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BLDN UFSPEC NEH CCLC ICDL


















ROBINSON CRUSOE.








THE LIFE


,nb Strange Sur-prising bbentures

OF


ROBINSON CRUSOE
OF YORK, MARINER.


WRITTEN BY HIMSELF








WITH ILLUSTRATIONS.








2tfndborn:
T. NELSON AND SONS, PATERNOSTER ROW.
EDINBURGH; AND NEW YORK.
1882.













LIFE AND ADVENTURES


OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.




CHAPTER I.

I wAs born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of
a good family, though not of that country, my father
being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull.
He got a good estate by merchandise, and leaving off
his trade, lived afterwards at York; from whence he
had married my mother, whose relations were named
Robinson, a very good family in that country, and
from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but
by the usual corruption of words in England, we are
now called, nay, we call ourselves, and write our
name, Crusoe; and so my companions always called
me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieu-
tenant-colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flan-
ders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel
Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk
against the Spaniards. What became of my second








8 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
brother, I never knew, any more than my father and
mother did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to
any trade, my head began to be filled very early
with rambling thoughts. My father, who was very
ancient, had given me a competent share of learning,
as far as house education and a country free-school
generally go, and designed me for the law; but I
would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and
my inclination to this led me strongly against the
will, nay, the commands of my father, and against
all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and
other friends.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious
and excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my
design. He called me one morning into his chamber,
where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated
very warmly with me upon this subject: he asked me
what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination,
I had for leaving his house, and my native country,
where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect
of raising my fortune, by application and industry,
with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was
for men of desperate fortunes, on one hand, or of aspir-
ing, superior fortunes on the other, who went abroad
upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make them-
selves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the
common road; that these things were all either too far
above me, or too far below me; that mine was the
middle state, or what might be called the upper sta-








WISE WORDS AND SAGE COUNSEL. 9
tion of low life, which he had found, by long experi-
ence, was the best state in the world, the most suited
to human happiness; not exposed to the miseries and
hardships, the labour and sufferings, of the mechanic
part of mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride,
luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper part of
mankind: he told me I might judge of the happiness
of this state by one thing-namely, that this was
the state of life which all other people envied; that
kings have frequently lamented the'miserable con-
sequences of being born to great things, and wished
they had been placed in the middle of two extremes,
between the mean and the great; that the wise man
gave his testimony to this, as the just standard of
true felicity, when he prayed to have neither
poverty nor riches."
He bid me observe it, and I should always find
that the calamities of life were shared among the
upper and lower parts of mankind; but that the
middle station had the fewest disasters, and was not
exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or
lower part of mankind: nay, they were not subjected
to so many distempers and uneasinesses, either oi
body or mind, as those were, who, by vicious living,
luxury, and extravagances on one hand, or by hard
labour, want of necessaries, and mean and insufficient
diet on the other hand, bring distempers upon them-
selves by the natural consequence of their way of
living; that the middle station of life was calculated
for all kinds of virtues, and all kinds of enjoyments;








10 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a
middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quiet-
ness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and
all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending
the middle station of life; that this way men went
silently and smoothly through the world, and com-
fortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours
of the hands, or of the head, not sold to the life of
slavery for daily bread, nor harassed with perplexing
circumstances, which rob the soul of peace, and the
body of rest; not enraged with the passion of envy,
nor secret burning lust of ambition for great things;
but, in easy circumstances, sliding gently through
the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living,
without the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and
learning, by every day's experience, to know it more
sensibly.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the
most affectionate manner, not to play the young man,
not to precipitate myself into miseries, which nature,
and the station of life I was born in, seemed to have
provided against; that I was under no necessity of
seeking my bread; that he would do well for me,
and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of
life which he had been just recommending to me;
and that, if I was not very easy and happy in the
world, it must be my mere fault that must hinder it;
and that he should have nothing to answer for, hav-
ing thus discharged his duty in warning me against
measures which he knew would be to my hurt. In








A FATHER'S EXPOSTULATION. 11
a word, that, as he would do very kind things for
me, if I would stay and settle at home, as he directed,
so he would not have so much hand in my misfor-
tunes as to give me any encouragement to go away;
and, to close all, he told me I had my elder brother
for an example, to whom he had used the same ear-
nest persuasions to keep him from going into the
Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young
desires prompting him to run into the army, where
he was killed; and though, he said, he would not
cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say to
me, that, if I did take this foolish step, God would
not bless me; and I would have leisure hereafter
to reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when
there might be none to assist in my recovery.
I observed, in this last part of his discourse, which
was truly prophetic, though, I suppose, my father
did not know it to be so himself; I say, I observed
the tears run down his face very plentifully, especi-
ally when he spoke of my brother who was killed;
and that, when he spoke of my having leisure to re-
pent, and none to assist me, he was so moved, that
he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was
so full he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse; as,
indeed, who could be otherwise? and I resolved not
to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at
home, according to my father's desire. But, alas!
a few days wore it all off: and, in short, to prevent
any of my father's further importunities, in a few








12 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
weeks after I resolved to run quite away from him.
However, I did not act so hastily neither, as my
first heat of resolution prompted; but I took my
mother, at a time when I thought her a little plea-
santer than ordinary, and told her my thoughts were
so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I should
never settle to anything with resolution enough to
go through with it, and my father had better give
me his consent than force me to go without it; that
I was now eighteen years old, which was too late to
go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney;
that I was sure if I did I should never serve out my
time, and I should certainly run away from my
master before my time was out, and go to sea; and,
if she would speak to my father to let me make but
one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did
not like it, I would go no more; and I would pro-
mise, by a double diligence, to recover the time I
had lost.
This made my mother very angry: she told me
she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my
father upon any such a subject; that he knew too
well what was my interest to give his consent to
anything so much for my hurt; and that she won-
dered how I could think of any such thing, after
such a discourse as I had had from my father, and
such kind and tender expressions as she knew my
father had used to me: and that, in short, if I would
ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might
depend I should never have their consent to it; that,








CRUSOE GOES TO SEA.


for her part, she would not have so much hand in
my destruction; and I should never have it to say
" that my mother was willing, when my father was
not."
Though my mother refused to move it to my
father, yet, as I have heard afterwards, she reported
all the discourse to him; and that my father, after
showing a great concern at it, said to her with a
sigh, That boy might be happy, if he would stay
at home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most
miserable wretch that ever was born; I can give no
consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke
loose; though, in the meantime, I continued obsti-
nately deaf to all proposals of settling to business,
and frequently expostulating with my father and
mother about their being so positively determined
against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But, being one day at Hull, where I went
casually, and without any purpose of making an
elopement at that time, and one of my companions
then going to London by sea in his father's ship,
and prompting me to go with them by the common
allurement of seafaring men, namely, that it should
cost me nothing for my passage," I consulted neither
father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent
them word of it; but left them to hear of it as they
might, without asking God's blessing, or my father's,
without any consideration of circumstances or conse-
quences, and in an ill hour, God knows.








14 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


CHAPTER II.

ON the 1st of September 1651, I went on board a
ship bound for London. Never any young adven-
turer's misfortunes, I believe, began earlier, or con-
tinued longer than mine. The ship had no sooner
got out of the Humber, than the wind began to blow,
and the waves to rise, in a most frightful manner;
and as I had never been at sea before, I was most
inexpressibly sick in body and terrified in mind: I
began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done,
and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of
Heaven, for wickedly leaving my father's house, and
abandoning my duty. All the good counsel of my
parents, my father's tears, and my mother's entreaties,
came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience,
which was not yet come to the pitch of hardiness to
which it has been since, reproached me with the
contempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to
God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea,
which I had never been upon before, went very high,
though nothing like what I have seen many times
since; no, nor what I saw a few days after; but such
as it was, enough to affect me then, who was but a
young sailor, and had never known anything of the
matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed
us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I
thought, in the trough, or hollow of the sea, we








A CAPFUL OF WIND. 15
should never rise more; and in this agony of mind
I made many vows and resolutions, that, if it would
please God to spare my life this voyage, if ever I
got my foot once on dry land, I would go directly
home to my father, and never set it into a ship again
while I lived; that I would take his advice, and never
run myself into such miseries as these any more.
These thoughts continued during the storm, and
indeed some time after; but the next day, as the
wind was abated, and the sea calmer, I began to be
a little inured to it. However, I was very grave
that day, being also a little sea-sick still: but to-
wards night the weather cleared up, the wind was
quite over, and a charming fine evening followed;
the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the
next morning; and, having little or no wind, and a
smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was,
as I thought, the most delightful that I ever saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no
more sea-sick, but very cheerful, looking with won-
der upon the sea that was so rough and terrible the
day before, and could be so calm and pleasant in a
little time after.
And now, lest my good resolutions should con-
tinue, my companion, who had indeed enticed me
away, came to me and said, Well, Bob," clapping
me on the shoulder, "how do you do after it? 1
warrant you were frightened, wa'n't you, last night,
when it blew out a capful of wind?" A capful do
you call it?" said I. 'twas a terrible storm." A








16 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
storm, you fool!" replies he, "do you call that a
storm? Why, it was nothing at all: give us but a
good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of
such a squall of wind as that: you are but a fresh-
water sailor, Bob; come, let us make a bowl of
punch, and we'll forget all that. D'ye see what
charming weather 'tis now?" To make short this
sad part of my story, we went the way of too many
sailors; the punch was made, and I was made drunk
with it; and in that one night's wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon
my past conduct, and all my resolutions for the
future. I found afterwards, indeed, some intervals
of reflection; and serious thoughts did, as it were,
endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook
them off; and roused myself from them, as it were
from a distemper, and, applying myself to drink and
company, soon mastered the returns of those fits-
for so I called them; and I had in five or six days
got as complete a victory over conscience as any
young fellow, that resolved not to be troubled with
it, could desire.
But I was to have another trial for it still; and
Providence, as in such cases generally it does, re-
solved to leave me entirely without excuse; for, if I
would not take this for a deliverance, the next was
to be such an one, as the worst and most hardened
wretch among us would confess both the danger and
the mercy of. The sixth day of our being at sea,
we came into Yarmouth roads; the wind having







A TERRIBLE STORM. 17
been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made
but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the
wind continuing contrary, namely, at south-westp for
seven or eight days, during which time a great many
ships from Newcastle came into the same roads, as
the common harbour where the ships might wait for
a wind for the river. We had not, however, rid
here so long, and should have tided up the river, but
that the wind blew too fresh; and after we had lain
four or five days, blew very hard. However, the
roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the
anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong,
our men were unconcerned, and not in the least ap-
prehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and
mirth, after the manner of the sea. But the eighth
day, in the morning, the wind increased, and we had
all hands at work to strike our topmasts, and make
everything snug and close, that the ship might ride
as easy as possible. By noon the sea went very
high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped
several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor
had come home; upon which our master ordered out
the sheet-anchor; so that we rode with two anchors
a-head, and the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and
now I began to see terror and amazement in the faces
even of the seamen themselves. The master was
vigilant in the business of preserving the ship; but
as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could







18 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
hear him softly say to himself several times, Lord,
be merciful to us I we shall be all lost; we shall be
all undone!" and the like During these first hur-
ries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was
in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper. I
could ill re-assume the first penitence, which I had
so apparently trampled upon, and hardened myself
against; I thought that the bitterness of death had
been past, and that this would be nothing too, like
the first; but when the master himself came by me,
as I said just now, and said we should be all lost,
I was dreadfully frightened. I got up out of my
cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sight I
never saw: the sea went mountains high, and broke
upon us every three or four minutes. When I could
look about, I could see nothing but distress around
us; two ships that rid near us, we found had cut their
masts by the board, being deeply laden; and our men
cried out that a ship, which rid about a mile a-head
of us, was foundered. Two more ships, being driven
from their anchors, were run out of the roads to sea,
at all adventures, and that with not a mast standing.
Toward evening, the mate and boatswain begged the
master of our ship to let them cut away the fore-
mast, which he was very loth to do; but the boat-
swain protesting to him that, if he did not, the ship
would founder, he consented; and when they had
cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood so close,
and shook the ship so much, that they were obliged
to cut it away also, and make a clear deck.







ALL HANDS TO THE PUMP. 19
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in
at all this, who was but a young sailor, and who had
been in such a fright before at but a little. But it
I can express, at this distance, the thoughts I had
about me at that time, I was in ten-fold more horror
of mind upon account of my former convictions, and
the having returned from them to the resolutions I
had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death
itself; and these, added to the terror of the storm, put
me into such a condition, that I can by no words
describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the
storm continued with such fury, that the seamen
themselves acknowledged that they had never known
a worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep
laden, and so wallowed in the sea, that the seamen
every now and then cried out she would founder.
It was my advantage, in one respect, that I did not
know what they meant by founder," till I inquired.
However, the storm was so violent, that I saw, what
is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some
others, more sensible than the rest, at their prayers,
and expecting every moment the ship would go to
the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under
all the rest of our distresses, one of the men, that
haa been down on purpose to see, cried out, we
had sprung a leak;" another said, "there was four
feet water in the hold." Then all hands were called
to the pump. At that very word, my heart, as I
thought, died within me; and I fell backwards upon
the side of my bed, where I sat in the cabin. How-








20 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
ever, the men roused me, and told me, that I," who
was able to do nothing before, was as well able to
pump as another:" at which I stirred up and went
to the pump, and worked very heartily.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the
hold, it was apparent that the ship would founder;
and, though the storm began to abate a little, yet, as
it was not possible she could swim till we might run
into a port, so the master fired several guns for help;
and a light ship, who had rid it out just a-head of us,
ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the
utmost hazard the boat came near us, but it was im-
possible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie
near the ship's side; till, at last, the men rowing
very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours,
our men cast them a rope over the stern with a
buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length,
which they, after great labour and hazard, took hold
of, and we hauled them close under our stem, and
got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for
them, or us, after we were in the boat, to think of
reaching their own ship; so all agreed to let her
drive, and only pull her in towards shore as much as
we could; and our master promised them, that if the
boat was staved upon the shore, he would make* it
good to their master; so, partly rowing, and partly
driving, our boat went away to the northward, slop-
ing towards the shore almost as far as Winterton-
Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour







SAFE ON SHORE. 21
out of our ship when we saw her sink; and then I
understood, for the first time, what was meant by a
ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I
had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me
" she was sinking;" for, from that moment, they
rather put me into the boat, than that I might be
said to go in. My heart was, as it were, dead
within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of
mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet
labouring at the oar to bring the boat near the shore,
we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves, we
were able to see the shore) a great many people run-
ning along the strand to assist us when we should
come near; but we made slow way towards the shore,
nor were we able to reach it, till, being past the light-
house at Winterton, the shore falls off to the west-
ward towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a
little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and,
though not without much difficulty, got all safe onshore,
and walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as
unfortunate men, we were used with great humanity,
as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned
us good quarters, as by the particular merchants and
owners of ships; and had money given us sufficient
to carry us either to London, or back to Hull, as we
thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to
Hull, and have gone home, I had been happy; and my
father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour's parable,








22 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
had even killed the fatted calf for me; for, hearing
the ship I went in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads,
it was a great while before he had any assurance thai
I was not drowned.
But my wayward disposition pushed me on with
an obstinacy that nothing could resist; and, though
I had several times loud calls from my reason, and
my more composed judgment, to go home, yet I rushed
on with my eyes open.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before,
and who was the master's son, was now less forward
than I; the first time he spoke to me after we were
at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days,
for we were separated in the town to several quarters;
I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone
was altered, and, looking very melancholy, and shak-
ing his head, asked me how I did; telling his father
who I was, and how I had come this voyage only
for a trial, in order to go further abroad. His father,
turning to me, with a grave and concerned tone,
"Young man," says he, "you ought never to go to
sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain and
visible token that you are not to be a seafaring man."
"Why, sir," said I, "will you go to sea no more?"
" That is another case," said he; it is my calling,
and therefore my duty; but as you made this voyage
for a trial, yoa see what a taste Heaven has given
you of what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps
this has all befallen us on your account, like Jonah
in the ship of Tarshish: pray," continues he, what







RELUCTANCE TO GO HOME. 23
are you, and on what account did you go to sea?"
Upon that I told him some of my story, at the end of
which he burst out with a strange kind of passion.
" What had I done," said he, that such an unhappy
wretch should come into my ship ? I would not set
my foot in the same ship with thee again for a thou-
sand pounds." This indeed was, as I said, an excur-
sion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by the
sense of his loss, and was further than he could have
authority to go. However, he afterwards talked very
gravely to me, exhorted me to go back to my father,
and not tempt Providence to my ruin; told me I might
see a visible hand of Heaven against me; and, young
man," said he, depend upon it, if you do not go back,
wherever you go you will meet with nothing but dis-
asters and disappointments, till your father's words
are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after, for I made him little answer,
ahd I saw him no more; which way he went I know
not; as for me, having some money in my pocket, I
travelled to London by land, and there, as well as on
the road, had many struggles with myself what course
of life I should take, and whether I should go home,
or go to sea. As to going home, shame opposed the
best motions that offered to my thoughts; and it
immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed
at among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to
see, not my father and mother only, but even every-
body else. From whence I have often since observed,
how incongruous and irrational the common temper







24 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
of mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason
which ought to guide them in such cases, namely,
that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed
to repent; not ashamed of the action for which they
ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of
the returning, which only can make them be esteemed
wise men.



CHAPTER III.

IN this state of life, however, I remained some time,
uncertain what measures to take, and what course of
life to lead, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts
of going home, and looked out for a voyage. That
evil influence which carried me first away from my
father's house, presented the most unfortunate of all
enterprises to my view, and I went on board a vessel
bound to the coast of Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly
call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune that, in all these ad-
ventures, I did not ship myself as a sailor; but, as I
always chose for the worse, so I did here, for having
money in my pocket, and good clothes upon my back,
I would always go on board in the habit of a gentle-
man; and so I neither had any business in the ship,
nor learned to do any. It was my lot, first of all, to
fall into pretty good company in London, which does
not always happen to such loose and misguided young
fellows as I then was; the devil generally not omit-







A SUCCESSFUL VOYAGE. 25
ing to lay some snare for them very early. But it
was not so with me; I first fell acquainted with the
master of a ship who had been on the coast of Guinea,
and who, having had very good success there, was
resolved to go again. He, taking a fancy to my con-
versation, which was not at all disagreeable at that
time, and hearing me say I had a mind to see the
world," told me, that if I would go the voyage with
him, I should be at no expense, I should be his mess-
mate and his companion, and if I could carry any-
thing with me I should have all the advantage of it
that the trade would admit, and perhaps I might meet
with some encouragement. I embraced the offer, and
entering into a strict friendship with this captain, who
was an honest and plain-dealing man, I went the voy-
age with him, and carried a small adventure with me,
which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the
captain, I increased very considerably, for I carried
about 40 in such toys and trifles as the captain di-
rected me to buy. This 40 I had mustered together
by the assistance of some of my relations, whom I
corresponded with, and who, I believe, got my father,
or at least my mother, to contribute so much as that
to my first adventure. This was the only voyage
which I may say was successful in all my adventures,
and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my
friend the captain, under whom, also, I got a com-
petent knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of
navigation, learned how to keep an account of the
ship's course, take an observation, and, in short, to







26 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
understand some things that were needful to be un-
derstood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to instruct
me, I took delight to learn, and, in a word, this voy-
age made me both a sailor and a merchant, for I
brought home 5 lb. 9 oz. of gold dust for my adven-
ture, which yielded me in London at my return almost
300; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts
which have since so completed my ruin.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader, and my
friend, to my great misfortune, dying soon after his
arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again; and
I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his
mate in the former voyage, and had now got the com-
mand of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage
that ever man made, for though I did not carry quite
100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I had 200
left, and which I lodged with my friend's widow, who
was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes
in this voyage; and the first was this, namely, our
ship, making her course towards the Canary Islands,
or rather between those islands and the African shore,
was surprised, in the gray of the morning, by a Turk-
ish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the
sail she could make. We crowded also as much can-
vass as our yards would spread, or our masts carry,
to get clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us,
and would certainly come up with us in a few hours,
we prepared to fight, our ship having twelve guns,
and the rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon
he came up with us, and bringing to by mistake just








CRUSOE AS A SLAVE. ZI
athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as
he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on
that side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which
made him shear off again, after returning our fire,
and pouring in also his small shot from nearly 200
men which he had on board. However, we had not
a man touched, all our men keeping close. He pre-
pared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves;
but, laying us on board the next time upon our other
quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who
immediately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and
rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes,
powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of
them twice. However, to cut short this melancholy
part. of our story, our ship being disabled, and three
of our men killed and eight wounded, we were obliged
to yield, and carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port
belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at
first I apprehended; nor was I carried up the country
to the emperor's court, as the rest of our men were,
but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper
prize, and made his slave, being young and nimble,
and fit for his business. But, alas I this was but a
taste of the misery I was to go through, as will appear
in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home
to his house, so I was in hopes he would take me with
him when he went to sea again, believing that it would,
some time or other, be his fate to be taken by a Span-








28 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
ish or Portuguese man of war; and that then I should
be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon
taken away, for when he went to sea he left me on
shore to look after his little garden, and do the com-
mon drudgery of the slaves about his house; and
when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered
me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and wha1
method I might take to effect it, but found no way
that had the least probability in it.
After about two years an odd circumstance pre-
sented itself; which put the old thought of making
some attempt for my liberty again in my head. My
patron lying at home longer than usual without fitting
out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of
money, he used constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the
ship's pinnace, and go out into the road a fishing;
and as he always took me and a young Moresco
with him to row the boat, we made him very merry,
and I proved very dexterous in catching fish, inso-
much that he would sometimes send me with a Moor,
one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Moresco, as
they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a
stark calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that, though
we were not half a league from the shore, we lost
sight of it, and rowing, we knew not whither, or
which way, we laboured all day and all the next
night, and when the morning came we found we had








FISHING EXCURSIONS. 29
pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in for the shore,
and that we were at least two leagues from the shore;
however, we got well in again, though with a great
deal of labour.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved
to take more care of himself for the future; and, hav-
ing lying by him the long-boat of our English ship
he had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing
any more without a compass and some provision; so
he ordered the carpenter of the ship, who was an
English slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin,
in the middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge,
with a place to stand behind it, to steer and haul home
the main-sheet, and with room before for a hand or
two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with
what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail, and the boom
gibb'd over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug
and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a
slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some small
lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he
thought fit to drink, and particularly his bread, rice,
and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing,
and as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he
never went without me. It happened that he had
appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or
for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinction
in that place, and for whom he had provided extra-
ordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat,
overnight, a larger store of provision than ordinary,







30 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
and had ordered me to get ready three fusees, with
powder and shot, which were on board his ship, for
that they designed some sport of fowling, as well as
fishing.
I got all things ready, as he directed, and waited
the next morning with the boat washed clean, her
ensign and pendants out, and everything to accom-
modate his guests, when, by-and-by, my patron came
on board alone, and told me his guests had put ofl
going, upon some business that fell out, and ordered
me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with
the boat and catch them some fish, for that his friends
were to sup at his house; and commanded, that as
soon as I had got some fish, I should bring it home
to his house: all which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance
darted into my thoughts, for now I found I was like
to have a little ship at my command; and, my master
being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for a
fishing business, but for a voyage: though I knew
not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I
should steer; for anywhere, to get out of that place,
was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to
speak to this Moor to get something for our subsist-
ence on board; for I told him we must not presume
to eat of our patron's bread: he said that was true;
so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit, of
their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the
boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles







A PLAN OF ESCAPE. 31
stood, which it was evident, by the make, were taken
out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into
the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had
been there before for our master. I conveyed also a
great lump of bees'-wax into the boat, which weighed
above half a hundred weight, with a parcel of twine
or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which
were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax
to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him,
which he innocently came into also: his name was
Ismael, whom they call Muley, or Moley: so I called
to him, "Moley," said I, "our patron's guns are on
board the boat, can you get a little powder and shot?
it may be we may kill some alcamies (fowls like our
curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gun-
ner's stores in the ship." "Yes," says he, "I'll bring
some;" and, accordingly, he brought a great leather
pouch, which held about a pound and a half of pow-
der, or rather more, and another with shot, that had
five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into
the boat; at the same time I found some powder of
my master's in the great cabin, with which I filled
one of the large bottles in the case, which was almost
empty, pouring what was in it into another; and thus
furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of
the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance
of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of
us; and we were not above a mile out of the port,
before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish.
The wind blew from N.N.E., which was contrary to








32 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
my desire; for, had it blown southerly, I had been
sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at last
reached to the bay of Cadiz: but my resolutions were,
blow which way it would, I would be gone from the
horrid place where I was.
After we had fished some time, and catched no-
thing; for, when I had fish on my hook I would not
pull them up, that he might not see them, I said to
the Moor, This will not do; our master will not be
thus served; we must stand farther off." He, think-
ing no harm, agreed; and being at the head of the
boat, set the sails; and, as I had the helm, I run the
boat near a league further, and then brought-to as if
I would fish. Then, giving the boy the helm, I
stepped forward to where the Moor was, and I took
him by surprise, with my arm under his waist, and
tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose
immediately, for he swam like a cork, and calling to
me, begged to be taken in, and told me he would go
all the world over with me. He swam so strong
after the boat, that he would have reached me very
quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I
stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowl-
ing-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had
done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet, I would
do him none: "But," said I, "you swim well enough
to reach the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best
of your way to shore, and I will do you no harm;
but, if you come near the boat, I will shoot you
through the head; for I am resolved to have my







CRUSOE AND XURY. 3d
liberty." So he turned himself about, and swam for
the shore; and I make no doubt but he reached it with
ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.




CHAPTER IV.

I could have taken this Moor with me, and have
drowned the boy; but there was no venturing to trust
him, and humanity forbade the other. When he
was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called
Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you will be faith-
ful to me, I will make you a great man: but if you
will not stroke your face to be true to me (that is,
swear by Mahomet and his father's beard), I must
throw you into the sea too." The boy smiled in my
face and spoke so innocently that I could not mistrust
him; and swore to be faithful to me and go all over
the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swim-
ming, I stood out directly to sea with the boat rather
stretching to windward, that they might think me
gone towards the Strait's mouth (as, indeed, any one
that had been in their wits must have been supposed
to do); for who would have supposed we were sailing
on to the southward, to the truly barbarian coast,
where whole nations of negroes were sure to surround
us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could
never once go on shore, but we should be devoured







34 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of human
kind?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I
changed my course, and steered directly south and
by east, bending my course a little toward the east,
that I might keep in with the shore; and having a
fair fresh gale of wind and a smooth quiet sea, I
made such sail, that I believe by the next day at
three o'clock in the afternoon, when I made the land, I
could not be less than 150 miles south of Sallee, quite
beyond the Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed
of any other king thereabout; for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors,
and the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into
their hands, that I would not stop or go on shore, or
come to anchor, the wind continuing fair, till I had
sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind
shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if
any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also
would now give over: so I ventured to make to the
coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little
river; I knew not what nor where, neither what
latitude, what country, what nation, nor what river.
I neither saw nor desired to see any people; the
principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came
into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on
shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the coun-
try; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such
dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling
of wild creatures, of we knew not what -kinds, that







MONSTERS OF THE DEEP.


the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged
of me not to go on shore till day. "Well, Xury,"
said I, "then I will not; but it may be we may see
men by day who will be as bad to us as those lions."
" Then'we may give them the shoot-gun," says Xury
laughing; "make them run away." Such English
Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. How-
ever, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I
gave him a dram out of our patron's case of bottles
to cheer him up. After all, Xury's advice was good,
and I took it. We dropped our little anchor, and
lay still all night: I say still, for we slept none ; for
in two or three hours we saw vast creatures (we
knew not what to call them), of many sorts, come
down to the sea-shore, and run into the water, wal-
owing and washing themselves, for the purpose of
cooling themselves; and they made such hideous howl-
ings and yelling, that I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frightened, and, indeed, so
was I too; but we were both more frightened when
we heard one of these mighty creatures swimming
towards our boat; we could not see him, but we
might hear him, by his blowing, to be a monstrous,
huge, and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion,
and it might be so, for aught I know; but poor Xury
cried to me to weigh the anchor, and row away.
No," says I, Xury; we can slip our cable with
the buoy to it, aLd go off to sea: they cannot follow
us far." I had no sooner said so, but I perceived
the creature (whatever it was) within two oars'
3








36 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
length, which something surprised me: however, I
immediately stept to the cabin door, and, taking up
my gun, fired at him; upon which he turned round
and swam to the shore again.
In the morning Xury said, if I would let him go
on shore with one of the jars, he would find if there
was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him
why he would go; why I should not go, and he stay
in the boat? The boy answered with so much affec-
tion, that he made me love him ever after. Says he,
" If wild mans come, they eat me, you go away."
"Well, Xury," said I, "we will both go; and it
the wild mans come, we will kill them; they shall
eat neither of us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk
bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron's case of
bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled in
the boat as near the shore as we thought was proper,
and so waded to shore, carrying nothing but our
arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fear-
ing the coming of canoes with savages down the
river; but the boy, seeing a low place, about a mile
up the country, rambled to it; and, by-and-by, I saw
him come running towards me. I thought he was
pursued by some savage, or frightened by some wild
beast, and I therefore ran forward to help him; but
when I came nearer to him, I saw something hang-
ing over his shoulders, which was a creature that he
had shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and
longer legs; however, we were very glad of it, and







A COASTING VOYAGE.


it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor
Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good
water, and seen no wild mans. So we filled our jars,
and having a fire, feasted on the hare we had killed;
and prepared to go on our way, having seen no foot-
steps of any human creature in that part of the
country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I
knew very well that the islands of the Canaries, and
the Cape de Verd islands also, lay not far from the
coast. But, as I had no instruments to take an
observation, to find what latitude we were in; and
did not exactly know, or at least remember, what
latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for
them, or when to stand off to sea towards them, other-
wise I might now have easily found some of these
islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along this
coast till I came to the part where the English traded,
I should find some of their vessels upon their usual
design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, the place where I
now was must be that country, which, lying between
the Emperor of Morocco's dominions and the Negroes,
lies wasted and uninhabited, except by wild beasts.
Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw
the Pike of Teneriffe, being the top of the mountain
Teneriffe, in the Canaries, and had a great mind to
venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but, having
tried twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds,
the sea also going too high for my little vessel: so I







38 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
resolved to pursue my'first design, and keep along
the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh
water, after we had left this place; and once, in par-
ticular, being early in the morning, we came to an
anchor under a little point of land, which was pretty
high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still, to
go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about
him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and
tells me that we had best go further off the shore;
for, says he, look, yonder lies a dreadful monster
on the side of that hillock, fast asleep." I looked
where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed,
for it was a terrible great lion, that lay on the side
of the shore, under a shade of a piece of the hill, that
hung, as it were, over him. Xury," says I, you
shall go on shore and kill him." Xury looked
frightened and said, "Me kill! he eat me at one
mouth:" one mouthful he meant. However, I said
no more to the boy, but bade him be still; and I took
our biggest gun, which was almost musquet bore,
and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with
two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another
gun with two bullets; and a third, for we had three
pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took
the best aim I could with the first piece, to have shot
him in the head; but he lay so, with his leg raised
a little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg
about the knee, and broke the bone; he started up,
growling at first; but finding his leg broke, fell down








ADVENTURE WITH A LION.


again, and then got up upon three legs, and gave
the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a
little surprised that I had not hit him on the head;
however, I took up the second piece immediately,
and though he began to move off, fired again, and
shot him in the head, and had the pleasure to see
him drop, and make but little noise, but lie strug-
gling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would
have me let him go on shore. Well, go," said I;
so the boy jumped into the water, and taking a little
gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other hand,
and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of
the piece to his ear and shot him in the head again,
which despatched him quite.
This was game, indeed, to us, but it was no food;
and I was very sorry to lose three charges of powder
and shot upon a creature that was good for nothing
to us. However, Xury said he would have some of
him; so he comes on board, and asked me to give
him the hatchet. For what, Xury?" said I. "Me
cut off his head," said he. However, Xury could
not cut off his head; but he cut off a foot, and brought
it with him, and it was a monstrous great one. I
bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of
him might, one way or other, be of some value to us;
and I resolved to take off his skin, if I could. So
Xury and I went to work with him; but Xury was
much the better workman at it, for I knew very ill
how to do it. Indeed, it took us both up the whole
day; but at last we got off the hide of him, and








40 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectu-
ally dried it in two days' time, and it afterwards
served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward con-
tinually, for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly
on our provisions, which began to abate very much,
and going no oftener into the shore than we were
obliged to for fresh water. My design in this, was
to make the river Gambia, or Senegal; that is to say,
anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in
hopes to meet with some European ship; and if I did
not, I knew not what course I had to take, but to
seek for the islands, or perish among the negroes.
When I pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, as I have said, I began to see that the land
was inhabited; and, in two or three places, as we
sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to
look at us: we could also perceive they were quite
black, and stark naked. I was once inclined to have
gone on shore to them; but Xury was my better
counsellor, and said to me, No go, no go." How-
ever, I hauled in nearer the shore, that I might talk
to them; and I found they run along the shore by
me a good way. I observed they had no weapons
in their hands, except one, who had a long, slender
stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they
would throw them a great way with good aim; so I
kept at a distance, but talked to them by signs as
well as I could, and particularly made signs for some-
thing to eat. They beckoned to me to stop my boat,








CRUSOE AND THE SAVAGES. 41

and they would fetch me some meat: upon this, I
lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of
them run up into the country; and, in less than half
an hour, came back, and brought with them two
pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as is the pro-
duce of their country; but we neither knew what the
one or the other was; however, we were willing to
accept it. But how to come at it was our next dis-
pute, for I was not for venturing on shore to them,
and they were as much afraid of us; but they took a
safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore,
and laid it down, and went and stood a great way off
till we fetched it on board, and then came close to
us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had noth-
ing to make them amends: but an opportunity offered
that very instant to oblige them wonderfully; for,
while we were lying by the shore, came two mighty
creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with
great fury from the mountains towards the sea; the
people were terribly frightened, especially the women.
The man that had the lance or dart did not fly from
them, but the rest did ; however, as the two creatures
ran directly into the water, they did not seem to offer
to fall upon any of the negroes, but plunged them-
selves into the sea and swam about as if they had
come for their diversion; at last one of them began
to come nearer our boat than at first I expected; but
I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with
all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the







12 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach,
I fired and shot him directly in the head; immedi-
ately he sunk down into the water, but rose instantly
and plunged up and down struggling for life, he im-
mediately made to the shore, but died just when he
reached it.
The other creature, frightened with the flash of
fire and the noise of the gun, swam on shore and ran
up directly to the mountains. I found quickly the
negroes were for eating the flesh of the creature I had
killed, so I was willing to have them take it as a
favour from me, which, when I made signs to them
that they might take him, they were very thankful
for. Immediately they fell to work with him; and,
though they had no knife, yet with a sharpened piece
of wood they took off his skin as readily, and much
more readily than we could have done with a knife.
They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined,
making as if I would give it them, but made signs
for the skin which they gave me very freely, and
brought me a great deal more of their provisions,
which, though I did not understand, yet I accepted.
I then made signs to them for some water, and held
out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward
to show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have
it filled. They called immediately to some of their
friends, and there came two women and brought a
great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose, in
the sun; this they set down for me as before, and I
sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all








A SAIL A SAIL !" 43

three. The women were as stark naked as the
men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as
it was, and water; and leaving my friendly negroes,
I made forward for about eleven days more without
offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run
out a great length into the sea, at about the distance
of four or five leagues before me; and the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point.
At length doubling the point, at about two leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side
to seaward; then I concluded, as it was most certain
indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and those
the islands, called from thence Cape de Verd Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could
not well tell what I had best to do; for if I should
be taken with a gale of wind, I might neither reach
one nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped
into the cabin and sat me down, Xury having the
helm, when, on a sudden, the boy cried out, Master,
master, a ship with a sail I" and the foolish boy was
frightened out of his wits, thinking it must needs be
some of his master's ships sent to pursue us, when I
knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach.
I jumped out of the cabin and immediately saw, not
only the ship, but- what she was, namely, that it was
a Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bound to
the coast of Guinea for negroes. But when I ob-
served the course she steered, I was soon convinced







44 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
they were bound some other way, and did not design
to come any nearer to the shore; upon which I
stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to
speak with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should
not be able to come in their way, but that they would
be gone by before I could make any signal to them;
but after I had crowded to the utmost and began to
despair, they, it seems, saw me by the help of their
perspective glasses, and that it was some European
boat, which, they supposed, must belong to some ship
that was lost; so they shortened sail to let me come
up. I was encouraged with this, and as I had my
patron's ensign on board, I made a waft of it to them
for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which
they saw; for they told me they saw the smoke,
though they did not hear the gun. Upon these
signals, they very kindly brought to and lay by for
me; and in about three hours' time I came up with
them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in
Spanish, and in French, but I understood none of
them; but, at last, a Scotch sailor who was on board
called to me, and I answered him, and told him I
was an Englishman; that I had made my escape
out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee. They then
bade me come on board, and very kindly took me
in and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one
will believe, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed








AN HONEST SEA-CAPTAIN. 40
it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless con-
dition as I was in; and I immediately offered all I
had to the captain of the ship as a return for my de-
liverance; but he generously told me he would take
nothing from me, but that all I had should be delivered
safe to me when I came to the Brazils. For," says
he, "I have saved your life on no other terms than
I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one
time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same
condition. No, no, Seignior Inglese" (Mr. English-
man), says he, I will carry you to the Brazils in
charity, and these things will help to buy your sub-
sistence there and your passage home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was
just in the performance to a tittle; for he ordered the
seamen that none should offer to touch anything I
had; then he took everything into his own possession,
and gave me back an exact inventory of them that I
might have them, even so much as my three earthen
jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that
he saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the
ship's use, and asked me what I would have for it?
I told him he had been so generous to me in every-
thing, that I could not offer to make any price of the
boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which he told
me he would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty
pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came
there, if any one offered to give more he would make
it up. He offered me also sixty pieces of eight more








46 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
for my boy Xury which I was loth to take; not that
I was not willing to let the captain have him, but I
was very loth to sell the poor boy's liberty who had
assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. How-
ever, when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be
just, and offered me this medium, that he would give
the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years if
he turned Christian; upon this, and Xury saying he
was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good passage to the Brazils, and
arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints'
Bay, in about twenty-two days after.
The generous treatment the captain gave me I can
never enough remember; he would take nothing of
me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the
leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I
had in my boat, and caused everything I had in the
ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what I
was willing to sell he bought of me; such as the case
of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump
ofbees'-wax, for I had made candles of the rest; in
a word, I made about two hundred and twenty pieces
of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock I went
on shore in the Brazils.








ON SHORE IN THE BRAZILS.


CHAPTER V.

I HAD not long been here, before I was recommended
to the house of a good honest man, like himself, who
had an ingenio, as they call it (that is, a plantation
and a sugar house). I lived with him some time,
and acquainted myself by that means, with the man-
ner of planting and making of sugar; and seeing
how well the planters lived, and how they got rich
suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a license to settle
there, I would turn planter among them; endeavour-
ing in the meantime to find out some way to get my
money, which I had left in London, remitted to me.
To this purpose, getting a kind of letter of naturaliza-
tion, I purchased as much land that was uncured as
my money would reach, and formed a plan for my
plantation and settlement; such a one as might be
suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to
receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but
born of English parents, whose name was Wells, and
in much such circumstances as I was. I call him
my neighbour, because his plantation lay next to
mine, and we went on very sociably together. My
stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather
planted for food than anything else, for about two
years. However, we began to increase, and our land
began to come into order; so that the third year we
planted some tobacco and made each of us a large








48 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year
to come; but we both wanted help, and now I found,
more than before, I had done wrong in parting with
my boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did
right, was no great wonder. I had no remedy but
to go on; I had got into an employment quite remote
to my genius, and directly contrary to the life I de-
lighted in, and for which I fqrsook my father's house,
and broke through all his good advice.
I began to look upon my condition with the ut-
most regret. I had nobody to converse with but,
now and then, this neighbour; no work to be done,
but by the labour of my hands; and I used to say, I
lived just like a man cast away upon some desolate
island, that had nobody there but himself.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for
carrying on the plantation, before my kind friend, the
captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went
back; for the ship remained there, in providing his
lading, and preparing for his voyage, near three
months; when telling him what little stock I had
left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly
and sincere advice:-" Seignior Inglese," says he (for
so he always called me), if you will give me let-
ters, and a procuration here in form to me, with
orders to the person who has your money in London,
to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I
shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this
country, I will bring you the produce of them, God








WHOLESOME ADVICE. 40
willing, at my return; but, since human affairs are all
subject to changes and disasters, I would have you
give orders for but one hundred pounds sterling,
which you say is half your stock, and let the hazard
be run for the first; so that, if it come safe, you may
order the rest the same way; and if it miscarry, you
may have the other half to have recourse to for your
supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so
friendly, that I could not but be convinced it was the
best course I could take.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account
of all my adventures; my slavery, escape, and how 1
had met with the Portuguese captain at sea, the
humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I was
now in, with all other necessary directions for my
supply; and when this honest captain came to Lis-
bon, he found means, by some of the English mer-
chants there, to send over, not the order only, but a
full account of my story, to a merchant at London,
who represented it effectually to her; whereupon she
not only delivered the money, but, out of her own
pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a very handsome
present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred
pounds in English goods, such as the captain had
wrote for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and he
brought them all safe to me at the Brazils; among
which, without my direction (for I was too young in
my business to think of them), he had taken care to








50 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE
have all sorts of tools, iron-work, and utensils neces-
sary for my plantation, and which were of great use
to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune
made, for I was surprised with the joy of it; and my
good steward, the captain, had laid out the five pounds,
which my friend had sent him as a present for him-
self, to purchase and bring me over a servant, under
bond for six years' service, and would not accept of
any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I
would have him accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; but my goods, being all English
manufactures, such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things
particularly valuable and desirable in the country, I
found means to sell them to a very great advantage; so
that I might say I had more than four times the value
of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my
poor neighbour, I mean in the advancement of my
plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me a
negro slave, and an European servant also; I mean
another besides that which the captain brought me
from Lisbon.
But, as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the
very means of our greatest adversity, so was it with
me. I went on the next year with great success in
my plantation; I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco
on my own ground, more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbours; and these fifty
rolls, being each of above 100 lb., were well cured,
and laid by against the return of the fleet from Lis-








CRUSOE'S FELLOW-PLANTERS. 51
bon; and, now increasing in business and in wealth,
my head began to be full of projects and undertakings
beyond my reach; such as are, mdeed, often the
ruin of the best heads in business.
You may suppose, that, having now lived almost four
years in Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper
very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned
the language, but had contracted an acquaintance and
friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as
among the merchants at St. Salvador, which was our
port; and that, in my discourses among them, I had
frequently given them an account of my two voyages
to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with
the negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase
on the coast, for trifles-such as beads, toys, knives,
scissors, hatchets, bits of glass and the like- not
only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c.,
but negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great
numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my dis-
courses on these heads, but especially to that part
which related to the buying negroes; which was a
trade at that time, not only not far entered into, but,
as far as it was, had been carried on by the Assientos,
or permission of the Kings of Spain and Portugal,
and engrossed from the public; so that few negroes
were bought, and those excessively dear.
It happened, being in company with some mer-
chants and planters of my acquaintance, and talking
of those things very earnestly, three of them came
4







52 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE,
to me the next morning, and told me they had been
musing very much upon what I had discoursed with
them of the last night, and they came to make a
secret proposal to me; and after enjoining me to
secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to fit
out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all planta-
tions as well as I, and were straightened for nothing
so much as servants; that, as it was a trade that
could not be carried on, because they could not
publicly sell the negroes when they came home, so
they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the
negroes on shore privately, and divide them among
their own plantations; and, in a word, the question
was, whether I would go their supercargo in the
ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of
Guinea ? and they offered me that I should have an
equal share of the negroes, without providing any
part of the stock.
I, that was always my own destroyer, would no
more resist the offer, than I would restrain my first
rambling designs, when my father's good counsel
was lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would
go with all my heart, if they would undertake to
look after my plantation in my absence, and would
dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried.
This they all engaged to do, and entered into writ-
ings, or covenants, to do so; and I made a formal
will, disposing of my plantation and effects, in case
of my death; making the captain of the ship that
had saved my life as before, my universal heir; but








AN EVIL DAY. 05
obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed
in my will; one half of the produce being to himself,
and the other to be shipped to England.
I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates
of my fancy, rather than my reason; and, accord-
ingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo fur-
nished, and all things done as by agreement by my
partners in the voyage, I went on board, in an evil
hour again, the first of September 1659, being the
same day eight years that I went from my father and
mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their
authority, and the fool to my own interest.




CHAPTER VI.

