluding that if the island was subject to these earth-
quakes, there would be no living for me in a cave; but I
must consider of building me some little hut in an open
place which I might surround with a wall as I had done
here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts or men;
but concluded, if I staid where I was, I should certainly, one
time or another, be buried alive.
With these thoughts I resolved to remove my tent from
the place where it stood, which was just under the hanging
precipice of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken again,
would certainly fall upon my tent. And I spent the two
next days, being the g9th and 2oth of April, in contriving
where and how to remove my habitation.
The fear of being swallowed up alive, made me that I
never slept in quiet, and yet the apprehension of lying
abroad without any fence was almost equal to it; but still
when I looked about and saw how everything was put in
order, how pleasantly concealed I was, and how safe from
danger, it made me very loth to remove.
In the meantime it occurred to me that it would require a
vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I must be con-
tented to run the venture where I was, till I had formed a
camp for myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it.
So with this resolution I composed myself for a time, and
resolved that I would go to work with all speed to build me
a wall with piles and cables, etc., in a circle as before, and
set my tent up in it when it was finished, but that I would
venture to stay where I was till it was finished and fit to
remove to. This was the 21st.
April 22. The next morning I began to consider of means
to put this resolve in execution, but I was at a great loss
about my tools; I had three large axes and abundance of
hatchets, (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the
Indians), but with much chopping and cutting knotty hard
wood, they were all full of notches and dull, and though I
had a grind-stone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too;
this cost me as much thought as a statesman would have

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