THE same day I went on board, we set sail; standing
away to the northward upon our own coast, with de-
sign to stretch over for the African coast. When
they came about ten or twelve degrees of northern
latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of their
course in those days, we had very good weather, only
excessively hot, all the way upon our own coast, till
we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino; from
whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight of
land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle
Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by
N., and leaving those isles on the east. In this
course we passed the Line in about twelve days'








54 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
time, and were, by our last observation, in 7 degrees
22 minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado,
or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge. It
began from the south-east, came about to the north-
west, and then settled in the north-east; from whence
it blew in such a terrible manner, that, for twelve
days together, we could do nothing but drive, and
scudding away before it, let it carry us whither the
fury of the winds directed; and, during these twelve
days, I need not say that I expected every day to be
swallowed up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship ex-
pect to save their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the
storm, one of our men died of the calenture, and one
man and a boy washed overboard I About the twelfth
day, the weather abating a little, the master made an
observation, as well as he could, and found that he
was in about 11 degrees north latitude, but that he
was 22 degrees of longitude difference west from
Cape St. Augustino; so that he found that he was
got upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of
Brazil, beyond the River Amazons, toward that of
the River Oroonoque, commonly called the Great
River; and began to consult with me what course he
should take, for the ship was leaky and very much
disabled, and he was going directly back to the coast
of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and, looking over
the charts of the sea-coast of America with him, we
concluded there was no inhabited country for us to








A DREADFUL CONDITION. 55
have recourse to, till we came within the circle of the
Caribbee islands, and, therefore, resolved to stand
away for Barbadoes; which, by keeping off to sea, to
avoid the in-draft of the bay or Gulf of Mexico, we
might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen
days' sail; whereas we could not possibly make our
voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance,
both to our ship and ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and
steered away N.W. by W., in order to reach some of
our English islands, where I hoped for relief; but
our voyage was otherwise determined; for, being in
the latitude of 12 degrees 18 minutes, a second storm
came upon us, which carried us away with the same
impetuosity westward, and drove us out of the very
way of all human commerce.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard,
one of our men, early in the morning, cried out land
and we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out,
in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were,
but the ship struck upon a sand, and, in a moment,
her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her
in such a manner that we expected we should all
have perished immediately.
We were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had
nothing to do but to think of saving our lives as well
as we could. We had a boat at our stern just before
the storm, but she was first staved, by dashing against
the ship's rudder, and, in the next place, she broke
away, and either sunk or was driven off to sea; so








58 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to ex-
press, to the life, what the ecstacies and transports of
the soul are when it is so saved, as I may say, out of
the grave.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands,
and my whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the
contemplation of my deliverance; making a thousand
gestures and motions which I cannot describe; reflect-
ing upon all my comrades that were drowned, and
that there should not be one soul saved but myself;
for as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any
sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and
two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel-when the
beach and froth of the sea being so big, I could
hardly see it, it lay so far off-and considered, how
was it possible I could get on shore!
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable
part of my condition, I began to look round me, to
see what kind of a place I was in, and what was next
to be done; and I soon found my comforts abate, and
that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance; for I
was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything,
either to eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I
see any prospect before me, but that of perishing
with hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts;
and that which was particularly afflicting to me was,
that I had no weapon, either to hunt or kill any crea-
ture for my sustenance, or to defend myself against
any other creature that might desire to kill me for








A LODGING FOR THE NIGHT.


theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a
knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box.
This was all my provision; and this threw me into
such terrible agonies of mind, that for a while I ran
about like a madman. Night coming upon me, I
began with a heavy heart to consider what would
be my lot, if there were any ravenous beasts in that
country, seeing at night they always come abroad
for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that
time, was to get up in a thick bushy tree, like a fir,
but thorny-which grew near me, and where I
resolved to sit all night-and consider the next day
what death I should die, for as yet I saw no pro-
spect of life. I walked about a furlong from the
shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink,
which I did, to my great joy; and having drank,
and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it,
endeavoured to place myself so, as that, if I should
sleep, I might not fall; and having cut me a short
stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my
lodging; and having been excessively fatigued, I
fell asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few
could have done in my condition; and felt myself the
most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on
such an occasion.








60 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


CHAPTER VII.

WHEN I waked, it was broad day, the weather clear,
and the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and
swell as before; but that which surprised me most
was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from the
sand where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and
was driven up among the rocks about a mile from
the shore where I was, and as she seemed to stand
upright still, I wished myself on board, that at least
I might save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree,
I looked about me again, and the first thing I found
was the boat; which lay, as the wind and the sea had
tossed her up upon the land, about two miles on my
right hand. I walked as far as I could upon the
shore to have got to her, but found a neck or inlet
of water between me and the boat, which was about
half a mile broad; so I came back for the present,
being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I
hoped to find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and
the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come within a
quarter of a mile of the ship. I resolved if possible
to get to it, so I pulled of my clothes, for the weather
was hot to extremity, and took the water: but when
I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to
know how to get on board; for as she lay aground,
and high out of the water, there was nothing within








A VISIT TO THE SHIP. 01
my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice,
and the second time I spied a small piece of a rope,
which I wondered I did not see at first, hang down
by the fore-chains, so low as that with great difficulty
I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got into
the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the
ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her
hold; but that she lay so on the side of a bank of
hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted
up upon the bank, and her head low, almost to the
water. By this means all her quarter was free, and
all that was in that part was dry; for you may be
sure my first work was to search, and to see what
was spoiled, and what was free: and, first, I found
that all the ship's provisions were dry and untouched
by the water; and, being very well disposed to eat, I
went to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with
biscuit, and ate it as I went about other things, for I
had no time to lose. I also found some rum in the
great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which
I had indeed need enough of, to spirit me for what
was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat,
to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw
would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still, and wish for what was
not to be had, and this extremity roused my applica-
tion; we had several spare yards, and two or three
large spars of wood, and a spare topmast or two in
the ship; I resolved to fall to work with these, and
flung as many overboard as I could manage for their








62 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might
not drive away. When this was done, I went down
the ship's side, and pulling them to me, I tied four
of them fast together at both ends as well as I could
in the form of a raft, and laying two or three short
pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found I could
walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to
bear any great weight, the pieces being too light: so
I went to work, and with the carpenter's saw I cut
a spare topmast into three lengths, and added them
to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains.
But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries
encouraged me to go beyond what I should have
been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any rea-
sonable weight. My next care was what to load it
with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea; but I was not long considering
this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it
that I could get, and, having considered well what
I most wanted, I got three of the seamen's chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered
them down upon my raft; these I filled with provi-
sions, namely, bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five
pieces of dried goats' flesh (which we lived much
upon), and a little remainder of European corn,
which had been laid by for some fowls which we had
brought to sea with us; but the fowls were killed.
There had been some barley and wheat together, but,
to my great disappointment, I found afterwards that








62 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might
not drive away. When this was done, I went down
the ship's side, and pulling them to me, I tied four
of them fast together at both ends as well as I could
in the form of a raft, and laying two or three short
pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found I could
walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to
bear any great weight, the pieces being too light: so
I went to work, and with the carpenter's saw I cut
a spare topmast into three lengths, and added them
to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains.
But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries
encouraged me to go beyond what I should have
been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any rea-
sonable weight. My next care was what to load it
with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea; but I was not long considering
this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it
that I could get, and, having considered well what
I most wanted, I got three of the seamen's chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered
them down upon my raft; these I filled with provi-
sions, namely, bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five
pieces of dried goats' flesh (which we lived much
upon), and a little remainder of European corn,
which had been laid by for some fowls which we had
brought to sea with us; but the fowls were killed.
There had been some barley and wheat together, but,
to my great disappointment, I found afterwards that










THE FIRST CARGO.


the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors,
I found several cases of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which were some cordial waters; and, in
all, about five or six gallons of rack. These I stowed
by themselves, there being no need to put them into
the chests, nor any room for them. While I was
doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though
very calm; and I had the mortification to see my
coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore
upon the sand, swim away; as for my breeches,
which were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on
board in them and my stockings. However, this
put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found
enough, but took no more than I wanted for present
use, for I had other things which my eye was more
upon; as, first, tools to work with on shore: and it
was after long searching that I found the carpenter's
chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me,
and much more valuable than a ship-lading of gold
would have been at that time. I got it down to my
raft, even whole as it was, without losing time to
look into it, for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms.
There were two very good fowling-pieces in the great
cabin, and two pistols; these I secured first, with
some powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and two
old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels
of powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner
had stowed them; but, with much search, I found
them; two of them dry and good, the third had taken







64 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
water. Those two I got to my raft, with the arms.
And now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and
began to think how I should get to shore with them,
having neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least
capful of wind would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: 1st, A smooth, calm
sea; 2dly, The tide rising, and setting in to the shore;
3dly, What little wind there was, blew me towards
the land. And thus, having found two or three
broken oars belonging to the boat, and, besides the
tools which were in the chest, I found two saws, an
axe, and a hammer; and, with this cargo, I put to
sea. For a mile or thereabouts my raft went very
well, only that I found it drive a little distance from
the place where I had landed before; by which I
perceived that there was some in-draft of the water,
and, consequently, I hoped to find some creek or
river there, which I might make use of as a port to
get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before
me a little opening of the land, and I found a strong
current of the tide set into it; so I guided my raft,
as well as I could, to get into the middle of the
stream, and at length found myself in the mouth of
a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong
current, or tide, running up. I looked on both sides
for a proper place to get to shore, for I was not will-
ing to be driven too high up the river; hoping, in
time, to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved
to place myself as near the coast as I could.







A TOUR OF DISCOVERY. 60
At length I spied a little cove, on the right shore
of the creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty,
I guided my raft, and at last got my raft and all
my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek
a proper place for my habitation, and where to stow
my goods, to secure them from whatever might
happen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether
on the continent, or on an island; whether inhabited,
or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts
or not. There was a hill, not above a mile from me,
which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed
to over-top some other hills, which lay as in a ridge,
from it, northward. I took out one of the fowling-
pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder;
and, thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the
top of that hill; where, after I had, with great labour
and difficulty, got up to the top, I saw my lot, to my
great affliction, namely, that I was in an island, en-
vironed every way with the sea, no land to be seen
except some rocks, which lay a great way off, and
two small islands, less than this, which lay about
three leagues to the west.
I found, also, that the island I was in was barren,
and, as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited,
except by wild beasts, of whom, however, I saw none;
yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their
kinds; neither, when I killed them, could I tell what
was fit for food, and what not.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my







66 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore,
which took me up the rest of that day: what to do
with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where
to rest: for I was afraid to lie down on the ground,
not knowing but some wild beasts might devour me;
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no
need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself
round with the chests and boards that I had brought
on shore, and made a kind of hut for that night's
lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way to
supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures like hares run out of the wood.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a
.great many things out of the ship which would be
useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging
and sails, and such other things as might come to
land; and I resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel, if possible. And, as I knew that
the first storm that blew must necessarily break her
all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart,
till I got everything out of the ship that I could get.
Then I called a council, that is to say, in my thoughts,
whether I should take back the r:'t; but this appeared
impracticable: so I resolved to go as before, when
the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped
before I went from my hut, having nothing on but a
chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair
of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a







A SECOND VISIT TO THE WRECK. 67
second raft; and, having had experience of the first,
I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so
hard, but yet I brought away several things very
useful to me: as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I
found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a
great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets; and,
above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone.
All these I secured, together with several things
belonging to the gunner; particularly, two or three
iron crows, and two barrels of musket-bullets, seven
muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small
quantity of powder more; a large bag full of small
shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead; but this last was
so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it over the
ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes
that I could find, and a spare fore top-sail, a ham-,
mock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my
second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to
my great comfort.
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I
was fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring
them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being
large casks-I went to work to make me a little tent,
with the sail, and some poles which I cut for that
purpose; and into this tent I brought everything
that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun; and
I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle
round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt
either from man or beast.








68 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of
the tent with some boards within, and an empty
chest set up on end without; and, spreading one of
the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just
at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed, for the first time, and slept very quietly all night,
for I was very weary and heavy; for the night before
I had slept little, and had laboured very hard all day,
as well to fetch all those things from the ship, as to
get them on shore.
After I had made five or six such voyages to the
ship, and thought I had nothing more to expect that
was worth my meddling with; I say, after all this,
I found a great hogshead of bread, and three large
runlets of rum or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a
barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me, be-
'cause I had given over expecting any more provi-
sions, except what was spoiled by the water. I soon
emptied the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it
up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I
cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore
also.
The next day I made another voyage; and now,
having plundered the ship of what was portable and
fit to hand out, I began with the cables, and cutting
the great cable into pieces, such as I could move, I
got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the
iron-work I could get; and, having cut down the
spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and everything
I could to make a large raft, I loaded it with all








CLEARING OUT THE WRECK.


those heavy goods, and came away; but this raft was
so unwieldy, and so overladen, that, after I was en-
tered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of
my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as
I did the other, it overset, and threw me and all my
cargo into the water. As for myself, it was no great
harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo,
it was the greater part of it lost, especially the iron,
which I expected would have been of great use to me.
However, when the tide was out, I got most of the
pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though
with infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into
the water, a work which fatigued me very much.
After this I went every day on board, and brought
away what I could get.




CHAPTER VIII.

I HAD been now thirteen days on shore, and had been
eleven times on board the ship; in which time I had
brought away all that one pair of hands could well
be supposed capable to bring; though, I believe
verily, had the calm weather held, I should have
bought away the whole ship, piece by piece; but
preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found
the wind began to rise. However, at low water I
went on board; and though I thought I had rum-
maged the cabin so effectually as that nothing more







70 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
could be found, yet I discovered a locker, with drawers
in it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and
one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen
of good knives and forks; in another I found about
thirty-six pounds value in money, some European
coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold,
and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. 0
drug!" said I aloud, "what art thou good for? Thou
art not worth to me, no, not the taking off the ground;
one of those knives is worth all this heap. I have no
manner of use for thee; e'en remain where thou art,
and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not
worth saving." However, upon second thoughts, I
took it away, and wrapping all this in a piece of can-
vass, I began to think of making another raft; but
while I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast,
and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an
hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It pre-
sently occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend
to make a raft with the wind off shore; and that it
was my business to be gone before the tide of flood
began, or otherwise I might not be able to reach the
shore at all. Accordingly, I let myself down into
the water, and swam across the channel which lay
between the ship and the sands, and even that with
difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the things
I had about me, and partly the roughness of the
water; for the wind rose very hastily, and before it
was quite high water it blew a storm.








PLANS FOR DEFENCE.


But I was got home to my little tent, where I lay,
with all my wealth about me, very secure. It blew
very hard all that night, and in the morning, when I
looked out, behold, no more ship was to be seen I
was a little surprised, but recovered myself with this
satisfactory reflection, namely, that I had lost no
time, nor abated no diligence, to get everything out
of her that could be useful to me, and that, indeed,
there was little left in her that I was able to bring
away, if I had had more time.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about
securing myself against either savages, if any should
appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island; and
I had many thoughts of the method how to do this,
and what kind of dwelling to make, whether I should
make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the
earth; and in short, I resolved upon both: the man-
ner and description of which it may not be improper
to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my
settlement, particularly because it was upon a low,
moorish ground near the sea, and I believed it would
not be wholesome, and more particularly, because
there was no fresh water near it; so I resolved to
find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
ground.
I consulted several things in my situation which I
found would be proper for me--st, Health and fresh
water, I just now mentioned; 2dly, Shelter from the
heat of the sun; 3dly, Security from ravenous crea-







72 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
tures, whether men or beasts; 4thly, A view to the
sea, that, if God sent any ship in sight, I might not
lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I
was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.
In search for a proper place for this, I found a little
plain on the side of a rising hill, on which was a rock
whose front towards this little plain was steep as a
house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me
from the top. On the side of this rock there was a
hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance
or door of a cave; but there was not really any cave
or way into the rock at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow
place, I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was
not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice as
long, and lay like a green before my door; and, at the
end of it, descended irregularly every way down into
the low ground by the sea-side. It was on the
N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was sheltered from
the heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S.
sun, or thereabouts, which in those countries is near
the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle be-
fore the hollow place, which took in about ten yards
in its semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty yards
in its diameter from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong
stakes, driving them into the ground till they stood
very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of the
ground about five feet and a half, and sharpened on







PATIENCE AND PERSEVERANCE. 73
the top. The two rows did not stand above six inches
from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in
the ship, and laid them in rows, one above another,
within the circle between these two rows of stakes,
up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside lean-
ing against them, about two feet and a half high, like
a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong that
neither man nor beast could get into it, or over it.
This cost me a great deal of time and labour, espe-
cially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to
the place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by
a door, but by a short ladder to get over the top:
which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me;
and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I
thought, from all the world, and consequently slept
secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have
done; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was
no need of all this caution from the enemies that I
apprehended danger from.
Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labour, I
carried all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition,
and stores, of which you have the account above; and
I made me a large tent, which, to preserve me from
the rains, that in one part of the year are very violent
there, I made double, namely, one smaller tent within,
and one larger tent above it, and covered the upper.
most with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among
the sails.








74 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed
which I had brought on shore, but in a hammock,
which was indeed a very good one, and belonged to
the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and
everything that would spoil by the wet; and having
thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance,
which, till now, I had left open, and so passed and
repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way
into the rock, and bringing all the earth and stones
that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them up
within my fence in the nature of a terrace, so that it
raised the ground within about a foot and a half, and
thus I made me a cave, just behind my tent, which
served me like a cellar to my house. It cost me
much labour, and many days, before all these things
were brought to perfection; and therefore I must go
back to some other things which took up some of my
thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had
laid my schemes for the setting up my tent, and
making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a
thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning hap-
pened, and after that a great clap of thunder, as is
naturally the effect of it. I was not so much sur-
prised with the lightning as I was with the thought
which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning
itself, 0, my powder!" My very heart sunk within
me, when I thought that, at one blast, all my powder
might be destroyed, on which not my defence only,








NEEDFUL PRECAUTIONS.


but the providing me food, as I thought, entirely de-
pended. I was nothing near so anxious about my
own danger, though, had the powder took fire, I had
never known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that, after
the storm was over, I laid aside all my works, my
building and fortifying, and applied myself to make
bags and boxes to separate the powder, and to keep
it a little and a little in a parcel, in hope that what-
ever might come, it might not all take fire at once;
and to keep it so apart that it should not be possible
to make one part fire another. I finished this work
in about a fortnight; and I think my powder, which
in all was about 240 lb. weight, was divided in not
less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that
had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from
that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my
fancy, I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and
down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might
come to it, marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went
out at least once every day with my gun, as well to
divert myself as to see if I could kill anything fit for
food, and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with
what the island produced. The first time I went out
I presently discovered that there were goats upon the
island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then
it was attended with this misfortune to me, namely,
that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot,
that it was the most difficult thing in the world tc







76 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
come at them; but I was not discouraged at this, not
doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it
soon happened; for after I had found their haunts a
little, I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed,
if they saw me in the valleys, though they were upon
the rocks, they would run away, as if in a terrible
fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys and I
was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from
whence I concluded that, by the position of their
optics, their sight was so directed downward that they
did not readily see objects that were above them; so,
afterwards, I took this method-I always climbed
the rocks first, to get above them, and then had fre-
quently a fair mark. The first shot I made among
these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which had a little
kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved
me heartily; but when the old one fell, the kid stood
stock-still by her till I came and took her up: and
not only so, but when I carried the old one with me
upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to
my enclosure, upon which I laid down the dam and
took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale,
in hopes to have it bred up tame; but it would not
eat, so I was forced to kill it and eat it myself. These
two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate
sparingly, and preserved my provisions (my bread
especially) as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it abso-
lutely necessary to provide a place to make a fire in,
and fuel to burn; and what I did for that, as also how







CRUSOE'S ACTUAL CONDITION. 77
I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made,
I shall give a full account of it in its proper place;
but I must first give some little account of myself
and of my thoughts about living, which, it may be
well supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for, as I
was not cast away upon that island without being
driven, as is said, by a violent storm, quite out of
the course of our intended voyage, and a great way,
namely, some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary
course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to
consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this
desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should
end my life. The tears would run plentifully down
my face when I made these reflections; and some-
times I would expostulate with myself why Provi-
dence should thus completely ruin its creatures, and
render them so absolutely miserable; so abandoned
without help, so entirely depressed, that it could
hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to
check these thoughts, and to reprove me; and parti-
cularly, one day, walking with my gun in my hand
by the sea-side, I was very pensive upon the subject
of my present condition, when reason, as it were, ex-
,postulated with me the other way, thus:-" Well,
you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but pray
remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you
come, eleven of you, into the boat? Where are the ten?
Why were they not saved, and you lost? Why were








78 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
you singled out? Is it better to be here or there?"
And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be
considered with the good that is in them, and with
what worse attends them.




CHAPTER IX.

AND now, being to enter into a melancholy relation
of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never
heard of in the world before, I shall take it from its
beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by
my account, the 30th of September, when, in the
manner as above said, I first set footupon this horrible
island; when the sun, being to us in its autumnal
equinox, was almost just over my head; for I reckoned
myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of 9 de
grees 22 minutes north of the Line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it
came into my thoughts that I should lose my reckon-
ing of time for want of books, and pen and ink, and
should even forget the Sabbath-days from the work-
ing-days; but to prevent this, I cut it, with my knife,
upon a large post, in capital letters; and making it
into a great cross, I set it up on the shore where I
first landed, namely, I came on shore here on the
30th of September 1659." Upon the sides of this
square post I cut, every day, a notch with my knife
and every seventh notch was as long again as the







A TRUSTY SERVANT. 79
rest, and every first day of the month as long again
as that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or
weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
But it happened that, among the many things
which I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages
which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got several
things of less value, but not at all less useful to me,
which I found some time after, in rummaging the
chests; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper; several
parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and car-
penter's keeping; three or four compasses, some ma-
thematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and
books of navigation; all which I huddled together,
whether I might want them or no: also, I found three
very good Bibles, which came to me in my cargo
from England, and which I had packed up among my
things; some Portuguese books also, and among them
two or three Popish prayer-books, and several other
books, all which I carefully secured. And I must
not forget that we had in the ship a dog, and two
cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion
to say something in its place: for I carried both the
cats with me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of
the ship himself, and swam on shore to me, the day
after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a
trusty servant to me for many years; I wanted nothing
that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could
make up to me; I only wanted to have him talk to
me, but that would not do. As I observed before, I
found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to







80 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
the utmost; and I shall show, that, while my ink
lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that was
gone, I could not; for I could not make any ink, by
any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things,
notwithstanding all that I had amassed together; and
of these, this of ink was one; as also a spade, pick-
axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles,
pins, and thread: as for linen, I soon learned to want
that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on
heavily; and it was near a whole year before I had
entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded habita-
tion. The piles, or stakes, which were as heavy as I
could well lift, were a long time in cutting and pre-
paring in the woods, and more, by far, in bringing
home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting
and bringing home one of those posts, and a third day
in driving it into the ground: for which purpose I got
a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought
myself of one of the iron crows; which, however,
though I found it, yet it made driving these posts, or
piles, very laborious and tedious work.
I now began to consider seriously my condition,
and the circumstances I was reduced to; and I drew
up the state of my affairs in writing, not so much to
leave them to any that were to come after me (for I
was like to have but few heirs), as to deliver my
thoughts from daily poring upon them, and afflicting
my mind: and, as my reason began now to master









A DEBTOR AND CREDITOR ACCOUNT. 81

my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well
as I could, and to set the good against the evil, that I
might have something to distinguish my case from
worse; and I stated it very impartially, like debtor
and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against the
miseries I suffered, thus:-


EVIL.


Goon


I am cast upon a horrible,
desolate island, void of all
hope of recovery.

I am singled out and sepa-
rated, as it were, from all the
world to be miserable.




I am divided from man-
kind, a solitaire: one banish-
ed from human society.

I have no clothes to cover
me.


I am without any defence,
or means to resist any vio-
lence of man or beast.


But I am alive and not
drowned, as all my ship's
company were.

But I am singled out, too,
from all the ship's crew, to
be spared from death; and
He that providentially saved
me from death, can deliver
me from this condition.

But I am not starved, and
perishing in a barren place,
affording no sustenance.

But I am in a hot climate,
where, if I had clothes, I
could hardly wear them.

But I am cast on an island,
where I see no wild beasts
to hurt me, as I saw on the
coast of Africa, and what if
I had been shipwrecked
there I








82 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
I have no soul to speak to, But God wonderfully sent
or relieve me. the ship in near enough to
the shore, that I have got
out so many necessary things
as will either supply my
wants, or enable me to sup-
ply myself, even as long as
I live.


Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony,
that there was scarce any condition in the world so
miserable, but there was something negative, or some-
thing positive, to be thankful for in it; and let this
stand as a direction, from the experience of the most
miserable of all conditions in this world, that we may
always find in it something to comfort ourselves from,
and to set, in the description of good and evil, on the
credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my
condition, and giving over looking out to sea, to see if
I could spy a ship; I say, giving over these things, I
began to apply myself to accommodate my way of
living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was
a tent under the side of a rock, surrounded with a
strong pale of posts and cables; but I might now
rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall against
it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside; and,
after some time (I think it was a year and a half), I
raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched
or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as







CRUSOE AS A CABINET-MAKER. 83
I could get, to keep out the rain; which I found, at
some time of the year, very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my
goods into this pale, and into the cave which I had
made behind me. But I must observe, too, that at
first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they
lay in no order, so they took up all my place; I had
no room to turn myself; so I set myself to enlarge
my cave, and work farther into the earth, for it was
a loose, sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labour
I bestowed on it; and when I found I was pretty
safe as to the beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to
the right hand, into the rock, and then, turning to
the right again, worked quite out, and made me a
door to come out on the outside of my pale or forti-
fication.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it
were, a back way to my tent and to my storehouse,
but gave me room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such
necessary things as I found I most wanted, particu-
larly a chair and a table; for, without these, I was
not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world;
I could not write, or eat, or do several things with so
much pleasure, without a table; so I went to work.
And here I must needs observe, that, as reason is the
substance and original of the mathematics, so by stat-
ing and squaring everything by reason, and by mak-
ing the most rational judgment of things, every man
may be, in time, master of every mechanic art. I








84 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
had never handled a tool in my life; and yet, in
time, by labour, application, and contrivance, I found
at last that I wanted nothing but I could have made,
especially if I had had tools. However, I made
abundance of things even without tools, and some
with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet,
which, perhaps, were never made that way before,
and that with infinite labour. For example, if I
wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down
a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on
either side with my axe, till I had brought it to be
as thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my
adze. It is true, by this method I could make but
one board out of a whole tree; but this I had no
remedy for but patience, any more than I had for
the prodigious deal of time and labour which it took
me to make up a plank or board; but my time or
labour was little worth, and so it was as well em-
ployed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I ob-
served above, in the first place; and this I did out of
the short pieces of boards that I brought on my rafl
from the ship. But, when I wrought out some boards,
as above, I made large shelves, of the breadth of a
foot and a half, one over another, all along one side
of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron work
on; and, in a word, to separate everything at large
in their places, that I might easily come at them. I
knocked pieces into the wall of the rock, to hang my
guns, and all things that would hang up, so that, had







CRUSOE'S NARRATIVE. 85
my cave been seen, it looked like a general magazine
of all necessary things; and I had everything so ready
at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see
all my goods in such order, and especially to find my
stock of all necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of
every day's employment, of which I shall here give
you the copy (though in it will be told all those par-
ticulars over again) as long as it lasted; for, having
no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.



THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson
Crusoe, being shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm,
in the offing, came on shore on this dismal unfortu-
nate island, which I called the ISLAND OF DESPAIR;
all the rest of the ship's company being drowned, and
myself almost dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself
at the dismal circumstances I was brought to, namely,
I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place
to fly to; and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing
but death before me; that I should either be devoured
by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to
death for want of food. At the approach of night, I
slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures, but slept
soundly, though it rained all night.







86 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
October 1. In the morning, I saw, to my great
surprise, the ship had floated with the high tide, and
was driven on shore again much nearer the island;
which, as it was some comfort on one hand (for seeing
her sit upright and not broken in pieces, I hoped, if
the wind abated, I might get on board, and get some
food and necessaries out of her for my relief), so, on
the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my
comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on
board, might have saved the ship, or, at least, that
they would not have been all drowned, as they were;
and that, had the men been saved, we might, perhaps,
have built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship, to
have carried us to some other part of the world. I
spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on
these things; but at length, seeing the ship almost
dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and
then swam on board. This day, also, it continued
raining, though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October till the 24th. All these
days entirely spent in making several voyages to
get all I could out of the ship, which I brought
on shore, every time of flood, upon rafts. Much
rain also on these days, though with some intervals
of fair weather; but it seems this was the rainy
season.
Oct. 20. I overset my raft and all the goods I had
got upon it, but being in shoal water, and the things
being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when
the tide was out.








DAY AFTER DAY. 87
Oct. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some
gusts of wind, during which time the ship broke in
pieces (the wind blowing a little harder than before),
and was no more to be seen except the wreck of her,
and that only at low water. I spent this day in
covering and securing the goods which I had saved,
that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day
to find out a place to fix my habitation; greatly con-
cerned to secure myself from any attack in the night,
either from wild beasts or men. Towards night I
fixed upon a proper place under a rock, and marked
out a semicircle for my encampment, which I resolved
to strengthen with a work wall or fortification, made
of double piles, lined within with cables and without
with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in
carrying all my goods to my new habitation, though
some part of the time it rained exceedingly hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the
island with my gun to seek for some food, and dis-
cover the country, when I killed a she-goat, and her
kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed also
because it would not feed.
November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and
lay there for the first night, making it as large as I
could with stakes driven in to swing my hammock
upon.
Nov. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the
pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with them








88 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
formed a fence round me, a little within the place I
had marked out for my fortification.
Nov. 3. I went out with my gun and killed two
fowls like ducks, which were very good food. In the
afternoon I went to work to make me a table.
Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times
of work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and
time of diversion: namely, every morning I walked
out with my gun for two or three hours if it did not
rain; then employed myself to work till about eleven
o'clock; then ate what I had to live on; and from
twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
excessive hot; and then in the evening to work
again. The working part of this day and the next
was wholly employed in making my table, for I was
yet but a very sorry workman; though time and ne-
cessity made me a complete natural mechanic soon
after, as I believe they would any one else.
Nov. 5. This day went abroad with my gun and
dog, and killed a wild-cat; her skin pretty soft, but
her flesh good for nothing; of every creature that
I killed, I took off the skins and preserved them.
Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw many sorts of
sea-fowl which I did not understand; but was sur-
prised and almost frightened with two or three seals,
which, while I was gazing at them (not well know-
ing what they were), got into the sea and escaped me
for that time.
Nov. 6. After my morning walk I went to work
with my table again, and finished it, though not to







A REFRACTORY CHAIR.


my liking; nor was it long before I learned to mend
it.
Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather.
The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for
the 11th was Sunday, according to my reckoning), I
took wholly up to make me a chair, and, with much
ado, brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to
please me; and even in the making, I pulled it in
pieces several times.
Note. I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for,
omitting my mark for them on my post, I forgot
which was which.
Nov. 13. This day it rained, which refreshed me
exceedingly and cooled the earth, but it was accom-
panied with terrible thunder and lightning, which
frightened me dreadfully for fear of my powder. As
soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my stock
.of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that
it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in mak-
ing little square chests or boxes, which might hold
about a pound or two pounds at most of powder; and
so putting the powder in, I stowed it in places as
secure and as remote from one another as possible.
On one of these three days, I killed a large bird that
was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.
Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent
into the rock, to make room for my farther conveni-
ence.
Note. Three things I wanted exceedingly for this








90 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
work, namely, a pick-axe, a shovel, and a wheel-
barrow or basket; so I desisted from my work, and
began to consider how to supply these wants, and
make me some tools. As for a pick-axe, I made use
of the iron crows, which were proper enough, though
heavy; but the next thing was a shovel or spade:
this was so absolutely necessary, that indeed I could
do nothing effectually without it; but what kind of
one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I
found a tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the
Brazils, they call the Iron tree, from its exceeding
hardness; of this, with great labour and almost spoil-
ing my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home too,
with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy,
The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having
no other way, made me a long while upon this
machine; for I worked it effectually by little and
little into the form of a shovel or spade, the handle
exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the
broad part, having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it
would not last me so long; however, it served well
enough for the uses which I had occasion to put it
to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after
that fashion, or so long a-making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a
wheelbarrow. A basket I could not make by any
means, having no such things as twigs that would
bend to make wicker-ware; at least none yet found
out, and as to the wheelbarrow I fancied I could








NECESSITY THE MOTHER OF INVENTION. 91
make all but the wheel, but that I had no notion oft
neither did I know how to go about it; besides, I had
no possible way to make iron gudgeons, for the
spindle or axis of the wheel to run in; so I gave it
over; and for carrying away the earth which I dug
out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod which
the labourers carry the mortar in for the bricklayers.
This was not so difficult to me as the making the
shovel; and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt
which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took
me up no less than four days; I mean always ex-
cepting my morning walk with my gun, which I sel-
dom omitted, and very seldom failed also bringing
home something fit to eat.
Nov. 23. My other work having now stood still,
because of my making these tools, when they were
finished I went on, and working every day as my
strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days en-
tirely in widening and deepening my cave, that it
might hold my goods commodiously.
Note. During all this time I worked to make this
room or cave spacious enough to accommodate me as
a warehouse, or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room,
and a cellar. As for a lodging, I kept to the tent,
except that sometimes in the wet season of the year
it gained so hard that I could not keep myself dry,
which caused me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles in the form of rafters
leaning against the rock, and load them with flags
and large leaves of trees like a thatch.







92 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
December 10. I began now to think my cave or
vault finished; when on a sudden (it seems I had
made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell down
from the top and one side; so much that, in short,
it frightened me, and not without reason too, for if I
had been under it I should never have wanted a
grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had a great deal
of work to do over again, for I had the loose earth to
carry out; and, which was of more importance, I had
the ceiling to prop up so that I might be sure no
more would come down.
Dec. 11. This day I went to work with it accord-
ingly, and got two shores or posts pitched upright to
the top, with two pieces of board across over each
post; this I finished the next day, and, setting more
posts up with boards, in about a week more I had the
roof secured; and the posts standing in rows served
me for partitions to part of my house.
Dec. 17. From this day to the 20th I placed
shelves, and knocked up nails on the posts, to hang
everything up that could be hung up; and now I
began to be in some order within doors.
Dec. 20. I carried everything into the cave, and
began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of
boards like a dresser, to order my victuals upon; but
boards began to be very scarce with me; also I made
me another table.
Dec. 24. Much rain all night and all day; no stir-
ring out.
Dec. 25. Rain all day.








A TAME GOAT.


Dec. 26. No rain, and the earth much cooler than
before, and pleasanter.
Dec. 27. Killed a young goat, and lamed another,
so that I catched it and led it home in a string;
when I had it home I bound and splintered up its
leg, which was broke.
N.B. I took such care of it that it lived, and the
leg grew well and as strong as ever; but by nursing
it so long it grew tame, and fed upon the little green
at my door, and would not go away. This was the
first time that I entertained a thought of breeding up
some tame creatures, that I might have food when
my powder and shot was all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31. Great heats and no breeze,
so that there was no stirring abroad, except in the
evening, for food; this time I spent in putting all my
things in order within doors.
January 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad early
and late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of
the day. This evening, going farther into the valleys
which lay towards the centre of the island, I found
there was plenty of goats, though exceeding shy
and hard to come at; however, I resolved to try if
I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.
Accordingly, the next day I went out with my
dog, and set him upon the goats, but I was mis-
taken, for they all faced about upon the dog; and he
knew his danger too well, for he would not come
near them.
Jan. 3. I began my fence, or wall, which, being








94 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
still jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I re-
solved to make very thick and strong.
N.B. This wall being described before, I purposely
omit what was said in the Journal; it is sufficient to
observe, that I was no less time than from the 3d of
January to the 14th of April, working, finishing, and
perfecting this wall, though it was no more than
about 25 yards in length, being a half-circle, from
one place in the rock to another place, about twelve
yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre,
behind it.



CHAPTER X.
ALL this time I worked very hard, the rains hinder-
ing me many days, nay, sometimes weeks together;
but I thought I should never be perfectly secure till
this wall was finished; and it is scarce credible what
inexpressible labour everything was done with, espe-
cially the bringing piles out of the woods, and driving
them into the ground, for I made them much bigger
than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double
fenced, with a turf-wall raised up close to it, I per-
suaded myself that if any people were to come on
shore there, they would not perceive anything like a
habitation; and it was very well I did so, as may be
observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.
And now, in the managing my household affairs, I







INGENIOUS EXPEDIENTS.


found myself wanting in many things, which I thought
at first it was impossible for me to make, as, indeed,
as to some of them, it was; for instance, I could never
make a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet or
two, as I observed before, but I could never arrive to
the capacity of making one by them, though I spent
many weeks about it; I could neither put in the
heads, nor join the staves so true to one another as
to make them hold water, so I gave that also over.
In the next place, I was at a great loss for candle,
so that as soon as it was dark, which was generally
by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I re-
membered the lump of bees'-wax with which I made
candles in my African adventure, but I had none of
that now; the only remedy I had was, that when I
had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little
dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which
I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp;
and this gave me light, though not a clear steady
light, like a candle. In the middle of all my labours,
it happened that in rummaging my things I found a
little bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled
with corn for feeding of poultry; not for this voyage,
but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from
Lisbon. What little remainder of corn had been in
the bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw no-
thing in the bag but husks and dust; and being will-
ing to have the bag for some other use (I think it
was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of
the lightning, or some such use), I shook the husks








96 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
of corn out of it, on one side of my fortification, under
the rock.
It was a little before the great rain, just now men-
tioned, that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice
of anything, and not so much as remembering that I
had thrown anything there, when about a month
after I saw some few stalks of something green shoot-
ing out of the ground, which I fancied might be some
plant I had not seen; but I was surprised and per-
fectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I
saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which were
perfect green barley, of the same kind as our Euro-
pean, nay, as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and
confusion of my thoughts on this occasion; I had
hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all; in-
deed, I had very few notions of religion in my head,
nor had entertained any sense of anything that had
befallen me otherwise than as a chance, or, as we
lightly say, what pleases God; without so much as
inquiring into the end of Providence in these things,
or his order in governing events in the world. But
after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which I
knew was not proper for corn, and especially as I
knew not how it came there, it startled me strangely;
and I began to suggest that God had miraculously
caused this grain to grow without any help of seed
sown, and that it was so directed purely for my sus-
tenance on that wild miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears







THE WORK OF PROVIDENCE. 97
out of my eyes, and I began to bless myself that such
a prodigy of nature should happen upon my account;
and this was the more strange to me, because I saw
near it still, all along by the side of the rock, some
other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of
rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow
in Africa, when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of
Providence for my support, but, not doubting that
there was more in the place, I went over all that part
of the island where I had been before, searching in
every corner, and under every rock, for more of it;
but I could not find any. At last it occurred to my
thoughts that I had shook out a bag of chickens'
meat in that place, and then the wonder began to
cease; and I must confess my religious thankfulness
to God's providence began to abate too, upon the dis-
covering that all this was nothing but what was com-
mon, though I ought to have been as thankful for so
strange and unforeseen a providence as if it had been
miraculous; for it was really the work of Providence
as to me, that should order or appoint that ten or
twelve grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when
the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been
dropt from heaven; as also that I should throw it out
in that particular place, where, it being in the shade
of a high rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas,
if I had thrown it anywhere else at that time, it
would have been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be







98 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
sure, in their season, which was about the end of
June, and, laying up every corn, I resolved to sow
them all again; hoping, in time, to have some quantity
sufficient to supply me with bread. But it was not
till the fourth year that I could allow myself the least
grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly,
as I shall show afterwards in its order, for I lost all
that I sowed the first season, by not observing the
proper time; as I sowed just before the dry season,
so that it never came up at all, at least not as it would
have done; of which in its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty
or thirty stalks of rice, which I preserved with the
same care, and whose use was of the same kind, or
to the same purpose, namely, to make me bread, or
rather food; for I found ways to cook it up without
baking, though I did that also after some time. But
to return to my journal.
I worked excessively hard these three or four
months, to get my wall done, and the 14th of April
I closed it up, contriving to get into it, not by a door,
but over the wall by a ladder, that there might be
no sign on the outside of my habitation.
April 16. I finished the ladder; so I went up with
the ladder to the top, and then pulled it after me, and
let it down in the inside; this was a complete enclo-
sure to me, for within I had room enough, and nothing
could come at me from without, unless it could first
mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I







UNEASY THOUGHTS. 99
had almost all my labour overthrown at once, and
myself killed, by a fearful earthquake, accompanied
by a dreadful hurricane, which lasted for about three
hours. A violent rain then followed, and continued
all that night, and great part of the next day, so that
I could not stir abroad; but my mind being more
composed, I began to think of what I had best do,
concluding, that if the island were subject to these
earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a
cave; but I must consider of building me some little
hut in an open place, which I might surround with a
wall, as I had done here, and so make myself secure
from wild beasts or men, for if I stayed where I was,
I should certainly one time or other be buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent
from the place where it now stood, being just under
the hanging precipice of the hill, and which, if it
should be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my
tent. I spent the two next days, being the 19th and
20th of April, in contriving where and how to re-
move my habitation. The fear of being swallowed
alive affected me so, that I never slept in quiet, and
yet the apprehension of lying abroad without any
fence, was almost equal to it; but still when I looked
about and saw how everything was put in order, how
pleasantly I was concealed, and how safe from danger,
it made me very loath to remove. In the meantime
it occurred to me, that it would require a vast deal
of time for me to do this, and that I must be con-
tented to run the risk where I was, till I had formed
7







100 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
a convenient camp and had secured it so as to re-
move to it. With this conclusion I composed myself
for a time, and resolved that I would go to work
with all speed to build me a wall with piles, and
cables, &c., in a circle as before, and set up my tent
in it when it was finished, but that I would venture
to stay where I was till it was ready and fit to re-
move to. This was the 21st.
April 22. The next morning I began to consider
of means to put this measure into execution, but I
was at a great loss about the tools. I had three
large axes and abundance of hatchets (for we carried
the hatchets for traffic with the Indians), but with
much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they
were all full of notches and dull; and though I had
a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my tools
too. This cost me as much thought as a statesman
would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics,
or a judge upon the life and death of a man. At length
I contrived a wheel with a string to turn it with my
foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty.
Note. I had never seen any such thing in England,
or, at least, not to take notice how it was done, though
since I have observed it is very common there, be-
sides that my grindstone was very large and heavy.
This machine cost me a full week's work to bring it
to perfection.
April 28, 29. These two whole days I took up in
grinding my tools, my machine for turning my grind-
stone performing very well.








THE WRECK ASHORE. 101
April 30. Having perceived that my bread had
been low a great while, I now took a survey of it,
and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day, which
made my heart very heavy.
May 1. In the morning, looking towards the sea-
side, the tide being low, I saw something lie on the
shore bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a cask.
When I came to it I found a small barrel and two or
three pieces of wreck of the ship, which were driven
on shore by the late hurricane; and looking towards
the wreck itself I thought it seemed to lie higher out
of the water than it used to do. I examined the
barrel that was driven on shore, and soon found it
was a barrel of gunpowder, but it had taken water,
and the powder was caked as hard as a stone; how-
ever, I rolled it farther on the shore for the present,
and went on upon the sands as near as I could to the
wreck of the ship to look for more.
When I came down to the ship I found it strangely
removed. The forecastle, which lay before buried in
sand, was heaved up at least six feet, and the stern
(which was broke to pieces, and parted from the rest
by the force of the sea, soon after I had left rummag-
ing of her) was tossed, as it were, up and cast on one
side; and the sand was thrown so high on that side
next her stern, that I could now walk quite up to her
when the tide was out; whereas there was a great
piece of water before, so that I could not come within
a quarter of a mile of the wreck without swimming.
I was surprised with this at first, but soon concluded








102 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
it must be done by the earthquake; and as by this
violence the ship was more broke open than formerly.
so many things came daily on shore which the sea
had loosened, and which the winds and water rolled
by degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design
of removing my habitation, and I busied myself
mightily that day especially, in searching whether I
could make any way into the ship, but I found noth-
ing was to be expected of that kind, for all the inside
of the ship was chocked up with sand. However, as
I had learned not to despair of anything, I resolved
to pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship,
concluding that everything I could get from her
would be of some use or other to me.
May 3. I began with my saw and cut a piece of a
beam through, which I thought held some of the
upper part or quarter-deck together; and when I had
cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well as I
could from the side which lay highest, but the tide
coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.
May 4. I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish
that I durst eat of till I was weary of my sport; when
just going to leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I
had made me a long line of some rope-yarn, but I
had no hooks; yet I frequently caught fish enough
as much as I cared to eat, all which I dried in the
sun, and ate them dry.
May 5. Worked on the wreck; cut another beam
asunder and brought three great fir-planks off from








GATHERING THE SPOIL.


the decks, which I tied together and made swim on
shore when the tide of flood came on.
May 6. Worked on the wreck; got several iron
bolts out of her, and other pieces of iron-work; worked
very hard, and came home much tired, and had
thoughts of giving it over.
May 7. Went to the wreck again, but not with
an intent to work; but found the weight of the
wreck had broke itself down, the beams being
cut-that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie
loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open that I
could see into it, but almost full of water and sand.
May 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron
crow to wrench up the deck, which lay now quite
clear of the water and sand. I wrenched up two
planks, and brought them on shore also with the
tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for next day.
May 9. Went to the wreck, and with the crow
made way into the body of the wreck, and felt several
casks, and loosened them with the crow, but could
not break them up. I felt also a roll of English
lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to remove.
May 10 to 14. Went every day to the wreck, and
got a great many pieces of timber, and boards or
plank, and two or three hundred weight of iron.
May 15. I carried two hatchets, to try if I could
not cut a piece off the roll of lead, by placing the
edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the other;
but as it lay about a foot and a half in the water, I
could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.








104 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
May 16. It had blown hard in the night, and the
wreck appeared more broken by the force of the
water; but I stayed so long in the woods, to get
pigeons for food, that the tide prevented my going to
the wreck that day.
May 17. I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on
shore at a great distance, two miles off me, but re-
solved to see what they were, and found it was a piece
of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.
May 24. Every day to this day, I worked on the
wreck; and, with hard labour, I loosened some things
so much with the crow, that the first flowing tide
several casks floated out, and two of the seamen's
chests; but the wind blowing from the shore, nothing
came to land that day but pieces of timber and a
hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the
salt water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued
this work every day to the 15th of June, except the
time necessary to get food, which I always appointed,
during this part of my employment, to be when the
tide was up, that I might be ready when it was
ebbed out; and by this time I had gotten timber and
plank, and iron-work enough to have built a good
boat, if I had known how: and I also got at several
times, and in several pieces, near one hundred weight
of the sheet-lead.
June 16. Going down to the sea-side, I found a
large tortoise, or turtle. This was the first I had
seen: which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not
any defect of the place, or scarcity; for, had I hap-








A FIT OF AGUE.


opened to be on the other side of the island, I might
have had hundreds of them every day, as I found
afterwards; but, perhaps, had paid dear enough for
them.
June 17. I spent in cooking the turtle. I found
in her threescore eggs: and her flesh was to me, at
that time, the most savoury and pleasant that ever I
tasted in my life; having had no flesh but of goats
and fowls since I landed in this horrid place.
June 18. Rained all that day, and I stayed within.
I thought, at this time, the rain felt cold, and I was
somewhat chilly; which I knew was not usual in that
latitude.
June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather
had been cold.
June 20. No rest all night; violent pains in my
head, and feverish.
June 21. Very ill; frightened almost to death
with the apprehensions of my sad condition, to be
sick, and no help: prayed to God, for the first time
since the storm off Hull; but scarce knew what I
said, or why, my thoughts being all confused.
June 22. A little better; but under dreadful ap-
prehensions of sickness.
June 23. Very bad again; cold and shivering,
and then a violent headache.
June 24. Much better.
June 25. An ague, very violent; the fit held me
seven hours; cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats
after it.








106 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

June 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat,
took my gun, but found myself very weak: however,
I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty got it
home, and broiled some of it, and ate. I would fain
have stewed it, and made some broth, but had no
pot.
June 27. The ague again so violent that I lay
a-bed all day, and neither ate nor drank. I was
ready to perish for thirst; but so weak, I had not
strength to stand up, or to get myself any water to
drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-headed;
and, when I was not, I was so ignorant, that I knew
not what to say; only laid and cried, Lord, look
upon me! Lord, pity me I Lord, have mercy upon
me !" I suppose I did nothing else for two or three
hours; till the fit wearing oft I fell asleep, and did
not awake till far in the night. When I awoke, I
found myself much refreshed, but weak, and exceed-
ing thirsty; however, as I had no water in my whole
habitation, I was forced to lie till morning, and went
to sleep again.



CHAPTER XI.

I HAD, alas I no divine knowledge; what I had
received by the good instruction of my father was
then worn out, by an uninterrupted series for eight
years of sea-faring wickedness, and a constant con-
versation with none but such as were, like myself








THOUGHTLESS OF GOD. 107
wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not re-
member that I had, in all that time, one thought that
so much as tended either to looking up towards God,
or inward towards a reflection upon my own ways;
but a certain stupidity of soul, without desire of good
or consciousness of evil, had entirely overwhelmed
me; and I was all that the most hardened, unthink-
ing, wicked creature among our common sailors, can
be supposed to be; not having the least sense either
of the fear of God in danger, or of thankfulness to
him in deliverances.
When I was on the desperate expedition on the
desert shores of Africa, I never had so much as one
thought of what would become of me; or one wish
to God to direct me whither I should go, or to keep
me from the danger which apparently surrounded me,
as well from voracious creatures as cruel savages; but
I was quite thoughtless of a God, or a Providence;
acted, like a mere brute, from the principles of nature,
and by the dictates of common sense only; and, in-
deed, hardly that. When I was delivered and taken
up at sea by the Portuguese captain, well used, and
dealt with justly and honourably, as well as chari-
tably, I had not the least thankfulness in my thoughts.
When, again, I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in
danger of drowning, on this island, I was far from
remorse, or looking on it as a judgment; I only said
to myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and
born to be always miserable.
It is true, when I first got on shore here, and found







108 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
all my ship's crew drowned, and myself spared, I
was surprised with a kind of ecstacy, and some trans-
ports of soul, which, had the grace of God assisted,
might have come up to true thankfulness; but it
ended where it began, in a mere common flight of
joy; or, as I may say, being glad I was alive, with-
out the least reflection upon the distinguishing good-
ness of the hand which had preserved me, and had
singled me out to be preserved, when all the rest
were destroyed; or an inquiry why Providence had
been thus merciful to me; just the same common sort
of joy which seamen generally have after they are
got safe ashore from a shipwreck; which they drown
all in the next bowl of punch, and forget almost as
soon as it is over; and all the rest of my life was
like it. Even when I was afterwards, on due consi-
deration, made sensible of my condition-how I was
cast on this dreadful place, out of the reach of human
kind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of redemp-
tion, as soon as I saw but a prospect of living, and
that I should not starve or perish for hunger, all the
sense of my affliction wore off, and I began to be
very easy, applied myself to the works proper for my
preservation and supply, and was far enough from
being afflicted at my condition, as a judgment from
Heaven, or as the hand of God against me. These
were thoughts which very seldom entered into my
head.
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my
journal, had at first some little influence upon me,








STIRRING OF CONSCIENCE.


and began to affect me with seriousness, as long as 1
thought it had something miraculous in it; but as
soon as that part of the thought was removed, all the
impression which was raised from it wore off also, as
I have noted already. Even the earthquake, though
nothing could be more terrible in its nature, or more
immediately directing to the invisible Power which
alone directs such things, yet no sooner was the
fright over, but the impression it had made went off
also. I had no more sense of God, or his judgments,
much less of the present affliction of my circumstances
being from his hand, than if I had been in the most
prosperous condition of life. But now, when I be-
gan to be sick, and a leisure view of the miseries of
death came to place itself before me; when my spirits
began to sink under the burden of a strong distemper,
and nature was exhausted with the violence of the
fever, conscience, that had slept so long, began to
awake, and I reproached myself with my past life,
in which I had so evidently, by uncommon weakness,
provoked the justice of God to lay me under uncom-
mon strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictive a
manner. These reflections oppressed me for the
second or third day of my distemper; and, in the
violence, as well of the fever, as of the dreadful re-
proaches of my conscience, extorted from me some
words like praying to God, though I cannot say it
was a prayer attended either with desires or with
hopes; it was rather the voice of mere fright and
distress. My thoughts were confused, the convie-








110 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
tions great upon my mind, and the horror of dying
in such a miserable condition raised vapours in my
head with the mere apprehension; and, in those hur-
ries of my soul, I knew not what my tongue might
express; but it was rather exclamation, such as,
"Lord, what a miserable creature am II If I should be
sick, I shall certainly die for want of help; and what
will become of me?" Then the tears burst out of
my eyes, and I could say no more for a good while.
In this interval, the good advice of my father came
to my mind, and presently his prediction, which I
mentioned at the beginning of this story, namely,
that if I did take this foolish step, God would not
bless me, and I would have leisure hereafter to re-
flect upon having neglected his counsel, when there
might be none to assist in my recovery. Now,"
said I aloud, my dear father's words are come to
pass; God's justice has overtaken me, and I have
none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of
Providence, which had mercifully put me in a station
of life wherein I might have been happy and easy;
but I would neither see it myself, nor learn from my
parents to know the blessing of it. I left them to
mourn over my folly, and now I am left to mourn
under the consequences of it. I refused their help
and assistance who would have pushed me in the
world, and would have made everything easy to me;
and now I have difficulties to struggle with too great
for even nature itself to support, and no assistance,
no comfort, no advice." Then I cried out, Lord,







THOUGHTS UPON GOD. Ill
be my help, for I am in great distress." This was
the first prayer, if I may call it so, that I had made
for many years. But I return to my Journal:-
June 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with
the sleep I had had, I got up; and yet I considered
that the fit of the ague would return again the next
day, and now was my time to get something to re-
fresh and support myself when I should be ill. The
first thing I did was to fill a large square case-bottle
with water, and set it upon my table in reach of my
bed, and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of
the water, I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into
it, and mixed them together. Then I got me a piece
of the goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but
could eat very little. I walked about; but was very
weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted in the
sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return
of my distemper the next day. At night I made my
supper of three of the turtle's eggs, which I roasted
in the ashes, and ate, as we call it, in the shell; and
this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked God's
blessing to, as I could remember, in my whole life.
After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself
so weak that I could hardly carry the gun (for I
never went out without that); so I went but a little
way, and sat down upon the ground looking out upon
the sea, which was just before me, and very calm and
smooth. As I sat here some such thoughts as these
occurred to me: What is this earth and sea of which
I have seen so much? Whence is it produced?








112 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
And what am I, and all the other creatures, wild and
tame, human and brutal ? Whence are we ? Surely
we are all made by some secret Power, who formed
the earth and sea, the air and sky. And who is
that? Then it followed most naturally, it is God
that has made all. Well, but then, it came on
strangely, if God has made all these things, he guides
and governs them all, and all things that concern
them; for the Power that could make all things,
must certainly have power to guide and direct them;
if so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of his
works, either without his knowledge or appointment.
And if nothing happens without his knowledge,
he knows that I am here, and am in this dreadful
condition; and if nothing happens without his ap-
pointment, he has appointed all this to befall on me.
Nothing occurred to my thought to contradict any of
these conclusions; and therefore it rested upon me
with the greatest force that it must needs be, that
God hath appointed all this to befall me; that I
was brought to this miserable circumstance by his
direction, he having the sole power, not of me only,
but of everything that happens in the world. Im-
mediately it followed, Why has God done this to me ?
What have I done to be thus used ? My conscience
presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I had
blasphemed, and methought it spoke to me like a
voice, Wretch I dost thou ask what thou hast done ?
Look back upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask
thyself what thou hast not done ? Ask, why is it







A CURE FOR SOUL AND BODY. 113
that thou wert not long ago destroyed ? Why wert
thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads; killed in the
fight when the ship was taken by the Sallee man-of-
war; devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of
Africa; or drowned here, when all the crew perished
but thyself? Dost thou ask what thou hast done?"
I was struck dumb with these refle~ions as one
astonished, and had not a word to say, no, not to
answer to myself; and rising up pensive and sad,
walked back to my retreat and went over my wall,
as if I had been going to bed; but my thoughts
were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to
sleep; so I sat down in the chair and lighted my
lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the appre-
hension of the return of my distemper terrified me
very much, it occurred to my thought that the
Brazilians take no physic but their tobacco for almost
all distempers; and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco
in one of the chests which was quite cured, and some
also that was green and not quite cured.
I went, directed by Heaven no doubt; for in this
chest I found a cure both for soul and body. I
opened the chest, and found what I looked for,
namely, the tobacco; and as the few books I had
saved lay there too, I took out one of the BiBLES
which I mentioned before, and which, to this time, I
had not found leisure or so much as inclination to
look into. I say I took it out, and brought both that
and the tobacco with me to the table. What use to
make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my distemper,







114 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
nor whether it was good for it or not, but I tried
several experiments with it, as if I was resolved it
should hit one way or other. I first took a piece of
a leaf and chewed it in my mouth, which, indeed, at
first almost stupified my brain, the tobacco being
green and strong, and such as I had not been much
used to. Then I took some and steeped it an hour
or two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it
when I lay down; and, lastly, I burnt some upon a
pan of coals, and held my nose close over the smoke
of it as long as I could bear it, as well for the heat
as almost for suffocation. In the interval of this
operation, I took up the Bible and began to read,
but my head was too much disturbed with the tobacco
to bear reading, at least at that time; only having
opened the book casually, the first words that occur-
red to me were these: Call on me in the day of
trouble and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify
me." These words were very apt to my case, and
made some impression upon my thoughts at the time
of reading them, though not so much as they did
afterwards; for, as for being delivered, the word had
no sound, as I may say, to me; the thing was so re-
mote, so impossible in my apprehension of things,
that, as the children of Israel said when they were
promised flesh to eat, Can God spread a table in
the wilderness ?" so I began to say, Can even God
himself deliver me from this place ?" And as it was
not for many years that any hopes appeared, this
prevailed very often upon my thoughts; but, how-








CALLING UPON GOD. 115
ever, the words made a great impression upon me,
and I mused upon them very often. It now grew
late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head
so much that I inclined to sleep; so I left my lamp
burning in the cave, lest I should want anything in
the night, and went to bed. But before I lay down,
I did what I never had done in all my life, I kneeled
down and prayed to God to fulfil the promise to me,
" That if I called upon him in the day of trouble, he
would deliver me." After my broken and imperfect
prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I had
steeped the tobacco, which was so strong and rank of
the tobacco, that indeed I could scarce get it down;
immediately upon this I went to bed. I found pre-
sently the rum flew into my head violently; but I
fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more till by the
sun it must necessarily be near three o'clock in the
afternoon the next day; nay, to this hour, I am partly
of opinion that I slept all the next day and night,
and till almost three the day after; for otherwise I
know not how I should lose a day out of my reckon-
ing in the days of the week, as it appeared some
years after I had done; for if I had lost it by cross-
ing and re-crossing the Line, I should have lost more
than one day; but certainly I lost a day in my
account, and never knew which way. Be that, how-
ever, one way or the other, when I awaked I found
myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively
and cheerful; when I got up, I was stronger than I
was the day before, and my stomach better, for I was
8








116 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
hungry; and, in short, I had no fit the next day,
but continued much altered for the better. This was
the 29th.
The 30th was my well day, of course; and I went
abroad with my gun, but did not care to travel too
far. I killed a sea-fowl or two, something like a
brand goose, and brought them home; but was not
very forward to eat them; so I ate some more of the
turtle's eggs, which were very good. This evening
I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did
me good the day before, namely, the tobacco steeped
in rum; only I did not take so much as before, nor
did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head over
the smoke; however, I was not so well the next day,
which was the 1st of July, as I hoped I should have
been; for I had a little of the cold fit, but it was not
much.
July 2. I renewed the medicine all the three
ways; and dozed myself with it as at first, and
doubled the quantity which I drank.
July 3. I missed the fit for good and all, though
I did not recover my full strength for some weeks
after. While I was thus gathering strength, my
thoughts ran exceedingly upon this Scripture, I
will deliver thee:" and the impossibility of my de-
liverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever
expecting it: but as I was discouraging myself with
such thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored
so much upon my deliverance from the main afflie-
tion, that I disregarded the deliverance I had re-








COMFORT IN THE LORD. 117
ceived: and I was, as it were, made to ask myself
such questions as these, namely, Have I not been
delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness; from
the most distressed condition that could be, and that
was so frightful to me ? and what notice have I taken
of it ? Have I done my part ? God has delivered
me, but I have not glorified him; that is to say, I
have not owned, and been thankful for that, as a
deliverance: and how can I expect a greater de-
liverance?" This touched my heart very much;
and immediately I knelt down, and gave God thanks
aloud for my recovery from my sickness.
July 4. In the morning I took the Bible; and,
beginning at the New Testament, I began seriously
to read it; and imposed upon myself to read a while
every morning and every night; not binding myself
to the number of chapters, but as long as my thoughts
should engage me. It was not long after I set seri-
ously to this work, that I found my heart more
deeply and sincerely affected with the wickedness
of my past life. The impression of my dream
revived; and the words, "All these things have not
brought thee to repentance," ran seriously in my
thoughts. I was earnestly begging of God to give
me -repentance, when it happened providentially the
very same day, that, reading the Scripture, I came
to these words, "He is exalted a Prince and a
Saviour; to give repentance and to give remission."
I threw down the book; and with my heart as well
as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy








118 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
of joy, I cried out aloud, Jesus, thou Son of David I
Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour, give me
repentance I" This was the first time in all my life,
I should say, in the true sense of the words that I
prayed; for now I prayed with a sense of my con-
dition, and with a true Scripture view of hope,
founded on the encouragement of the Word of God:
and from this time, I may say, I began to have hope
that God would hear me.
Now I began to construe the words mentioned
above, Call on me, and I will deliver thee," in a
different sense from what I had ever done before:
for then I had no notion of anything being called
deliverance, but my being delivered from the capti-
vity I was in: for, though I was indeed at large in
the place, yet the island was certainly a prison to me,
and that in the worst sense in the world. But now
I learned to take it in another sense: now I looked
back upon my past life with such horror, and my sins
appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing
of God but deliverance from the load of guilt that
bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary life,
it is nothing; I did not so much as pray to be de-
livered from it, or think of it; it was all of no con-
sideration in comparison with this. And I add this
part here, to hint to whoever shall read it, that,
whenever they come to a true sense of things, they
will find deliverance from sin a much greater blessing
than deliverance from affliction. But, leaving this
part, I return to my Journal.







APPROACHING CONVALBSCENCE. 119
From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly
employed in walking about with my gun in my hand,
a little and a little at a time, as a man that was ga-
thering up his strength after a fit of sickness; for it
is hardly to be imagined how low I was, and to what
weakness I was reduced. The application which I
made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps, what
had never cured an ague before; neither can I re-
commend it to any one to practise, by this experi-
ment : and though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather
contributed to weakening me; for I had frequent con-
vulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time. I
learned from it, also, this in particular: that being
abroad in the rainy season was the most pernicious
thing to my health that could be, especially in those
rains which came attended with storms and hurricanes
of wind; for, as the rain which came in the dry sea-
son was almost always accompanied with such storms,
so I found that this rain was much more dangerous
than the rain which fell in September and October.



CHAPTER XII.
I AD now been in this unhappy island above ten
months: all possibility of deliverance from this con-
dition seemed to be entirely taken from me; and I
firmly believed that no human shape had ever set
foot upon that place. Having secured my habitation,
as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire








120 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and
to see what other productions I might find, which I
yet knew nothing of.
It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a
more particular survey of the island itself. I went
up the creek first, where, as I hinted, I brought my
rafts on shore. I found, after I came about two miles
up, that the tide did not flow any higher; and that
it was no more than a little brook of running water,
very fresh and good: but this being the dry season,
there was hardly any water in some parts of it, at
least not any stream. On the banks of this brook I
found many pleasant savannahs, or meadows, plain,
smooth, and covered with grass; and, on the rising
parts of them, next to the higher grounds (where the
water, as it might be supposed, never overflowed), I
found a great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to
a great and very strong stalk; and there were divers
other plants which I had no knowledge of, or under-
standing about, and that might, perhaps, have virtues
of their own which I could not find out. I searched
for the cassava root, which the Indians, in all that
climate, make their bread of; but I could find none.
I saw large plants of aloes, but did not understand
them. I saw several sugar-canes, but wild, and, for
want of cultivation, imperfect. I contented myself
with these discoveries for this time; and came back,
musing with myself what course I might take to know
the virtue and goodness of any of the fruits or plants
which I should discover.







A DELICIOUS VALE. 121
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way
again; and, after going something farther than I had
gone the day before, I found the brook and the savan-
nahs begin to cease, and the country become more
woody than before. In this part I found different
fruits; and, particularly, I found melons upon the
ground in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees.
I found an excellent use for these grapes; and that
was to cure and dry them in the sun, and keep them,
as dried grapes or raisins are kept.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back
to my habitation; which, by the way, was the first
night, as I might say, I had lain from home. At
night I took my first contrivance, and got up into a
tree, where I slept well; and the next morning pro-
ceeded on my discovery, travelling near four miles,
as I might judge by the length of the valley; keep-
ing still due north, with a ridge of hills on the south
and north sides of me. At the end of this march I
came to an opening, where the country seemed to
descend to the west; and a little spring of fresh
water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me,
ran the other way, that is, due east: and the country
appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything
being in a constant verdure, or flourish of spring,
that it looked like a planted garden. I descended a
little on the side of that delicious vale, surveying it
with a secret kind of pleasure (though mixed with
other afflicting thoughts), to think that this was all
my own; that I was king and lord of all this country







122 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
indefeasibly, and had a right of possession; and if I
could convey it, I might have it in inheritance as
completely as any lord of a manor in England. I
saw here abundance of cocoa-trees, and orange, lemon,
and citron-trees, but all wild, and very few bearing
any fruit; at least not then. However, the green
limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to eat,
but very wholesome; and I mixed their juice after-
wards with water, which made it very wholesome,
and very cool and refreshing. I found now I had
business enough to gather and carry home; and I
resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes as limes
and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season,
which I knew was approaching.
When I came home from this journey, I contem-
plated with great pleasure the fruitfulness of that
valley, and the pleasantness of the situation; the
security from storms on that side; the water and the
wood; and concluded that I had pitched upon a place
to fix my abode in, which was by far the worst part
of the country. Upon the whole, I began to con-
sider of removing my habitation, and to look out for
a place equally safe as where I was now situate; if
possible, in that pleasant fruitful part of the island.
This thought ran long in my head; and I was ex-
ceeding fond of it for some time, the pleasantness of
the place tempting me; but when I came to a nearer
view of it, I considered that I was now by the sea-
side, where it was at least possible that something
might happen to my advantage; and though it was







BUILDING A BOWER. 123
scarce probable that any such thing should ever
happen, yet to enclose myself among the hills and
woods in the centre of the island, was to anticipate
my bondage, and to render such an affair not only
improbable, but impossible; and that, therefore, I
ought not by any means to remove. However, I was
so enamoured of this place, that I spent much of my
time there for the whole remaining part of the month
of July; and though, upon second thoughts, I re-
solved, as above stated, not to remove, yet I built
me a little kind of a' bower, and surrounded it at a
distance with a strong fence, being a double hedge,
as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled be-
tween with brush-wood. Here I lay very secure,
sometimes two or three nights together, always going
over it with a ladder, as before; so that I fancied now
I had my country and sea-coast house. This work
took me up till the beginning of August.
I had but newly finished my fence, and began to
enjoy my labour, when the rains came on, and made
me stick close to my first habitation; for, though I
had made a tent like the other, with a piece of sail,
and spread it very well, yet I had not the shelter of
a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind
me to retreat into when tho rains were extraordi-
nary.
About the beginning of August, as I said, I had
finished my bower, and began to enjoy myself. The
3d of August I found the grapes I had hung up
were perfectly dried, and indeed were excellent good








124 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
raisins of the sun: so I began to take them down from
the trees; and it was very happy that I did so, as the
rains which followed would have spoiled them, and 1
should have lost the best part of my winter food; for
I had above two hundred large bunches of them.
No sooner had I taken them all down, and carried
most of them home to my cave, but it began to rain;
and from hence, which was the 14th of August, it
rained, more or less, every day till the middle of
October, and sometimes so violently that I could not
stir out of my cave for several days.
In this season I was much surprised with the in-
crease of my family. I had been concerned for the
loss of one of my cats which ran away from me; or, as
I thought, had been dead; and I heard no more of
her, till, to my astonishment, she came home with
three kittens. From these three, I afterwards came
to be so pestered with cats, that I was forced to kill
them like vermin or wild beasts, and to drive them
from my house as much as possible.
From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant
rain; so that I could not stir, and was now very
careful not to be much wet. In this confinement I
began to be straitened for food; but venturing out
twice, I one day killed a goat, and the last day,
which was the 26th, I found a very large tortoise,
which was a treat to me. My food was now regu-
lated thus: I ate a bunch of raisins for my breakfast;
a piece of the goat's flesh, or of the turtle, broiled for
my dinner (for, to my great misfortune, I had no








A MOURNFUL ANNIVERSARY. 125
vessel to boil or stew anything); and two or three of
the turtle's eggs for my supper.
During this confinement in my cover, by the rain,
I worked daily two or three hours at enlarging my
cave; and by degrees worked it on towards one side,
till I came to the outside of the hill; and made a door,
or way out, which came beyond my fence or wall:
and so I came in and out this way.
September 30. I was now come to the unhappy
anniversary of my landing. I cast up the notches
on my post, and found I had been on shore three
hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a
solemn fast; setting it apart for religious exercise,
prostrating myself on the ground with the most
serious humiliation, confessing my sins to God, ac-
knowledging his righteous judgments upon me, and
praying to him to have mercy on me through Jesus
Christ; and having not tasted the least refreshment
for twelve hours, even till the going down of the sun,
I then ate a biscuit and a bunch of grapes, and went
to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all
this time observed no Sabbath-day; for, as I had at
first no sense of religion upon my mind, I had, after
some time, omitted to distinguish the weeks, by mak-
ing a longer notch than ordinary for the Sabbath-day,
and so did not really know what any of the days
were: but now, having cast up the days as above, I
found I had been there a year: so I divided it into
weeks, and set apart every seventh day for a Sab-
bath: though I found at the end of my account, I had







126 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
lost a day or two in my reckoning. A little after
this my ink beginning to fail me, I contented myself
to use it more sparingly; and to write down only the
most remarkable events of my life, without continuing
a daily memorandum of other things.
I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of
barley and rice, which I had so surprisingly found
sprung up, as I thought, of themselves, I believe
there were about thirty stalks of rice, and about
twenty of barley; and now I thought it a proper time
to sow it after the rains; the sun being in its southern
position, going from me. Accordingly, I dug a piece
of ground, as well as I could, with my wooden spade;
and, dividing it into two parts, I sowed my grain:
but, as I was sowing it, it casually occurred to my
thoughts, that I would not sow it all at first, because
I did not know when was the proper time for it; so
I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about
a handful of each; and it was a great comfort to me
afterwards, that I did so, for not one grain of what I
sowed this time came to anything: for the dry month
following, and the earth having thus had no rain
after the seed was sown, it had no moisture to assist
its growth, and never came up at all till the wet
season had come again, and then it grew as if it had
been but newly sown. Finding my first seed did not
grow, which I easily imagined was from the drought,
I sought for a moister piece of ground to make an-
other trial in; and I dug up a piece of ground near my
new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in Feb-








RAPID GROWTH. 127
ruary, a little before the vernal equinox. This hav-
ing the rainy months of March and April to water it,
sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good
crop, but having only part of the seed left, and not
daring to sow all that I had, I got but a small quan-
tity at last, my whole crop not amounting to above
half a peck of each kind. But by this experiment I
was made master of my business, and knew exactly
when was the proper time to sow; and that I might
expect two seed-times, and two harvests every year.
While this corn was growing, I made a little dis-
covery, which was of use to me afterwards. As soon
as the rains were over, and the weather began to
settle, which was about the month of November, I
made a visit up the country to my bower; where,
though I had not been some months, yet I found all
things just as I left them. The circle or double
hedge that I had made was not only firm and entire,
but the stakes which I had cut out of some trees that
grew thereabouts, were all shot out and grown with
long branches, as much as a willow-tree usually
shoots the first year after lopping its head; but I
could not tell what tree to call it that these stakes
were cut from. I was surprised, and yet very well
pleased, to see the young trees grow; and I pruned
them, and led them to grow as much alike as I could;
and it is scarce credible how beautiful a figure they
grew into in three years: so that, though the hedge
made a circle of about twenty-five yards in diameter,
yet the trees, for such I might now call them, soon








128 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient to
lodge under all the dry season. This made me re-
solve to cut some more stakes, and make me a hedge
like this in a semicircle round my wall (I mean that
of my first dwelling), which I did; and, placing the
trees or stakes in a double row at about eight yards
distance from my first fence, they grew presently;
and were at first a fine cover to my habitation, and
afterwards served for a defence also, as I shall ob-
serve in its order.
I found now that the seasons of the year might
generally be divided, not into summer and winter, as
in Europe; but into the rainy seasons and the dry
seasons, which were generally thus: From the middle
of February to the middle of April, rainy; the sun
being then on, or near, the equinox. From the
middle of April till the middle of August, dry; the
sun being then north of the Line. From the middle
of August till the middle of October, rainy; the sun
being then come back to the Line. From the middle
of October till the middle of February, dry; the sun
being then to the south of the Line.
The rainy seasons held sometimes longer and some-
times shorter, as the winds happened to blow; but
this was the general observation I made. After I
had found, by experience, the ill consequences of
being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish my-
self with provisions beforehand, that I might not be
obliged to go out; and I sat within doors as much as
possible during the wet months. This time I found







ESSAYS AT BASKET-MAKING.


much employment, and very suitable, also, to the
time. It proved of excellent advantage to me now,
that, when I was a boy, I used to take great delight
in standing at a basket-maker's in the town where
my father lived, to see them make their wicker-
ware; and being, as boys usually are, very officious
to help, and a great observer of the manner how
they worked those things, and sometimes lending a
hand, I had, by these means, fall knowledge of the
methods of it. I employed myself in making, as well
as I could, several baskets; both to carry earth, or
to carry or lay up anything as I had occasion for.
Though I did not finish them very handsomely, yet
I made them sufficiently serviceable for my purpose:
and thus afterwards I took care never to be without
them: and, as my wicker-ware decayed, I made
more, especially strong deep baskets, to place my
corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come to
have any quantity of it.
Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a
world of time about it, I bestirred myself to see, if
possible, how to supply two other wants. I had no
vessel to hold anything that was liquid, except two
runlets, which were almost full of rum; and some
glass bottles, some of the common size, and others
(which were case-bottles) square, for the holding of
water, spirits, &c. I had not so much as a pot to
boil anything, except a great kettle which I saved
out of the ship, and which was too big for such use
as I desired it, namely, to make broth, and stew a








130 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
bit of meat by itself. The second thing I would
fain have had, was a tobacco-pipe; but it was im-
possible for me to make one; however, I found a
contrivance for that too at last. I employed myself
in planting my second row of stakes or piles, and,
also, in this wicker-working all the summer, or dry
season; when another business took me up more time
than it could be imagined I could spare.



CHAPTER XIII.
I MENTIONED before, that I had a great mind to see
the whole island; and that I had travelled up the
brook, and so on to where I had built my bower,
and where I had an opening quite to the sea, on the
other side of the island. I now resolved to travel
quite across to the sea-shore on that side: so, taking
my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quan-
tity of powder and shot than usual, with two biscuit-
cakes, and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch, for
my store, I began my journey. When I had passed
the vale where my bower stood, as above, I came
within view of the sea to the west; and it being a
very clear day, I fairly described land, whether an
island or continent I could not tell; but it lay very
high, extending from W. to W.S.W. at a very great
distance: by my guess, it could not be less than fif-
teen or twenty leagues off.
I could not tell what part of the world this might








CRUSOE ON A TOUR.


be, otherwise than that I knew it must be part of
America ; and, as I concluded by all my observa-
tions, must be near the Spanish dominions; and per-
haps was all inhabited by savages, where, if I should
have landed, I had been in a worse condition than I
was now. I therefore acquiesced in the dispositions
of Providence, which I began now to own, and to be-
lieve ordered everything for the best; I say I quieted
my mind with this, and left off afflicting myself with
fruitless wishes of being there.
Besides, after*some pause upon this affair, I con-
sidered, that if this land was the Spanish coast, I
should certainly, one time or other, see some vessel
pass or repass, one way or other; but if not, then it
was the savage coast between the Spanish country
and Brazils, whose inhabitants are indeed the worst
of savages ; for they are cannibals, or men-eaters,
and fail not to murder and devour all human beings
that fall into their hands.
With these considerations, walking very leisurely
forward, I found this side of the island, where I now
was, much pleasanter than mine; the open, or savan-
nah fields, sweetly adorned with flowers and grass,
and full of very fine woods. I saw abundance of
parrots, and fain would have caught one, if possible,
to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak to
me. I did, after some pains, catch a young parrot;
for I knocked it down with a stick, and having re-
covered it, I brought it home; but it was some years
before I could make him speak; however, at last I








132 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
taught him to call me by my name very familiarly.
But the accident that followed, though it be a trifle,
will be very diverting in its place.
I was exceedingly amused with this journey. I
found in the low grounds hares, as I thought them to
be, and foxes; but they differed greatly from all the
other kinds I had met with; nor could I satisfy my-
self to eat them, though I killed several. But I had
no need to be venturous: for I had no want of food,
and of that which was very good too: especially these
three sorts, namely, goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tor-
toise. With these, added to my grapes, Leadenhall
Market could not have furnished a table better than
I, in proportion to the company; and though my
case was deplorable enough, yet I had great cause for
thankfulness, as I was not driven to any extremities
for food, but had rather plenty, even to dainties.
I never travelled, on this journey, above two miles
outright in a day, or thereabout; but I took so many
turns and re-turns, to see what discoveries I could
make, that I came weary enough to the place where
I resolved to sit down for the night; and then I either
reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded myself with
a row of stakes, set upright in the ground, either from
one tree to another, or so as no wild creature could
come at me without waking me.
As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised
to see that I had taken up my lot on the worst side
of the island: for here, indeed, the shore was covered
with innumerable turtle ; whereas, on the other side,








CRUSOE ON A TOUR.


I had found but three in a year and a half. Here
was also an infinite number of fowls of many kinds,
some of which I had seen, and some of which I had
not seen before, and many of them very good meat;
but such as I knew not the names of; except those
called penguins.
I confess this side of the country was much plea-
santer than mine: yet I had not the least inclination
to remove; for as I was fixed in my habitation, it
became natural to me, and I seemed all the while I
was here, to be; as it were, upon a journey, and from
home. However, I travelled along the sea-shore
towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles; and
then setting up a great pole upon the shore, for a
mark, I concluded I would go home again; and that
the next journey I took should be on the other side
of the island, east from my dwelling, and so round till
I came to my post again: of which in its place.
I took another way to come back than that I went,
thinking I could easily keep so much of the island in
my. view, that I could not miss finding my first dwell-
ing by viewing the country: but I found myself mis-
taken; for, being come about two or three miles, I
found myself descended into a very large valley, but
so surrounded with hills, and those hills covered with
wood, that I could not see which was my way, by any
direction but that of the sun, nor even then, unless I
knew very well the position of the sun at that time of
the day. And it happened, to my further misfortune,
that the weather proved hazy for three or four days









134 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
while I was in this valley; and not being able to see
the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortable, and at
last was obliged to find out the sea-side, look for my
post, and come back the same way I went; and then,
by easy journeys, I turned homeward, the weather
being exceeding hot, and my gun, ammunition,
hatchet, and other things, very heavy.
In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and
seized upon it; and running to take hold of it, I caught
it, and saved it alive from the dog. I had a great
mind to bring it home if I could; for I had often
been musing, whether it might not be possible to get
a kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame goats, which
might supply me when my powder and shot should be
all spent. I made a collar for this little creature, and
with a string which I had made of some rope-yarn,
which I always carried about me, I led him along,
though with some difficulty, till I came to my bower,
and there I enclosed him, and left him; for I was
very impatient to be at home, from whence I had been
absent above a month.
I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to
come into my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-
bed. This little wandering journey, without a settled
place of abode, had been so unpleasant to me, that my
own house, as I called it to myself, was a perfect
settlement to me, compared to that; and it rendered
everything about me so comfortable, that I resolved I
would never go a great way from it again, while it
should be my lot to stay on the island.








CRUSOE'S SECOND ANNIVERSARY. 135
I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale
myself after my long journey: during which, most of
the time was taken up in the weighty affair of making
a cage for my Poll, who began now to be more do-
mestic, and to be mighty well acquainted with me.
Then I began to think of the poor kid which I had
penned within my little circle, and resolved to fetch
it home, or give it some food: accordingly I went,
and found it where 1 left it (for indeed it could not
get out), but was almost starved for want of food. I
went and cut boughs of trees, and branches of such
shrubs as I could find, and threw it over, and having
fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it away; but
it was so tame, with being hungry, that I had no
need to have tied it, for it followed me like a dog:
and as I continually fed it, the creature became so
loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it was, from that
time, one of my domestics also, and would never leave
me afterwards.
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was
now come, and I kept the 30th of September in the
same solemn manner as before, being the anniversary
of my landing on the island; having now been there
two years, and no more prospect of being delivered
than the first day I came there. I spent the whole
day in humble and thankful acknowledgments for the
many wonderful mercies which my solitary condition
was attended with, and without which it might have
been infinitely more miserable. I gave humble and
hearty thanks to God for having been pleased to dis-








136 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
cover to me, that it was possible I might be more
happy, even in this solitary conditition, than I should
have been in the enjoyment of society, and in all the
pleasures of the world; that he could fully make up to
me the deficiencies of my solitary state, and the want
of human society, by his presence, and the communica-
tions of his grace to my soul: supporting, comforting,
and encouraging me to depend upon his providence
here, and to hope for his eternal presence hereafter.
It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much
more happy the life I now led was, with all its miser-
able circumstances, than the wicked, cursed, abomi-
nable life I led all the past part of my days: and
now I changed both my sorrows and my joys; my
very desires altered, my affections changed their
guests, and my delights were perfectly new, from
what they were at my first coming, or, indeed, for the
two years past.
Now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts;
I daily read the Word of God, and applied all the
comforts of it to my present state. One morning,
being very sad, I opened the Bible upon these words,
I will never, never leave thee, nor forsake thee."
Immediately it occurred that these words were to me;
why else should they be directed in such a manner,
just at the moment when- I was mourning over my
'condition, as one forsaken of God and man ? "Well
then," said I, "if God does not forsake me, of what ill
consequence can it be, or what matters it, though the
world should forsake me; seeing, on the other hand,








FOR EVERY HOUR ITS WORK.


if I had all the world, and should lose the favour and
blessing of God, there would be no comparison in the
loss ?"
I never afterwards opened the Bible, or shut it,
but my very soul within me blessed God for directing
my friend in England, without any order of mine, to
pack it among my goods; and for assisting me after-
wards to save ifr out of the wreck of the ship.




CHAPTER XIV.

THus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my
third year ; and though I have not given the reader
the trouble of so particular an account of my works
this year as the first, yet, in general, it may be ob-
served that I was very seldom idle; but having re-
gularly divided my time, according to the several
daily employment that were before me; such as,
first, my duty to God, and the reading the Scrip-
tures, which I constantly set apart some time for,
thrice every day: Secondly, Going abroad with my
gun for food, which generally took me up three hours
every morning when it did not rain: Thirdly, Order-
ing, curing, preserving, and cooking what I had
killed or catched for my supply. These took up
great part of the day. Also, it is to be considered,
that, in the middle of the day, when the sun was in
the zenith, the violence of the heat was too great to








138 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

stir out, so that about four hours in the evening was
all the time I could be supposed to work in, with this
exception, that sometimes I changed my hours of
hunting and working, and went to work in the morn-
ing, and abroad with my gun in the afternoon.
To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may
be added, the exceeding laboriousness of my work;
the many hours which, for want of tools, want of
help, and want of skill, everything I did took up out
of my time. For example, I was full two-and-forty
days making me a board for a long shelf, which I
wanted in my cave, whereas, two sawyers, with their
tools and a saw-pit, would have cut six of them out
of the same tree in half-a-day.
My case was this: it was a large tree which was
to be cut down, because my board was to be a broad
one. This tree I was three days cutting down, and
two more in cutting off the boughs, and reducing it to
a log, or piece of timber. With inexpressible hack-
ing and hewing, I reduced both the sides of it into
chips, till it was light enough to move; then I turned
it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board,
from end to end; then, turning that side downward,
cut the other side, till I brought the plank to about
three inches thick, and smooth on both sides. Any
one may judge the labour of my hands in such a piece
of work; but labour and patience carried me through
that, and many other things.
I was now, in the months of November and De-
cember, expecting my crop of barley and rice. The








ENEMIES OF SEVERAL SORTS.


ground I had manured or dug up for them was not
great; for, as I observed, my seed of each was not
above the quantity of half a peck, having lost one
whole crop by sowing in the dry season, but now my
crop promised very well, when on a sudden, I found
I was in danger of losing it all again by enemies of
several sorts, which it was scarce possible to keep
from it; as, first, the goats and wild creatures, which
I called hares, who, tasting the sweetness of the blade,
lay in it night and day, as soon as it came up, and
ate it so .close, that it could get no time to shoot up
into stalk.
I saw no remedy for this, but by making an en-
closure about it with a hedge, which I did with a
great deal of toil, and the more because it required
speed. However, as my arable land was but small,
suited to my crop I got it tolerably well fenced in
about three weeks' time.
But, as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn
was in the blade, so the birds were as likely to ruin
me now, when it was in the ear; for, going along by
the place to see how it throve, I saw my little crop
surrounded with fowls, I know not of how many sorts,
who stood, as it were, watching till I should be gone.
I immediately let fly among them (for I always had
my gun with me), and killed three of them. This
was what I wished for; so I took them up, and served
them, as we serve notorious thieves in England,
namely, hanged them in chains, for a terror to others.
It is impossible to imagine that this should have such








140 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
an effect as it had; for the fowls not only never came
to the corn, but, in short, they forsook all that part of
the island, and I could never see a bird near the place
as long as my scarecrows hung there. This I was
very glad of, you may be sure; and about the latter
end of December, which was our second harvest of
the year, I reaped my corn.
I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle, to cut
it down, and all I could do was to make one as well
as I could out of one of the broadswords, or cutlasses,
which I saved among the arms out of the ship. How-
ever, as my first crop was but small, I had no great
difficulty to cut it down; in short, I reaped it my way,
for I cut nothing off but the ears, and carried it away
in a great basket which I had made, and so rubbed
it out with my hands ; and, at the end of all my har-
vesting, I found that out of my half-peck of seed, I
had near two bushels of rice, and above two bushels
and a half of barley; that is to say, by my guess,
for I had no measure.
However, this was great encouragement to me; and
I foresaw that, in time, it would please God to supply
me with bread; and yet here I was perplexed again;
for I neither knew how to grind, or make meal of my
corn, or, indeed, how to clean it and part it; nor, if
made into meal, how to make bread of it ; and, if how
to make it, yet I knew not how to bake it; these
things being added to my desire of having a good
quantity for store, and to secure a constant supply, I
resolved not to taste any of this crop, but to preserve







WORKING FOR ONE'S BREAD.


it all for seed against the next season; and in the
meantime, to employ all my study and hours of
working to accomplish this great work of providing
myself with corn and bread.
It might be truly said, that now I worked for my
bread. It is a little wonderful, and what I believe
few people have thought much upon, namely, the
strange multitude of little things necessary in the
providing, producing, curing, dressing, making, and
finishing, this one article of bread.
I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found
this to my daily discouragement, and was made more
sensible of it every hour, even after I had got the first
handful of seed-corn, which, as I have said, came up
unexpectedly, and indeed to a surprise.
First, I had no plough to turn up the earth; no
spade or shover to dig it: well, this I conquered, by
making a wooden spade, as I observed before; but
this did my work in but a wooden manner; and
though it cost me a great many days to make it, yet,
for want of iron, it not only wore out the sooner, but
made my work the harder, and performed it much
worse. However, this I bore with, and was content
to work it out with patience, and bear with the bad-
ness of the performance. When the corn was sowed
I had no harrow, but was forced to go over it myself,
and drag a great heavy bough of a tree over it, to
scratch it, as it may be called, rather than rake, or
harrow it. When it was growing and grown, I have
observed already how many things I wanted to fence








142 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

ih, secure it, mow or reap it, cure and carry it home,
thrash, part it from the chaff, and save it; then I
wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast
and salt to make into bread, and an oven to bake it;
and yet all these things I did without, as shall be ob-
served; and the corn was an inestimable comfort and
advantage to me: all this, as I said, made everything
laborious and tedious to me, but that there was no
help for; neither was my time so much loss to me,
because, as I had divided it, a certain part of it was
every day appointed to these works; and, as I re-
solved to use none of the corn for bread till I had a
greater quantity by me, I had the next six months to
apply myself wholly, by labour and invention, to
furnish myself with utensils proper for the performing
all the operations necessary for making corn fit for
my use.
But now I was to prepare more land; for I had
seed enough to sow above an acre of ground. Before
I did this, I had a week's work at least to make me
a spade; which, when it was done, was but a sorry
one indeed, and very heavy, and required double la-
bour to work with it : however, I went through that,
and sowed my seed in two large flat pieces of ground,
as near my house as I could find them to my mind,
and fenced them in with a good hedge ; the stakes of
which were all cut off that wood which I had set be-
fore, and knew it would grow; so that, in one year's
time, I knew I should have a quick, or living hedge.
that would want but little repair. This work took me








A NEW PROJECT. 143
up full three months, because a great part of the time
was in the wet season, when I could not go abroad.
Within doors, that is, when it rained, and I could not
go out, I found employment on the following occasions:
always observing, that, while I was at work I diverted
myself with talking to my parrot, and teaching him
to speak; and I quickly taught him to know his own
name, and at last to speak it out pretty loud, POLL;
which was the first word I ever heard spoken on the
island by any mouth but my own. This, therefore,
was not my work, but an assistant to my work; for
now, as I said, I had a great employment upon my
hands, as follows: I had long studied, by some means
or other, to make myself some earthen vessels, which
indeed,- I wanted much, but knew not where to come
at them; however, considering the heat of the climate,
I did not doubt, but if I could find out any clay, I
might botch up some such pot as might, being dried
in the sun, be hard and strong enough to bear hand-
ling, and to hold anything that was dry, and required
to be kept so.
It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh
at me, to tell how many awkward ways I took to
raise this pastil; what odd, misshapen, ugly things I
made; how many of them fell in, and how many fell
out, the clay not being stiff enough to bear its own
weight; how many cracked by the over-violent heat
of the sun, being set out too hastily; and how many
fell in pieces with only removing, as well before as
after they were dried; and in a word, how. after hav-








144 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
ing laboured hard to find the clay, to dig it, to temper
it, to bring it home, and work it, I could not make
above two large earthen ugly things (I cannot call
them jars) in about two months' labour.
However, as the sun baked these two very dry and
hard, I lifted them very gently up, and set them down
again in two great wicker baskets, which I had made
on purpose for them, that they might not break ; and
as, between the pot and the basket there was a little
room to spare, I stuffed it full of the rice and barley
straw; and these two pots being to stand always dry,
I thought would hold my dry corn, and perhaps the
meal, when the corn was bruised.
Though I miscarried so much in my design for
large pots, yet I made several smaller things with
better success ; such as little round pots, flat dishes,
pitchers, and pipkins, and anything my hand turned
to; and the heat of the sun baked them very hard.
But all this would not answer my end, which was
to get an earthen pot to hold liquids, and bear the fire,
which none of these could do. It happened, some
time after, making a pretty large fire for cooking my
meat, when I went to put it out, after I had done
with it, I found a broken piece of one of my earthen-
ware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone,
and red as a tile. I was agreeably surprised to see it;
and said to myself, that certainly they might be made
to burn whole, if they would burn broken.
This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to
make it burn some pots. I had no notion of a kiln.








CRUSOE AS A POTTER. 140
such as the potters burn in, or of glazing them with
lead, though I had some lead to do it with; but I
placed three large pipkins, and two or three pots, in
a pile, one upon another, and placed my firewood all
round it, with a great heap of embers under them. I
plied the fire with fresh fuel round the outside, and
upon the top, till I saw the pots in the inside, red-hot
quite through, and observed that they did not crack
at all; when I saw them clear red, I let them stand
in that heat above five or six hours, till I found one
of them, though it did not crack, did melt or run; for
the sand which was mixed with the clay melted by
the violence of the heat, and would have run into glass
if I had gone on; so I slacked my fire gradually, till
the pots began to abate of the red colour ; and watch-
ing them all night, that I might not let the fire abate
too fast, in the morning I had three very good, I will
not say handsome, pipkins, and two other earthen
pots, as hard burnt as could be desired ; and one of
them perfectly glazed with the running of the sand.
After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted
no sort of earthenware for my use; but I must needs
say, as to the shapes of them, they were very indif-
ferent.
No joy, at a thing of so mean a nature, was ever
equal to mine, when I found I had made an earthen
pot that would bear the fire; and I had hardly pa-
tience to stay till they were cold, before I set one on
the fire again, with some water in it, to boil me some
meat which it did admirably well; and, with a piece







146 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
of kid, I made some very good broth ; though I
wanted oatmeal, and several other ingredients requi-
site to make it so good as I would have had it been.
My next concern was to get a stone mortar, to
stamp or beat some corn in; for, as to the mill, there
was no thought of arriving to that perfection of art
with one pair of hands. To supply this want, I was
at a great loss; I spent many a day to find out a
great stone big enough to cut hollow, and make fit
for a mortar; but could find none at all, except what
was in the solid rock, and which I had no way to dig
or cut out ; so, after a great deal of time lost in
searching for a stone, I gave it over, and resolved to
look out a great block of hard wood, which I found,
indeed, much easier; and getting one as big as I had
strength to stir, I rounded it, and formed it on the
outside with my axe and hatchet; and then, with
the help of fire, and infinite labour, made a hollow
place in it, as the Indians in Brazil make their
canoes. After this, I made a great heavy pestle, or
beater, of the wood called iron-wood; and this I pre-
pared, and laid by, against I had my next crop of
corn, when I proposed to myself to grind, or rather
pound my corn into meal, to make my bread.
My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or search,
to dress my meal, and to part it from the bran and
the husk, without which I did not see it possible I
could have any bread. This was a most difficult
thing, even but to think on; for I had nothing like
the necessary thing to make it; I mean fine thin








WHAT NECESSITY DOES. 147

canvass, or stu, to search the meal through. Here
I was at a full stop for many months ; nor did I really
know what to do ; linen I had none left, but what was
mere rags; I had goats' hair, but neither knew how
to weave it or spin it; and had I known how, here
were no tools to work it with : all the remedy I
found for this was, at last, recollecting I had, among
the seamens' clothes which were saved out of the
ship, some neckcloths of calico, or muslin; with some
pieces of these I made three small sieves, proper
enough for the work; and thus I made shift for some
years; "how I did afterwards, I shall show in its
place.
The baking part was the next thing to be consi-
dered, and how I should make bread when I came to
have corn; for, first, I had no yeast; as to that part,
there was no supplying the want, so I did not con-
cern myself much about it; but for an oven I was
indeed puzzled. At length I found out an expedient
for that also, which was this: I made some earthen
vessels, very broad, but not deep, that is to say, about
two feet diameter, and not above nine inches deep;
these I burned in the fire, as I had done the other,
and laid them by; and when I wanted to bake, I
made a great fire upon my hearth, which I had
paved with some square tiles, of my own making
and burning also; but I should not call them
square.
When the fire-wood was burned into embers, or
live coals, I drew them forward upon the hearth, so








148 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
as to cover it all over, and there let them lie till the
hearth was very hot; then, sweeping away all the
embers, I set down my loaf or loaves, and covering
them with the earthen pot, drew the embers all round
the outside of the pot, to keep in and add to the heat;
and thus, as well as in the best oven in the world, I
baked my barley loaves, and became, in a little time,
a good pastry-cook into the bargain; for I made my-
self several cakes and puddings of the same; but
made no pies, as I had nothing to put into them,
except the flesh of fowls and goats.
It need not be wondered at, if all these things took
me up most part of the third year of my abode here;
for, it is to be observed, in the intervals of these
things, I had my new harvest and husbandry to
manage; I reaped my corn in its season, and carried
it home as well as I could, and laid it up in the ear,
in my large baskets, till I had time to rub it out; for
I had no floor to thrash it on, or instrument to thrash
it with.
And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I
really wanted to build my barns bigger: I wanted a
place to lay it up in; for the increase of the corn
now yielded me so much, that I had of the barley
about twenty bushels, and of rice as much, or more,
insomuch that now I resolved to begin to use it
'freely; for my bread had been quite gone a great
while. I resolved, also, to see what quantity would
be sufficient for me a whole year, and to sow but
once a year.








YEARNING AFTER SOCIETY.


Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of
barley and rice were much more than I could con-
sume in a year; so I .resolved to sow just the same
quantity every year that I sowed the last, in hopes
that such a quantity would fully provide me with
bread, &c.



CHAPTER XV.
ALL the while these things were doing, you may be
sure my thoughts ran many times upon the prospect
of land which I had seen from the other side of the
island; and I was not without some secret wishes
that I was on shore there; fancying that, seeing the
mainland, and an inhabited country, I might find
some way or other to convey myself farther, and per-
haps, at last, find some means of escape.
Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-
boat, with the shoulder-of-mutton sail, with which I
sailed above a thousand miles on the coast of Africa;
but this was in vain: then I thought I would go and
look at our ship's boat, which, as I have said, was
blown up upon the shore a great way, in the storm,
when we were first cast away. She lay nearly where
she did at first, but not quite, having turned, by the
force of the waves and the winds, almost bottom up-
ward, against a high ridge of beachy, rough sand;
but no water about her, as before. If I had had
hands to have refitted her, and to have launched her








150 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
into the water, the boat would have done very well,
and I might have gone back into the Brazils with
her easily enough; but I might have foreseen that I
could no more turn her, and set her upright upon her
bottom, than I could remove the island. However, I
went to the woods, and cut levers and rollers, and
brought them to the boat, resolving to try what I
could do; suggesting to myself, that, if I could but
turn her down, and repair the damage which she had
received, she would be a very good boat, and I might
venture to sea in her.
I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless
toil, and spent, I think, three or four weeks about it.
At last, finding it impossible to heave her up with
my little strength, I fell to digging away the sand,
to undermine her, and so to make her fall down, set-
ting pieces of wood to thrust and guide her right in
the fall.
But when I had done this, I was unable to stir
her up again or to get under her, much less to move
her forwards towards the water; so I was forced to
give it over: and yet, though I gave over the hopes
of the boat, my desire to venture over the main in-
creased, rather than diminished, as the means for it
seemed impossible.
At length I began to think whether it was not
possible to make myself a canoe, or periagua, such as
the natives of those climates make, even without
tools, or, as I might say, without hands, of the trunk
of a great tree. This I not only thought possible, but








FRUITLESS TOIL. 151
easy, and pleased myself extremely with the idea oi
making it, and with my having much more conveni-
ence for it than any of the negroes or Indians; but
not at all considering the particular inconveniences
which I lay under more than the Indians did, namely,
the want of hands to move it into the water when it
was made-a difficulty much harder for me to sur-
mount than all the consequences of want of tools
could be to them.
One would imagine, if I had had the least reflec-
tion upon my mind of my circumstances, while I was
making this boat, I should have immediately thought
how I was to get it into the sea; but my thoughts
were so intent upon my voyage in it, that I never
once considered how I should get it off the land; and
it was really in its own nature more easy for me to
guide it over forty-five miles of sea than the forty-
five fathoms of land, where it lay, to set it afloat in
the water.
The eagerness of my fancy prevailed, and to work
I went. I felled a cedar tree, and I question much
whether Solomon ever had such a one for the build-
ing of the Temple at Jerusalem; it was five feet ten
inches diameter at the lower part next the stump,
and four feet eleven inches diameter, at the end of
twenty-two feet, where it lessened, and then parted
into branches. It was not without infinite labour that
I felled this tree. I was twenty days hacking and
hewing at the bottom, and fourteen more getting the
branches and limbs and the vast spreading head of








152 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
it cut off. After this it cost me a month to shape it
and dub it to a proportion, and to something like the
bottom of a boat, that it might swim upright as it
ought to do. It cost me near three months more to
clear the inside, and work it out so as to make an
exact boat of it. This I did indeed without fire, by
mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard
labour, till I had brought it to be a very handsome
periagua, and big enough to have carried six-and-
twenty men, and, consequently, big enough to have
carried me and all my cargo.
When I had gone through this work, I was ex-
tremely delighted with it. The boat was really much
bigger than ever I saw a canoe or periagua that was
made of one tree in my life. Many a weary stroke
it had cost, you may be sure; and there remained
nothing but to get it into the water; which, had I
accomplished, I make no question but I should have
begun the maddest voyage, and the most unlikely to
be performed, that was ever undertaken.
But all my devices to get it into the water failed
me; though they cost me inexpressible labour too.
It lay about one hundred yards from the water, and
not more; but the first inconvenience was, it was up
hill towards the creek. Well, to take away this dis-
couragement, I resolved to dig into the surface of the
earth, and so make a declivity; this I begun, and it
cost me a prodigious deal of pains; but who grudge
pains that have their deliverance in view? When this
was worked through, and this difficulty managed, it








CRUSOE'S FOLLY. 153
was still much the same, for I could no more stir the
canoe than I could the other boat. Then I measured
the distance of ground, and resolved to cut a dock or
canal, to bring the water up to the canoe, seeing 1
could not bring the canoe down to the water. Well,
I began this work; and when I began to enter upon
it, and calculate how deep it was to be dug, how
broad, how the stuff was to be thrown out, I found
by the number of hands I had, having none but my
own, that it must have been ten or twelve years be-
fore I could have gone through with it; for the shore
lay so high, that at the upper end it must have been
at least twenty feet deep; this attempt, though with
great reluctancy, I was at length obliged to give over
alsp.
This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though
too late, the folly of beginning a work before we
count the cost, and before we judge rightly of our
own strength to go through with it.
In the middle of this work I finished my fourth
year in this place, and kept my anniversary with the
same devotion, and with as much comfort, as before;
for by a constant study and serious application to the
Word of God, and by the assistance of his grace, I
gained a different knowledge from what I had before;
I entertained different notions of things; I looked now
upon the world as a thing remote, which I had no-
thing to do with, no expectation from, and indeed no
desires about; in a word, "I had nothing to do with
it, nor was ever likely to have. I thought it looked.








154 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
as we may perhaps look upon it hereafter, namely,
as a place I had lived in, but was come out of it;
and well might I say, as father Abraham to Dives,
"Between me and thee there is a great gulf fixed."
In the first place, I was here removed from all the
wickedness of the world; I had neither the lust of
the flesh, the lust of the eye, nor the pride of life."
I had nothing to covet, for I had all that I was now
capable of enjoying; I was lord of the whole manor,
or, if I pleased, I might call myself king, or emperor,
over the whole country which I had possession of;
there were no rivals ; I had no competitor, none to
dispute sovereignty or command with me; I might
have raised ship-loadings of corn, but I had no use
for it; so I let as little grow as I thought enough for
my occasion. I had tortoise or turtle enough, but
now and then, one was as much as I could put to any
use. I had timber enough to have built a fleet of
ships, and I had grapes enough to have made wine,
or to have cured into raisins, to have loaded that
fleet when it had been built.
In a word, the nature and experience of things
dictated to me, upon just reflection, that all the good
things of this world are of no farther good to us
than for our use; and that whatever we may heap up
to give others, we enjoy only as much as we can use,
*and no more. The most covetous griping miser in
the world would have been cured of the vice of covet-
ousness, if he had been in my case; for I possessed
infinitely more than I knew what to do with. I had








AN ARGUMENT FOR CONTENTMENT. 100D
no room for desire, except it was for things which I
had not, and they were comparatively but trifles,
though, indeed, of great use to me. I had, as I
hinted before, a parcel of money, as well gold as
silver, about thirty-six pounds sterling I Alas!
there the nasty, sorry, useless stuff lay: I had no
manner of business for it; and I often thought within
myself, that I would have given a handful of it for
a gross of tobacco-pipes, or for a hand-mill to grind
my corn; nay, I would have given it all for six
penny-worth of turnip and carrot seed from England,
or for a handful of peas and beans, and a bottle of ink.
I had now brought my state of life to be much
more comfortable in itself than it was at first, and
much easier to my mind, as well as to my body.
I frequently sat down to meat with thankfulness, and
admired the hand of God's providence, which had
thus spread my table in the wilderness."
I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in
representing to myself, in the most lively colours.
how I must have acted if I had got nothing out of
the ship. I could not have so much as got any food.
except fish and turtles; and that, as it was long be-
fore I found any of them, I must have perished;
that I should have lived, if I had not perished, like
a mere savage.
These reflections made me very sensible of the
goodness of Providence to me, and very thankful for
my present condition, with all its hardships and
misfortunes.








156 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
I had another reflection which assisted me also to
comfort my mind with hopes; and this was, compar-
ing my present condition with what I had deserved,
and had therefore reason to expect from the hand of
Providence. I had lived a dreadful life, perfectly
destitute of the knowledge and fear of God.
So void was I of everything that was good, or of
the least sense of what I was, or was to be, that, in
the greatest deliverances I enjoyed (such as my
escape from Sallee, my being taken up by the
Portuguese master of a ship, my being planted so
well in the Brazils, my receiving the cargo from
England, and the like), I never had once the words,
" thank God," so much as on my mind, or in my
mouth; nor in the greatest distress had I so much
as a thought to pray to him, or so much as to say,
" Lord, have mercy upon me!" no, nor to mention
the name of God, unless it was to swear by, and
blaspheme it.
I had terrible reflections upon my mind for many
months as I have already observed, on account of my
wicked and hardened life past; and when I looked
about me, and considered what particular providence
had attended me since my coming into this place,
and how God had dealt bountifully with me-had
not only punished me less than my iniquity had de-
served, but had so plentifully provided for me-this
gave me great hopes that my repentance was ac-
cepted, and that God had yet mercies in store for me.
With these reflections I worked my mind up, not








MORE ARGUMENTS FOR CONTENTMENT. 157
only to a resignation to the will of God in the pre-
sent disposition of my circumstances, but even to a
sincere thankfulness for my condition; and that I,
who was yet a living man, ought not to complain,
seeing I had not the due punishment of my sins;
that I enjoyed so many mercies which I had no
reason to have expected in that place, that I ought
never more to repine at my condition; but to rejoice
and to give daily thanks for that daily bread, which
nothing but a crowd of wonders could have brought.
In a word, as my life was a life of sorrow one way,
so it was a life of mercy another; and I wanted
nothing to make it a life of comfort, but to make
myself sensible of God's goodness to me, and care
over me in this condition; and after I did make a
just improvement of these things, I went away, and
was no more sad.
I had now been here so long, that many things
which I brought on shore for my help were either
quite gone, or very much wasted, and near spent.
My ink, as I observed, had been gone for some
time, all but a very little, which I eked out with
water, a little and a little, till it was so pale, it scarce
left any appearance of black upon the paper. As
long as it lasted, I made use of it to minute down
the days of the month on which any remarkable
thing happened to me.
The next thing to my ink being wasted, was that
of my bread; I mean the biscuit which I brought out
of the ship. This Ibhad husbanded to the last degree,








158 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
allowing myself but one cake of bread a day for
above a year; and yet I was quite without bread for
near a year before I got any corn of my own; and
great reason I had to be thankful that I had any at
all, the getting it being, as has been already ob-
served, next to miraculous.
My clothes, too, began to decay mightily: as to
linen, I had had none for a great while, except some
chequered shirts, which I found in the chests of the
other seamen, and which I carefully preserved, be-
cause many times I could bear no clothes on but a
shirt; and it was a very great help to me, that I had,
among all the men's clothes of the ship, almost three
dozen of shirts. There were also, indeed, several
thick watch-coats of the seamen which were left, but
they were too hot to wear; and, though it is true
that the weather was so violently hot that there was
no need of clothes, yet I could not go quite naked,
as the heat frequently blistered my skin. No more
could I ever bring myself to go out in the heat of
the sun without a cap or hat.
Upon these views, I began to consider about
putting the few rags I had, which I called clothes,
into some order. I had worn out all the waistcoats
I had, and my business was now to try if I could not
make jackets out of the great watch-coats that I had
by me, and with such other materials as I had; so I
set to work a tailoring, or rather, indeed, a botching,
for I made most piteous work of it. However, I
made shift to make two or three new waistcoats,








A WONDERFUL INVENTION. 159
which I hoped would serve me a great while; as for
breeches or drawers, I made but a very sorry shift
indeed, till afterwards.
I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the
creatures that I killed, I mean four-footed ones; and
I had hung them up, stretched out with sticks, in the
sun, by which means some of them were so dry and
hard that they were fit for little, but others I found
very useful. The first thing I made of these was a
great cap for my head, with the hair on the outside,
to shoot off the rain; and this I performed so well,
that, after this, I made me a suit of clothes wholly
of the skins, that is to say, a waistcoat and breeches
open at the knees, and both loose; for they were
rather wanting to keep me cool than warm. I must
not omit to acknowledge that they were wretchedly
made; for, if I was a bad carpenter, I was a worse
tailor. However, they were such as I made very
good shift with; and, when I was abroad, if it hap-
pened to rain, the hair of my waistcoat and cap being
uppermost, I was kept very dry.
After this I spent a great deal of time and pains
to make me an umbrella. However, at last, I made
one to answer, and covered it with skins, the hair
upwards, so that it cast off the rain like a pent-house,
and kept off the sun so effectually that I could walk
out in the hottest of the weather, with greater ad-
vantage than I could before in the coolest; and when
I had no need of it, could close it and carry it under
my arm.








160 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


CHAPTER XVI.

THus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being
entirely composed by resigning to the will of God,
and throwing myself wholly upon the disposal of his
providence.
I cannot say, that after this, for five years, any
extraordinary thing happened to me; but I lived on
in the same course, in the same posture and place,
just as before; the chief things I was employed in,
besides my yearly labour of planting my barley and
rice, and curing my raisins, of both which I always
kept up just enough to have sufficient stock of one
year's provision beforehand; I say, besides this
yearly labour, and my daily pursuit of going out
with my gun, I had one labour to make me a canoe,
which at last I finished; so that by digging a canal
to it of six feet wide, and four feet deep, I brought
it into the creek, almost half a mile. As for the
first, which was so vastly big, I was obliged to let
it lie where it was, as a memorandum to teach me to
be wiser the next time; indeed, the next time, though
I could not get a tree proper for it, and was in a
place where I could not get the water to it at any
less distance than, as I have said, near half a mile,
yet, as I saw it was practicable at last, I never gave
it over: and, though I was near two years about it,
yet I never grudged my labour, in hopes of having
a boat to go off to sea at last.







CRUSOE'S SMALL BOAT. 181
However, though my little periagua was finished,
yet the size of it was not at all answerable to the
design which I had in view when I made the first;
I mean of venturing over to the terra firma, where
it was above forty miles broad; accordingly, the
smallness of my boat assisted to put an end to that
design, and now I thought no more of it. As I had
a boat, my next design was to make a cruise round
the island; for as I had been on the other side in one
place, crossing, as I have already described it, over
the land, so the discoveries I made in that journey
made me very eager to see other parts of the coast.
For this purpose, and that I might do everything
with discretion and consideration, I fitted up a little
mast to my boat, and made a sail to it out of some
of th6 pieces of the ship's sails, which lay in store,
and of which I had a great stock by me.
Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried the boat,
I found she would sail very well. Then I made little
lockers or boxes at either end, to put provisions, ne-
cessaries, and ammunition, &c., into, to be kept dry,
either from rain or the spray of the sea, and a hollow
place I cut in the inside of the boat, where I could lay
my gun, making a flap to hang down over to keepitdry.
I fixed my umbrella also in a step of the stern, like
a mast, to -stand over my head, and keep the heat of
the sun off me, like an awning; and thus I every
now and then took a little voyage upon the sea, but
never went far out, or far from the little creek; but
at last, being eager to view the circumference of my








162 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

little kingdom, I resolved upon my tour, and accord.
ingly I victualled my ship for the voyage, putting in
two dozen of my loaves of barley bread, an earthen
pot full of parched rice, a food I eat a great deal of,
a little bottle of rum, half a goat, and powder and shot
for killing more, and two large watch-coats, of those
which, as I mentioned before, I had saved out of the
seamen's chests. These I took, one to lie upon, and
the other to cover me in the night.
It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of
my reign or my captivity, that I set out on this voy-
age, and I found it much longer than I expected; for
though the island itself was not very large, yet when
I came to the east side of it, I found a great ledge of
rocks lie out about two leagues into the sea, some
above water, some under it, and beyond that a shoal
of sand, lying dry, half a league more, so that I
was obliged to go a great way out to sea to double
that point. When I first discovered them, I was
going to give over my enterprise, and come back-
not knowing how far it might oblige me to go out to
sea, and, above all, doubting how I should get back
again; so I came to anchor, for I had made me a
kind of anchor with a piece of grappling which I got
out of the ship.
Having secured my boat, I took my gufi and went
on shore, climbing upon a hill which seemed to over-
look that point, where I saw the fall extent of it, and
resolved to venture. In viewing the sea from that
hill where I stood, I perceived a strong and furious








CRUSOE'S DISCOVERIES. 163
current which ran to the east, and even came close
to the point, and I took the more notice of it because
I saw there might be some danger that when I came
into it I might be carried out to sea by the strength
of it, and not be able to make the island again. And
indeed, had I not gotten first upon this hill, I believe
it would have been so, for there was the same current
upon the other side of the island, only that it set off
at a farther distance, and I saw there was a strong
eddy under the shore, so that I had nothing to do
but to get in out of the first current, and I should
presently be in an eddy.
I lay here, however, two days, because the wind,
blowing pretty fresh (at E.S.E., and that being just
contrary to the said current), made a breach of the
sea upon the point, so that it was not safe for me to
keep too close to the shore, for the breach, nor to go
too far off because of the stream.
The third day, in the morning, the wind having
abated over night, the sea was calm, and I ventured;
but no sooner was I come to the point-when even I
was not my boat's length from the shore-but I found
myself in a great depth of water, and a current like
the sluice of a mill. It carried my boat along with
it with such violence that all I could do could not
keep her so much as on the edge of it; but I found
it hurried me farther and farther out from the eddy,
which was on my left hand. There was no wind
stirring to help me, and all I could do with my
paddles signified nothing. And now I began to give
11








164 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
myself over for lost; for, as the current was on both
sides of the island, I knew, in a few leagues' distance,
they must join again, and then I was irrecoverably
gone. Nor could I see any possibility of avoiding
it; so that I had no prospect before me but of perish-
ing, not by the sea, for that was calm enough, but of
starving for hunger. I had, indeed, found a tortoise
on the shore, as big almost as I could lift, and had
tossed it into the boat, and I had a great jar of fresh
water-that is to say, one of my earthen pots; but
what was all this to being driven in the vast ocean,
where, to be sure, there was no shore, no mainland,
or island, for a thousand leagues at least!
And now I saw how easy it was for the providence
of God to make even the most miserable condition of
mankind worse. Now I looked back upon my deso-
late solitary island as the most pleasant place in the
world, and all the happiness my heart could wish for
was to be put there again. Then I reproached myself
with my unthankful temper, and how I had repined
at my solitary condition; and now, what would I give
to be on shore there again? It is scarce possible to
imagine the consternation I was now in, being driven
from my beloved island (for so it appeared to me now
to be) into the wide ocean, almost two leagues, and
in the utmost despair of ever recovering it again.
However, I worked hard, till, indeed, my strength
was almost exhausted, and kept my boat as much to
the northward-that is, towards the side of the cur-
rent which the eddy lay on, as possibly I could;








ADRIFT.


when, about noon, as the sun passed the meridian, 1
thought I felt a little breeze of wind in my face,
springing up from the S.S.E. This cheered my heart
a little, and especially when, in about half an hour
more, it blew a pretty gentle gale. By this time I
was got at a frightful distance from the island, and
had the least cloudy or hazy weather intervened, I
had been undone another way too; for I had no com-
pass on board, and should never have known how to
have steered towards the island if I had but once lost
sight of it; but the weather continuing clear, I ap-
plied myself to get up my mast again, and spread my
sail, standing away to the north as much as possible,
to get out of the current.
Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat
began to stretch away, I saw, even by the clearness
of the water, some alteration of the current was near;
for, where the current was so strong, the water was
foul, but perceiving the water clear, I found the cur-
rent abate, and presently I found, to the east, at about
half a mile, a breach of the sea upon some rocks;
these rocks, I found, caused the current to part again,
and as the main stress of it ran away more southerly,
leaving the rocks to the north-east, so the other re-
turned by the repulse of the rocks, and made a strong
eddy, which ran back again to the north-west, with a
very sharp stream.
They who know what it is to have a reprieve brought
to them upon the ladder, or to be rescued from thieves
just going to murder them, or have been in such like







166 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
extremities, may guess what my present surprise of
joy was, and how gladly I put my boat into the
stream of this eddy; and the wind also freshening,
how gladly I spread my sail to it, running cheerfully
before the wind, with a strong tide or eddy under
foot.
This eddy carried me about a league in my way
back again directly towards the island, but about two
leagues more to the northward than the current which
carried me away at first: so that, when I came near
the island, I found myself open to the northern shore
of it-that is to say, the other end of the island, op-
posite to that which I went out from.
When I had made something more than a league
of way by the help of this current or eddy, I found it
was spent, and served me no farther. However, I
found that being between two great currents, namely,
that on the south side, which had hurried me away,
and that on the north, which lay about a league on
the other side; I say, between these two, in the wake
of the island, I found the water at least still, and
running no way; and having still a breeze of wind
fair for me, I kept on, steering directly for the island,
though not making such fresh way as I did before.
About four o'clock in the evening, being then
within a league of the island, I found the point of
the rocks which occasioned this disaster stretching
out, as is described before, to the southward, and
casting off the current more southerly, had of course
made another eddy to the north; and this I found








LAND AT LAST. Mt1
very strong, but not directly setting the way my
course lay, which was due west, but almost fall north.
However, having a fresh gale, I stretched across this
eddy, slanting north-west; and in about an hour,
came within about a mile of the shore, where, it
being smooth water, I soon got to land.
When I was on shore I fell on my knees and gave
God thanks for my deliverance, resolving to lay aside
all thoughts of my deliverance by my boat; and re-
freshing myself with such things as I had, I brought
my boat close to the shore, in a little cove that I had
spied under some trees, and laid me down to sleep,
being- quite spent with the labour and fatigue of the
voyage.
I was now at a great loss which way to get home
with my boat: I had run so much hazard, and knew
too much of the case, to think of attempting it by the
way I went out; and what might be at the other side
(I mean the west side) I knew not, nor had I any
mind to run any more ventures. So I only resolved,
in the morning, to make my way westward along the
shore, and to see if there was no creek where I might
lay up my frigate in safety, so as to have her again
if I wanted her. In about three miles, or thereabout,
coasting the shore, I came to a very good inlet or
bay, about a mile over, which narrowed till it came
to a very little rivulet or brook, where I found a
very convenient harbour for my boat, and where she
lay as if she had been in a little dock made on pur-
pose for her. Here I put in, and having stowed my








168 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

boat very safe, I went on shore to look about me and
see where I was.
I soon found I had but a little passed by the place
where I had been before, when I travelled on foot to
that shore; so taking nothing out of my boat but my
gun and umbrella, for it was exceeding hot, I began
my march. The way was comfortable enough after
such a voyage as I had been upon, and I reached my
old bower in the evening, where I found everything
standing as I left it; for I always kept it in good order,
being, as I said before, my country-house.
I got over the fence, and laid me down in the shade,
to rest my limbs, for I was very weary, and fell asleep:
but judge you, if you can, that read my story, what
a surprise I must be in, when I was awaked out of
my sleep by a voice calling me by my name several
times, Robin, Robin, Robin Crusoe; poor Robin
Crusoe! Where are you, Robin Crusoe? Where
are you ? Where have you been ?"
I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with
rowing, or paddling, as it is called, the first part of
the day, and with walking the latter part, that I did
not wake thoroughly; but, dozing between sleeping
and waking, thought I dreamed that somebody spoke
to me: but, as the voice continued to repeat Robin
Crusoe Robin Crusoe! at last I began to wake more
perfectly, and was at first dreadfully frightened, and
started up in the utmost consternation ; but no sooner
were my eyes open, but I saw my Poll sitting on the
top of the hedge; and immediately knew it was he







AN OLD FRIEND. 1I
that spoke to me; for just in such bemoaning lan-
guage I had used to talk to him and teach him; and
he had learned it so perfectly that he would sit upon
my finger, and lay his bill close to my face, and cry,
" Poor Robin Crusoe Where are you ? Where
have you been? How came you here?" and such
things as I had taught him.
However, even though I knew it was the parrot,
and that indeed it could be nobody else, it was a good
while before I could compose myself. First, I was
amazed how the creature got thither, and then, how
he should just keep about the place, and nowhere else:
but as I was well satisfied it could be nobody but
honest Poll, I got over it; and holding out my hand,
and calling him by his name, Poll," the sociable
creature came to me, and sat upon my thumb, as he
used to do, and continued talking to me, Poor Robin
Crusoe I and how did I come here ? and where had I
been ? just as if he had been overjoyed to see me
again; and so I carried him home along with me.
I now had had enough of rambling to sea for some
time, and had enough to do for many days, to sit
still and reflect upon the danger I had been in. I
remained near a year, living a very sedate, retired
life, as you may well suppose; and my thoughts
being very much composed as to my condition, and
fully comforted in resigning myself to the dispositions
of Providence, I thought I lived really very happily
in all things, except that of society.
I improved myself in this time in all the mechanic








170 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
exercises which my necessities put me upon applying
myself to; and I believed I could, upon occasion,
have made a very good carpenter, especially con-
sidering how few tools I had.
Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection
in my earthenware, and contrived well enough to
make them with a wheel, which I found infinitely
easier and better; because I made things round and
shapeable, which before were filthy things indeed to
look on. But I think I was never more vain of my
own performance, or more joyful for anything I found
out, than for my being able to make a tobacco-pipe ;
and though it was a very ugly clumsy thing when it
was done, and only burnt red like other earthenware,
yet, as it was hard and firm, and would draw the
smoke, I was exceedingly comforted with it, for I
had been always used to smoke; and there were pipes
in the ship, but I forget them at first, not thinking
that there was tobacco in the island; and afterwards,
when I searched the ship again, I could not come at
any pipes at all.
In my wicker-ware also I improved much, and
made abundance of necessary baskets, as well as my
invention showed me; though not very handsome,
yet they were such as were very handy and conveni-
ent for my laying things up in, or fetching things
home.








A NEW WAY TO CATCH GOATS.


CHAPTER XVII.

I BEGAN now to perceive my powder abated consider.
ably : this was a want which it was impossible for
me to supply, and I began seriously to consider what
I must do when I should have no more powder; that
is to say, how I should do to kill any goats. I had,
as is observed, in the third year of my being here,
kept a young kid, and bred her up tame, and I was
in hopes of getting a he-goat; but I could not by
any. means bring it to pass, till my kid grew an old
goat; and as I could never find in my heart to kill
her, she died at last of mere age.
But being now in the eleventh year of my resi-
dence, and, as I have said, my ammunition growing
low, I set myself to study some art to trap and snare
the goats, to see whether I could not catch some of
them alive; and particularly, I wanted a she-goat
great with young. For this purpose, I made snares
to hamper them; and I do believe they were more
than once taken in them; but my tackle was not
good, for I had no wire, and I always found them
broken, and my bait devoured. At length I resolved
to try a pitfall; so I dug several large pits in the
earth, in places where I had observed the goats used
to feed, and over these pits I placed hurdles, of my
own making too, with a great weight upon them;
and several times I put ears of barley and dry rice
without setting the trap, and I could easily perceive







172 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
that the goats had gone in and eaten up the corn, for
I could see the marks of their feet. At length I set
three traps in one night, and going the next morning,
I found them all standing, and yet the bait eaten and
gone; this was very discouraging. However, I al-
tered my traps; and not to trouble you with particu-
lars, going one morning to see my traps, I found in
one of them a large old he-goat, and in one of the
others three kids, a male and two females.
As to the old one, I knew not what to do with
him; he was so fierce I durst not go into the pit to
him ; that is to say, to go about to bring him away
alive, which was what I wanted. I could have killed
him, but that was not my business, nor would it an-
swer my end; so I even let him out, and he ran away
as if he had been frightened out of his wits. But I
had forgot then what I had learnt afterwards, thathun-
ger will tame a lion. If I had let him stay there three
or four days without food, and then have carried him
some water to drink, and then a little corn, he would
have been as tame as one of the kids; for they are
mighty sagacious, tractable creatures, where they are
well used.
However, for the present I let him go, knowing
no better at that time : then I went to the three kids,
and taking them one by one, I tied them with strings
together, and with some difficulty brought them all
home.
It was a good while before they would feed ; but
throwing them some sweet corn, it tempted them, and







CRUSOE AS A GOAT-HERD.


they began to be tame. And now I found, that if I
expected to supply myself with goats' flesh when I
had no powder or shot left, breeding some up tame
was my only way; when perhaps I might have them
about my house like a flock of sheep. But then it
occurred to me that I must keep the tame from the
wild, or else they would always run wild when they
grew up; and the only way for this was to have some
enclosed piece of ground, well fenced either with
hedge or pale, to keep them in so effectually, that
those within might not break out, nor those without
break in.
I resolved to enclose a piece of ground about 150
yards in length, and 100 yards in breadth; which,
as it would maintain as many as I should have in any
reasonable time, so, as my stock increased, I could
add more ground to my enclosure.
I was about three months hedging in the first
piece; and till I had done it I tethered the three kids
in the best part of it, and used them to feed as near
me as possible, to make them familiar; and very
often I would go and carry them some ears of barley,
or a handful of rice, and feed them out of my hand;
so that after my enclosure was finished, and I let
them loose, they would follow me up and down,
bleating after me for a handful of corn.
This answered my end; and in about a year and
a half I had a flock of about twelve goats, kids and
all; and in two years more I had three-and-forty,
besides several that I took and killed for my food.







174 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
After that I enclosed five several pieces of ground to
feed them in, with little pens to drive them into, to
take them as I wanted, and gates out of one piece ol
ground into another.
But this was not all; for now I not only had got
goats' flesh to feed on when I pleased, but milk too;
a thing which indeed in the beginning I did not so
much as think of, and which, when it came into my
thoughts, was really an agreeable surprise : for now
I set up my dairy, and had sometimes a gallon or
two of milk in a day.
It would have made a Stoic smile to have seen me
and my little family sit down to dinner: there was
my majesty, the prince and lord of the whole island;
I had the lives of all my subjects at my absolute
command; I could hang, draw, give liberty, and
take it away ; and no rebels among all my subjects.
Then to see how like a king I dined too, all alone,
attended by my servants : Poll, as if he had been my
favourite, was the only person permitted to talk to
me. My dog, who was now grown very old and
crazy, and had found no species to multiply his kind
upon, sat always at my right hand; and two cats,
one on one side of the table, and one on the other,
expecting now and then a bit from my hand, as a
mark of special favour.
But these were not the two cats which I brought
on shore at first, for they were both of them dead ;
but- one of them having multiplied by I know not
what kind of a creature, these were two which I had








A SINGULAR FIGURE. 1 75
preserved tame, whereas the rest ran wild in the
woods, and became troublesome to me; for they would
often come into my house and plunder me, till at last
I was obliged to shoot them, and kill a great many.
And in this plentiful manner I lived; neither could
I be said to want anything but society, and of that,
in some time after this, I was like to have too
much.
I was impatient, as I before observed, to have
the use of my boat, though loath to run any more
hazards, and therefore sometimes I sat contriving
ways to get her about the island, and at other times
I sat myself down contented enough without her.
But I had a strange uneasiness in my mind to go
down to the point of the island, where, as I have
said, in my last ramble, I went up the hill to see
how the shore lay, and how the current sat. This
inclination increased upon me every day, and at
length I resolved to travel thither by land; and
following the edge of the shore, I did so; but had
any one in England met such a man as I was, he
must either have frighted him or raised a great deal
of laughter, and as I frequently stood still to look at
myself, I could not but smile at the notion of my tra-
velling through Yorkshire with such an equipage,
and in such a dress. Be pleased to take a sketch of
my figure as follows: I had a great high shapeless
cap, made of a goat's skin, with a flap hanging down
behind, as well to keep the sun from me, as to shoot
the rain off from running into my neck: nothing








176 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
being so hurtful in these climates as the rain upon
the flesh under the clothes.
I had a short jacket of goats' skin, the skirts hang-
ing down to about the middle of my thighs; and a
pair of open-kneed breeches: the breeches were made
of the skin of an old he-goat, whose hair hung down
such a length on either side, that, like pantaloons, it
reached to the middle of my legs. Stockings and
shoes I had none; but I had made me a pair of some-
thing, I scarce know what to call them, like buskins,
to flap over my legs.
I had on a broad belt of goats' skin dried, which I
drew together with two thongs of the same, instead
of buckles: and, in a kind of frog, on each side of
this, hung a saw and a hatchet. I had another belt
not so broad, fastened in the same manner, which
hung over my shoulder; and at the end of it hung
two pouches, in which I kept my powder and shot.
At my back I carried my basket, on my shoulder my
gun, and over my head a great clumsy goats'-skin
umbrella, but which, after all, was the most necessary
thing I had about me, next to my gun. As for my
face, the colour of it was really not so mulatto-like
as one might expect from a man not at all careful
of it, and living within nine or ten degrees of the
equinox. My beard I had once suffered to grow
till it was about a quarter of a yard long; but as I
had scissors and razors, I had cut it pretty short, ex-
cept what grew on my upper lip, which I had trim-
med into a large pair of Mahometan whiskers, such








A NEW JOURNEY. 177
as I had seen wore by some Turks whom I saw at
Sallee. Of these mustachios or whiskers, I must
say they were monstrous, and would in England be
thought frightful.
In this kind of figure I went my new journey, and
was out five or six days. I travelled first along the
sea-shore, directly to the place where I first brought
my boat to an anchor, to get upon the rocks; and,
having no boat now to take care of, I went over the
land, a nearer way, to the same height that I was
upon before; when, looking forward to the point of
the rocks which lay out, and which I was obliged to
double with my boat, as is said above, I was surprised
to see the sea all smooth and quiet; no rippling, no
motion, no current, any more there than in any other
places. I was at a strange loss to understand this,
and resolved to spend some time in the observing it,
to see if nothing from the sets of the tide had occa-
sioned it; but I was presently convinced how it was,
namely, that the tide of ebb setting from the west,
and joining with the current of waters from some
great river on the shore, must be the occasion of this
current; and that, according as the wind blew more
forcibly from the west, or from the north, this current
came nearer, or went farther from the shore; for,
waiting thereabouts till evening, I went up to the
rock again, and then the tide of ebb being made, I
plainly saw the current again as before, only that it
ran farther off, being near half a league from the
shore: whereas, in my case, it set close upon the







178 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
shore, and hurried me and my canoe along with it;
which at another time it would not have done.
This observation convinced me, that I had nothing
to do but to observe the ebbing and the flowing of the
tide, and I might very easily bring my boat about
the island again; but, when I began to think of put-
ting it in practice, I had such a terror upon my spirits
at the remembrance of the danger I had been in, that
I could not think of it again with any patience: but,
on the contrary, I took up another resolution, which
was more safe, though more laborious; and this
was, that I would build, or rather make me another
periagua, or canoe; and so have one for one side of
the island, and one for the other.
You are to understand, that now I had, as I may
call it, two plantations in the island; one, my little
fortification, or tent, with the wall about it, under the
rock, with the cave behind me, which, by this time,
I had enlarged into several apartments or caves, one
within another. One of these, which was the driest
and largest, and had a door out behind my wall, or
fortification, that is to say, beyond where my wall
joined to the rock, was all filled up with the large
earthen pots, of which I have given an account, and
with fourteen or fifteen great baskets, which would
hold five or six bushels each, where I laid up my
stores of provision, especially my corn, some in the
ear, cut off short from the straw, and the other rubbed
out with my hands.
As for my wall, made as before, with long stakes








VARIOUS RESOURCES. 179
or piles, those piles grew all like trees, and were, by
this time, grown so big, and spread so very much,
that there was not the least appearance, to any one's
view, of any habitation behind them.
Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther
within the land, and upon lower ground, lay my two
pieces of corn land, which I kept duly cultivated and
sowed, and which duly yielded me their harvest in its
season; and whenever I had occasion for more corn,
I had more land adjoining as fit as that. Besides
this, I had my country-seat; and I had now a toler-
able plantation there also.
Adjoining to this I had my enclosures for my
cattle, that is to say, my goats; and as I had taken
an inconceivable deal of pains to fence and enclose
this ground, I was so anxious to see it kept entire,
lest the goats should break through, that I never left
off, till, with infinite labour, I had stuck the outside
of the hedge so full of small stakes, and so near to
one another, that it was rather a pale than a hedge,
and there was scarce room to put a hand through be-
tween them; which afterwards, when those stakes
grew, as they all did in the next rainy season, made
the enclosure strong like a wall-indeed, stronger
than any wall.
This will testify for me that I was not idle, and
that I spared no pains to bring to pass whatever
appeared necessary for my comfortable support; for I
considered the keeping up a breed ot tame creatures
thus, at my hand, would be a living magazine of flesh,
12








180 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
milk, butter, and cheese for me as long as I lived in
the place, if it were to be forty years; and that keep-
ing them in my reach depended entirely upon my
perfecting my enclosures to such a degree that I
might be sure of keeping them together; which, by
this method, indeed, I so effectually secured, that,
when these little stakes began to grow, I had planted
them so very thick, that I was forced to pull some of
them up again.
In this place also, I had my grapes growing,
which I principally depended on for my winter store
of raisins, and which I never failed to preserve very
carefully, as the best and most agreeable dainty of
my whole diet: and, indeed, they were not only
agreeable, but physical, wholesome, nourishing, and
refreshing to the last degree.
As this was also about half-way between my other
habitation and the place where I had laid up my
boat, I generally stayed, and lay here, in my way
thither; for I used frequently to visit my boat; and
I kept all things about, or belonging to her, in very
good order: sometimes I went out in her to divert
myself, but no more hazardous voyages would I go,
nor scarce ever above a stone's-cast or two from the
shore, I was so apprehensive of being hurried out of
my knowledge again by the currents or winds, or
any other accident. But now I come to a new scene
of my life.







A FEARFUL SURPRISE.


CHAPTER XVIIL.

IT happened, one day, about noon, going towards my
boat, I was exceedingly surprised with the print of
a man's naked foot on the shore, which was very
plain to be seen in the sand. I stood like one
thunder-struck; I listened, I looked around me,
but I could hear nothing, nor see anything; I went
up to a rising ground to look farther; I went up the
shore, and down the shore, but it was all one; I
could see no other impression but that one. I went
to it again, to see if there was any more, and to ob-
serve if it might not be my fancy; but there was no
room for that, for there was exactly the print of a
foot, toes, heel, and every part of a foot: how it came
thither I knew not, nor could I in the least imagine;
but after innumerable fluttering thoughts, like a man
perfectly confused and out of myself, I came home
to my fortification, not feeling, as we say, the ground
I went on, but terrified to the last degree; looking
behind me at every two or three steps, mistaking
every bush and tree, and fancying every stump at a
distance to be a man. Nor is it possible to describe
how many various shapes my affrighted imagina-
tion represented things to me in, how many wild
ideas were found every moment in my fancy, and
what strange unaccountable whimsies came into my
thoughts by the way.
At last I concluded that it must be some of the








182 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON( CRUSOE.
savages of the mainland over against me, who had
wandered out to sea in their canoes, and, either driven
by the currents or by contrary winds, had made the
island, and had been on shore, but were gone away
again to sea; being as loth, perhaps, to have stayed
in this desolate island as I would have been to have
had them.
While these reflections were rolling upon my mind,
I was very thankful in my thoughts, that I was so
happy as not to be thereabouts at that time, or that
they did not see my boat, by which they would have
concluded that some inhabitants had been in the
place, and perhaps have searched farther for me:
then terrible thoughts racked my imagination about
their having found my boat, and that there were
people here: and that, if so, I should certainly have
them come again in greater numbers, and devour me:
that if it should happen so that they should not find
me, yet they would find my enclosure, destroy all
my corn, carry away all my flock of tame goats, and
I should perish at last for mere want
Thus my fear banished all my religious hope, all
that former confidence in God, which was founded
upon such wonderful experience as I had had of his
goodness, as if he that had fed me hitherto could not
preserve, by his power, the provision which he had
made for me by his goodness. I reproached myself
with my laziness, that would not sow any more corn
one year than would just serve me till the next season,
as if no accident would intervene to prevent my en-








" UNSTABLE AS WATER."


joying the crop that was upon the ground: and this
I thought so just a reproof; that I resolved for the
future to have two or three years' corn beforehand;
so that, whatever might come, I might not perish for
want of bread.
How strange a chequer work of Providence is the
life of man I and by what secret different springs are
the affections hurried about, as different circumstances
present 1 To-day we love what to-morrow we hate;
to-day we seek what to-morrow we shun; to-day we
desire what to-morrow we fear; nay, even tremble at
the apprehensions of: this was exemplified in me, at
this time, in the most lively manner imaginable; for
I, whose only affliction was that I seemed banished
from human society, that I was alone, circumscribed
by the boundless ocean, cut off from mankind, and
condemned to what I called silent life: that I was as
one whom Heaven thought not worthy to be num-
bered among the living, or to appear among the rest
of his creatures; that to have seen one of my own
species would have seemed to me a raising me from
death to life, and the greatest blessing that Heaven
itself, next to the supreme blessing of salvation, could
bestow; I say, that I should now tremble at the very
apprehensions of seeing a man, and was ready to sink
into the ground at but the shadow, or silent appear-
ance, of a man's having set his foot in the island.
Such is the uneven state of human life; and it
afforded me a great many curious speculations after-
wards, when I had a little recovered my first surprise.








184 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
I considered that this was the station of life the in.
finitely wise and good providence of God had deter-
mined for me; that, as I could not foresee what the
ends of divine wisdom might be in all this, so I was
not to dispute his sovereignty, who, as I was his
creature, had an undoubted right, by creation, to
govern and dispose of me absolutely, as he thought
fit; and who, as I was a creature that had offended
him, had likewise a judicial right to condemn me to
what punishment he thought fit; and that it was my
part to submit to bear his indignation, because I had
sinned against him. I then reflected that as God,
who was not only righteous, but omnipotent, had
thought fit thus to punish and afflict me, so he was
able to deliver me; that, if he did not think fit to do
so, it was my unquestioned duty to resign myself
absolutely and entirely to his will; and, on the other
hand, it was my duty also to hope in him, pray to
him, and quietly to attend the dictates and directions
of his daily providence.
These thoughts took me up many hours, days, nay,
I may say, weeks and months; and one particular
effect of my cogitations on this occasion I cannot
omit. One morning early, lying in bed, and filled
with thoughts about my danger from the appearances
of savages, I found it discomposed me very much;
upon which these words of the Scripture came into
my thoughts, Call upon me in the day of trouble,
and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me."
Upon this, rising cheerfully out of my bed, my heart








CRUSOE FINDS COMFORT. 18b
was not only comforted, but I was guided and en-
couraged to pray earnestly to God for deliverance:
when I had done praying, I took up my Bible, and
opening it to read, the first words that presented to
me were, Wait on the Lord, and be of good cheer,
and he shall strengthen thy heart; wait, I. say, on the
Lord." It is impossible to express the comfort this
gave me. In answer, I thankfully laid down the book,
and was no more sad, at least on that occasion.
In the middle of these cogitations, apprehensions,
and reflections, it came into my thoughts one day,
that all this might be a mere chimera of my own,
and that this foot might be the print of my own foot,
when I came on shore from my boat; this cheered
me up a little too, and I began to persuade myself it
was all a delusion; that it was nothing else but
my own foot; and why might I not come that way
from the boat, as well as I was going that way to the
boat! Again, I considered, also, that I could by no
means tell for certain where I had trod, and where
I had not; and that, if at last this was only the print
of my own foot, I had played the part of those fools
who try to make stories of spectres and apparitions,
and then are frightened at them more than anybody.
Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad
again, for I had not stirred out of my castle for three
days and nights, so that I began to starve for pro-
visions; for I had little or nothing within doors but
some barley-cakes and water; then I knew that my
goats wanted to be milked too, which usually was







186 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
my evening diversion; and the poor creatures were
in great pain and inconvenience for want of it; and,
indeed, it almost spoiled some of them, and almost
dried up their milk. Encouraging myself, therefore,
with the belief that this was nothing but the print of
one of my own feet, and that I might be truly said
to start at my own shadow, I began to go abroad
again, and went to my country-house to milk my
flock: but to see with what fear I went forward, how
often I looked behind me, how I was ready, every
now and then, to lay down my basket, and run for
my life, it would have made any one think I was
haunted with an evil conscience, or that I had been
lately most terribly frightened; and so, indeed, I had.
However, as I went down thus two or three days,
and having seen nothing, I began to be a little bolder,
and to think there was really nothing in it but my
own imagination; but I could not persuade myself
fully of this till I should go down to the shore again,
and see this print of a foot, and measure it by my
own, and see if there was any similitude or fitness,
that I might be assured it was my own foot. But
when I came to the place first, it appeared evidently
to me, that, when I laid up my boat, I could not pos-
sibly be on shore anywhere thereabout: Secondly,
when I came to measure the mark with my own foot,
I found my foot not so large by a great deal. Both
these things filled my head with new imaginations,
and gave me the vapours again to the highest de-
gree, so that I shook with cold like one in an ague;








RIDICULOUS RESOLUTIONS. 187
and I went home again, filled with the belief that
some man or men had been on shore there; or, in
short, that the island was inhabited, and I might be
surprised before I was aware; and what course to
take for my security I knew not.
Oh, what ridiculous resolutions men take when
possessed with fear It deprives them of the use of
those means which reason offers for their relief. The
first thing I proposed to myself was to throw down
my enclosures and turn all my tame cattle wild into
the woods, lest the enemy should find them, and then
frequent the island in prospect of the same, or the
like booty; then to the simple thing of digging up
my two corn-fields, lest they should find such a grain
there, and still be prompted to frequent the island;
then to demolish my bower and tent, that they might
not see any vestiges of habitation, and be prompted
to look farther, in order to find out the persons in-
habiting.
These were the subject of the first night's cogita-
tions, after I was come home again, while the appre-
hensions, which had so overrun my mind, were fresh
upon me, and my head was full of vapours, as above.
Thus fear of danger is ten thousand times more terri-
fying than danger itself, when apparent to the eyes;
and we find the burthen of anxiety greater by much
than the evil which we are anxious about; and, which
was worse than all this, I had not that relief in this
trouble from the resignation I used to practise, that I
hoped to have. I looked, I thought, like Saul, who








188 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
complained, not only that the Philistines were upon
him, but that God had forsaken him; for I did not
now take due ways to compose my mind, by crying
to God in my distress and resting upon his provi-
dence, as I had done before, for my defence and de-
liverance; which, if I had done, I had at least been
more cheerfully supported under this new surprise,
and perhaps carried through it with more resolution.
This confusion of my thoughts kept me awake all
night; but in the morning I fell asleep; and having,
by the amusement of my mind, been, as it were, tired,
and my spirits exhausted, I slept very soundly, and
waked much better composed than I had ever been
before.
I began to repent that I had dug my cave so large
as to bring a door through again, which door, as I
said, came out beyond where my fortification joined
to the rock. Upon maturely considering this, therefore,
I resolved to draw me a second fortification, in the
same manner of a semicircle at a distance from my
wall, just where I had planted a double row of trees
about twelve years before, of which I made mention:
these trees having been planted so thick before, they
wanted but few piles to be driven between them, that
they might be thicker and stronger, and my wall
would be soon finished: so that I had now a double
wall; and my outer wall was thickened with pieces
of timber, old cables, and everything I could think
of, to make it strong; having in it seven little holes,
about as big as I might put my arm out at. In the








FOREWARNED, FOREARMED. 189
inside of this, I thickened my wall to about ten feet
thick, with continually bringing earth out of my cave,
and laying it at the foot of the wall, and walking
upon it; and through the seven holes I contrived to
plant the muskets, of which I took notice that I had
got seven on shore out of the ship; these I planted
like my cannon, and fitted them into frames that held
them like a carriage, so that I could fire all the seven
guns in two minutes' time. This wall I was many
a weary month in finishing, and yet never thought
myself safe till it was done.
When this was done, I stuck all the ground with-
out my wall, for a great length every way, as full
with stakes, or sticks, of the osier-like wood, which
I found so apt to grow, as they could well stand,
insomuch, that I believe I might set in near twenty
thousand of them, leaving a pretty large space be-
tween them and my wall, that I might have room to
see an enemy, and they might have no shelter from
the young trees, if they attempted to approach my
outer wall.
Thus, in two years' time, I had a thick grove;
and, in five or six years' time, I had a wood before
my dwelling, growing so monstrous thick and strong,
that it was indeed perfectly impassable; and no men,
of what kind soever, would ever imagine that there
was anything beyond it, much less a habitation.
As for the way which I proposed to myself to go in
and out (for I left no avenue), it was by setting two
ladders, one to a part of the rock which was low, and








1.90 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

then broke in, and left room to place another ladder
upon that; so, when the two ladders were taken
down, no man living could come down to me without
doing himself some mischief; and if they had come
down, they were still on the outside of my outer
wall.
Thus I took all the measures human prudence
could suggest for my own preservation; and it will
be seen, at length, that they were not altogether
without just reason; though I foresaw nothing at that
time more than my mere fear suggested to me.
While this was doing, I was not altogether care-
less of my other affairs; for I had great concern
upon me for my little herd of goats; they were not
only a ready supply to me on every occasion, and
began to be sufficient for me, without the expense of
powder and shot, but also without the fatigue of
hunting after the wild ones; and I was loath to lose
the advantage of them, and to have them all to
nurse up over again.
For this purpose, after long consideration, I could
think of but two ways to preserve them; one was, to
find another convenient place to dig a cave under
ground, and to drive them into it every night; and
the other was to enclose two or three little bits of
land remote from one another, and as much concealed
as I could, where I might keep about half a dozen
young goats in each place; so that if any disaster
happened to the flock in general, I might be able to
raise them again with little trouble and time: and







A REMOVAL. 191
this, though it would require a great deal of time and
labour, I thought was the most rational design.
Accordingly I spent some time to find out the
most retired parts of the island; and I pitched upon
one, which was as private, indeed, as my heart could
wish for : it was a little damp piece of ground, in the
middle of the hollow and thick woods, where, as is
observed, I almost lost myself once before, endea-
vouring to come back that way from the eastern part
of the island. Here I found a clear piece of land,
near three acres, so surrounded with woods, that it
was almost an enclosure by nature; at least, it did
not want near so much labour to make it so as the
other pieces of ground I had worked so hard at.
I immediately went to work with this piece of
ground, and in less than a month's time, I had so
fenced it round, that my flock or herd, call it what
you please, who were not so wild now as at first they
might be supposed to be, were well enough secured
in it. So, without any farther delay, I removed ten
young she-goats and two he-goats to this piece; and
when they were there, I continued to perfect the
fence, till I had made it as secure as the other;
which, however, I did at more leisure, and it took
me up more time by a great deal.
After I had thus secured one part of my little
living stock, I went about the whole island, search-
ing for another private place to make such another
deposit; when, wandering more to the west point of
the island than I had ever done yet, and looking out







LuZ ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
to sea, I thought I saw a boat upon the sea at a great
distance. I had found a perspective glass or two, in
one of the seamen's chests, which I saved out of our
ship, but I had it not about me; and this was so
remote, that I could not tell what to make of it,
though I looked at it till my eyes were not able to
hold to look any longer. Whether it was a boat or
not I do not know. but, as I descended from the hill,
I could see no more of it; so I gave it over: only I
resolved to go no more out without a perspective
glass in my pocket. When I was come down the
hill to the end of the island, where, indeed, I had
never been before, I was presently convinced that
the seeing the print of a man's foot was not such a
strange thing in the island as I imagined; and (but
that it was a special providence that I was cast upon
the side of the island where the savages never came),
I should easily have known, that nothing was more
frequent than for the canoes from the main, when
they happened to be a little too far out at sea, to
shoot over to that side of the island for harbour; like
wise, as they often met and fought in their canoes,
the victors having taken any prisoners, would bring
them over to this shore, where, according to their
dreadful customs, being all cannibals, they would
kill and eat them; of which hereafter.
When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I
said above, being the S.W. point of the island, I was
perfectly confounded and amazed; nor is it possible
for me to express the horror of my mind, at seeing







THE SCENE OF AN ORGIE.


the shore spread with skulls, hands, feet, and other
bones of human bodies; and particularly, I observed
a place where there had been a fire made, and a
circle dug in the earth like a cock-pit, where I sup-
posed the savage wretches had sat down to their
inhuman feastings upon the bodies of their fellow-
creatures.
When I came a little out of that part of the
island, I stood still awhile, as amazed, and then,
recovering myself, I looked up with the utmost af-
fection of my soul, and with a flood of tears in m)
eyes gave God thanks, that had cast my first lot in
a part of the world where I was distinguished from
such dreadful creatures as these; and that, though I
had esteemed my present condition very miserable,
had yet given me so many comforts in it, that I had
still more to give thanks for than to complain of:
and this, above all, that I had, even in this miser-
able condition, been comforted with the knowledge
of himself, and the hope of his blessing; which was
a felicity more than sufficiently equivalent to all the
misery which I had suffered, or could suffer.
In this frame of thankfulness, I went home to my
castle, and began to be much easier now, as to the
safety of my circumstances, than ever I was before;
for I observed that these wretches never came to this
island in search of what they could get, perhaps not
seeking, nor wanting, or not expecting anything
here; and having often, no doubt, been up in the
covered woody part of it, without finding anything








194 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
to their purpose. I know I had been here now
almost eighteen years, and never saw the least foot-
steps of human creature there before; and I might
be eighteen years more as entirely concealed as I
was now, if I did not discover myself to them, which
I had no manner of occasion to do; it being only my
business to keep myself entirely concealed where I
was, unless I found a better sort of creatures than
cannibals to make myself known to. Yet I enter-
tained such an abhorrence of the savage wretches I
have been speaking of, and of the wretched inhuman
custom of their devouring and eating one another up,
that I continued pensive and sad, and kept close
within my own circle for almost two years after this.
When I say my own circle, I mean by it my three
plantations, namely, my castle, my country seat,
which I called my bower, and my enclosure in the
woods; nor did I look after this for any other use
than as an enclosure for my goats; for the aversion
which nature gave me to these hellish wretches was
such, that I was as fearful of seeing them as of seeing
the devil himself. I did not so much as go to look
after my boat all this time, but began rather to think
of making me another; for I could not think of ever
making any more attempts to bring the other boat
round the island to me, lest I should meet with some
of these creatures at sea; in which, if I had hap-
pened to have fallen into their hands, I knew what
would have been my lot.
Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I








A FORMIDABLE FELLOW. 195
was in no danger of being discovered by these people,
began to wear off my uneasiness about them; and I
began to live just in the same composed manner as
before; only with this difference, that I used more
caution, and kept my eyes more about me than I did
before, lest I should happen to be seen by any of
them; and particularly, I was more cautious of firing
my gun, lest any of them being on the island should
happen to hear it. It was, therefore, a very good
providence to me that I had furnished myself with a
tame breed of goats, and that I had no need to hunt
any more about the woods, or shoot at them; and, if
I did catch any of them after this, it was by traps
and snares, as I had done before: so that, for two
years after this, I believe I never fired my gun once
off, though I never went out without it; and, which
was more, as I had saved three pistols out of the
ship, I always carried them out with me, or at least
two of them, sticking them in my goat-skin belt.
I also farbished up one of the great cutlasses that
I had out of the ship, and made me a belt to hang it
on also: so that I was now a most formidable fellow
to look at, when I went abroad, if you add to the
former description of myself the particular of two
pistols, and a great broad-sword hanging at my side,
in a belt, but without a scabbard.








196 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


CHAPTER XIX.

THINGS going on thus, as I have said, for some time,
I seemed, excepting these cautions, to be reduced to
my former calm, sedate way of living. All these
things tended to show me, more and more, how far
my condition was from being miserable, compared to
some others; nay, to many other particulars of life,
which it might have pleased God to have made my
lot. It put me upon reflecting how little repining
there would be among mankind at any condition of
life, if people would rather compare their condition
with those that were worse, in order to be thankful,
than be always comparing them with those which are
better, to assist their murmurings and complaining.
As, in my present condition, there were not really
many things which I wanted, so, indeed, I thought
that the frights I had been in about these savage
wretches, and the concern I had been in for my own
preservation, had taken off the edge of my invention
for my own conveniences; and I had dropped a good
design, which I had once bent my thoughts too much
upon, and that was, to try if I could not make some
of my barley into malt, and then try to brew myself
some beer. This was really a whimsical thought,
and I reproved myself often for the simplicity of it;
for I presently saw there would be the want of several
things necessary to the making my beer that it would
be impossible for me to supply: as, first, casks to








A BROODING FANCY.


preserve it in, which was a thing that, as I have
observed already, I could never compass: no, though
I spent not only many days, but weeks, nay, months,
in attempting it, but to no purpose. In the next
place, I had no hops to make it keep, no yeast to
make it work, no copper or kettle to make it boil;
and yet, with all these things wanting, I verily
believe, had not the frights and terrors I was in
about the savages intervened, I had undertaken it,
and perhaps brought it to pass too; for I seldom
gave anything over without accomplishing it, when
once I had it in my head to begin it: But my in-
vention now ran quite another way; for night and
day I could think of nothing but how I might de-
stroy some of these monsters in their cruel bloody
entertainment, and, if possible, save the victim they
should bring hither to destroy. It would take up a
larger volume than this whole work is intended to be,
to set down all the contrivances I hatched, or rather
brooded upon, in my thoughts, for the destroying
these creatures, or at least frightening them, so as to
prevent their coming hither any more: but all this
was abortive. Nothing could be possible to take effect,
unless I was to be there to do it myself; and what
could one man do among them, when, perhaps, there
might be twenty or thirty of them together, with their
darts, or their bows and arrows, with which they
could shoot as true to a mark as I could with my
gun?
Sometimes I thought of digging a hole under the








198 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
place where they made their fire, and put in five or
six pounds of gunpowder, which, when they kindled
their fire, would consequently take fire, and blow up
all that was near it; but, as in the first place, I
should be unwilling to waste so much powder upon
them, my store being now within the quantity of one
barrel, so neither could I be sure of its going off at
any certain time, when it might surprise them; and,
at best, that it would do little more than just blow
the fire about their ears and fright them, but not suf-
ficient to make them forsake the place; so I laid it
aside, and then proposed that I would place myself
in ambush in some convenient place, with my three
guns all double-loaded, and in the middle of their
bloody ceremony let fly at them, when I should be
sure to kill or wound perhaps two or three at every
shot; and then falling in upon them with my three
pistols and my sword, I made no doubt, but that,
if there were twenty, I should kill them all. This
fancy pleased my thoughts for some weeks; and I
was so full of it, that I often dreamed of it, and some-
times that I was just going to let fly at them in my
sleep. I went so far with it in my imagination, that
I employed myself several days to find out proper
places to put myself in ambuscade, as I said, to watch
for them; and I went frequently to the place itself,
which was now grown more familiar to me; but,
while my mind was thus filled with thoughts of re-
venge, and a bloody putting twenty or thirty of them
to the sword, as I may call it, the horror I had at








PREPARING FOR AN ATTACK.


the place, and at the signals of the barbarous
wretches devouring one another, abetted my malice.
Well, at length I found a place in the side of the
hill, where I was satisfied I might securely wait till
I saw any of their boats coming; and might then,
even before they would be ready to come on shore,
convey myself unseen into some thickets of trees, in
one of which there was a hollow large enough to con-
ceal me entirely; and there I might sit and observe
all their bloody doings, and take my full aim at their
heads when they were so close together, as that it
would be next to impossible that I should miss my
shot, or that I could fail wounding three or four of
them at the first shot. In this place, then, I resolved
to fix my design; and, accordingly, I prepared two
muskets and my ordinary fowling-piece. The two
muskets I loaded with a brace of slugs each, and four
or five smaller bullets, about the size of pistol-bullets;
and the fowling-piece I loaded with near a handful
of swan-shot, of the largest size. I also loaded my
pistols with about four bullets each; and in this pos-
ture, well provided with ammunition for a second
and third charge, I prepared myself for my expe-
dition.
After I had thus laid the scheme of my design, and,
in my imagination, put it in practice, I continually
made my tour every morning up to the top of the
hill, which was from my castle, as I called it, about
three miles or more, to see if I could observe any
boats upon the sea, coming near the island, or stand-








200 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
ing over towards it; but I began to tire of this hard
duty, after I had for two or three months constantly
kept my watch, but came always back without any
discovery; there having not, in all that time, been
the least appearance, not only on or near the shore,
but on the whole ocean, so far as my eyes or glasses
could reach every way.
Moreover, I began, by little and little, to be off my
design, and to conclude I had taken wrong measures
in my resolution to attack the savages; and that it
was not my business to meddle with them unless they
first attacked me; and this it was my business, if
possible, to prevent; but that if I were discovered
and attacked by them, I knew my duty. On the
other hand, I argued with myself, that this really
was the way not to deliver myself, but entirely to
ruin and destroy myself; for unless I was sure to
kill every one that not only should be on shore at
that time, but that should ever come on shore after-
wards, if but one of them escaped to tell their country
people what had happened, they would come over
again by thousands to revenge the death of their
fellows, and I should only bring upon myself a
certain destruction, which, at present, I had no man-
ner of occasion for. Upon the whole, I concluded,
that, neither in principle nor in policy, I ought, one
way or other, to concern myself in this affair; that
my business was, by all possible means to conceal
myself from them, and not to leave the least signal
to them to guess by that there were any living crea-







SECOND THOUGHTS BEST. 201
tures upon the island-I mean of human shape.
Religion joined in with this prudential resolution;
and I was convinced now, many ways, that I was
perfectly out of my duty when I was laying all my
bloody schemes for the destruction of innocent crea-
tures-I mean innocent as to me. As to the crimes
they were guilty of towards one another, I had nothing
to do with them; they were national, and I ought to
leave them to the justice of God, who is the Gover-
nor of nations, and knows how, by national punish-
ments, to make a just retribution for national offences,
and to bring public judgments upon those who offend
in a public manner, by such ways as best please
him.
In this disposition I continued for near a year after
this; and so far was I from desiring an occasion for
falling upon these wretches, that, in all that time, I
never once went up the hill to see whether there were
any of them in sight, or to know whether any of them
had been on shore there or not, that I might not be
tempted to renew any of my contrivances against
them, or be provoked by any advantage which might
present itself to fall upon them; only this I did, I
went and removed my boat, which I had on the other
side of the island, and carried it down to the east end"
of the whole island, where I ran it into a little cove,
which I found under some high rocks, and where I
knew, by reason of the currents, the savages durst
not, at least would not, come with their boats upon
any account whatever. With my boat I carried







202 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

away everything that I had left there belonging to
her, though not necessary for the bare going thither,
namely a mast and sail which I had made for her,
and a thing like an anchor, but which, indeed, could
not be called either anchor or grapnel; however, it
was the best I could make of its kind. All these I
removed, that there might not be the least shadow of
any discovery, or any appearance of any boat, or of
any human habitation upon the island. Besides this,
I kept myself, as I said, more retired than ever.




CHAPTER XX.

I BELIEVE the reader of this will not think it strange
if I confess, that the anxieties, the constant dangers
I lived in, and the concern that was now upon me,
put an end to all invention, and to all the con-
trivances that I had laid for my future accommoda-
tions and conveniences. I had the care of my safety
more now upon my bands than that of my food. I
cared not to drive a nail, or chop a stick of wood
now, for fear the noise I might make should be heard;
"much less would I fire a gun, for the same reason;
and, above all, I was intolerably uneasy at making
any fire, lest the smoke, which is visible at a great
distance in the day, should betray me. For this
reason, I. removed that part of my business which
required fire, such as burning of pots and pipes, &c,








NECESSARY PRECAUTIONS. 203
into my new apartment in the woods; where, after
I had been some time, I found to my unspeakable
consolation, a mere natural cave in the earth, which
went in a vast way, and where, I dare say, no savage,
had he been at the mouth of it, would be so hardy
as to venture in; nor, indeed, would any man else,
but one who, like me, wanted nothing so much as a
safe retreat.
The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of a
great rock, where, by mere accident (I would say, if
I did not see abundant reason to ascribe all such
things now to Providence), I was cutting down some
thick branches of trees to make charcoal, and before I
go on, I must observe the reason of my making this
charcoal, which was this: I was afraid of making a
smoke about my habitation, as I said before; and
yet I could not live there without baking my bread,
cooking my meat, &c.; so I contrived to burn some
wood here, as I had seen done in England, under
turf, till it became chark, or dry coal; and then put-
ting the fire out, I preserved the coal to carry home,
and perform the other services for which fire was
wanting, without danger of smoke. But this is by-
the-by:-While I was cutting down some wood here,
I perceived that behind a very thick branch of low
brush-wood, or underwood, there was a kind of hol-
low place; I was curious to look in it, and getting
with difficulty into the mouth of it, I found it was
pretty large; that is to say, sufficient for me to stand
upright in it, and perhaps another with me; but, I







204 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
must confess to you, that I made more haste out than
I did in, when, looking farther into the place, and
which was perfectly dark, I saw two broad shining
eyes of some creature, whether devil or man I knew
not, which twinkled like two stars; the dim light
from the cave's mouth shining directly in, and
making the reflection. However, after some pause,
I recovered myself, and plucking up my courage, I
took up a firebrand, and in I rushed again, with the
stick flaming in my hand. I had not got three steps
in, but I was almost as much frightened as I was
before; for I heard a very loud sigh, like that of a
man in some pain, and it was followed by a broken
noise, as of words half expressed, and then a deep
sigh again. I stepped back, and was, indeed, struck
with such a surprise, that it put me into a cold sweat;
and if I had. had a hat on my head, I will not answer
for it, that my hair might not have lifted it off. But
still plucking up my spirits as well as I could, and
encouraging myself a little with considering that
the power and presence of God were everywhere,
and were able to protect me, upon this I stepped for-
ward again, and, by the light of the firebrand, hold-
ing it up a little over my head, I saw lying on the
ground a most monstrous frightful old he-goat, just
making his will, as we say, and gasping for life;
and dying, indeed, of mere-old age. I stirred him a
little to see if I could get him out, and he essayed to
get up, but was not able to raise himself; and I
thought with myself he might even lie there, for if








ANOTHER DISCOVERY. 205
he had frightened me so, he would certainly fright
any of the savages, if any of them should be so hardy
as to come in there while he had any life in him.
I was now recovered from my surprise, and began
to look round me, when I found the cave was but very
small; that is to say, it might be about twelve feet
over, but in no manner of shape, neither round nor
square, no hand ever having been employed in
making it but those of mere nature. I observed,
also, that there was a place at the farther side of it
that went in further, but was so low that it required
me to creep upon my hands and knees to go into it,
and whither it went I knew not; so, having no candle,
I gave it over for that time, but resolved to come
again the next day, provided with candles and a
tinder-box, which I had made of the lock of one of
the muskets, with some wildfire in the pan.
Accordingly, the next day I came, provided with
six large candles of my own making; (for I had
made very good candles now of goats' tallow, but
was hard set for candle-wick, using sometimes rags
or rope-yarn, and sometimes the dried rind of a weed
like nettles); and going into this low place, I was
obliged to creep upon all fours, as I have said, almost
ten yards; which, by the way, I thought was a ven-
ture bold enough, considering that I knew not how
far it might go, nor what was beyond it. When I
had got through the strait, I found the roof rose
higher up, I believe near twenty feet; but never
was such a glorious sight seen in the island, I dare








206 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
say, as it was, to look round the sides and roof of
this vault or cave: the walls reflected an hundred
thousand lights to me from my two candles. What
it was in the rock, whether diamonds, or any other
precious stones, or gold, which I rather supposed it
to be, I knew not. The place I was in was a most
delightful cavity or grotto of its kind, as could be
expected, though perfectly dark; the floor was dry
and level, and had a sort of a small loose gravel upon
it, so that there was no nauseous or venomous crea-
ture to be seen, neither was there any damp or wet
on the sides or roof; the only difficulty in it was the
entrance; which, however, as it was a place of security,
and such a retreat as I wanted, I thought that was a
convenience; so that I was really rejoiced at the
discovery, and resolved, without any delay, to bring
some of those things which I was most anxious about
to this place; particularly, I resolved to bring
hither my magazine of powder, and all my spare
arms, namely, two fowling-pieces, for I had three in
all, and three muskets, for of them I had eight in
all; so I kept at my castle only five, which stood
ready mounted, like pieces of cannon on my outmost
fence; and were ready also to take out upon any ex-
pedition. Upon this occasion of removing my am-
munition, I happened to open the barrel of powder
which I took up out of the sea, and which had been
wet; and I found that the water had penetrated about
two or three inches into the powder on every side
which, caking and growing hard, had preserved the








TWENTY-THREE YEARS OF SOLITUDE. 207
inside like a kernel in the shell; so that I had near
sixty pounds of very good powder in the centre of
the cask. This was a very agreeable discovery to me
at this time; so I carried all away thither, never
keeping above two or three pounds of powder with
me in my castle, for fear of a surprise of any kind;
I also carried thither all the lead I had left for bul-
lets.
The old goat whom I found expiring died in the
mouth of the cave the next day after I had made
this discovery : and I found it much easier to dig a
great hole there, and throw him in and cover him
with earth, than to drag him out; so I interred him
there to prevent offence to my nose.
I was now in the twenty-third year of my residence
in this island; and was so naturalized to the place,
and the manner of living, that, could I but have en-
joyed the certainty that no savages would come to
the place to disturb me, I could have been content to
have capitulated for spending the rest of my time
there, even to the last moment, till I had laid me
down and died, like the old goat in the cave.
I had also arrived to some little diversions and
amusements, which made the time pass a great deal
more pleasantly with me than it did before: as, first,
I had taught my Poll, as I noted before, to speak;
and he did it so familiarly, and talked so articulately
and plain, that it was very pleasant to me; for I
believe no bird ever spoke plainer : and he lived with
me no less than six-and-twenty years: how long be







208 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
might have lived afterwards I know not, though I
know they have a notion in the Brazils that they live
an hundred years. My dog was a very pleasant and
loving companion to me for no less than sixteen years
of my time, and then died of mere old age. As for
my cats, they multiplied, as I have observed, to that
degree, that I was obliged to shoot several of them at
first, to keep them from devouring me and all I had;
but at length, when the two old ones I brought with
me were gone, and after some time continually driv-
ing them from me, and letting them have no provi-
sion with me, they all ran wild into the woods, ex-
tept two or three favourites, which I kept tame, and
whose young, when they had any, I always drowned;
and these were part of my family. Besides these, I
always kept two or three household kids about me,
whom I taught to feed out of my hand; and I had
two more parrots, which talked pretty well, and would
all call Robin Crusoe," but none like my first; nor
indeed did I take the pains with any of them that I
had done with him. I had also several tame sea-
fowls, whose names I knew not, that I caught upon
the shore, and cut their wings; and the little stakes
which I had planted before my castle wall being now
grown up to a good thick grove, these fowls all lived
among these low trees, and bred there, which was
very agreeable to me; so that, as I said above, I
began to be very well contented with the life I led,
if I could but have been secured from the dread of
the savages. But it was otherwise directed.







A TERRIBLE SURPRISE. 209
It was now in the month of December, as I said
above, in my twenty-third year; and this being the
southern solstice (for winter I cannot call it), was
the particular time of my harvest, and required my
being pretty much abroad in the fields: when going
out pretty early in the morning, even before it was
thoroughly day-light, I was surprised with seeing a
light of some fire upon the shore, at a distance from
me of about two miles, towards the end of the island,
where I had observed some savages had been, as
before, and not on the other side; but to my great
affliction, it was on my side of the island.
I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight, and
went back directly to my castle, and pulled up my
ladder after me. Then I prepared myself within,
putting myself in a posture of defence; I loaded all
my cannon, as I called them, that is to say, my mus-
kets, which were mounted upon my new fortification,
and all my pistols, and resolved to defend myself to
the last gasp; not forgetting seriously to commend
myself to the Divine protection, and earnestly to
pray to God to deliver me out of the hands of the
barbarians. I continued in this posture about two
hours; and began to be mighty impatient for intelli-
gence abroad, for I had no spies to send out. After
sitting a while longer, and musing what -I should
do in this case, I was not able to bear sitting in
ignorance any longer; so, setting up my ladder to
the side of the hill, where there was a flat place, as
I observed before, and then pulling the ladder up








210 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

after me, I set it up again, and mounted to the top of
the hill; and pulling out my perspective glass, which
I had taken on purpose, I laid me down flat on my
belly, on the ground, and began to look for the place.
I presently found there were no less than nine naked
savages, sitting round a small fire they had made,
not to warm them, for they had no need of that, the
weather being extremely hot, but, as I supposed, to
dress some of their barbarous diet of human flesh,
which they had brought with them, whether alive or
dead I could not tell.
They had two canoes with them, which they had
hauled up upon the shore; and as it was then tide of
ebb, they seemed to me to wait for the return of the
flood to go away again. It is not easy to imagine what
confusion this sight put me into, especially, seeing
them come on my side of the island, and so near me
too; but when I considered their coming must be al-
ways with the current of the ebb, I began afterwards
to be more sedate in my mind, being satisfied that I
might go abroad with safety all the time of the tide
of flood, if they were not on shore before; and hav-
ing made this observation, I went abroad about my
harvest-work with the more composure.
As I expected, so it proved; for as soon as the
tide made to the westward, I saw them all take boat,
and row (or paddle as we call it) away. I should
have observed, that for an hour or more before they
went off, they went a dancing; and I could easily
discern their postures and gestures by my glass. I








A DREADFUL SIGHT.


could not perceive, by my nicest observation, but
that they were naked, and had not the least covering
upon them.
As soon as I saw them shipped and gone, I took
two guns upon my shoulders, and two pistols in my
girdle, and my great sword by my side, without a
scabbard; and with all the speed I was able to make,
went away to the hill, where I had discovered the
first appearance of all; and as soon as I got thither,
which was not in less than two hours (for I could
not go apace, being so laden with arms as I was), I
perceived there had been three canoes more of savages
at that place; and looking out farther, I saw they
were all at sea together, making over the main.
This was a dreadful sight to me, especially as going
down to the shore, I could see the marks of horror,
which the dismal work they had been about had left
behind it, namely, the blood, the bones, and part of
the flesh of human bodies, eaten and devoured by
those wretches with merriment and sport. I was so
filled with indignation at the sight, that I now began to
premeditate the destruction of the next that I sawthere,
let them be whom or how many soever. It seemed
evident to me that the visits which they made thus to
this island were not very frequent, for it was above
fifteen months before any more of them came on shore
there again; that is to say, I neither saw them, nor
any footsteps nor signals of them, in all that time.
During all this time I was in the murdering hu-
mour, and took up most of my hours, which should








212 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
have been better employed, in contriving how to cir-
cumvent and fall upon them the very next time I
should see them, especially if they should be divided,
as they were the last t;me, into two parties; nor did
I consider at all, that if I killed one party, suppose
ten or a dozen, I was still the next day, or week, or
month, to kill another, and so another, even ad in-
7initum, till I should be at length no less a murderer
than they were in being man-eaters, and perhaps
much more so. I spent my days now in great per-
plexity and anxiety of mind, expecting that I should
one day or other fall into the hands of these merci-
less creatures; and if I did at any time venture abroad,
it was not without looking round me with the great-
est care and caution imaginable. And now I found
to my great comfort, how happy it was that I pro-
vided for a tame flock or herd of goats; for I durst
net upon any account fire my gun, especially near
that side of the island where they usually came, lest
I should alarm the savages; and if they fled from
me now, I was sure to have them come again, with
perhaps two or three hundred canoes with them, in
a few days, and then I knew what to expect. How-
ever, I wore out a year and three months more be-
fore I ever saw any more of the savages, and then I
found them again, as I shall soon observe. It is
true, they might have been there once or twice, but
either they made no stay, or at least I did not see
them; but in the month of May, as near as I could
calculate, and in my four-and-twentieth year, I had







THE SIGNAL GUN. 213
a very strange encounter with them : of which in its
place.
The perturbation of my mind during this fifteen
or sixteen months' interval was very great. I slept
unquiet, dreamed always frightful dreams, and often
started out of my sleep in the night; in the day
great troubles overwhelmed my mind; and in the
night I dreamed often of killing the savages, and of
the reasons why I might justify the doing of it. But,
to waive all this for a while. It was in the middle
of May, on the sixteenth day I think, as well as my
poor wooden calendar would reckon, for I marked
all upon the post still; I say, it was on the sixteenth
of May that it blew a very great storm of wind all
day, with a great deal of lightning and thunder, and a
very foul night it was after it. I knew not what was
the particular occasion of it, but, as I was reading
in the Bible, and taken up with very serious thoughts
about my present condition, I was surprised with the
noise of a gun, as I thought, fired at sea. I started
up in the greatest haste imaginable, and, in a trice,
clapped my ladder to the middle place of the rock,
and pulled it after me; and mounting it the second
time, got to the top of the hill the very moment that
a flash of fire bid me listen for a second gun, which
accordingly, in about half a minute, I heard; and,
by the sound, knew that it was from that part of the
sea where I was driven down the current in my boat.
I immediately considered that this must be some
ship in distress, and that they had some comrade, or








214 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

some other ship in company, and fired these guns
for signals of distress, and to obtain help. I had
the presence of mind, at that minute, to think that,
though I could not help them, it might be they might
help me; so I brought together all the dry wood I
could get at hand, and making a good handsome
pile, I set it on fire upon the hill. The wood was
dry, and blazed freely; and, though the wind blew
very hard, yet it burnt fairly out; so that I was
certain, if there was any such thing as a ship, they
must needs see it-and no doubt they did-for as
soon as ever my fire blazed up, I heard another gun,
and after that several others, all from the same
quarter. I plied my fire all night long, till day-
break; and, when it was broad day, and the air
cleared up, I saw something at a great distance, at
sea, full east of the island, whether a sail or a hull
I could not distinguish, no, nut with my glass; the
distance was so great, and the weather still some-
thing hazy also-at least it was so out at sea.
I looked frequently at it all that day, and soon
perceived that it did not move; so I presently con-
cluded that it was a ship at anchor; and being eager,
you may be sure, to be satisfied, I took my gun in
my hand, and ran towards the south side of the
island, to the rocks where I had formerly been carried
away with the current; and getting up there, the
weather by this time being perfectly clear, I could
plainly see, to my great sorrow, the wreck of a ship,
cast away in the nioht upon those concealed rocks








CRUSOE'S CONJECTURES. 215
which I found when I was out in my boat; and
which rocks, as they checked the violence of the
stream, and made a kind of counter-stream or eddy,
were the occasion of my recovering from the most
desperate, hopeless condition, that ever I had been
in all my life. Thus, what is one man's safety is
another man's destruction; for it seems these men,
whoever they were, being out of their knowledge,
and the rocks being wholly under water, had been
driven upon them in the night, the wind blowing
hard at E.N.E. Had they seen the island, as I
must necessarily suppose they did not, they must, as
I thought, have endeavoured to have saved them-
selves on shore by the help of their boat; but their
firing off guns for help, especially when they saw, as
I imagined, my fire, filled me with many thoughts.
First, I imagined that, upon seeing my light, they
might have put themselves into their boat, and en-
deavoured to make the shore; but that the sea going
very high, they might have been cast away: other
times I imagined that they might have lost their
boat before, as might be the case, many ways; as,
particularly, by the breaking of the sea upon their
ship, which many times obliges men to stave, or take
in pieces their boat, and sometimes to throw it over-
board with their own hands: other times I imagined
they had some other ship or ships in company, who,
upon the signals of distress they had made, had taken
them up, and carried them off : other times I fancied
they were all gone off to sea in their boat, and, being








216 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

hurried away by the current that I had been formerly
in, were carried out into the great ocean, where there
was nothing but misery and perishing; and that,
perhaps, they might by this time think of starving,
and of being in a condition to eat one another.
As all these were but conjectures at best, so, in
the condition I was in, I could do no more than look
on upon the misery of the poor men, and pity them;
which had still this good effect on my side, that it
gave me more and more cause to give thanks to God,
who had so happily and comfortably provided for me
in my desolate condition; and that of two ships'
companies, who were now cast away upon this part
of the world, not one life should be spared but mine.




CHAPTER XXi.

IT was now cahn, and I had a great mind to venture
out in my boat to this wreck, not doubting but I
might find something on board that might be useful
to me; but that did not altogether press me so much
as the possibility that there might be yet some living
creature on board whose life I might not only save,
but might, by saving that life, comfort my own to
the last degree; and this thought clung so to my
heart, that I could not be quiet night or day, but I
must venture out in my boat on board this wreck;
and, committing the rest to God's providence, I








THOUGHT LEADS TO ACTION. 217
thought the impression was so strong upon my mind
that it could not be resisted, that it must come from
some invisible direction, and that I should be wanting
to myself if I did not go.
Under the power of this impression, I hastened
back to my castle, and prepared everything for my
voyage. Remembering the hazard I had been in
before, it occurred to me that I should go up to the
highest piece of ground I could find, and observe,
if I could, how the sets of the tide, or currents,
lay when the floods came in, that I might judge
whether, if I was driven one way out, I might not
expect to be driven another way home, with the
same rapidness of the currents. This thought was
no sooner in my head, than I cast my eye upon a
little hill, which sufficiently overlooked the sea both
ways, and from whence I had a clear view of the
currents, or sets of the tide, and which way I was to
guide myself in my return. Here I found that, as
the current of the ebb set out close by the south point
of the island, so the current of the flood set in close
by the shore of the north side; and that I had no-
thing to do but to keep to the north side of the island
in my return, and I should do well enough.
Encouraged with this observation, I resolved, the
next morning, to set out with the first of the tide;
and reposing myself for the night in my canoe, under
the great watch-coat I mentioned, I launched out.
I first made a little out to sea, full north, till I began
to feel the benefit of the current, which set eastward,








218 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
and which carried me at a great rate; and yet did
not so hurry me as the current on the south side had
done before, so as to take from me all government
of the boat; but, having a strong steerage with my
paddle, I went at a great rate directly for the wreck,
and in less than two hours I came up to it. It was a
dismal sight to look at; the ship which, by its build-
ing, was Spanish, stuck fast, jammed in between two
rocks: all the stern and quarter of her were beaten to
pieces with the sea; and as her forecastle, which stuck
in the rocks, had run on with great violence, her
main-mast and foremast were brought by the board,
that is to say, broken short off; but her bowsprit
was sound, and the head and bow appeared firm.
When I came close to her, a dog appeared upon her,
who. seeing me coming, yelped and cried; and as
soon as I called him, jumped into the sea to come to
me; I took him into the boat, but found him almost
dead with hunger and thirst. I gave him a cake of
my bread, and he devoured it like a ravenous wolf
that had been starving a fortnight in the snow. I
then gave the poor creature some fresh water, with
which, if I would have let him, he would have burst
himself. After this, I went on board; but the first
sight I met with was two men drowned in the cockl
room or forecastle of the ship, with their arms fast
about one another. I concluded, as is indeed pro-
bable, that, when the ship struck, it being in a storm,
the sea broke so high, and so continually over her,
that the men were not able to bear it, and were







A VISIT TO THE WRECK. 219
strangled with the constant rushing in of the water,
as much as if they had been under water. Besides
the dog, there was nothing left in the ship that had
life, nor any goods, that I could see, but what were
spoiled by the water. There were some casks of
liquor, whether wine or brandy I knew not, which
lay lower in the hold, and which, the water being
ebbed out, I could see; but they were too big to
meddle with. I saw several chests, which I believed
belonged to some of the seamen; and I got two of
them into the boat, without examining what was in
them. Had the stern of the ship been fixed, and
the fore part broken off, I am persuaded I might
have made a good voyage; for, by what I found in
these two chests, I had room to suppose the ship had
a great deal of wealth on board; and, if I may guess
from the course she steered, she must have been
bound for Buenos Ayres, or the Rio de la Plata, in
the south part of America, beyond the Brazils, to the
Havanna, in the Gulf of Mexico, and so, perhaps, to
Spain. She had, no doubt, a great treasure in her,
but of no use at that time to any body; and what
became of her crew I then knew not.
I found, besides these chests, a little cask full of
liquor, of about twenty gallons, which I got into my
boat with much difficulty. There were several mus-
kets in the cabin, and a great powder-horn, with about
four pounds of powder in it; as for the muskets, I
had no occasion for them, so I left them, but took the
powder-horn. I took a fire-shovel and tongs, which







220 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
I wanted extremely; as also, two little brass kettles,
a copper pot to make chocolate, and a gridiron; and
with this cargo and the dog I came away, the tide
beginning to make home again; and the same even-
ing, about an hour within night, I reached the island
again, weary and fatigued to the last degree. I re-
posed that night in the boat; and in the morning I
resolved to harbour what I had got into my new
cave, and not carry it home to my castle. After re-
freshing myself, I got all my cargo on shore, and
began to examine the particulars. The cask of
liquor I found to be a kind of rum, but not such as we
had at the Brazils, and, in a word, not at all good;
but when I came to open the chests, I found several
things of great use to me; for example, I found in
one a fine case of bottles, of an extraordinary kind,
and filled with cordial waters, fine and very good;
the bottles held about three pints each, and were
tipped with silver. I found two pots of very good
succades, or sweetmeats, so fastened also on the top
that the salt water had not hurt them, and two more
of the same, which the water had spoiled. I found
some very good shirts, which were very welcome to
me; and about a dozen and a half of white linen
handkerchiefs and coloured neckcloths; the former
were also very welcome, being exceeding refreshing
to wipe my face in a hot day. Besides this, when I
came to the till in the chest, I found there three
great bags of pieces of eight, which held about eleven
hundred pieces in all; and in one of them, wrapped








SPOILS FROM THE WRECK. 221
up in a paper, six doubloons of gold, and some small
bars or wedges of gold; I suppose they might all
weigh near a pound. In the other chest were some
clothes, but of little value; but, by the circumstances,
it must have belonged to the gunner's mate, though
there was no powder in it, except two pounds of fine
glazed powder, in three small flasks, kept, I suppose,
for charging their fowling-pieces on occasion. Upon
the whole, I got very little by this voyage that was
of any use to me; for, as to the money, I had no
manner of occasion for it; it was to me as the dirt
under my feet; and I would have given it all for
three or four pairs of English shoes and stockings,
which were things I greatly wanted, but had none
on my feet for many years. I had, indeed, got two
pairs of shoes now, which I took off the feet of the
two drowned men whom I saw in the wreck, and I
found two pair more in one of the chests, which were
very welcome to me; but they were not like our
English shoes, neither for ease nor service, being
rather what we call pumps than shoes. I found in
this seaman's chest about fifty pieces of eight in rials,
but no gold. I suppose this belonged to a poorer
man than the other, which seemed to belong to some
officer. Well, however, I lugged this money home
to my cave, and laid it up, as I had done that be-
fore which I brought from our own ship; but it was
a great pity, as I said, that the other part of this
ship had not come to my share; for I am satisfied I
might have loaded my canoe several times over with








222 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
money; and, thought I, if ever I escape to England,
it might lie here safe enough till I may come again
and fetch it.
Having now brought all my things on shore, and
secured them, I went back to my boat, and rowed or
paddled her along the shore to her old harbour,
where I laid her up, and made the best of my way
to my old habitation, where I found everything safe
and quiet. I began now to repose myself, live after
my old fashion, and take care of my family affairs;
and, for a while, I lived easy enough, only that I
was more vigilant than I used to be, looked out
oftener, and did not go abroad so much; and if at
any time I did stir with any freedom, it was always
to the east part of the island, where I was pretty
well satisfied the savages never came, and where I
could go without so many precautions, and such a
load of arms and ammunition as I always carried
with me if I went the other way. I lived in this
condition near two years more; but my head was all
these two years filled with projects and designs, how,
if it were possible, I might get away from this
island; for sometimes I was for making another
voyage to the wreck, though my reason told me
that there was nothing left there worth the hazard
of my voyage: sometimes for a ramble one way,
sometimes another ; and I believe verily, if I
had had the boat that I went from Sallee -in, I
should have ventured to sea, bound anywhere, I
knew not whither. I have been, in all my cir.








AN EXTRAORDINARY DREAM. 223

cumstances, a memento to those who are touched
with the general plague of mankind, whence, from
aught I know, one half of their miseries flow. I
mean that of not being satisfied with the station
wherein God hath placed them.
I am now to be supposed retired into my castle,
after my late voyage to the wreck, my frigate laid
up and secured under water as usual, and my con-
dition restored to what it was before. I had more
wealth indeed than I had before; but was not at all
the richer, for I had no more use for it than the In-
dians of Peru had before the Spaniards came there.
One night I dreamed that, as I was going out in
the morning, as usual, from my castle, I saw upon
the shore two canoes and eleven savages coming to
land, and that they brought with them another savage
whom they were going to kill, in order to eat him;
when, on a sudden, the savage that they were going
to kill jumped away, and ran for his life; and I
thought, in my sleep, that he came running into my
little thick grove before my fortification, to hide him-
self; and that I, seeing him alone, and not perceiv-
ing that the others sought him that way, showed my-
self to him, and, smiling upon him, encouraged him:
that he kneeled down to me, seeming to pray to me
to assist him; upon which I showed him my ladder,
made him go up, and carried him into my cave, and
he became my servant; and that, as soon as I had
got this man, I said to myself, now I may certainly
venture to the mainland; for this fellow will serve








224 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
me as a pilot, and will tell me what to do, and
whither to go for provisions, and whither not to go
for fear of being devoured; what places to venture
into, and what to shun. I waked with this thought;
and was under such inexpressible impressions of joy
at the prospect of my escape in my dream, that the
disappointments which I felt upon coming to myself,
and finding that it was no more than a dream, were
equally extravagant the other way, and threw me
into a very great dejection of spirits.
With this dream in my mind, I set myself upon
the scout as often as possible, and indeed so often,
that I was heartily tired of it; for it was above a
year and a half that I waited, and for great part of
that time went out to the west end, and to the south-
west corner of the island, almost every day, to look
for canoes, but none appeared. This was very dis-
couraging, and began to trouble me much; though I
cannot say that it did in this case (as it had done
some time before) wear off the edge of my desire to
the thing; but the longer it seemed to be delayed,
the more eager I was for it. In a word, I was not
at first so careful to shun the sight of these savages,
and avoid being seen by them, as I was now eager
to be upon them. Besides, I fancied myself able to
manage one, nay, two or three savages, if I had
them, so as to make them entirely slaves to me, to
do whatever I should direct them, and to prevent
their being able at any time to do me any hurt. It
was a great while that I pleased myself with this







WAITING AND WATCHING.


affair; but nothing still presented. All my fancies
and schemes came to nothing, for no savages came
near me for a great while.




CHAPTER XXII.

ABOUT a year and a half after I entertained these
notions (and, by long musing, had, as it were, re-
solved them all into nothing, for want of an occasion
to put them into execution), I was surprised one
morning early with seeing no less than five canoes
all on shore together, on my side the island, and the
people who belonged to them all landed, and out of
my sight. The number of them broke all my mea-
sures; for, seeing so many, and knowing that they
always came four, or six, or sometimes more, in a
boat, I could not tell what to think of it, or how to
take my measures, to attack twenty or thirty men
single-handed; so lay still in my castle, perplexed
and discomforted. However, I put myself into all
the same postures for an attack that I had formerly
provided, and was just ready for action, if anything
had presented. Having waited a good while, listen-
ing to hear if they made any noise, at length, being
very impatient, I set my guns at the foot of my
ladder, and clambered up to the top of the hill, by
my two stages, as usual; standing so, however, that
my head did not appear above the hill, so that they








226 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

could not perceive me by any means. Here I ob-
served, by the help of my perspective glass, that
they were no less than thirty in number; that they
had a fire kindled, and that they had meat dressed.
How they had cooked it I knew not, or what it was;
but they were all dancing, in I know not how many
barbarous gestures and figures, their own way, round
the fire.
While I was thus looking on them, I perceived,
by my perspective, two miserable wretches dragged
from the boats, where it seems they were laid by, and
were now brought out for the slaughter. I perceived
one of them immediately fall, being knocked down,
I suppose, with a club, or wooden sword, for that
was their wry, and two or three others were at work
immediately, cutting him open for their cookery,
while the other victim was left standing by himself,
till they should be ready for him. In that very
moment, this poor wretch, seeing himself a little at
liberty, and unbound, nature inspired him with hopes
of life, and he started away from them, and ran with
incredible swiftness along the sands, directly towards
me, I mean towards that part of the coast where my
habitation was. I was dreadfully frightened, I must
acknowledge, when I perceived him run my way,
and especially when, as I thought, I saw him pur-
sued by the whole body. And now I expected that
part of my dream was coming to pass, and he would
certainly take shelter in my grove; but I could not
depend, by any means, upon my dream for the rest








A RACE FOR LIFE. 227
of it, namely, that the other savages would not pur-
sue him thither, and find him there. However, I
kept my station, and my spirits began to recover,
when I found that there was not above three men
that followed him; and still more was I encouraged
when I found that he outstripped them exceedingly
in running, and gained ground of them; so that, if
he could but hold it for half an hour, I saw easily he
would fairly get away from them all.
There was between them and my castle the creek,
which I mentioned often in the first part of my story,
where I landed my cargoes out of the ship; and this
I saw plainly he must necessarily swim over, or the
poor wretch would be taken there; but when the
savage escaping came thither, he made nothing of it,
though the tide was then up, but plunging in, swam
through in about thirty strokes, or thereabouts, landed,
and ran on with exceeding strength and swiftness.
When the three persons came to the creek, I found
that two of them could swim, but the third could not,
and that, standing on the other side, he looked at the
others, but went no farther, and soon after went softly
back again; which, as it happened, was very well for
him in the end. I observed that the two who swam
were yet more than twice as long swimming over the
creek as the fellow was that fled from them. It came
now very warmly upon my thoughts, and indeed irre-
sistibly, that now was the time to get me a servant,
and perhaps a companion or assistant, and that I was
called plainly by Providence to save this poor area-
15








228 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
ture's life. I immediately ran down the ladders with
all possible expedition, fetched my two guns, for they
were both at the foot of the ladders, as I observed
above, and getting up again, with the same haste, to
the top of the hill, I crossed toward the sea, and hav-
ing a very short cut, and all down hill, placed myself
in the way between the pursuers and the pursued,
hallooing aloud to him that fled, who, looking back,
was at first, perhaps, as much frightened at me, as at
them; but I beckoned with my hand to him to come
back, and, in the meantime, I slowly advanced to-
wards the two that followed; then rushing at once
upon the foremost, I knocked him down with the stock
of my piece. I was loath to fire, because I would
not have the rest hear, though, at that distance, it
would not have been easily heard, and being out of
sight of the smoke too, they would not have easily
known what to make of it. Having knocked this
fellow down, the other who pursued him stopped, as
if he had been frightened, and I advanced apace to-
wards him; but as I came nearer, I perceived pre-
sently he had a bow and arrow, and was fitting it to
shoot at me; so I was then necessitated to shoot at
him first, which I did, and killed him at the first shot.
The poor savage who fled, but had stopped, though
he saw both his enemies fallen and killed, as he
thought, yet was so frightened with the fire and
noise of my piece that he stood stock-still, and nei-
ther came forward nor went backward, though he
seemed rather inclined still to fly than to come on.








A FRIENDLY RECEPTION. 229
I hallooed again to him, and made signs to come for-
ward, which he easily understood, and came a little
way; then stopped again, and then a little farther,
and stopped again; and I could then perceive that
he stood trembling, as if he had been taken prisoner,
and had just been to be killed, as his two enemies
were. I beckoned to him again to come to me, and
gave him all the signs of encouragement that I could
think of; and he came nearer and nearer, kneeling
down every ten or twelve steps, in token of acknow-
ledgment for saving his life. I smiled at him, and
looked pleasantly, and beckoned to him to come still
nearer. At length he came close to me, and then he
kneeled down again, kissed the ground, and laid his
head upon the ground, and, taking me by the foot,
set my foot upon his head; this, it seems, was in
token of swearing to be my slave for ever. I took
him up, and made much of him, and encouraged him
all I could. But there was more work to do yet;
for I perceived the savage whom I knocked down
was not killed, but stunned with the blow, and began
to come to himself; so I pointed to him, and showed
him the savage, that he was not dead; upon this he
spoke some words to me, and though I could not
understand them, yet I thought they were pleasant to
hear, for they were the first sound of a man's voice I
had heard, my own excepted, for above twenty-five
years. But there was no time for such reflections
now. The savage who was knocked down recovered
himself so far as to sit up upon the ground, and I








230 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
perceived that my savage began to be afraid; but
when I saw that, I presented my other piece at
the man, as if I would shoot him. Upon this, my
savage, for so I call him now, made a motion to me
to lend him my sword, which hung naked in a belt
by my side, which I did. IHe no sooner had it but
he runs to his enemy, and, at one blow, cut off his
head so cleverly, no executioner in Germany could
have done it sooner or better, which I thought very
strange for one who, I had reason to believe, never
saw a sword in his life before, except their own
wooden swords. However, it seems, as I learned
afterwards, they make their wooden swords so sharp,
so heavy, and the wood is so hard, that they will
cut off heads even with them, ay, and arms, and that
at one blow too. When he had done this, he comes
laughing to me, in sign of triumph, and brought me
the sword again, and with abundance of gestures
which I did not understand, laid it down with the
head of the savage that he had killed, just before me.
But that which astonished him most was to know how
I killed the other Indian so far off. So pointing to
him, he made signs to me to let him go to him; so
I bade him go, as well as I could. When he came
to him he stood like one amazed, looking at him,
turning him first on one side, then on the other,
looked at the wound the bullet had made, which, it
seems, was just in his breast, where it had made a
hole, and no great quantity of blood had followed;
but he had bled inwardly, for he was quite dead.








A HASTY BURIAL. 231
He took up his bow and arrows and came back. So
I turned to go away, and beckoned him to follow me,
making signs to him that more might come after
them. Upon this he made signs to me that he should
bury them with sand, that they might not be seen
by the rest, if they followed, and so I made signs to
him again to do so. He fell to work, and in an in-
stant he had scraped a hole in the sand with his
hands, big enough to bury the first in, and then
dragged him into it, and covered him, and did so by
the other also. I believe he had buried them both
in a quarter of an hour. Then calling him away, I
carried him, not to my castle, but quite away to my
cave on the farther part of the island, so that I did
not let my dream come to pass in that part, namely,
that he came into my grove for shelter. Here I
gave him bread and a bunch of raisins to eat, and a
draught of water, which I found he was indeed in
great distress for, by his running; and having re-
freshed him, I made signs for him to go and lie
down to sleep, showing him a place where I had laid
some rice straw, and a blanket upon it, which I used
to sleep upon myself sometimes; so the poor creature
lay down and went to sleep.
He was a comely handsome fellow, perfectly well
made, with straight strong limbs, not too large, tall,
and well-shaped, and, as I reckon, about twenty-six
years of age. He had a very good countenance, not
a fierce and surly aspect, but seemed to have some-
thing very manly in his face; and yet he had all the








232 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

sweetness and softness of an European in his coun-
tenance too, especially when he smiled. His hair
was long and black, not curled like wool-his fore-
head very high and large; and a great vivacity and
sparkling sharpness in his eyes. The colour of his
skin was not quite black, but very tawny, and yet
not of an ugly, yellow, nauseous tawny, as the Bra-
zilians and Virginians, and other natives of America
are, but of a bright kind of a dun olive colour, that
had in it something very agreeable, though not very
easy to describe. His face was round and plump,
his nose small, not flat like negroes; a very good
mouth, thin lips, and his fine teeth well set, and as
white as ivory.
After he had slumbered rather than slept, about
half an hour, he awoke again, and came out of the
cave to me, for I had been milking my goats, which
I had in the enclosure close by. When he espied me,
he came running to me, laying himself down again
upon the ground, with all the possible signs of an
humble, thankful disposition, making a great many
antic gestures to show it. At last he lays his head
flat upon the ground, close to my foot, and sets my
other foot upon his head, as he had done before, and,
after this, made all the signs to me of subjection, ser-
vitude, and submission imaginable, to let me know
how he would serve me so long as he lived. I under-
stood him in many things, and let him know I was
very well pleased with him. In a little time I began
to speak to him, and teach him to speak to me; and







NAMING THE STRANGER.


first, I let him know his name should be FRIDAY,
which was the day I saved his life: I called him so
for the memory of the time. I likewise taught him
to say Master, and then let him know that was to be
my name. I likewise taught him to say yes and no,
and to know the meaning of them. I gave him some
milk in an earthen pot, and let him see me drink it
before him, and sop my bread in it, and gave him a
cake of bread to do the like, which he quickly com-
plied with, and made signs that it was very good for
him. I kept there with him all that night; but as
soon as it was day, I beckoned to him to come with
me, and let him know I would give him some clothes,
at which he seemed very glad, for he was stark
naked. As we went by the place where he had
buried the two men, he pointed exactly to the place,
and showed me the marks that he had made to find
them again, making signs to me that we should dig
them up again, and eat them. At this I appeared
very angry, expressed my abhorrence of it-made as
if I would vomit at the thoughts of it-and beckoned
with my hands to him to come away; which he did
immediately, with great submission. I then led him
up to the top of the hill, to see if his enemies were
gone; and pulling out my glass, I looked and saw
plainly the place where they had been, but no ap-
pearance of them or their canoes, so that it was plain
they were gone, and had left their two comrades be-
hind them, without any search after them.
But I was not content with this discovery; but








234 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
having now more courage, and, consequently, more
curiosity, I took my man Friday with me, giving
him the sword in his hand, with the bow and arrows
at his back, which I found he could use very dexter-
ously, making him carry one gun for me, and I two
for myself; and away we marched to the place where
these creatures had been; for I had a mind now to
get some fuller intelligence of them. When I came
to the place, my very blood ran chill in my veins,
and my heart sunk within me, at the horror of the
spectacle; indeed, it was a dreadful sight, at least it
was so to me, though Friday made nothing of it.
The place was covered with human bones, the ground
dyed with their blood, and great pieces of flesh lying
here and there, half-eaten, mangled, and scorched;
and, in short, all the tokens of the triumphant feast
they had been making there, after a victory over
their enemies. I saw three skulls, five hands, and
the bones of three or four legs and feet, and abun-
dance of the other parts of the bodies; and Friday,
by his signs, made me understand that they brought
over four prisoners to feast upon; that three of them
were eaten up, and that he, pointing to himself, was
the fourth: that there had been a great battle be-
tween them and their next king, whose subjects, it
seems, he had been one of, and that they had taken
a great number of prisoners; all which were carried
to several places by those who had taken them in the
fight, in order to feast upon them, as was done here
by these wretches, upon those they brought hither.







CLOTHES FOR FRIDAY.


I caused Friday to gather all the skulls, bones,
flesh, and whatever remained, and lay them together
in a heap, and make a great fire upon it, and burn
them all to ashes. I found Friday had still a han-
kering stomach after some of the flesh, and was still
a cannibal in his nature; but I discovered so much
abhorrence at the very thoughts of it, and at the
least appearance of it, that he durst not discover it:
for I had, by some means, let him know, that I
would kill him if he offered it.
When he had done this, we came back to our
castle; and there I fell to work for my man Friday;
and, first of all, I gave him a pair of linen drawers,
which I had out of the poor gunner's chest I men-
tioned, which I found in the wreck, and which, with
a little alteration, fitted him very well; and then I
made him a jerkin of goats' skin, as well as my skill
would allow (for I was now grown a tolerably good
tailor); and I gave him a cap, which I had made of
hares' skin, very convenient and fashionable enough:
and thus he was clothed for the present tolerably
well, and was mighty well pleased to see himself
almost as well clothed as his master. It is true he
went awkwardly in these clothes at first; wearing
the drawers was very awkward to him, and the
sleeves of the waistcoat galled his shoulders, and
the inside of his arms; but a little easing them where
he complained they hurt him, and using himself to
them, he took to them at length very well.
The next day after I came home to my hutch with







236 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
him, I began to consider where I should lodge him;
and that I might do well for him, and yet be per-
fectly easy myself, I made a little tent for him in
the vacant place between my two fortifications, in
the inside of the last, and in the outside of the first.
As there was a door, or entrance there into my cave,
I made a formal framed door-case, and a door to it
of boards, and set it up in the passage, a little within
the entrance; and causing the door to open in the
inside, I barred it up in the night, taking in my
ladders too; so that Friday could noway come at me
in the inside of my innermost wall, without making
so much noise in getting over, that it must needs
waken me; for my first wall had now a complete
roof over it of long poles, covering all my tent, and
leaning up to the side of the hill; which was again
laid across with smaller sticks, instead of laths, and
then thatched over a great thickness with the rice
straw, which was strong like reeds: and, at the hole,
or place, which was left to go in or out by the ladder,
I had placed a kind of trap-door, which, if it had
been attempted on the outside, would not have
opened at all, but would have fallen down, and made
a great noise. As to weapons, I took them all into
my side every night. But I needed none of all this
precaution; for never man had a more faithful, loving,
sincere servant, than Friday was to me; without pas-
sions, sullenness, or designs, perfectly obliged and
engaged; his very affections were tied to me, like
those of a child to a father: and I daresay he would








TEACHING THE YOUNG IDEA. 237
have sacrificed his life for the saving mine, upon any
occasion whatsoever; the many testimonies he gave
me of this put it out of doubt, and soon convinced me
that I needed to use no precautions, as to my safety,
on his account.
I was greatly delighted with him, and made it my
business to teach him everything that was proper to
make him useful, handy, and helpful; but especially
to make him speak, and understand me when I spoke:
and he was the aptest scholar that ever was; and
particularly, was so merry, so constantly diligent,
and so pleased when he could but understand me, or
make me understand him, that it was very pleasant
to me to talk to him. Now my life began to be so
easy, that I began to say to myself, that could I but
have been safe from more savages, I cared not if I
never was to remove from the place where I lived.




CHAPTER XXIII.

AFTER I had been two or three days returned to my
castle, I thought that, in order to bring Friday off
from his horrid way-of feeding, and from the relish
of a cannibal's stomach, I ought to let him taste
other flesh. So I took him out with me one morning
to the woods: I went, indeed, intending to kill a kid
out of my own flock, and bring it home and dress it;
but as I was going, I saw a she. goat lying down in







238 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
the shade, and two young kids sitting by her. I
watched hold of Friday;-Hold, says I, stand still;
and made signs to him not to stir. Immediately 1
presented my piece, shot, and killed one of the kids.
The poor creature, who had, at a distance, indeed,
seen me kill the savage, his enemy, but did not know,
nor could imagine, how it was done, was sensibly
surprised, trembled, and shook, and looked so
amazed, that I thought he would have sunk down.
lie did not see the kid I shot at, or perceived I had
killed it, but ripped up his waistcoat, to feel whether
he was not wounded; and, as I found presently,
thought I was resolved to kill him: for he came and
kneeled down to me, and embracing my knees, said
a great many things I did not understand; but I
could easily see the meaning was, to pray me not to
kill him.
I soon found a way to convince him that I would
do him no harm; and taking him up by the hand,
laughed at him, and pointing to the kid which I had
killed, beckoned to him to run and fetch it, which
he did; and while he was wondering and looking to
see how the creature was killed, I loaded my gun
again. By-and-by I saw a great fowl, like a hawk,
sitting upon a tree within shot; so, to let Friday un-
derstand a little what I could do, I called him to me
again, pointed at the fowl, which was indeed a
parrot, though I thought it had been a hawk; I say,
pointing to the parrot, and to my gun, and to the
ground under the parrot, to let him see I would







FRIDAY'S ASTONISHMENT. 239
make it fall, I made him understand that I would
shoot and kill that bird; accordingly, I fired, and
bade him look, and immediately he saw the parrot
fall. He stood like one frightened again, notwith-
standing all I had said to him; and I found he was
the more amazed, because he did not see me put any-
thing into the gun, but thought that there must be
some wonderful fund of death and destruction in that
thing, able to kill man, beast, bird, or anything near
or far off; and the astonishment this created in him
was such as could not wear off for a long time; and
I believe, if I would have let him, he would have
worshipped me and my gun. As for the gun itself
he would not so much as touch it for several days
after; but he would speak to it, and talk to it, as if
it had answered him, when he was by himself; which,
as I afterwards learned of him, was to desire it not
to kill him. Well, after his astonishment was a
little over at this, I pointed to him to run and fetch
the bird I had shot, which he did, but stayed some
time; for the parrot not being quite dead, had flut-
tered away a good distance from the place where she
fell: however, he found her, took her up, and brought
her to me; and, as I had perceived his ignorance
about the gun before, I took this advantage to charge
the gun again, and not to let him see me do it, that
I might be ready for any other mark that might
present; but nothing more offered at that time: so
I brought home the kid, and the same evening I
took the skin off, and cut it out as well as I could;








240 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
and having a pot fit for that purpose, I boiled or
stewed some of the flesh, and made some very good
broth. After I had begun to eat some, I gave some
to my man, who seemed very glad of it, and liked
it very well; but that which was strangest to him
was to see me eat salt with it. He made a sign to
me that the salt was not good to eat; and putting a
little into his own mouth, he seemed to nauseate it,
and would spit and sputter at it, washing his mouth
with fresh water after it. On the other hand, I took
some meat into my mouth without salt, and I pre-
tended to spit and sputter for want of salt, as fast as
he had done at the salt; but it would not do: he
would never care for salt with his meat, or in his
broth; at least not for a great while, and then but
a very little.
Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth,
I was resolved to feast him the next day with roast-
ing a piece of the kid. This I did, by hanging it
before the fire on a string, as I had seen many
people do in England, setting two poles up, one on
each side of the fire, and one across on the top, and
tying the string to the cross stick, letting the meat
turn continually. This Friday admired very much;
but when he came to taste the flesh, he took so many
ways to tell me how well he liked it, that I could not
but understand him; and at last he told me, as well
as he could, he would never eat man's flesh any more,
which I was very glad to hear.
The next day 1 set him to work to beating some








NEEDFUL LESSONS.


corn out, and sifting it in the manner 1 used to do,
as I observed before; and he soon understood how to
ao it as well as I, especially after he had seen what
the meaning of it was, and that it was to make bread
of it; for after that, I let him see me make my bread,
and bake it too; and, in a little time, Friday was able
to do all the work for me, as well as I could do it my-
self.
I began now to consider, that having two mouths
to feed instead of one, I must provide more ground
for my harvest, and plant a larger quantity of corn
than I used to do. So I marked out a larger piece of
land, and began the fence in the same manner as
before, in which Friday worked not only very will-
ingly and very hard, but did it very cheerfully; and
I told him what it was for; that it was for corn to
make more bread, because he was now with me, and
that I might have enough for him and myself too.
He appeared very sensible of that part, and let me
know that he thought I had much more labour upon
me on his account than I had for myself; and that
he would work the harder for me if I would tell him
what to do.
I had a mind once to try if he had any hankering
inclination to his own country again; and having
taught him English so well that he could answer me
almost any question, I asked him whether the nation
that he belonged to never conquered in battle? At
which he smiled, and said, "Yes, yes, we always
fight the better:" that is, he meant, always get the








242 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

better in fight; and so we began the following dis.
course :-
Master.-You always fight the better; how came
you to be taken prisoner then, Friday?
Friday.-My nation beat much, for all that.
Master.-How beat ? if your nation beat them,
how came you to be taken ?
Friday.-They more many than my nation in the
place where me was; they take one, two, three, and
me; my nation over beat them in the yonder place,
where me no was: there my nation take one, two,
great thousand.
Master.-But why did not your side recover you
from the hands of your enemies then?
Friday.-They run one, two, three, and me, and
make go in the canoe; my nation have no canoe
that time.
Master.-Well, Friday, and what does your nation
do with the men they take ? Do they carry them
away and eat them, as these did?
Friday.-Yes, my nation eat mans too; eat all up.
Master.-Where do they carry them ?
Friday.-Go to other place, where they think.
Master.-Do they come hither ?
Friday.-Yes, yes, they come hither: come other
else place.
Master.-Have you been here with. them ?
Friday.-Yes, I have been here: (points to the
N.W. side of the island, which, it seems, was their
side.)








FRIDAY'S INFORMATION.


By this I understood that my man Friday had
formerly been among the savages who used to come
on shore on the farther part of the island, on the same
man-eating occasions he was now brought for; and
some time after, when I took the courage to carry
him to that side, being the same I formerly mentioned,
he presently knew the place, and told me he was
there once when they eat up twenty men, two women,
and one child: he could not tell twenty in English,
but he numbered them by laying so many stones in
a row, and pointing to me to tell them over.
I have told this passage because it introduces what
follows; that after I had this discourse with him, I
asked him how far it was from our island to the
shore, and whether the canoes were not often lost ?
LHe told me there was no danger, no canoes ever lost;
but that, after a little way out to sea, there was a
current and wind, always one way in the morning,
the other in the afternoon. This I understood to be
no more than the sets of the tide, as going out, or
coming in; but I afterwards understood it was occa-
sioned by the great draft and reflux of the mighty
river Oronooko, in the mouth or gulf of which river
as I found afterwards, our island lay; and that this
land which I perceived to the W. and N.W. was the
great island Trinidad, on the north point of the mouth
of the river. I asked Friday a thousand questions
about the country, the inhabitants, the sea, the coast,
and what nations were near : he told me all he knew,
with the greatest openness imaginable. I asked him
16








244 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
the names of the several nations of his sort of people,
but could get no other name than Caribs ; from
whence I easily understood that these were the Carib-
bees, which our maps place on the part of America
which reaches from the mouth of the river Oronooko
to Guiana, and onwards to St. Martha. He told me
that up a great way beyond the moon, that was, be-
yond the setting of the moon, which must be west
from their country, there dwelt white bearded men,
like me, and pointed to my great whiskers, which I
mentioned before; and that they had killed much
mans," that was his word: by all which I understood
he meant the Spaniards, whose cruelties in America
have been spread over the whole country, and were
remembered by all the nations, from father to son.
I inquired if he could tell me how I might go from
this island, and get among those white men: he told
me, Yes, yes; you may go in two canoe." I could
not understand what he meant, or make him describe
to me what he meant by two canoe; till at last, with
great difficulty, I found he meant it must be in a large
boat, as big as two canoes. This part of Friday's
discourse began to relish with me very well; and
from this time I entertained some hopes, that one
time or other, I might find an opportunity to make
my escape from this place, and that this poor savage
might be a means to help me.
During the long time that Friday had now been
with me, and that he began to speak to me and un-
derstand me, I was not wanting to lay a foundation








RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION. 246
of religious knowledge in his mind: particularly I
asked him one time, who made him ? The poor
creature did not understand me at all, but thought I
had asked him who was his father; but I took it up
by another handle, and asked him who made the sea,
the ground we walked on, and the hills and woods ?
He told me it was one Benamuckee, that lived be-
yond all; he could describe nothing of this great per-
son, but that he was very old, much older, he said,
than the sea or the land, than the moon or the stars.
I asked him then, if this old person had made all
things, why did not all things worship him? lie
looked very grave, and with a perfect look of inno-
cence, said, All things say 0 to him." I asked
him if the people who die in this country went away
anywhere ? He said, yes; they all went to Bena-
muckee: then I asked him, whether these they eat
up went thither too ? He said, yes.
From these things I began to instruct him in the
knowledge of the true God : I told him that the
great Maker of all things lived up there, pointing up
towards heaven; that he governed the world by the
same power and providence by which he made it;
that he was omnipotent, and could do everything for
us, give everything to us, take everything from us;
and thus by degrees I opened his eyes. Helistened
with great attention, and received with pleasure the
notion of Jesus Christ being sent to redeem us, and
of the manner of making our prayers to God, and
his being able to hear us, even in heaven. He told








246 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSOT CRUSOE.

me one day, that if our God could hear us up beyond
the sun, he must needs be a greater God than their
Benamuckec.
I prayed to God that he would enable me to in-
struct savingly this poor savage ; assisting, by his
Spirit, the heart of the poor ignorant creature, to re-
ceive the light of the knowledge of God in Christ,
reconciling him to himself, and would guide me to
speak so to him from the Word of God, as his con-
science might be convinced, his eyes opened, and his
soul saved. I entered into a long discourse with him
upon the subject of the redemption of man by the
Saviour of the world, and of the doctrine of the gos-
pel preached from heaven, namely, of repentance to-
wards God, and faith in our blessed Lord Jesus. I
then explained to him, as well as I could, why our
blessed Redeemer took not on him the nature of
angels, but the seed of Abraham ; and how, for that
reason, the fallen angels had no share in the redemp-
tion; that he came only to the lost sheep of the house
of Israel, and the like.
I had, God knows, more sincerity than knowledge
in all the methods I took for this poor creature's
instruction, and must acknowledge, what I believe all
that act upon the same principle will find, that in
laying things open to him, I really informed and in-
structed myself in many things, that either I did not
know, or had not fully considered before, but which
occurred naturally to my mind upon searching into
them, for the information of this poor savage; and I








REASONS FOR THANKFULNESS. 247
had more affection in my inquiry after things upon
this occasion than ever I felt before: so that whe-
ther this poor wild wretch was the better for me or
no, I had great reason to be thankful that ever he
came to me; my grief sat lighter upon me; my
habitation grew comfortable to me beyond measure;
and when I reflected, that in this solitary life which
I had been confined to, I had not only been moved to
look up to Heaven myself, and to seek to the hand
that brought me here, but was now to be made an
instrument, under Providence, to save the life, and
for aught I knew, the soul of a poor savage, and to
bring him to the true knowledge of religion, and of
the Christian doctrine, that he might know Christ
Jesus, in whom is life eternal; I say, when I reflected
upon all these things, a secret joy ran through every
part of my soul, and I frequently rejoiced that ever I
was brought to this place, which I had so often thought
the most dreadful of all afflictions that could possibly
have befallen me.
I continued in this thankful frame all the re-
mainder of my time; and the conversation which
employed the hours between Friday and me was
such as made the three years which we lived there
together perfectly and completely happy, if any such
thing as complete happiness can be formed in a sub-
lunary state. This savage was now a good Christian,
a much better than I; though I have reason to hope,
and bless God for it, that we were equally penitent,
and comforted, restored penitents. We had here the







248 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
Word of God to read, and no farther off from his
Spirit to instruct, than if we had been in England.
I always applied myself, in reading the Scriptures,
to let him know, as well as I could, the meaning of
what I read; and he again, by his serious inquiries
and questioning, made me, as I said before, a much
better scholar in the Scripture knowledge than I
should ever have been by my own mere private
reading. But I must go on with the historical part
of things, and take every part in its order.




CHAPTER XXIV.

AFTER Friday and I became more intimately ac-
quainted, and that he could understand almost all I
said to him, and speak pretty fluently, though in
broken English, to me, I acquainted him with my
own history, or at least so much of it as related to
my coming to this place; how I had lived here, and
how long. I let him into the mystery, for such it
was to him, of gunpowder and bullet, and taught
him how to shoot. I gave him a knife, which he
was wonderfully delighted with; and I made him a
belt, with a frog hanging to it, such as in England
we wear hangers in; and in the frog, instead of a
hanger, I gave him a hatchet, which was not only
as good a weapon, in some cases, but much more
useful upon other occasions.







WHAT DID IT MEAN 1 249
I described to him the country of Europe, parti-
cularly England, which I came from; how we lived,
how we worshipped God, how we behaved to one
another, and how we traded in ships to all parts of
the world. I gave him an account of the wreck
which I had been on board of, and showed him, as *
near as I could, the place where she lay; but she
was all beaten in pieces before and gone. I showed
him the ruins of our boat, which we lost when we
escaped, and which I could not stir with my whole
strength then; but was now fallen almost all to
pieces. Upon seeing this boat, Friday stood musing
a great while, and said nothing. I asked him what
it was he studied upon? At last, says he, Me see
such boat like come to place at my nation." I did
not understand him a good while; but at last, when
I had examined farther into it, I understood, by him,
that a boat, such as that had been, came on shore
upon the country where he lived; that is, as he ex-
plained it, was driven thither by stress of weather.
I presently imagined that some European ship must
have been cast away upon their coast, and the boat
might get loose and drive ashore; but was so dull,
that I never once thought of men making their escape
from a wreck thither, much less whence they might
come: so I only inquired after a description of the
boat.
Friday described the boat to me well enough; but
brought me better to understand him when he added,
with some warmth, We save the white mans from








250 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
drown." Then I presently asked him if there were
any white mans, as he called them, in the boat?
"Yes," he said, "the boat full of white mans." I
asked him how many ? He told upon his fingers
seventeen. I asked him then, what became of them ?
lie told me, They live, they dwell at my nation."
This put new thoughts into my head; for I pre-
sently imagined, that these might be the men be-
longing to the ship that was cast away in the sight
of my island, as I now called it; and who, after the
ship was struck on the rock, and they saw her in-
evitably lost, had saved themselves in their boat,
and were landed upon that wild shore among the
savages. Upon this, I inquired of him more criti-
cally what was become of them: he assured me they
lived still there; that they had been there about four
years; that the savages let them alone, and gave
them victuals to live on. I asked him how it came
to pass they did not kill them, and eat them? He
said, No, they make brother with them ;" that is,
as I understood him, a truce; and then he added,
" They no eat mans, but when make the war fight;"
that is to say, they never eat any men but such as
come to fight with them, and are taken in battle.
It was after this some considerable time, that,
being upon the top of the hill, at the east side of the
island, from whence, as I have said, I had, in a clear
day, discovered the main, or continent, of America,
Friday, the weather being very serene, looks very
earnestly towards the mainland, and, in a kind of








A PLEASANT PROSPECT.


surprise, falls a jumping and dancing, and calls out
to me, for I was at some distance from him. I asked
what was the matter ? "0 joy 1" says he; "0 glad!
there see my country, there my nation 1" I observed
an extraordinary sense of pleasure appeared in his
face, and his eyes sparkled, and his countenance dis-
covered a strange eagerness, as if he had a mind to
be in his own country again. This observation of
mine put a great many thoughts into me, which made
me at first not so easy about my new man Friday as
I was before; and I made no doubt but, that if Friday
could get back to his own nation again, he would not
only forget all his religion, but all his obligation to
me, and would be forward enough to give his coun-
trymen an account of me, and come back perhaps
with an hundred or two of them, and make a feast
upon me, at which he might be as merry as he used
to be with those of his enemies, when they were
taken in war. But I wronged the poor honest crea-
ture very much, for which I was very sorry after-
wards. However, as my jealousy increased, and
held me some weeks, I was a little more circumspect,
and not so familiar and kind to him as before: in
which I was certainly in the wrong too; the honest,
grateful creature, having no thought about it, but
what consisted with the best principles, both as a
religious Christian, and as a grateful friend; as
appeared afterwards, to my full satisfaction.
One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather
being hazy at sea, so that we could not see the con-








252 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
tinent, I called to him, and said, Friday, do not
you wish yourself in your own country, your own
nation ?"-" Yes," he said, I be much 0 glad to be
at my own nation'."-" What would you do there ?"
said I; would you turn wild again, eat men's flesh
again, and be a savage, as you were before ?" He
looked full of concern, and shaking his head, said,
" No, no; Friday tell them to live good, tell them
to pray God, tell them to eat corn-bread, cattle-flesh,
milk; no eat man again."-" Why, then," said I to
him, "they will kill you." He looked grave at
that, and then said, No, no; they no kill me, they
willing love learn." He meant by this, they would
be willing to learn. He added, they learned much
of the bearded mans that came in the boat. Then I
asked him if he would go back to them ? He smiled
at that, and told me that he could not swim so far.
I told him I would make a canoe for him. He told
me he would go, if I would go with him. I go ?"
says I; why, they will eat me, if I come there."
" No, no," says he, me make they no eat you; me
make they much love you." He meant, he would
tell them how I had killed his enemies, and saved
his life, and so he would make them love me. Then
he told me, as well as he could, how kind they were
to seventeen white men, or bearded men, as he called
them, who came on shore there in distress.
From this time, I confess I had a mind to venture
over, and see if I could possibly join with those
bearded men, who, I made no doubt, were Spaniards







AN EXPERT BOATMAN.


and Portuguese: not doubting, but if I could, we
might find some method to escape fromnihence, being
upon the continent, and a good company together,
better than I could from an island forty miles off the
shore, and, alone, without help. So, after some days,
I took Friday to work again, by way of discourse:
and told him I would give him a boat to go back to
his own nation; and accordingly, I carried him to
my frigate, which lay on the other side of the island,
and having cleared it of water (for I always kept it
sunk in water), I brought it out, showed it him, and
we both went into it. I found he was a most dex-
terous fellow at managing it, and would make it go
almost as swift again as I could: so when he was in,
I said to him, Well, now, Friday, shall we go to
your nation ?" He looked very dull at my saying
so; which, it seems, was because he thought the
boat too small to go so far. I then told him I had a
bigger; so the next day I went to the place where
the first boat lay which I had made, but which I
could not get into the water. He said that was big
enough; but, then, as I had taken no care of it, and
it had lain two or three-and-twenty years there, the
sun had split and dried it, that it was in a manner
rotten. Friday told me such a boat would do very
well, and would carry much enough vittle, drink,
bread; that was his way of talking.
Upon the whole, I was by this time so fixed upon
my design of going over with him to the continent,
that I told him we would go and make one as big as







254 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
that, and he should go home in it. He answered not
one word, but looked very grave and sad. I asked
him what was the matter with him. He asked me
again, Why you angry mad with Friday? what me
done?" I asked him what he meant; I told him I
was not angry with him at all. No angry l" says
he, repeating the words several times; why send
Friday home away to my nation?"-" Why," says
I, Friday, did not you say you wished you were
there?"-" Yes, yes," says he, wish we both there;
no wish Friday there, no master there." In a word,
he would not think of going there without me. I
go there, Friday!" says I; what shall I do there?"
He returned very quick upon me at this: You do
great deal much good," says he; "you teach wild
mans be good, sober, tame mans; you tell them know
God, pray God, and live new life."-" Alas, Friday!"
says I, "thou knowest not what thou sayest; I am
but an ignorant man myself."-" Yes, yes," says he,
"you teachee me good-you teachee them good."
" No, no, Friday," says I, you shall go without me.
Leave me here to live by myself, as I did before."
He looked confused again at that word; and running
to one of the hatchets which he used to wear, he takes
it up hastily, and gives it to me. What must I do
with this?" says I to him. "You take kill Friday,"
says he. What must I kill you for?" said I again.
He returns very quick, What you send Friday
away for ? Take kill Friday, no send Friday away."
This he spoke so earnestly that I saw tears stand in







FRIDAY'S AFFECTION FOR HIS MASTER. 255
his eyes; in a word, I so plainly discovered the
utmost affection in him to me, and a firm resolution in
him, that I told him then, and often after, that I
would never send him away from me, if he was will-
ing to stay with me.
Upon the whole, as I found by all his discourse, a
settled affection to me, and that nothing should part
him from me, so I found all the foundation of his
desire to go to his own country was laid in his ardent
affection to the people, and his hopes of my doing
them good-a thing which, as I had no notion of
myself, so I had not the least thought, or intention, or
desire of undertaking it. But still I found a strong
inclination to my attempting an escape, as above,
founded on the supposition gathered from the dis-
course, namely, that there were seventeen bearded
men there; and therefore, without any more delay, I
went to work with Friday, to find out a great tree,
proper to fell and make a large periagua or canoe, to
undertake the voyage. There were trees enough in
the island to have built a little fleet, not of periaguas
or canoes, but even of good large vessels; but the
main thing I looked at was, to get one so near the
water that we might launch it when it was made, to
avoid the mistake I committed at first. At last
Friday pitched upon a tree, for I found he knew
much better than I what kind of wood is fittest for
it; nor can I tell, to this day, what wood to call the
tree we cut down, except that it was very like the
tree we call fustic, or between that and the Nicaragua







256 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

wood, for it was much of the same colour and smell.
Friday was for burning the hollow or cavity of this
tree out, to make it for a boat, but I showed him how
to cut it with tools; which, after I had showed him
how to use, he did very handily, and in about a
month's hard labour we finished it, and made it very
handsome-especially when, with our axes, which I
showed him how to handle, we cut and hewed the out-
side into the true shape of a boat. After this, how-
ever, it cost us near a fortnight's time to get her along,
as it were, inch by inch, upon great rollers, into the
water; but when she was in, she would have carried
twenty men with great ease.
When she was in the water, and though she was so
big, it amazed me to see with what dexterity, and
how swift, my man Friday would manage her, turn
her, and paddle her along; so I asked him if he
would, and if we might venture over in her. "Yes,"
he said; "we venture over in her very well, though
great blow wind." However, I had a farther design
that he knew nothing of, and that was to make a
mast and a sail, and to fit her with anchor and cable.
As to a mast, that was easy enough to get; so I
pitched upon a straight young cedar-tree, which I
found near the place, and which there were great
plenty of in the island; and I set Friday to work to
cut it down, and gave him directions how to shape
and order it. But as to the sail, that was my parti-
cular care. I knew I had old sails, or rather pieces
of old sails, enough; but as I had them six-and-twenty








A BUNGLING SHIPWRIGHT.


years by me, and had not been very careful to pre-
serve them, not imagining that I should ever have this
kind of use for them, I did not doubt but they were
all rotten; and, indeed, most of them were so. How-
ever, I found two pieces which appeared pretty good,
and with these I went to work, and, with a great deal
of pains and awkward stitching you may be sure, for
want of needles, I at length made a three-cornered
ugly thing, like what we call in England a shoulder-
of-mutton sail, to go with a boom at bottom, and a
little short sprit at the top, such as usually our ships'
long-boats sail with, and such as I best knew how to
manage, as it was such a one I had to the boat in
which I made my escape from Barbary, as related in
the first part of my story.
I was near two months performing this last work,
namely, rigging and fitting my mast-sails; for I
finished them very complete, making a small stay
and sail, or fore-sail, to it, to assist, if we should turn
to windward; and, which was more than all, I fixed
a rudder to the stern of her to steer with. I was but
a bungling shipwright; yet, as I knew the usefulness
and even necessity of such a thing, I applied myself
with so much pains to do it, that at last I brought it
to pass; though, considering the many dull contriv-
ances I had for it that failed, I think it cost me
almost as much labour as making the boat.
After all this was done, I had my man Friday to
teach as to what belonged to the navigation of my
boat; for though he knew very well how to paddle a








258 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
canoe, he knew nothing what belonged to a sail or a
rudder, and was the most amazed when he saw me
work the boat to and again in the sea by the rudder,
and how the sail gibbed and filled, this way or that
way, as the course we sailed changed-I say, when
he saw this, he stood like one astonished and amazed.
However, with a little use, I made all these things
familiar to him, and he became an expert sailor, ex-
cept that, as to the compass, I could make him under-
stand very little of that. On the other hand, as there
was very little cloudy weather, and seldom or never
any fogs in those parts, there was the less occasion
for a compass, seeing the stars were always to be
seen by night, and the shore by day, except in the
rainy seasons; and then nobody cared to stir abroad,
either by land or sea.




CHAPTER XXV.

I WAS now entered on the seven-and-twentieth year
of my captivity in this place; though the three last
years that I had this creature with me ought rather
to be left out of the account, my habitation being
quite of another kind than in all the rest of the time.
After the rainy season, when the settled season
began to come in, the thought of my design to leave
the island returned, and I was preparing daily for the
voyage, and the first thing I did was to lay by a







ARRIVAL OF THE SAVAGE. 269
certain quantity of provisions, being the stores for our
voyage, and intended, in a week or a fortnight's time,
to open the dock, and launch out our boat. I was
busy one morning upon something of this kind, when
I called to Friday, and bid him go to the sea-shore,
and see if he could find a turtle or tortoise, a thing
which we generally got once a week, for the sake of
the eggs as well as the flesh. Friday had not been
long gone when he came running back, and flew over
my outer wall or fence like one that felt not the
ground, or the steps he set his feet on; and before I
had time to speak to him, he cries out to me-" 0
masterI 0 master 0 sorrow! O bad!" "What's
the matter, Friday?" says I. 0 yonder there,"
says he, one, two, three canoe; one, two, three."
By this way of speaking, I concluded there were six;
but, on inquiry, I found it was but three. Well,
Friday," says I, "do not be frightened-we must
resolve to fight them. Can you fight, Friday?" "Me
shoot," says he, but there come many great num-
ber." "No matter for that," said I again; oar
guns will fright them that we do not kill." So I
asked him whether, if I resolved to defend him, he
would defend me, and stand by me, and do just as I
bid him. He said, Me die when you bid die, mas-
ter." So I went and fetched a good dram of rum,
and gave him; for I had been so good a husband of
my rum that I had a great deal left. When he drank
it, I made him take the two fowling-pieces which we
always carried, and loaded them with large swan-
17








260 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
shot, as big as small pistol-bullets; then I took four
muskets, and loaded them with two slugs and five
small bullets each, and my two pistols I loaded with
a brace of bullets each. I hung my great sword,
as usual, naked by my side, and gave Friday his
hatchet. When I had thus prepared myself, I took
my perspective glass, and went up to the side of the
hill, to see what I could discover; and I found quickly,
by my glass, that there were one-and-twenty savages,
three prisoners, and three canoes; and that their
whole business seemed to be the triumphant banquet
upon these three human bodies. I observed also
that they were landed, not where they had done when
Friday made his escape, but nearer to my creek,
where the shore was low, and where a thick wood
came almost close down to the sea.
I gave Friday one pistol to stick in his girdle, and
three guns upon his shoulder; and I took one pistol
and the other three guns myself; and in this posture
we marched out. I took a small bottle of rum in my
pocket, and gave Friday a large bag with more pow-
der and bullets; and as to orders, I charged him to
keep close behind me, and not to stir, or shoot, or do
anything, till I bid him; and in the meantime, not to
speak a word. In this posture I fetched a compass
to my right hand of near a mile, as well to get over
the creek as to get into the wood, so that I might
come within shot of them before I should be discovered,
which I had seen, by my glass, it was easy to do.
With all possible weariness and silence, Friday







LYING IN AMBUSH 261
following close at my heels, I marched till I came
to the skirt of the wood, on the side which was next
to them, only that one corner of the wood lay between
me and them. Here I called softly to Friday, and
showing him a great tree, which was just at the
corner of the wood, I bade him go to the tree, and
bring me word if he could see there plainly what they
were doing. He did so, and came immediately back
to me, and told me they might be plainlyviewed there;
that they were all about their fire, eating the flesh of
their prisoners, and that another lay bound upon the
sand, a little from them, which, he said, they would
kill next, and which fired all the very soul within
me. He told me it was not one of their nation, but
one of the bearded men he had told me of; that came
to their country in the boat. I was filled with horror
at the very naming the white bearded man; and
going to the tree, I saw plainly, by my glass, a white
man who lay upon the beach of the sea, with his
hands and his feet tied with flags, or things like
rushes, and that he was an European, and had clothes
on.
There was another tree, and a little thicket beyond
it, about fifty yards nearer to them than the place
where I was, which, by going a little way about, I
saw I might come at undiscovered, and that then I
should be within half a shot of them. So I withheld
my passion, though I was indeed enraged to the
highest degree; and going back about twenty paces,
I got behind some bushes, which held all the way







262 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
till I came to the other tree; and then came to a little
rising ground, which gave me a full view of them,
at the distance of about eighty yards.
I had now not a moment to lose, for nineteen of
the dreadful wretches sat upon the ground, all close
huddled together, and had just sent the other two to
butcher the poor Christian, and bring him, perhaps
limb by limb, to their fire; and they were stooping
down to untie the bands at his feet. I turned to
Friday-" Now, Friday," said I, do as I bid thee."
Friday said he would. Then, Friday," said I, do
exactly as you see me do: fail in nothing." So I
set down one of the muskets and the fowling-piece
upon the ground, and Friday did the like by his;
and with the other musket I took my aim at the
savages, bidding him to do the like; then, asking him
if he was ready, he said yes. "Then fire at them,"
said I; and the same moment I fired also.
Friday took his aim so much better than I, that
on the side that he shot he killed two of them, and
wounded three more; and on my side I killed one,
and wounded two. They were, you may be sure, in
a dreadful consternation; and all of them who were
not hurt jumped upon their feet, but did not imme-
diately know which way to run, or which way to
look, for they knew not from whence their destruction
came. Friday kept his eyes close upon me, that, as
I bid him, he might observe what I did; so, as soon
as the first shot was made, I threw down the piece,
and took up the fowling-piece, and Friday did the







A TERRIBLE FRIGHT. 263
like: he saw me cock and present, he did the same
again. Are you ready, Friday ?" said I. "Yes,"
says he. Let fly then," says I, and with that I
fired again among the amazed wretches, and so did
Friday; and as our pieces were now loaden with what
I called swan-shot, or small pistol-bullets, we found
only two drop, but so many were wounded, that they
ran about yelling and screaming like mad creatures,
all bloody, and most of them miserably wounded,
whereof three more fell quickly after, though not
quite dead.
Now, Friday," says I, laying down the discharged
pieces, and taking up the musket which was yet
loaden, "follow me;" which he did with a great deal
of courage: upon which I rushed out of the wood,
and showed myself, and Friday close at my foot. As
soon as I perceived they saw me, I shouted as loud
as I could, and bade Friday do so too; and running
as fast as I could, which, by the way, was not very
fast, being loaded with arms as I was, I made directly
towards the poor victim, who was, as I said, lying
upon the beach, or shore, between the place where
they sat and the sea. The two butchers, who were
just going to work with him, had left him at the sur-
prise of our first fire, and fled in a terrible fright to
the sea-side, and had jumped into a canoe, and three
more of the rest made the same way. I turned to
Friday, and bade him step forwards, and fire at them;
he understood me immediately, and running about
forty yards, to be nearer them, he shot at them, and








264 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
I thought he had killed them all, for I saw them all
fall of a heap in the boat, though I saw two of them
up again quickly. However, he killed two of them,
and wounded the third, so that he lay down in the
bottom of the boat as if he had been dead.
While my man Friday fired at them, I pulled out
my knife, and cut the flags that bound the poor victim;
and loosing his hands and feet, I lifted him up, and
asked him, in the Portuguese tongue, what he was.
He answered in Latin, Christianus ; but was so weak
and faint, that he could scarce stand or speak. I
took my bottle out of my pocket, and gave it him,
making signs that he should drink, which he did;
and I gave him a piece of bread, which he ate. Then
I asked him what countryman he was : and he said
Espagniole; and being a little recovered, let me
know, by all the signs he could possibly make, how
much he was in my debt for his deliverance.
" Seigneur," said I, with as much Spanish as I could
make up, "we will talk afterwards, but we must
fight now : if you have any strength left, take this
pistol and sword, and lay about you." He took them
very thankfully; and no sooner had he the arms in
his hands, but, as if they had put new vigour into
him, he flew upon his murderers like a fury, and had
cut two of them in pieces in an instant.
I kept my piece in my hand, still without firing,
being willing to keep my charge ready, because I had
given the Spaniard my pistol and sword; so I called
to Friday, and bade him run up to the tree from







A FIERCE ENGAGEMENT. zOo
whence we first fired, and fetch the arms which lay
there, that had been discharged, which he did with
great swiftness; and then giving him my musket, I
sat down myself to load all the rest again, and bade
them come to me when they wanted. While I was
loading these pieces, there happened a fierce engage-
ment between the Spaniard and one of the savages.
who made at him with one of their great wooden
swords, the same-like weapon that was to have killed
him before, if I had not prevented it. The Spaniard,
who was as bold and brave as could be imagined,
though weak, had fought this Indian a good while,
and had cut him two great wounds on his head; but
the savage being a stout lusty fellow, closing with him,
had thrown him down, being faint, and was wring-
ing my sword out of his hand; when the Spaniard,
though undermost, wisely quitting the sword, drew
the pistol from his girdle, shot the savage through
the body, and killed him upon the spot, before I, who
was running to help him, could come near him.
Friday, being now left to his liberty, pursued the
flying wretches, with no weapon in his hand but his
hatchet; and with that he despatched those three,
who, as I said before, were wounded at first, and
fallen, and all the rest he could come up with: and
the Spaniard coming to me for a gun, I gave him one
of the fowling-pieces, with which he pursued two of
the savages, and wounded them both; but as he was
not able to run, they both got irom him into the
wood, where Friday pursued them, and killed one of








266 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
them, but the other was too nimble for him; and
though he was wounded, yet had plunged himself
into the sea, and swam, with all his might, off to
those two who were left in the canoe; which three
in the canoe, with one wounded, that we knew not
whether he died or no, were all that escaped our
hands of one-and-twenty. The account of the whole
is as follows: 3 killed at our first shot from the tree;
2 killed at the next shot; 2 killed by Friday in the
boat; 2 killed by Friday of those at first wounded;
I killed by Friday in the wood; 3 killed by the
Spaniard; 4 killed, being found dropped here and
there of their wounds, or killed by Friday in his
chase of them; 4 escaped in the boat, whereof one
was wounded, if not dead.-Twenty-one in all.
Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get
out of gun-shot; and though Friday made two or
three shots at them, I did not find that he hit any of
them. Friday would fain have had me take one of
their canoes and pursue them; and indeed I was very
anxious about their escape, lest, carrying the news
home to their people, they should come back, perhaps
with two or three hundred of the canoes, and devour
us by mere multitude. So I consented to pursue them
by sea, and running to one of their canoes, I jumped
in and bade Friday follow me; but when I was in
the canoe, I was surprised to find another poor crea-
ture lie there bound hand and foot, as the Spaniard
was, for the slaughter, and almost dead with fear,
not knowing what was the matter: for he had not








DELIVERING A FATHER.


been able to look up over the side of the boat, he was
tied so hard neck and heels, and had been tied so
long, that he had really but little life in him.
I immediately cut the twisted flags or rushes
which they had bound him with, and would have
helped him up; but he could not stand or speak, but
groaned most piteously, believing, it seems, still, that
he was only unbound in order to be killed. When
Friday came to him I bade him speak to him, and
tell him of his deliverance; and pulling out my
bottle, made him give the poor wretch a dram; which,
with the news of his being delivered, revived him,
and he sat up in the boat. But when Friday came
to hear him speak, and to look in his face, it would
have moved any one to tears to have seen how Friday
kissed him, embraced him, hugged him, cried, hallooed,
jumped about, danced, sung; then cried again, wrung
his hands, beat his own face and head ; and then
sung and jumped about again, like a distracted crea-
ture. It was a good while before I could make him
speak to me, or tell me what was the matter; but
when he came a little to himself, he told me that it
was his father.
It is not easy for me to express how it moved me
to see what ecstacy and filial affection had worked in
this poor savage at the sight of his father, and of his
being delivered from death.
This affair put an end to our pursuit of the canoe
with the other savages, who were now got almost out
of sight; and it was happy for us that we did not, for








268 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
it blew so hard within two hours after, and before
they could be got a quarter of their way, and con-
tinued blowing so hard all night, and that from the
north-west, which was against them, that I could not
suppose their boat could live, or that they ever
reached their own coast.
But to return to Friday: he was so busy about his
father, that I could not find in my heart to take him
off for some time; but after I thought he could leave
him a little, I called him to me, and he came jump-
ing and laughing, and pleased to the highest extreme;
then I asked him if he had given his father any
bread. He shook his head, and said, None; ugly
dog eat all up self." I then gave him a cake of
bread, out of a little pouch I carried on purpose. I
also gave him a dram for himself, but he would not
taste it, but carried it to his father. I had in my
pocket two or three bunches of raisins, so I gave him
a handful of them for his father. He had no sooner
given his father these raisins, but I saw him come
out of the boat, and run away at such a rate that he
was out of sight, as it were, in an instant; for he
was the swiftest fellow on his feet that ever I saw;
and though I called and hallooed out too, after him,
it was all one, away he went; and in a quarter of an
hour I saw him come back again, though not so fast
as he went; and as he came nearer, I found his pace
was slacker, because he had something in his hand.
When he came up to me, I found he had been quite
home for an earthen jug, or pot, to bring his father







THE RESCUED SPANIARD. 269
some fresh water, and that he had got two more
cakes, or loaves of bread; the bread he gave me, but
the water he carried to his father. However, as I was
very thirsty too, I took a little sup of it. The water
revived his father more than all the rum or spirits I
had given him, for he was just fainting with thirst.
When his father had drank, I called to him to
know if there was any water left; he said, yes; and
I bade him give it to the poor Spaniard, who was in
as much want of it as his father; and I sent one of
the cakes that Friday brought to the Spaniard too,
who was indeed very weak, and was reposing him-
self upon a green place, under the shade of a tree.
When I saw that, upon Friday's coming to him with
the water, he sat up and drank, and took the bread,
and began to eat, I went to him, and gave him a
handful of raisins; he looked up in my face with all
the tokens of gratitude and thankfulness that could
appear in any countenance; but he was so weak, not-
withstanding he had so exerted himself in the fight,
that he could not stand up upon his feet.
I spoke to him to let Friday help him up, if he
could, and lead him to the boat, and then he should
carry him to our dwelling, where I would take care
of him; but Friday, a lusty strong fellow, took the
Spaniard quite up upon his back, and carried him
away to the boat, and set him down softly upon the
side or gunnel of the canoe, with his feet in the inside
of it, and then, lifting him quite in, he set him close
to his father; and presently stepping out again,







270 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

launched the boat off, and paddled it along the shore
faster than I could walk, though the wind blew
pretty hard too. So he brought them safe into our
creek, and leaving them in the boat, ran away to
fetch the other canoe. As he passed me, I spoke to
him, and asked him whither he went. He told me,
" Go fetch more boat." So away he went like the
wind, for sure never man or horse ran like him; and
he had the other canoe in the creek almost as soon
as I got to it by land: so he wafted me over, and
then went to help our new guests out of the boat,
which he did; but they were neither of them able to
walk, so that poor Friday knew not what to do.
To remedy this, I went to work in my thought,
and calling to Friday to bid them sit down on the
bank while he came to me, I soon made a kind of
hand-barrow to lay them on, and Friday and I carried
them both up together upon it between us. But
when we got them to the outside of our wall or forti-
fication, we were at a worse loss than before, for it
was impossible to get them over, and I was resolved
not to break it down. So I set to work again; and
Friday and I, in about two hours' time, made a very
handsome tent, covered with old sails, and above that
with boughs of trees, being in the space without our
outward fence, and between that and the grove of
young wood which I had planted. And here we
made them two beds of such things as I had, namely,
of good rice-straw, with blankets laid upon it, to lie
on, and another to cover them, on each bed.







KING OF THE ISLAND.


CHAPTER XXVI.
My island was now peopled, and I thought myself
very rich in subjects; and it was a merry reflection,
which I frequently made, how like a king I looked.
First of all, the whole country was my own mere
property, so that I had an undoubted right of do-
minion. Secondly, my people were perfectly sub-
jected; I was absolutely lord and lawgiver; they all
owed their lives to me, and were ready to lay down
their lives, if there had been occasion for it, for me.
As soon as I had secured my two weak rescued
prisoners, and given them shelter, and a place to rest
them upon, I began to think of making some provi-
sion for them; and the first thing I did, I ordered
Friday to take a yearling goat, betwixt a kid and a
goat, out of my particular flock, to be killed; when
I cut off the hinder-quarter, and chopping it into
small pieces, I set Friday to work to boiling and
stewing, and made them a very good dish, I assure
you, of flesh and broth, having put some barley, and
rice also, into the broth.
After we had dined, or rather supped, I ordered
Friday to take one of the canoes, and go and fetch
our muskets and other fire-arms, which, for want of
time, we had left upon the field of battle. And the
next day I ordered him to go and bury the dead
bodies of the savages, which lay open to the sun, and
would presently be offensive.








272 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
I then began to enter into a little conversation
with my two new subjects: and first, I set Friday
to inquire of his father what he thought of the escape
of the savages in that canoe, and whether we might
expect a return of them, with a power too great for
us to resist ? His first opinion was, that the savages
in the boat never could live out the storm which
blew that night they went off, but must of necessity
be drowned, or driven south to those other shores,
where they were as sure to be devoured, as they
were to be drowned if they were cast away: but as
to what they would do if they came safe on shore,
he said he knew not; but it was his opinion, that
they were so dreadfully frightened with the manner
of their being attacked, the noise, and the fire, that
he believed they would tell the people they were all
killed by thunder and lightning, not by the hand of
man; and that the two which appeared, namely,
Friday and I, were two heavenly spirits, or furies,
come down to destroy them, and not men with wea-
pons. This, he said, he knew; because he heard
them all cry out so in their language, one to another;
for it was impossible for them to conceive that a man
could dart fire, and speak thunder, and kill at a dis-
tance, without lifting up the hand, as was done now:
and this old savage was in the right; for, as I under-
stood since, by other hands, the savages never at-
tempted to go over the island afterwards, they
were so terrified with the accounts given by those
four men (for it seems they did escape the sea), that








A SUBJECT OF ANXIETY. 273

they believed whoever went to that enchanted island
would be destroyed with fire from the gods. This,
however, I knew not; and therefore was under con-
tinual apprehensions for a good while, and kept al-
ways upon my guard with all my army: for, as there
were now four of us, I would have ventured upon a
hundred of them, fairly in the open field, at any
time.
In a little time, however, no more canoes appear-
ing, the fear of their coming wore off; and I began
to take my former thoughts of a voyage to the main
into consideration; being likewise assured by Friday's
father, that I might depend upon good usage from
their nation on his account, if I would go. But my
thoughts were a little suspended, when I had a seri-
ous discourse with the Spaniard, and when I under-
stood that there were sixteen more of his countrymen
and Portuguese, who, having been cast away, and
made their escape to that side, lived there at peace
indeed with the savages, but were very sore put to it
for necessaries, and indeed for life. I asked him all
the particulars of their voyage, and found they were
a Spanish ship, bound from the Rio de la Plata to
the Havanna, being directed to leave their loading
there, which was chiefly hides and silver, and to
bring back what European goods they could meet
with there; that they had five Portuguese seamen on
board, whom they took out of another wreck; that
five of their own men were drowned, when first the
ship was lost, and that these escaped through infinite







274 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
dangers and hazards, and arrived, almost starved,
on the cannibal coast, where they expected to have
been devoured every moment.
I asked him what he thought would become of
them there, and if they had formed no design of
making any escape ? He said they had made many
consultations about it; but that, having neither ves-
sel, nor tools to build one, nor provisions of any kind,
their counsels always ended in tears and despair. I
asked him how he thought they would receive a pro-
posal from me, which might tend towards an escape;
and whether, if they were all here, it might not be
done? I told him, with freedom, I feared mostly
their treachery and ill usage of me, if I put my life
in their hands; for that gratitude was no inherent
virtue in the nature of man, nor did men always
square their dealings by the obligations they had
received, so much as they did by the advantages
they expected. I told him it would be very hard
that I should be the instrument of their deliverance,
and that they should afterwards make me their pri-
soner in New Spain, where an Englishman was
certain to be made a sacrifice, what necessity or
what accident soever brought him thither; and that
I had rather be delivered up to the savages, and be
devoured alive, than fall into the merciless claws of
the priests, and be carried into the Inquisition.
He answered, with a great deal of candour and
ingenuousness, that their condition was so miserable,
and that they were sensible of it, that he believed







PROPOSALS OF ASSISTANCE.


they would abhor the thought of using any man un-
kindly that should contribute to their deliverance;
and that, if I pleased, he would go to them with
the old man, and discourse with them about it, and
return again, and bring me their answer; that he
would make conditions with them, upon their solemn
oath, that they should be absolutely under my lead-
ing, as their commander and captain.
Upon these assurances I resolved to venture to re-
lieve them, if possible, and to send the old savage
and this Spaniard over to them to treat. But when
we had got all things in readiness to go, the Span-
iard himself started an objection, which had so much
prudence in it, on one hand, and so much sincerity,
on. the other hand, that I could not but be very well
satisfied in it; and, by his advice, put off the deli-
verance of his comrades for at least half a year. The
case was thus: he had been with us now about a
month, during which time I had let him see in what
manner I had provided, with the assistance of Pro-
vidence, for my support; and he saw evidently what
stock of corn and rice I had laid up; which, though
it was more than sufficient for myself yet it was not
sufficient, without good husbandry, for my family,
now it was increased to four; but much less would it
be sufficient if his countrymen, who were, as he said,
sixteen still alive, should come over; and, least of
all, would it be sufficient to victual our vessel, if we
should build one, for a voyage to any of the Chris-
tian colonies of America. So he told me he thought
18








276 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
it would be more advisable to let him and the other
two dig and cultivate some more land, as much as I
could spare seed to sow, and that we should wait an-
other harvest, that we might have a supply of corn
for his countrymen when they should come; for want
might be a temptation to them to disagree, or not to
think themselves delivered, otherwise than out of one
difficulty into another. You know," says he, the
children of Israel, though they rejoiced at first for
their being delivered out of Egypt, yet rebelled even
against God himself, that delivered them, when they
came to want bread in the wilderness."
His caution was so seasonable, and his advice so
good, that I could not but be very well pleased with
his proposal, as well as I was satisfied with his fide-
lity : so we fell to digging, all four of us, as well as
the wooden tools we were furnished with permitted;
and, in about a month's time, by the end of which it
was seed-time, we had got as much land cured and
trimmed up as we sowed two-and-twenty bushels of
barley on, and sixteen jars of rice; which was, in
short, all the seed we had to spare: nor, indeed, did
we leave ourselves barley sufficient for our own food,
for the six months that we had to expect our crop;
that is to say, reckoning from the time we set our
seed aside for sowing; for it is not to be supposed it
is six months in the ground in that country.
Having now society enough, and our number being
sufficient to put us out of fear of the savages, if they
had come, unless their number had been very great,







THE HARVEST SEASON. 277
we went freely all over the island whenever we found
occasion; and as here we had our escape, or deli-
verance, upon our thoughts, it was impossible, at
least for me, to have the means of it out of mind.
For this purpose, I marked out several trees which
I thought fit for our work, and I set Friday and his
father to cutting them down; and then I caused the
Spaniard, to whom I imparted my thought on that
affair, to oversee and direct their work. I showed
them with what indefatigable pains I had hewed a
large tree into a single plank, and I caused them to
do the like, till they had made about a dozen large
planks of good oak, near two feet broad, thirty-five
feet long, and from two inches to four inches thick:
what prodigious labour it took up any one may ima-
gine.
At the same time, I contrived to increase my little
flock of tame goats as much as I could; and, for this
purpose, I made Friday and the Spaniard go out one
day, and myself with Friday the next day (for we
took our turns), and by this means we got about
twenty young kids to breed up with the rest; for
whenever we shot the dam, we saved the kids, and
added them to our flock. But, above all, the season
for curing the grapes coming on, I caused such a
prodigious quantity to be hung up in the sun, that I
believe, had we been at Alicant, where the raisins of
the sun are cured, we could have filled sixty or eighty
barrels.
It was now harvest, and our crop in good order:







278 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
it was not the most plentiful increase I had seen in
the island, but, however, it was enough to answer
our end; for, from twenty-two bushels of barley, we
brought in and threshed out above two hundred and
twenty bushels, and the like, in proportion, of the
rice, which was store enough for our food to the next
harvest, though all the sixteen Spaniards had been
on shore with me.
And now, having a full supply of food for all the
guests I expected, I gave the Spaniard leave to go
over to the main, to see what he could do with those
he had left behind him there. I gave him a strict
charge not to bring any man with him who would
not first swear, in the presence of himself and the
old savage, that he would no way injure, fight with,
or attack the person he should find in the island,
who was so kind as to send for them in order to their
deliverance; but that they would stand by him, and
defend him against all such attempts, and wherever
they went would be entirely under and subjected
to his command; and that this should be put in
writing, and signed with their hands. How they
were to have done this, when I knew they had
neither pen nor ink, was a question which we never
asked. Under these instructions, the Spaniard
and the old savage, the father of Friday, went
away in one of the canoes which they might be
said to come in, or rather were brought in, when
they came as prisoners to be devoured by the
savages. I gave each of them a musket, with a








"MASTER, THEY ARE COME !" 279
firelock on it, and about eight charges of powder and
ball.
This was a cheerful work, being the first measures
used by me in view of my deliverance, for now twenty-
seven years and some days. I gave them provisions
of bread and of dried grapes sufficient for themselves
for many days, and sufficient for all the Spaniards
for about eight days' time; and, wishing them a good
voyage, I saw them go; agreeing with them about a
signal they should hang out at their return, by which
I should know them again, when they came back, at
a distance, before they came on shore.




CHAPTER XXVII.

IT was no less than eight days I had waited for them,
when a strange and unforeseen accident intervened,
of which the like has not, perhaps, been heard of in
history. I was fast asleep in my hutch one morn-
ing, when my man Friday came running in to me,
and called aloud, Master, master, they are come,
they are come!" I jumped up, and, regardless of
danger, I went out as soon as I could get my clothes
on, through my little grove, which, by the way, was
by this time grown to be a very thick wood; I say,
regardless of danger, I went without my arms, which
was not my custom to do: but I was surprised when,
turning my eyes to the sea, I presently saw a boat,







280 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
at about a league and a half distance, standing in for
the shore, with a shoulder-of-mutton sail, as they
call it, and the wind blowing pretty fair to bring
them in: also I observed presently, that they did
not come from that side which the shore lay on, but
from the southernmost end of the island. Upon
this I called Friday in, and bade him lie close, for
these were not the people we looked for, and that we
might not know yet whether they were friends or
enemies. In the next place, I went in to fetch my
perspective glass, to see what I could make of them;
and having taken the ladder out, I climbed up to
the top of the hill, as I used to do when I was ap-
prehensive of anything, and to take my view the
plainer, without being discovered. I bad scarce
set my foot upon the hill, when my eye plainly
discovered a ship lying at anchor, at about two
leagues and a half distance from me, S.S.E., but not
above a league and a half from the shore. By my
observation, it appeared plainly to be an English ship,
and the boat appeared to be an English long-boat.
I cannot express the confusion I was in; though
the joy of seeing a ship, and one that I had reason
to believe was manned by my own countrymen, and
consequently friends, was such as I cannot describe;
but yet I had some secret doubts hung about me, I
cannot tell from whence they came, bidding me keep
upon my guard.
I soon saw the boat draw near the shore, as if they
looked for a creek to thrust in at, for the convenience







AN EXTRAORDINARY SCENE.


of landing; however, as they did not come quite far
enough, they did not see the little inlet where I for-
merly landed my rafts, but run their boat on shore
upon the beach, at about half a mile from me, which
was very happy for me; for otherwise they would
have landed just at my door, as I may say, and would
soon have beaten me out of my castle, and perhaps
have plundered me of all I had. When they were
on shore I was fully satisfied they were Englishmen,
at least most of them; one or two I thought were
Dutch, but it did not prove so; there were in all
eleven men, whereof three of them I found were un-
armed, and, as I thought, bound; and when the first
four or five of them were jumped on shore, they took
those three out of the boat as prisoners: one of the
three I could perceive using the most passionate
gestures of entreaty, affliction, and despair, even to
a kind of extravagance; the other two, I could per-
ceive, lifted up their hands sometimes, and appeared
concerned, indeed, but not to such a degree as the
first. I was perfectly confounded at the sight, and
knew not what the meaning of it should be. Friday
called out to me in English as well as he could, "0
master you see English mans eat prisoner as well
as savage mans." "Why, Friday," says I, "do
you think they are going to eat them, then?"
" Yes," says Friday, they will eat them." No,
no," says I, Friday, I am afraid they will murder
them, indeed, but you may be sure they will not eat
them."







282 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
All this while I had no thought of what the mat-
ter really was, but stood trembling with the horror
of the sight, expecting every moment when the three
prisoners should be killed; nay, once I saw one oi
the villains lift up his arm with a great cutlass, as
the seamen call it, or sword, to strike one of the poor
men; and I expected to see him fall every moment;
at which all the blood in my body seemed to run chill
in my veins. I wished heartily now for my Span-
iard, and the savage that was gone with him, or that
I had any way to have come undiscovered within
shot of them, that I might have rescued the three
men, for I saw no fire-arms they had among them;
but it fell out to my mind another way. After I
had observed the outrageous usage of the three men
by the insolent seamen, I observed the fellows run
scattering about the island, as if they wanted to see
the country. I observed that the three other men
had liberty to go also where they pleased; but they
sat down all three upon the ground, very pensive,
and looked like men in despair.
It was just at the top of high water when these
people came on shore; and, partly while they rambled
about to see what kind of a place they were in, they
had carelessly stayed till the tide was spent, and the
water was ebbed considerably away, leaving their boat
aground. They had left two men in the boat, who,
as I found afterwards, having drank a little too much
brandy, fell asleep. However, one of them waking a
little sooner than the other, and finding the boat tot







NEEDFUL PRECAUTIONS.


fast aground for him to stir it, hallooed out for the
rest, who were straggling about; upon which they
all soon came to the boat; but it was past all their
strength to launch her, the boat being very heavy,
and the shore on that side being a soft oozy sand,
almost like a quicksand. In this condition, like true
seamen, who are, perhaps, the least of all mankind
given to forethought, they gave it over, and away
they strolled about the country again; and I heard
one of them say aloud to another, calling them ofi
from the boat, Why, let her alone, Jack, can't you?
she'll float next tide:" by which I was fully con-
firmed in the main inquiry of what countrymen they
were. All this while I kept myself very close, not
once daring to stir out of my castle, any further than
to my place of observation, near the top of the hill;
and very glad I was to think how well it was forti-
fied. I knew it was no less than ten hours before
the boat could float again, and by that time it would
be dark, and I might be at more liberty to see their
motions, and to hear their discourse, if they had any.
In the meantime, I fitted myself up for a battle, as
before, though with more caution, knowing I had to
do with another kind of enemy than I had at first.
I ordered Friday also, whom I had made an excellent
marksman with his gun, to load himself with arms.
I took myself two fowling-pieces, and I gave him
three muskets.
It was my design, as I said above, not to have
made any attempt till it was dark; but about two







284 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
o'clock, being the heat of the day, I found that, in
short, they were all gone straggling into the woods,
and, as I thought, laid down to sleep. The three
poor distressed men, too anxious for their condition
to get any sleep, were, however, sat down under the
shelter of a great tree, at about a quarter of a mile
from me, and, as I thought, out of sight of any of the
rest. Upon this I resolved to discover myself to
them, and learn something of their condition: imme-
diately I marched to them, my man Friday at a good
distance behind me, as formidable for his arms as I,
but not making quite so staring a figure as I did. I
came as near them undiscovered as I could, and then,
before any of them saw me, I called aloud to them
in Spanish, What are ye, gentlemen?" They
started up at the noise, but were ten times more con-
founded when they saw me, and the uncouth figure
that I made. They made no answer at all, but I
thought I perceived them just going to fly from me,
when I spoke to them in English: Gentlemen,"
said I, do not be surprised at me; perhaps you may
have a friend near, when you did not expect it."
" He must be sent directly from Heaven," said one
of them very gravely to me, and pulling off his hat
at the same time to me; for our condition is past
the help of man." All help is from Heaven, sir,"
said I; but can you put a stranger in the way how
to help you ? for you seem to be in some great dis-
tress. I saw you when you landed; and when you
seemed to make application to the brutes that came







MAN OR ANGEL 1 285
with you, I saw one of them lift up his sword to kill
you."
The poor man, with tears running down his face,
and trembling, looking like one astonished, returned,
"Am I talking to a real man, or an angel ?" "Be
in no fear about that, sir," said I; if God had sent
an angel to relieve you, he would have come better
clothed, and armed after another manner, than you
see me: pray lay aside your fears; I am a man, an
Englishman, and disposed to assist you: you see I
have one servant only; we have arms and ammuni-
tion; tell us freely, can we serve you? What is your
case?" "Our case," said he, "sir, is too long to
tell you, while our murderers are so near us: but, in
short, sir, I was commander of that ship; my men
have mutinied against me; they have been hardly
prevailed on not to murder me; and at last have set
me on shore in this desolate place, with these two
men with me, one my mate, the other a passenger,
where we expected to perish, believing the place to
be uninhabited, and know not yet what to think of
it." "Where are these brutes, your enemies?" said
I; "do you know where they are gone?" There
they lie, sir," said he, pointing to a thicket of trees;
" my heart trembles for fear they have seen us, and
heard you speak; if they have, they will certainly
murder us alL" "Have they any fire-arms?" said
I. He answered, they had only two pieces, one of
which they left in the boat. Well then," said I,
" leave the rest to me; I see they are all asleep; it is







286 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
an easy thing to kill them all: but shall we rather
take them prisoners?" He told me there were two
desperate villains among them, that it was scarce safe
to show any mercy to; but if they were secured, he
believed all the rest would return to their duty. I
asked him which they were ? IHe told me he could
not at that distance distinguish them, but he would
obey my orders in anything I would direct. "Well,"
says I, let us retreat out of their view, or hearing,
lest they awake, and we will resolve further." So
they willingly went back with me, till the woods
covered us from them.
Look you, sir," said I, if I venture upon your
deliverance, are you willing to make two conditions
with me?" He anticipated my proposals, by telling
me that both he and the ship, if recovered, should be
wholly directed and commanded by me in everything;
and if the ship was not recovered, he would live and
die with me in what part of the world soever I would
send him; and the two other men said the same.
Well then," said I, here are three muskets for
you, with powder and ball: tell me next what you
think is proper to be done." He showed all the tes-
timonies of his gratitude that he was able, but offered
to be wholly guided by me. I told him I thought it
was hard venturing anything; but the best method I
could think of was to fire upon them at once, as they
lay, and if any was not killed at the first volley, and
offered to submit, we might save them, and so put it
wholly upon God's providence to direct the shot. He







AN EASY VICTORY. 287
said very modestly, that he was loath to kill them, if
he could help it; but that those two were incorrigible
villains, and had been the authors of all the mutiny
in the ship, and if they escaped we should be undone
still; for they would go on board and bring the whole
ship's company, and destroy us all. Well then,"
says I, necessity legitimates my advice, for it is the
only way to save our lives." However, seeing him
still cautious of shedding blood, I told him they should
go themselves, and manage as they found convenient.
In the middle of this discourse we heard some of
them awake, and soon after we saw two of them on
their feet. I asked him if either of them were the
heads of the mutiny? He said no. "Well then,"
said I, you may let them escape; and Providence
seems to have awakened them on purpose to save
themselves. Now," says I, if the rest escape you,
it is your fault." Animated with this, he took the
musket I had given him in his hand, and a pistol in
his belt, and his two comrades with him, with each a
piece in his hand; the two men who were with him
going first made some noise, at which one of the sea-
men who was awake turned about, and seeing them
coming, cried out to the rest; but it was too late then,
for the moment he cried out, they fired; I mean the
two men, the captain wisely reserving his own piece.
They had so well aimed their shot at the men they
knew, that one of them was killed on the spot, and
the other very much wounded; but not being dead, he
started up on his feet, and called eagerly for help to








288 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
the other; but the captain stepping to him, told him
it was too late to cry for help, he should call upon
God to forgive his villany; and with that word,
knocked him down with the stock of his musket, so
that he never spoke more: there were three more
in the company, and one of them was also slightly
wounded. By this time I was come; and when they
saw their danger, and that it was in vain to resist,
they begged for mercy. The captain told them he
would spare their lives, if they would give any assur-
ance of their abhorrence of the treachery they had
been guilty of, and would swear to be faithful to him
in recovering the ship, and afterwards in carrying
her back to Jamaica, from whence they came. They
gave him all their protestations of their sincerity that
could be desired, and he was willing to believe them,
and spare their lives, which I was not against, only
that I obliged him to keep them bound hand and foot,
while they were on the island.
While this was doing, I sent Friday with the cap-
tain's mate to the boat, with orders to secure her, and
bring away the oars and sails, which they did; and,
by-and-by, three straggling men, that were (happily
for them) parted from the rest, came back upon hear-
ing the guns fired, and seeing the captain, who before
was their prisoner, now their conqueror, they sub-
mitted to be bound also: and so our victory was com-
plete.
It now remained that the captain and I should in-
quire into one another's circumstances. I began first,







A COUNCIL OF WAR. 289
and told him my whole history, which he heard with
an attention even to amazement. After this commu-
nication was at an end, I carried him and his two men
into my apartment, leading them in just where I came
out, namely, at the top of the house, where I refreshed
them with such provisions as I had, and showed them
all the contrivances I had made, during my long, long
inhabiting that place.
We now began to consider how to recover the ship.
The captain told me he was perfectly at a loss what
measures to take, for that there were still six-and-
twenty hands on board, who, having entered into a
cursed conspiracy, by which they had all forfeited their
lives to the law, would be hardened in it now by des-
peration, and would carry it on, knowing that, if they
were subdued, they would be brought to the gallows
as soon as they came to England, or to any of the
English colonies; and that therefore there would be
no attacking them with so small a number as we were.
I mused for some time upon what he had said, and
found that it was a very rational conclusion, and that
therefore something was to be resolved on speedily, as
well to draw the men on board into some snare for
their surprise, as to prevent their landing upon us,
and destroying us. Upon this it presently occurred
to me, that, in a little while, the ship's crew, wonder-
ing what was become of their comrades and of the
boat, would certainly come on shore in their other
boat to look for them; and that then, perhaps, they
might come armed, and be, too strong for us. This he








290 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
allowed to be rational. Upon this I told him the first
thing we had to do was to stave the boat which lay
upon the beach, so that they might not carry her off;
and taking everything out of her, leave her so far
useless as not to be fit to swim. Accordingly, we went
on board, took the arms which were left on board out
of her, and whatever else we found there, which was
a bottle of brandy, and another of rum, a few biscuit-
cakes, a horn of powder, and a great lump of sugar in
a piece of canvass (the sugar was five or six pounds);
all which was very welcome to me, especially the
brandy and sugar, of which I had none left for many
years.
When we had carried all these things on shore (the
oars, mast, sail, and rudder of the boat were carried
away before, as above), we knocked a great hole in
her bottom, that, if they had come strong enough to
master us, yet they could not carry off the boat.
While we were thus preparing our designs, and
had first, by main strength, heaved the boat upon the
beach so high, that the tide would not float her off at
high water mark, and besides had broke a hole in her
bottom too big to be quickly stopped, and were sat
down musing what we should do, we heard the ship
fire a gun, and saw her make a waft with her ensign,
as a signal for the boat to come on board: but no boat
stirred; and they fired several times, making other
signals for the boat. At last, when all their signals
and firing proved fruitless, and they found the boat
did not stir, we saw them, by the help of my glasses.







WAITING THE ISSUE. 291
hoist another boat out, and row towards the shore;
and we found, as they approached, that there were
no less than ten men in her, and that they had fire-
arms with them.
As the ship lay almost two leagues from the shore,
we had a full view of them as they came; and the
captain knew the persons and character of all the
men in the boat, of whom he said there were three
very honest fellows, who, he was sure, were led into
this conspiracy by the rest, being overpowered and
frightened; but that, as for the boatswain, who, it
seems, was the chief officer among them, and all the
rest, they were as outrageous as any of the ship's
crew, and were, no doubt, made desperate in their
new enterprise.
We had, upon the first appearance of the boat's
coming from the ship, considered of separating our
prisoners; and we had, indeed, secured them effec-
tually. Two of them, of whom the captain was less
assured than ordinary, I sent with Friday, and one
of the three delivered men, to my cave, where they
were remote enough, and out of danger of being heard
or discovered, or of finding their way out of the woods
if they could have delivered themselves. Here they
left them bound, but gave them provisions, and pro-
mised them if they continued there quietly, to give
them their liberty in a day or two; but that, if they
attempted their escape, they should be put to death
without mercy.
The other prisoners had better usage. Two of
19







292 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
them were kept pinioned, indeed, because the captain
was not free to trust them; but the other two were
taken into my service upon the captain's recommen-
dation, and upon their solemnly engaging to live and
die with us : so, with them and the three honest men,
we were seven men well armed, and I made no
doubt we should be able to deal well enough with the
ten that were coming, considering that the captain
bad said there were three or four honest men among
them also. As soon as they got to the place where
their other boat lay, they ran their boat into the
beach, and came all on shore, hauling the boat up
after them. Being on shore, the first thing they did,
they ran all to their other boat; and it was easy to
see they were under a great surprise to find her
stripped, as above, of all that was in her, and a great
hole in her bottom. After they had mused a while
upon this, they set up two or three great shouts, hal-
looing with all their might, to try if they could make
their companion.; whar, but all to no purpose.




CHAPTER XXVIII.

THEY then consulted together for some time, and de-
cided to leave three men in the boat, and the rest to
go up into the country to look for their fellows. This
was a great disappointment to us, for now we were at
a loss what to do, as our seizing those seven men on








A STRATAGEM. 293
shore would be no advantage to us if we let the boat
escape; because they would then row away to the
ship, and then the rest of them would be sure to
weigh and set sail, and so our recovering the ship
would be lost. However, we had no remedy but to
wait and see what the issue of things might present.
The seven men came on shore, and the three who re-
mained in the boat put her off to a good distance from
the shore, and came to an anchor to wait them; so that
it was impossible for us to come at them in "the boat.
Those that came on shore kept close together, march-
ing towards the top of the little hill under which my
habitation lay, and we could see them plainly, though
they could not perceive us. But when they were
come to the brow of the hill, where they could see a
great way into the valleys and wood which lay to-
wards the north-east part, and where the island lay
lowest, they shouted and hallooed till they were
weary; and not caring, it seems, to venture far from
the shore, nor far from one another, they sat down
together under a tree to consider of it.
We waited a great while, though very impatient,
for their removing, and were very uneasy when, after
long consultations, we saw them all start up, and
march down towards the sea.
As soon as I perceived them to go towards the
shore, I imagined it to be, as it really was, that they
had given over their search, and were for going back
again; but I presently thought of a stratagem to fetch
them back again, and which answered my end to a








294 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
tittle. I ordered Friday and the captain's mate to
go over the little creek westwards towards the place
where the savages came on shore when Friday was
rescued, and as soon as they came to a little rising
ground, at about half a mile distance, I bade them
halloo out as loud as they could, and wait till they
found the seamen heard them; that as soon as ever
they heard the seamen answer them, they should re-
turn it again, and then, keeping out of sight, take a
round, always answering when the others hallooed,
to draw them as far into the island and among the
woods as possible, and then wheel about again to me,
by such ways as I directed them.
They were just going into the boat when Friday
and the mate hallooed, and they presently heard them,
and answering, ran along the shore westward, to-
wards the voice they heard, when they were presently
stopped by the creek, where, the water being up, they
could not get over, and called for the boat to come
up and set them over, as indeed I expected. When
they had set themselves over, I observed that the
boat being gone a good way into the creek, and, as it
were, in a harbour within the land, they took one
of the three men out of her, to go along with them,
and left only two in the boat, having fastened her to
the stump of a little tree on the shore. This was
what I wished for; and immediately leaving Friday
and the captain's mate to their business, I took the
rest with me, and crossing the creek out of their
sight, we surprised the two men before they were








CATCHING A TARTAR.


aware-one of them lying on the shore, and the other
being in the boat. The fellow on shore was be-
tween sleeping and waking, and going to start up.
The captain, who was foremost, ran in upon him, and
knocked him down, and then called out to him in the
boat to yield, or he was a dead man. There needed
very few arguments to persuade a single man to
yield, when he saw five men upon him, and his com-
rade knocked down. Besides, this was, it seems, one
of the three who were not so hearty in the mutiny
as the rest of the crew, and therefore was easily per-
suaded, not only to yield, but afterwards to join very
sincerely with us. In the meantime, Friday and the
captain's mate so well managed their business with
the rest, that they drew them, by hallooing and an-
swering, from one hill to another, and from one wood
to another, till they not only heartily tired them, but
left them where they were very sure they could not
reach back to the boat before it was dark, and indeed
they were heartily tired themselves also by the time
they came back to us.
We had nothing now to do but to watch for them
in the dark, and to fall upon them so as to make sure
work with them. It was several hours after Friday
came back to me before they came back to their boat,
and we could hear the foremost of them, long before
they came quite up, calling to those behind to come
along, and could also hear them answer, and complain
how lame and tired they were, and not able to come
any faster, which was very welcome news to us. At







296 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
length they came up to the boat; but it is impossible
to express their confusion when they found the boat
fast aground in the creek, the tide ebbed out, and
their two men gone. They hallooed again, and called
their two comrades by their names a great many
times; but no answer. After some time we could see
them, by the little light there was, run about, wring-
ing their hands like men in despair; and that some-
times they would go and sit down in the boat to rest
themselves, then come on shore again, and walk about
again, and so the same thing over again. My men
would fain have had me given them leave to fall upon
them at once in the dark; but I was willing to take
them at some advantage, so to spare them and kill
as few of them as I could; and especially, I was
unwilling to hazard the killing of any of our men,
knowing the others were very well armed. I resolved
to wait, to see if they did not separate, and therefore,
to make sure of them, I drew my ambuscade nearer,
and ordered Friday and the captain to creep upon
their hands and feet, as close to the ground as they
could, that they might not be discovered, and get as
near them as they could possibly, before they offered
to fire.
They had not been long in that posture, when the
boatswain, who was the principal ringleader of the
mutiny, and who had now shown himself the most
dejected and dispirited of all the rest, came walking
towards them with two more of the crew. The captain
was so eager at having this principal rogue so much







WALKING INTO THE TRAP. 297
in his power, that he could hardly have patience to let
him come so near as to be sure of him, for they only
heard his tongue before; but when they came nearer,
the captain and Friday, starting up on their feet, let
fly at them. The boatswain was killed upon the spot;
the next man was shot in the body, and fell just by
him, though he did not die till an hour or two after;
and the third ran for it. At the noise of the fire, I
immediately advanced with my whole army, which
was now eight men-namely, myself, generalissimo;
Friday, my lieutenant-general; the captain and his
two men, and the three prisoners of war, whom we
had trusted with arms. We came upon them indeed
in the dark, so that they could not see our number;
and I made the man they had left in the boat, who
was now one of us, to call them by name, to try if I
could bring them to a parley, and so might perhaps
reduce them to terms: which fell out just as we de-
sired; for indeed it was easy to think, as their condi-
tion then was, they would be very willing to capitu-
late. So he calls out, as loud as he could, to one
of them, "Tom Smith Tom Smith Tom Smith
answered immediately, "Is that Robinson?" for it
seems he knew the voice. The other answered, "Ay,
ay; for God's sake, Tom Smith, throw down your
arms and yield, or you are all dead men this mo-
ment." Who must we yield to? Where are they?"
says Smith again. Here they are," says he;
"here's our captain, and fifty men with him, have
been hunting you these two hours. The boatswain








298 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
is killed, Will Fry is wounded, and I am a prisoner;
and if you do not yield, you are all lost." "Will
they give us quarter, then?" says Tom Smith, "and
we will yield." I will go and ask, if you promise
to yield," says Robinson. So he asked the captain,
and the captain himself then calls out, You, Smith,
you know my voice: if you lay down your arms im-
mediately and submit, you shall have your lives-all
but Will Atkins."
Upon this, Will Atkins cried out, For God's
sake, captain, give me quarter; what have I done?
They have all been as bad as I ;" which, by the way,
was not true neither; for it seems this Will Atkins
was the first man that laid hold of the captain when
they first mutinied, and used him barbarously, in
tying his hands, and giving him injurious language.
However, the captain told him he must lay down
his arms at discretion, and trust to the governor's
mercy; by which he meant me, for they all called
me governor. In a word, they all laid down their
arms, and begged their lives; and I sent the man
that had parleyed with them, and two more, who
bound them all; and then my great army of fifty
men, which, particularly with those three, were in all
but eight, came up and seized upon them, and upon
their boat; only that I kept myself and one more out
of sight, for reasons of state.
Our next work was to repair the boat, and think
of seizing the ship; and as for the captain, now he
had leisure to parley with them, he expostulated with








SUBMISSION OF THE MUTINEERS. 299
them upon the villany of their practices with him,
and at length upon the further wickedness of their
design, and how certainly it must bring" them to
misery and distress in the end, and perhaps to the
gallows.
They all appeared very penitent, and Will Atkins
fell upon his knees, to beg the captain to intercede
with the governor of the island for his life; and all
the rest begged of him that they might not be sent
to England.
It now occurred to me that the time of our deliver-
ance was come, and that it would be a most easy
thing to bring these fellows in to be hearty in getting
possession of the ship. So I retired into the dark from
them, that they might not see what sort of a governor
they had, and called the captain to me; when I called,
as at a good distance, one of the men was ordered to
speak again, and say to the captain, Captain, the
commander calls for you; and presently, the captain
replied, Tell his excellency I am just a-coming."
This more perfectly amused them, and they all be-
lieved that the commander was just by with his fifty
men. Upon the captain's coming to me, I told him
my project for seizing the ship, which he liked won-
derfully well, and resolved to put it in execution the
next morning. But in order to execute it with more
art, and to be secure of success, I told him we must
divide the prisoners, and that he should go and take
Atkins, and two more of the worst of them, and send
them pinioned to the cave where the others lay.







300 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
This was committed to Friday, and the two men who
came on shore with the captain. They conveyed them
to the cave, as to a prison. The others I ordered to
my bower.
To these, in the morning, I sent the captain, who
was to enter into a parley with tliem; in a word, to
try them, and tell me whether he thought they might
be trusted or no to go on board and surprise the ship,
on promise of pardon for themselves.
Any one may guess how readily such a proposal
would be accepted by men in their condition; they
fell down on their knees to the captain, and promised
that they would be faithful to him to the last drop,
and that they should owe their lives to him, and
would go with him all over the world. Well,"
says the captain, I must go and tell the governor
what you say, and see what I can do to bring him to
consent to it." So he brought me an account of the
temper he found them in, and that he verily believed
they would be faithful. However, that we might be
very secure, I told him he should go back again and
choose out those five, and tell them that they might
see he did not want men, that he would take out
those five to be his assistants, and that the governor
would keep the other two, and the three that were
sent prisoners to the castle (my cave), as hostages
for the fidelity of those five; and that, if they proved
unfaithful in the execution, the five hostages should
be hanged in chains alive on the shore. This looked
severe, and convinced them that the governor was in







FURTHER DELIBERATIONS. 301
earnest. However, they had no way left them but to
accept it; and it was now the business of the priso-
ners, as much as of the captain, to persuade the other
five to their duty.
Our strength was now thus ordered for the expe-
dition :-1st, The captain, his mate, and passenger:
2d, Then the two prisoners of the first gang, to whom,
having their characters from the captain, I had given
their liberty, and trusted them with arms: 3d, The
other two that I had kept till now in my bower
pinioned, but on the captain's motion had now releas-
ed: 4th, These five released at last; so that they
were twelve in all, besides five we kept prisoners in
the cave for hostages.
I asked the captain if he was willing to venture
with these hands on board the ship; but as for me
and my man Friday, I did not think it was proper
for us to stir, having seven men left behind; and it
was employment enough for us to keep them asunder
and supply them with victuals. As to the five in the
cave, I resolved to keep them fast, but Friday went
in twice a-day to them to supply them with neces-
saries; and I made the other two carry provisions to
a certain distance, where Friday was to take it.
When I showed myself to the two hostages, it was
with the captain, who told them I was the person
the governor had ordered to look after them; and
that it was the governor's pleasure they should not
stir anywhere, but by my direction; that if they did,
they would be fetched into the castle, and be laid in








302 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
irons: so that, as we never suffered them to see me
as a governor, I now appeared as another person, and
spoke of the governor, the garrison, the castle, and
the like, upon all occasions.
The captain now had no difficulty before him, but
to furnish his two boats, stop the breach of one, and
man them. He made his passenger captain of one,
with four of the men; and himself, his mate, and five
more, went in the other; and they contrived their
business very well, for they came up to the ship about
midnight. As soon as they came within call of the
ship, he made Robinson hail them, and tell them they
had brought off the men and the boat, but that it was
a long time before they had found them and the like,
holding them in chat till they came to the ship's side;
when the captain and the mate entering first with
their arms, immediately knocked down the second
mate and carpenter with the butt-end of their mus-
kets, being very faithfully seconded by their men;
they secured all the rest that were upon the main
and quarter-decks, and began to fasten the hatches,
to keep them down that were below; when the other
boat and their men entering at the fore-chains, secured
the forecastle of the ship, and the scuttle which went
down into the cock-room, making three men they found
their prisoners. When this was done, and all safe
upon deck, the captain ordered the mate, with three
men, to break into the round-house, where the new
rebel-captain lay, who, having taken the alarm, had
got up, and with two men and a boy had got fire-arms








A CERTAIN VICTORY. 303
in their hands; and, when the mate, with a crow,
split open the door, the new captain and his men fired
boldly among them, and wounded the mate with a
musket-ball, which broke his arm, and wounded two
more of the men, but killed nobody. The mate call-
ing for help, rushed, however, into the round-house,
wounded as he was, and with his pistol shot the new
captain through the head, the bullet entering at his
mouth, and came out again behind one of his ears, so
that he never spoke a word more: upon which the
rest yielded, and the ship was taken effectually with-
out any more lives lost.
As soon as the ship was then secured, the captain
ordered seven guns to be fired, which was the signal
agreed upon with me to give me notice of his success,
which you may be sure I was glad to hear, having
sat watching upon the shore for it till near two o'clock
in .the morning. Having thus heard the signal
plainly, I laid me down; and it having been a day
of great fatigue to me, I slept very sound, till I was
something surprised with the noise of a gun; and
presently starting up, I heard a man call me by the
name of Governor, Governor, and presently I knew
the captain's voice; when, climbing up to the top of
the hill, there he stood, and pointing to the ship, he
embraced me in his arms. My dear friend and de-
liverer," says he, there's your ship, for she is all
yours, and so are we, and all that belong to her."
I cast my eyes to the ship, and there she rode within
little more than half a mile of the shore; for they had







304 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
weighed her anchor as soon as they were masters of
her, and the weather being fair, had brought her to
an anchor just against the mouth of the little creek;
and the tide being up, the captain had brought the
pinnace in near the place where I at first landed my
rafts, and so landed just at my door. I was at first
ready to sink down with surprise; for I saw my de-
liverance, indeed, visibly put into my hands, all things
easy, and a large ship just ready to carry me away
whither I pleased to go. At first, for some time J
was not able to answer him one word, such was the
flood of joy in my breast, that it put all my spirits
into confusion. At last it broke out into tears; and
in a little while after I recovered my speech, and em-
braced him as my deliverer, and we rejoiced together.
When we had talked awhile, the captain told me
he had brought me some little refreshment, such as
the ship afforded; and what was a thousand times
more useful to me, he brought me six new clean
shirts, six very good neckcloths, two pair of gloves,
one pair of shoes, a hat, and one pair of stockings,
with a very good suit of clothes of his own, which
had been worn but very little; in a word, he clothed
me from head to foot. It was a very kind and
agreeable present, as any one may imagine, to one in
my circumstances; but never was anything in the
world of that kind so unpleasant, awkward, and un-
easy, as it was to me to wear such clothes at first.
After all his good things were brought into my
little apartment, we began to consult what was to be







CRUSOR AND THU ELUTINEERS.


done with the prisoners we had; for it was worth
considering whether we might venture to take them
away with us or no, especially two of them, whom he
knew to be incorrigible and refractory to the last
degree. These at last we decided on leaving on the
island, and they seemed very thankful for it, and
said they would much rather venture to stay there
than be carried to England to be hanged.
I accordingly set them at liberty, and bade them
retire into the woods to the place whence they came,
and I would leave them some fire-arms, some am-
munition, and some directions how they should live
very well, if they thought fit. Upon this I prepared
to go on board the ship; but told the captain I would
stay that night to prepare my things, and desired him
to go on board in the meantime, and keep all right
in the ship, and send the boat on shore next day for
me; ordering him, at all events, to cause the new
captain, who was killed, to be hanged at the yard-
arm, that these men might see him.
When the captain was gone, I sent for the men,
and told them I would let them into the story of my
living there, and put them into the way of making it
easy to them. Accordingly, I gave them the whole
history of the place, and of my coming to it; showed
them my fortifications, the way I made my bread,
planted my corn, cured my grapes, and, in a word,
all that was necessary to make them easy. I told
them the story also of the seventeen Spaniards that
were to be expected, for whom I left a letter, and








306 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
made them promise to treat them in common with
themselves. Here it may be noted, that the captain
had ink on board, who was greatly surprised that I
never hit upon a way of making ink of charcoal and
water, or of something else, as I had done things
much more difficult.
I left them my fire-arms, namely, five muskets,
three fowling-pieces, and three swords. I had above
a barrel and a half of powder left; for, after the first
year or two, I used but little and wasted none, and
told them I should prevail with the captain to leave
them two barrels of gunpowder more, and some garden-
seeds, which I told them I would have been very
glad of: also I gave them the bag of peas which the
captain had brought me to eat, and bade them be sure
to sow and increase them.
Having done all this, I left them the next day,
and went on board the ship. We prepared immedi-
ately to sail, but did not weigh that night. The
next morning early, two of the five men came swim-
ming to the ship's side, and making a most lament-
able complaint of the other three, begged to be taken
into the ship, for they should be murdered. Upon
this, the captain pretended to have no power without
me; but after some difficulty, and after their solemn
promises of amendment, they were taken on board,
and were, some time after, soundly whipped and
pickled: after which, they proved very honest and
quiet fellows.
Some time after this, the boat was ordered on shores








LEAVING THE ISLAND. 3UT
the tide being up, with the things promised to the
men; to which the captain, at my intercession, caused
their chests and clothes to be added, which they took,
and were very thankful for. I also encouraged them,
by telling them, if it lay in my power to send any
vessel to take them in, I would not forget them.
When I took leave of this island, I carried on
board, for reliques, the great goat-skin cap I had
made, my umbrella, and one of my parrots; also, I
forgot not to take the money I formerly mentioned,
which had lain by me so long useless that it was
grown rusty, or tarnished, and could hardly pass for
silver, till it had been a little rubbed and handled;
as also the money I found in the wreck of the
Spanish ship. And thus I left the island, the 19th
of December, as I found by the ship's account, in the
year 1686, after I had been upon it eight-and-twenty
years, two months, and nineteen days; being delivered
from this second captivity the same day of the month
that I first made my escape in the long-boat from
among the Moors f Sallee. In this vessel, after a
long voyage, I arri ed in England the 11th of June,
in the year 1687, having been thirty-five years
absent.








308 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOR.


CHAPTER XXTX.

WITEN I came to England, I was as perfect a stranger
to all the world as if I had never been known there.
My benefactor and faithful steward, whom I had left
my money in trust with, was alive, but had had great
misfortunes in the world; was become a widow the
second time, and very low in the world. I made her
very easy as to what she owed me, assuring her I
would give her no trouble; but, on the contrary, in
gratitude for her former care and faithfulness to me,
I relieved her as my little stock would afford; which,
at that time, would indeed allow me to do but little
for her; but I assured her I would never forget her
former kindness to me; nor did I forget her when I
had sufficient to help her, as shall be observed in its
proper place; I went down afterwards into York-
shire; but my father was dead, and my mother and
all the family extinct, except that I found two sisters,
and two of the children of one of my brothers.; and
as I had been long ago given over for dead, there
had been no provision made for me; so that, in a
word, I found nothing to relieve or assist me, and
that the little money I had would not do much for me
as to settling in the world.
I met with one piece of gratitude indeed, which I
did not expect; and this was, that the master of the
ship whom I had so happily delivered, and by the
same means saved the ship and cargo, having given








A VISIT TO LISBON. 809
a very handsome account to the owners of the man-
ner how I had saved the lives of the men and the
ship, they invited me to meet them, and some other
merchants concerned, and all together made me a
very handsome compliment upon the subject, and a
present of almost 200 sterling.
But, after making several reflections upon the cir-
cumstances of my life, and how little way this would
go towards settling me in the world, I resolved to go
to Lisbon, and see if I might not come by some in-
formation of the state of my plantation in the Brazils,
and of what was become of my partner, who, I had
reason to suppose, had some years past given me
over for dead. With this view I took shipping for
Lisbon, where I arrived in April following; my man
Friday accompanying me very honestly in all these
ramblings, and proving a most faithful servant upon
all occasions. When I came to Lisbon, I found out
by inquiry, and to my particular satisfaction, my old
friend the captain of the ship who first took me up at
sea, off the shore of Africa. He was now grown old,
and had left off going to sea, having put his son, who
was far from a young man, into his ship, and who
still followed the Brazil trade. The old man did not
know me; and indeed I hardly knew him; but I soon
brought him to my remembrance, and as soon brought
myself to his remembrance when I told him who I
Was.
After some passionate expressions of the old ac-.
quaintance between us, I inquired, you may be sure








310 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
after my plantation and my partner. The old man
told me he had not been in the Brazils for about nine
years; but that he could assure me, that when he
came away my partner was living; but the trustees
whom I had joined with him to take cognizance of my
part, were both dead ; that, however, he believed I
would have a very good account of the improvement
of the plantation; for that, upon the general belief
of my being cast away and drowned, my trustees had
given in the account of the produce of my part of the
plantation to the procurator-fiscal, who had appro-
priated it, in case I never came to claim it, one-third
to the king, and two-thirds to the monastery of St.
Augustine, to be expended for the benefit of the
poor, and for the conversion of the Indians to the
Catholic faith ; but that, if I appeared, or any one
for me, to claim the inheritance, it would be restored;
only that the improvement, or annual production,
being distributed to the charitable uses, could not be
restored. But he assured me that the steward of the
king's revenue from lands, and the proviedore, or
steward of the monastery, had taken great care all
along, that the incumbent, that is to say, my partner,
gave every year a faithful account of the produce, of
which they had duly received my moiety. I asked
him if he knew to what height of improvement he
had brought the plantation, and whether he thought
it might be worth looking after; or whether, on my
going thither, I should meet with any obstruction to
my possessing my just right in the moiety. He told







A CONVERSATION WITH AN OLD FRIEND. 311
me he could not exactly tell to what degree the plan.
station was improved, but this he knew, that my part-
ner was grown exceeding rich upon the enjoying his
part of it; and that, to the best of his remembrance,
he had heard that the king's third of my part, which
was, it seems, granted away to some other monastery,
or religious house, amounted to above two hundred
moidores a-year: that, as to my being restored to a
quiet possession of it, there was no question to be
made of that, my partner being alive to witness my
title, and my name being also enrolled in the register
of the country. Also he told me, that the survivors of
my two trustees were very fair and honest people,
and very wealthy; and he believed I would not only
have their assistance for putting me in possession, but
would find a very considerable sum of money in their
hands for my account, being the produce of the farm
while their fathers held the trust, and before it was
given up, as above; which, as he remembered, was
for about twelve years.
I showed myself a little concerned and uneasy at
this account, and inquired of the old captain how it
came to pass that the trustees should thus dispose of
my effects, when he knew that I had made my will,
and had made him, the Portuguese captain, my uni-
versal heir, &c.
He told me that was true; but that, as there was
no proof of my being dead, he could not act as exe-
cutor until some certain account should come of my
death ; and besides, he was not willing to intermeddle







312 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
with a thing so remote: that it was true he had regis-
tered my will, and put in his claim; and could he
have given any account of my being dead or alive,
he would have acted by procuration, and taken pos-
session of the ingenio (so they called the sugar-house).
and have given his son, who was now in the Brazils,
orders to do it. But," says the old man, "I have
one piece of news to tell you, which perhaps may not
be so acceptable to you as the rest; and that is, be-
lieving you were lost, and all the world believing so
also, your partner and trustees did offer to account with
me in your name, for six or eight of the first years'
profits, which I received. There being at that time
great disbursements for increasing the works, build-
ing an ingenio, and buying slaves, it did not amount
to near so much as afterwards it produced; however,"
says the old man, I shall give you a true account
of what I have received in all, and how I have dis-
posed of it."
After a few days' farther conference with this an-
cient friend, he brought me an account of the first six
years' income of my plantation, signed by my partner
and the merchant trustees, being always delivered in
goods, namely, tobacco in roll, and sugar in chests,
besides rum, molasses, &c., which is the consequence
of a sugar-work; and I found by this account, that
every year the income considerably increased; but, as
above, the disbursements being large, the sum at first
was small. However, the old man let me see that he
was debtor to me 470 moidores of gold, besides 60







HONESTY, AND ITS REWA.D. 313
chests of sugar, and 15 double rolls of tobacco, which
were lost in his ship; he having been shipwrecked
coming home to Lisbon, about eleven years after my
leaving the place. The good man then began to
complain of his misfortunes, and how he had been
obliged to make use of my money to recover his losses,
and buy him a share in a new ship. However, my
old friend," says he, "you shall not want a supply
in your necessity; and as soon as my son returns,
you shall be fully satisfied." Upon this, he pulls
out an old pouch, and gives me 160 Portugal moidores
in gold; and giving the writings of his title to the
ship, which his son was gone to the Brazils in, of
which he was a quarter part owner, and his son
another, he puts them both into my hands, for secu-
rity of the rest.
I was too much moved with the honesty and kind-
ness of the poor man to be able to bear this; and
remeiibering what he had done for me, how he had
taken me up at sea, and how generously he had used
me on all occasions, and particularly how sincere a
friend he was now to me, I could hardly refrain weep-
ing at what he had said to me. Therefore I asked
him if his circumstances admitted him to spare so
much money at that time, and if it would not straiten
him ? He told me he could not say but it might
straiten him a little; but, however, it was my money,
and I might want it more than he.
Everything the good man said was full of affection,
and I could hardly refrain from tears while he spoke.







314 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
In short, I took one hundred of the moidores, and
called for a pen and ink to give him a receipt for
them. Then I returned him the rest, and told him if
ever I had possession of the plantation, I would return
the other to him also (as indeed I afterwards did);
and that as to the bill of sale of his part in his son's
ship, I would not take it by any means; but that, if
I wanted the money, I found he was honest enough
to pay me; and if I did not, but came to receive
what he gave me reason to expect, I would never
have a penny more from him.
When this was past, the old man asked me if he
should put me into a method to make my claim to my
plantation ? I told him I thought to go over to it my-
self. IHe said I might do so if I pleased; but that,
if I did not, there were ways enough to secure my
rights, and immediately to appropriate the profits to
my use; and as there were ships in the river of Lis-
bon just ready to go away to Brazil, he made me enter
my name in a public register, with his affidavit, affirm-
ing, upon oath, that I was alive, and that I was the
same person who took up the land for the planting
the said plantation at first. This being regularly
attested by a notary, and a procuration affixed, he
directed me to send it, with a letter of his writing, to
a merchant of his acquaintance at the place; and then
proposed my staying with him till an account came
of the return.
Never was anything more honourable than the pro-
ceedings upon this procuration; fof, in less than seven







AFTER MANY DAYS." 316
months, I received a large packet from the survivors
of my trustees, the merchants, with full accounts of
everything.
There was also a letter of my partner's, congratu-
lating me very affectionately upon my being alive,
giving me an account how the estate was improved,
and what it produced a-year; inviting me, very pas-
sionately, to come over, and take possession of my
own; and, in the meantime, to give him orders to
whom he should deliver my effects, if I did not come
myself; concluding with a hearty tender of his
friendship, and that of his family: and sent me as a
present, seven fine leopards' skins, which he had, it
seems, received from Africa, by some other ship that
he had sent thither, and who, it seems, had made a
better voyage than I. He sent me also five chests
of excellent sweetmeats, and a hundred pieces of
gold uncoined, not quite so large as moidores. By
the same fleet, my two merchant trustees shipped me
1200 chests of sugar, 800 rolls of tobacco, and the
rest of the whole account in gold.
I might well say now, indeed, that the latter end
of Job was better than the beginning. It is impos-
sible to express the flutterings of my very heart,
when I found all my wealth about me; for, as the
Brazil ships come all in fleets, the same ships which
brought my letters brought my goods, and the effects
were safe in the river before the letters came to my
hand.
I was now master, all on a sudden, of above five








316 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
thousand pounds sterling in money, and had an
estate, as I might well call it, in the Brazils, of above
a thousand pounds a-year, as sure as an estate of
lands in England; and, in a word, I was in a con-
dition which I scarce knew how to understand, or
how to compose myself for the enjoyment of it. The
first thing I did was to recompense my original
benefactor, my good old captain, who had been first
charitable to me in my distress, kind to me in my
beginning, and honest to me at the end. I showed
him all that was sent to me; I told him that, next
to the Providence of Heaven, which disposed all
things, it was owing to him; and that it now lay on
me to reward him, which I would do a hundred fold.
So I first returned to him the hundred moidores I
had received of him; then I sent for a notary, and
caused him to draw up a general release, or discharge,
for the 470 moidores, which lie had acknowledged he
owed me, in the fullest and firmest manner possible.
After which I caused a procuration to be drawn, em-
powering him to be my receiver of the annual profits
of my plantation, and appointing my partner to
account with him, and make the returns, by the
usual fleets, to him in my name; and a clause in the
end, being a grant of 100 moidores a-year to him,
during his life, out of the effects, and 50 moidores
a-year to his son, after him, for his life: and thus I
requited my old man.
I then began to think of my poor widow, whose
husband had been my first benefactor, and she, while







SUNDRY ARRANGEMENTS.


it was in her power, my faithful steward and in-
structor. So the first thing I did, I got a merchant
in Lisbon to write to his correspondent in London
not only to pay a bill, but to go find her out, and
carry her in money a hundred pounds from me, and
to talk with her, and comfort her in her poverty, by
telling her she should, if I lived, have a further sup-
ply; at the same time, I sent my two sisters in the
country a hundred pounds each, they being, though
not in want, yet not in very good circumstances; one
having been married and left a widow, and the other
having a husband not so kind to her as he should
be. But, among all my relations or acquaintances, I
could not yet pitch upon one to whom I durst com-
mit the gross of my stock, that I might go away to
the Brazils, and leave things safe behind me; and
this greatly perplexed me.
I resolved, at last, to go to England, where, if I
arrived, I concluded I should make some acquaint-
ance, or find some relations that would be faithful to
me; and, accordingly, I prepared to go to England
with all my wealth.
In order to prepare things for my going home, I
first (the Brazil fleet being just going away) resolved
to give answers suitable to the just and faithful
account of things I had from thence. I wrote next
a letter of thanks to my two trustees, with all the
acknowledgment that so much justice and honesty
called for; as for sending them any present, they
were fur above having any occasion for it. I also







318 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
wrote to my partner, acknowledging his industry in
the improving the plantation, and his integrity in
increasing the stock of the works; giving him in-
structions for his future government of my part,
according to the powers I had left with my old
patron, to whom I desired him to send whatever
became due to me, till he should hear from me more
particularly; assuring him that it was my intention,
not only to come to him, but to settle myself there
for the remainder of my life. To this I added a
very handsome present of some Italian silks for his
wife and two daughters, for such the captain's son
informed me he had, with two pieces of fine English
broad cloth, the best I could get in Lisbon, five
pieces of black baize, and some Flanders lace of a
good value.
Having thus settled my affairs, sold my cargo,
and turned all my effects into good bills of exchange,
my next difficulty was, which way to go to England.
I had been accustomed enough to the sea, and yet I
had a strange aversion to go to England by sea at
that time.
Having been thus harassed in my thoughts, my
old pilot, to whom I communicated everything,
advised me not to go by sea; but either to go by
land to the Groyne, and cross over the Bay of
Biscay to Rochelle, from whence it was but an easy
and safe journey, by land, to Paris, and so to Calais
and Dover; or to go up to Madrid, and so all the
way by land through France. In a word, I was so







HOMEWARD BOUND. 319
prepossessed against my going to sea at all, except
from Calais to Dover, that I resolved to travel all
the way by land; which, as I was not in haste, and
did not value the charge, was by much the pleasanter
way; and to make it more so, my old captain brought
an English gentleman, the son of a merchant'in Lis-
bon, who was willing to travel with me; after which
we picked up two more English merchants also, and
two young Portuguese gentlemen, the last going to
Paris only; so that, in all, there were six of us, and
five servants: the two merchants and the two Portu-
guese contenting themselves with one servant be-
tween two, to save the charge; and as for me, I got
an English sailor to travel with me as a servant,
besides my man Friday, who was too much a stran-
ger to be capable of supplying the place of a servant
on the road.


CHAPTER XXX.

IN this manner I set out from Lisbon; and our com-
pany being very well mounted and armed, we made
a little troop, whereof they did me the honour to call
me captain, as well because I was the oldest man, as
because I had two servants, and, indeed, was the
original of the whole journey.
When we came to Madrid, we, being all of us
strangers to Spain, were willing to stay some time
to see the court of Spain, and to see what was worth







320 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
observing; but it being the latter part of the sum.
mer, we hastened away, and set out from Madrid
about the middle of October; but when we came to
the edge of Navarre, we were alarmed at several
towns on the way, with an account that so much
snow was fallen on the French side of the mountains,
that several travellers were obliged to come back to
Pampelona, after having attempted, at an extreme
hazard, to pass on.
When we came to Pampelona itself, we found it
so indeed; and to me that had been always used to
a hot climate, and to countries where I could scarce
bear any clothes on, the cold was insufferable: nor,
indeed, was it more painful than surprising, to come
but ten days before out of Old Castile, where the
weather was not only warm, but very hot, and imme-
diately to feel a wind from the Pyrenean mountains
so very keen, so severely cold, as to be intolerable,
and to endanger benumbing and perishing of our
fingers and toes.
Poor Friday was really frightened when he saw
the mountains all covered with snow, and felt cold
weather, which he had never seen or felt before in
his life. To mend the matter, when we came to
Pampelona, it continued snowing with so much
violence, and so long, that the people said winter
was come before its time; and the roads, which were
difficult before, were now quite impassable: for, in a
word, the snow lay in some places too thick for us to
travel, and, being not hard frozen, as is the case ir








TRAVELLING IN SPAIN. 321
the northern countries, there was no going without
being in danger of being buried alive every step.
We stayed no less than twenty days at Pampelona;
when, seeing the winter coming on, and no likeli-
hood of its being better, for it was the severest win-
ter, all over Europe, that had been known in the
memory of man, I proposed that we should all go
away to Fontarabia, and there take shipping for
Bourdeaux, which was a very little voyage. But
while I was considering this, there came in four
French gentlemen, who having been stopped on the
French side of the passes, as we were on the Spanish,
had found out a guide, who, traversing the country
near the head of Languedoc, had brought them over
the mountains by such ways, that they were not
much incommoded with the snow; for, where they
met with snow in any quantity, they said it was
frozen hard enough to bear them and their horses.
We sent for this guide, who told us he would under-
take to carry us the same way with no hazard from
the snow, provided we were armed sufficiently to
protect ourselves from wild beasts; for, he said, upon
these great snows it was frequent for some wolves to
show themselves at the foot of the mountains, being
made ravenous for want of food, the ground being
covered with snow. We told him we were well
enough prepared for such creatures as they were, if
he would insure us from a kind of two-legged wolves,
which, we were told, we were in most danger
from, especially on the French side of the mountains.








322 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
He satisfied us that there was no danger of that kind
in the way that we were to go: so we readily agreed
to follow him, as did also twelve other gentlemen,
with their servants, some French, some Spanish,
who, as I said, had attempted to go, and were
obliged to come back again.
Accordingly, we set out from Pampelona, with
our guide, on the 15th of November; and, indeed, I
was surprised when, instead of going forward, he
came directly back with us on the same road that we
came from Madrid, about twenty miles; when, having
passed two rivers, and come into the plain country,
we found ourselves in a warm climate again, where
the country was pleasant, and no snow to be seen;
but on a sudden, turning to his left, he approached
the mountains another way; and though it is true
the hills and precipices looked dreadful, yet he made
so many tours, such meanders, and led us by such
winding ways, that we insensibly passed the heights
of the mountains without being much encumbered
with the snow; and all on a sudden he showed us
the pleasant fruitful provinces of Languedoc and
Gascony, all green and flourishing, though, indeed,
at a great distance, and we had some rough way to
pass still.
We were a little uneasy, however, when we found
it snowed one whole day and a night so fast that we
could not travel; but he bid us be easy; we should
soon be past it all. We found, indeed, that we began
to descend every day, and to come more north than







FRIDAY AND THE WOLF.


before; and so, depending upon our guide, we went
on.
It was about two hours before night, when, our
guide being something before us, and not just in
sight, out rushed three monstrous wolves, and after
them a bear, out of a hollow way adjoining to a
thick wood; two of the wolves made at the guide,
and had he been far before us, he would have been
devoured before we could have helped him; one of
them fastened upon his horse, and the other attacked
the man with that violence, that he had not time or
presence of mind enough to draw his pistol, but
hallooed and cried out to us most lustily. My man
Friday being next to me, I bade him ride up, and
see what was the matter. As soon as Friday came in
sight of the man, he hallooed out as loud as the other,
" 0 master 1 0 master but like a bold fellow, rode
directly up to the poor man, and with his pistol, shot
the wolf that attacked him in the head.
It was happy for the poor man that it was my
man Friday; for he having been used to such crea-
tures in his country, he had no fear upon him, but
went close up to him and shot him, as above; where-
as any other of us would have fired at a further dis-
tance, and have, perhaps, either missed the wolf or
endangered shooting the man.
But it was enough to have terrified a bolder man
than I; and, indeed, it alarmed all our company,
when, with the noise of Friday's pistol, we heard on
both sides the most dismal howling of wolves; and
21







324 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
the noise, redoubled. by the echo of the mountains,
appeared to us as if there had been a prodigious
number of them; and, perhaps, there was not such a
few as that we had no cause of apprehensions. How-
ever, as Friday had killed this wolf, the other, that
had fastened upon the horse, left him immediately
and fled, without doing him any damage, having
happily fastened upon his head, where the bosses ot
the bridle had stuck in his teeth. But the man was
most hurt; for the raging creature had bit him
twice, once in the arm, and the other time a little
above his knee; and, though he had made some
defence, he was just, as it were, tumbling down by
the disorder of his horse, when Friday came up and
shot the wolf.
It is easy to suppose that, at the noise of Friday's
pistol, we all mended our pace, and rode up as fast
as the way, which was very difficult, would give us
leave, to see what was the matter. As soon as we
came clear of the trees, which blinded us before, we
saw clearly what had been the case, and how Friday
had disengaged the poor guide, though we did not
presently discern what kind of creature it was he
had killed.
But never was a fight managed so hardily, and in
such a surprising manner, as that which followed,
between Friday and the bear, which gave us all,
though at first we were surprised and afraid for him,
the greatest diversion imaginable.
My man Friday had delivered our guide, and








FRIDAY'S PERFORMANCE. 325
when we came up to him he was helping him ofi
from his horse, for the man was both hurt and fright-
ened, when, on a sudden, we espied the bear come
out of the wood, and a vast monstrous one it was,
the biggest by far that I ever saw. We were all a
little surprised when we saw him; but when Friday
saw him, it was easy to see joy and courage in the
fellow's countenance: "0, 0, 0 1" says Friday,
three times, pointing to him; "0 master I you give
me te leave, me shake to hand with him; me make
you good laugh."
I was surprised to see the fellow so well pleased:
"You fool!" says I, "he will eat you up." "Eatee
me upl eatee me up!" says Friday twice over again;
"me eatee him up; me make you good laugh; you
all stay here, me show you good laugh." So down
he sits, and gets off his boots in a moment, and puts
on a pair of pumps (as we call the flat shoes they
wear, and which he had in his pocket), gives my
other servant his.horse, and, with his gun, away he
flew, swift like the wind.
The bear was walking softly on, and offered to
meddle with nobody, till Friday coming pretty near,
calls to him, as if the bear could understand him,
"Hark ye, hark ye," says Friday, "me speakee
with you." We followed at a distance; for now,
being come down on the Gascony side of the moun-
tains, we were entered a vast great forest, where the
country was plain and pretty open, though it had
many trees in it scattered here and there. Friday,








326 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
who had, as we say, the heels of the bear, came up
with him quickly, and takes up a great stone, and
throws it at him, and hit him just on the head, but
did no more harm than if he had thrown it against
a wall; but it answered Friday's end, for the rogue
was so void of fear, that he did it purely to make
the bear follow him, and show us some laugh, as he
called it. As soon as the bear felt the blow, and
saw him, he turns about, and comes after him, taking
very long strides, and shuffling on, at a strange rate,
so as would have put a horse to a middling gallop.
Away runs Friday, and takes his course, as if he run
towards us for help. So we all resolved at once to
fire upon the bear, and deliver my man: though I
was angry at him, heartily, for bringing the bear
back upon us, when he was going about his own
business another way: and especially, I was angry
that he had turned the bear upon us, and then run
away; and I called out, "You dog, is this your
making us laugh? Come away, and take your
horse, that we may shoot the creature." He heard
me, and cried out, "No shoot, no shoot; stand still,
and you get much laugh;" and as the nimble crea-
ture ran two feet for the bear's one, he turned on a
sudden, on one side of us, and seeing a great oak
tree fit for his purpose, he beckoned to us to follow;
and doubling his pace, he gets nimbly up the tree,
laying his gun down upon the ground, at about five
or six yards from the bottom of the tree. The bear
soon came to the tree, and we followed at a distance








UP IN A TREE. 327
The first thing he did, he stopped at the gun, smelt
to it, but let it lie, and up he scrambles into the tree,
climbing like a cat, though so monstrous heavy. I
was amazed at the folly, as I thought it, of my man,
and could not, for my life, see anything to laugh at
yet, till, seeing the bear get up the tree, we all rode
nearer to him.
When we came to the tree, there was Friday got
out to the small end of a large branch, and the bear
got about half way to him. As soon as the bear
got out to that part where the limb of the tree was
weaker,-" Ha!" says he to us, "now you see me
teachee the bear dance." So he falls a jumping and
shaking the bough, at which the bear began to tot-
ter, but stood still, and began to look behind him, to
see how he should get back; then indeed, we did
laugh heartily. But Friday had not done with him
by a great deal; when seeing him stand still, he
calls out to him again, as if he had supposed the
bear could speak English, "What, you come no
farther? pray you come farther." So he left jumping
and shaking the tree; and the bear, just as if he
understood what he said, did come a little farther;
then he fell a jumping again, and the bear stopped
again. We thought now was a good time to knock
him on the head, and called Friday to stand still,
and we would shoot the bear; but he cried out ear-
nestly, "0 pray! 0 pray! no shoot, me shoot by-
and-then;" he would have said by-and-by. How-
ever, to shorten the story, Friday danced so much,







328 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
and the bear stood so ticklish, that we had laughing
enough, but still could not imagine what the fellow
would do; for, first, we thought he depended upon
shaking the bear off; and we found the bear was too
cunning for that too; for he would not go out far
enough to be thrown down, but clings fast with his
great broad claws and feet, so that we could not
imagine what would be the end of it, and what the
jest would be at last. But Friday put us out of
doubt quickly; for, seeing the bear cling fast to the
bough, and that he would not be persuaded to come
any farther, "Well, well," says Friday, "you no
come farther, me go; you no come to me, me come
to you:" and, upon this, he goes out to the smaller
end of the bough, where it would bend with his
weight; and gently lets himself down by it, sliding
down the bough, till he came near enough to jump
down on his feet, and away he runs to his gun, takes
it up, and stands still. "Well," said I to him,
" Friday, what will you do now? Why don't you
shoot him?" "No shoot," says Friday, "no yet;
me shoot now, me no kill; me stay, give you one
more laugh:" and, indeed, so he did, as you will see
presently; for, when the bear saw his enemy gone,
he comes back from the bough where he stood, but
did it mighty cautiously, looking behind him every
step, and coming backward till he got into the body
of the tree; then, with the same hinder end foremost,
he came down the tree, grasping it with his claws,
and moving one foot at a time, very leisurely. At







GOOD DIVERSION. 329
this juncture, and just before he could set his hind-
foot on the ground, Friday stepped up close to him,
clapped the muzzle of his piece into his ear, and shot
him dead. Then the rogue turned about, to see if
we did not laugh; and when he saw we were
pleased, by our looks, he falls a-laughing himself
very loud. So we kill bear in our country," says
Friday. "So you kill them?" says I: "why, you
have no guns." No," says he, "but shoot great
much long arrow." This was a good diversion to
us; but we were still in a wild place, and our guide
very much hurt, and what to do we hardly knew:
the howling of wolves ran much in my head; and,
indeed, except the noise I once heard on the shore of
Africa, of which I have said something already, I never
heard anything that filled me with so much horror.
These things, and the approach of night, called us
off, or else, as Friday would have had us, we should
certainly have taken the skin of this monstrous crea-
ture off, which was worth saving; but we had near
three leagues to go, and our guide hastened us. So
we left him, and went forward on our journey.
The ground was still covered with snow, though
not so deep and dangerous as on the mountains; and
the ravenous creatures, as we heard afterwards, were
come down into the forest and plain country, pressed
by hunger to seek for food, and had done a great
deal of mischief in the villages, where they surprised
the country people, killed a great many of their sheep
and horses, and some people too.








330 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
We journeyed on till we came in view of the en-
trance of a wood, through which we were to pass, at
the farther side of the plain; but we were greatly
surprised, when coming nearer the lane or pass, we
saw a confused number of wolves standing just at
the entrance. On a sudden, at another opening of
the wood, we heard the noise of a gun; and looking
that way, out rushed a horse, with a saddle and a
bridle on him, flying like the wind, and sixteen or
seventeen wolves after him, full speed. Indeed, the
horse had the heels of them, but as we supposed that
he could not hold it at that rate, we doubted not but
they would get up with him at last; no question but
they did.
But here we had a most horrible sight; for riding
up to the entrance where the horse came out, we
found the carcasses of another horse and two men,
devoured by the ravenous creatures; and one of the
men was, no doubt, the same whom we heard fire
the gun, for there lay a gun just by him, fired off;
but as to the man, his head and the upper part of
his body was eaten up. This filled us with horror,
and we knew not what course to take: but the crea-
tures resolved us soon, for they gathered about us
presently, in hopes of prey; and I verily believe
there were three hundred of them. It happened very
much to our advantage, that at the entrance into the
wood, but a very little way from it, there lay some
large timber trees, which had been cut down the sum-
mer before, and I suppose lay there for carriage.








ATTACKED BY WOLVES. 331
We drew up among those trees, and placing our-
selves in a line behind one long tree, I advised them
all to alight, and, keeping that tree before us for a
breast-work, to stand in a triangle, or three fronts,
inclosing our horses in the centre. We did so, and
it was well we did; for never was a more furious
charge than the creatures made upon us in this
place. They came on with a growling kind of noise,
and mounted the piece of timber, which, as I said,
was our breast-work, as if they were only rushing
upon their prey; and this fury of theirs, it seems,
was principally occasioned by their seeing our horses
behind us. I ordered our men to fire, as before,
every other man; and they took their aim so sure,
that they killed several of the wolves at the first
volley; but there was a necessity to keep a con-
tinual firing, for they came on furiously, those be-
hind pushing on those before.
When we had fired a second volley of our fusees,
we thought they had stopped a little, and I hoped
they would have gone off; but it was but a moment,
for others came forward again. So we fired two
volleys of our pistols; and I believe in these four
firings we had killed seventeen or eighteen of them,
and lamed twice as many, yet they came on again.
I was loath to spend our last shot too hastily, so I
called my servant, not my man Friday, for he was
better employed, for, with the greatest dexterity
imaginable, he had charged my fusee and his own
while we were engaged; but, as I said, I called my








332 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
other man, and giving him a horn of powder, I bade
him lay a train all along the piece of timber, and let
it be a large train. He did so, and had but just time
to get away, when the wolves came up to it, and some
were got upon it, when I, snapping an uncharged
pistol close to the powder, set it on fire. Those that
were upon the timber were scorched with it, and six
or seven of them fell, or rather jumped in among us,
with the force and fright of the fire. We despatched
these in an instant, and the rest were so frightened
with the light, which the night, for it was now very
near dark, made more terrible, that they drew back
a little; upon which I ordered our last pistols to be
fired off in one volley, and after that we gave a shout.
Upon this the wolves turned tail, and we sallied
immediately upon near twenty lame ones that we
found struggling on the ground, and fell a cutting
them with our swords, which answered our expecta-
tion; for the crying and howling they made was
better understood by their fellows, so that they all
fled and left us.
We had, first and last, killed about three score of
them, and had it been day-light, we had killed many
more: The field of battle being thus cleared, we
made forward again, for we had still near a league
to go. When we reached the town where we were
to lodge, we found the people in a terrible fright, and
all in arms; for it seems, the night before, the wolves
and some bears had broke into the village, and
put them in such terror, that they were obliged to








A NEW GUIDE.


keep guard night and day, but especially in the
night, to preserve their cattle, and indeed their
people.
The next morning our guide was so ill, and his
leg swelled so much with the rankling of his two
wounds, that he could go no farther; so we were
obliged to take a new guide here, and go to Thou-
louse, where we found a warm climate, a fruitful,
pleasant country, and no snow, no wolves, or any-
thing like them. But when we told our story at
Thoulouse, they told us it was nothing but what was
ordinary in the great forest at the foot of the moun-
tains, especially when the snow lay on the ground;
but they inquired much what kind of a guide we had
got, who would venture to bring us that way in such
a severe season, and told us it was surprising we
were not all devoured.
I have nothing uncommon to take notice of in my
passage through France, nothing but what other tra-
vellers have given an account of, with much more
advantage than I can. I travelled from Thoulouse
to Paris, and without any considerable stay came
to Calais, and landed safe at Dover, the 14th of
January, after having a severe cold season to travel
in.
I was now come to the centre of my travels, and
had, in a little time, all my new discovered estate
safe about me; the bills of exchange which I brought
with me having been very currently paid.
My principal guide and privy councillor was my








334 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
good ancient widow, who, in gratitude for the money
I had sent her, thought no pains too much, or care
too great, to employ for me; and I trusted her so
entirely with everything, that I was perfectly easy
as to the security of my effects. And indeed I was
very happy from the beginning, and now to the end,
in the unspotted integrity of this good gentle-
woman.
I now resolved to dispose of my plantation in the
Brazils, if I could find means. For this purpose I
wrote to my old friend at Lisbon, who, having offered
it to the two merchants, the survivors of my trustees,
who lived in the Brazils, they accepted the offer, and
remitted thirty-three thousand pieces of eight to a
correspondent of theirs at Lisbon to pay for it.
Having signed the instrument of sale, and sent it to
my old friend, he remitted me bills of exchange for
thirty-two thousand eight hundred pieces of eight
for the estate, reserving the payment of a hundred
moidores a-year to himself during his life, and fifty
moidores afterwards to his son for life, which I had
promised them.
Though I had sold my estate in the Brazils, yet I
could not keep the country out of my head, nor could
I resist the strong inclination I had to see my island.
My true friend, the widow, earnestly dissuaded me
from it, and so far prevailed with me, that for almost
seven years she prevented me running abroad; during
which time I took my two nephews, the children of
one of my brothers, into my care. The eldest, having








MARRIED AND SETTLED. 330
something of his own, I bred up as a gentleman,
and gave him a settlement of some addition to his
estate, after my decease. The other I put out to a
captain of a ship; and, after five years, finding him
a sensible, bold, enterprising young fellow, I put him
into a good ship, and sent him to sea; and this young
fellow afterwards drew me in, as old as I was, to far-
ther adventures myself.
In the meantime, I in part settled myself here;
for, first of all, I married, and that not either to my
disadvantage or dissatisfaction, and had three chil-
dren, two sons and one daughter; but my wife dying,
and my nephew coming home with good success from
a voyage to Spain, my inclination to go abroad, and
his importunity prevailed, and engaged me to go in
his ship, as a private trader, to the East Indies. This
was in the year 1694.




CHAPTER XXXI.

THAT homely proverb, used on so many occasions in
England, namely, That what is bred in the bone
will not go out of the flesh," was never more verified
than in the story of my life. Any one would think
that, after thirty-five years' affliction, and a variety of
unhappy circumstances, which few men, if any, ever
went through before, and after near seven years of
peace and enjoyment in the fulness of all things,







336 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


grown old, and when, if ever, it might be allowed me
to have had experience of every state of middle life,
and to know which was most adapted to make a man
completely happy. I say, after all this, any one
would have thought that the native propensity to
rambling, which I gave an account of, in my first
setting out in the world, to have been so predominant
in my thoughts, should be worn out, the volatile
part to be fully evaporated, or at least condensed,
and I might, at sixty-one years of age, have been a
little inclined to stay at home, and have done ven-
turing life and fortune any more.
Yet all these things had no effect upon me, or at
least not enough to resist the strong inclination I had
to go abroad again, which hung about me like a
chronical distemper. In particular, the desire of
seeing my new plantation in the island, and the
colony I left there, ran in my head continually. I
dreamed of it all night, and my imagination ran
upon it all day; it was uppermost in all my thoughts;
and my fancy worked so steadily and strongly upon
it, that I talked of it in my sleep. In short, nothing
could remove it out of my mind. It even broke so
violently into all my discourses, that it made my
conversation tiresome, for I could talk of nothing else.
All my discourse ran into it, even to impertinence;
and I saw it in myself.
In this kind of temper I lived some years. I had
no enjoyment of my life, no pleasant hours, no agree-
able diversion, but what had something or other of







A WIFE'S DISSUASIONS.


this in it. So that my wife, who saw my mind
wholly bent upon it, told me very seriously one
night, that she believed there was some secret power-
ful impulse of Providence upon me, which had deter-
mined me to go thither again; and that she found no-
thing hindered my going, but my being engaged to a
wife and children. She told me that it was true she
could not think of parting with me; but as she was
assured that, if she were dead, it would be the first
thing I would do, so, as it seemed to her the thing was
determined above, she would not be the only obstruc-
tion; for if I thought fit, and resolved to go-
Here she found me very intent upon her words, and
that I looked very earnestly at her, so that it a little
disordered her, and she stopped. I asked her why
she did not go on, and say out what she was going
to say. But I perceived that her heart was too full,
and some tears stood in her eyes. Speak out, my dear,
said I; are you willing I should go? No, says she,
very affectionately, I am far from willing; but if you
are resolved to go, says she, and rather than I would
be the only hindrance, I will go with you; for though
I think it a most preposterous thing for one of your
years, and in your condition, yet, if it must be, said
she again, weeping, I won't leave you; for if it be
of Heaven, you must do it; and if Heaven make it
your duty to go, He will also make it mine to go
with you, or otherwise dispose of me that I may not
obstruct it.
This affectionate behaviour of my wife's brought







338 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
me a little out of the vapours, and I began to consider
what I was doing. I corrected my wandering fancy,
and began to argue with myself sedately, what busi-
ness I had, after threescore years, and after such a
life of tedious sufferings and disasters, and closed in
so happy and easy a manner. I say, what business
had I to rush into new hazards, and put myself upon
adventures fit only for youth and poverty to run
into ?
With those thoughts I considered my new engage-
ment; that I had a wife, one child born, and my
wife then great with child of another; that I had all
the world could give me, and had no need to seek
hazards for gain; that I was declining in years, and
ought to think rather of leaving what I had gained,
than of seeking to increase it; that as to what my
wife had said of its being an impulse from Heaven,
and that it should be my duty to go, I had no
notion of that. So after many of these cogitations, I
struggled with the power of my imagination, reasoned
myself out of it, as I believe people may always do
in like cases, if they will, and, in a word, I con-
quered it, composed myself with such arguments as
occurred to my thoughts, and which my present con-
dition furnished me plentifully with. And, particu-
larly, as the most effectual method, I resolved to
divert myself with other things, and to engage in
some business that might effectually tie me up from
any more excursions of this kind; for I found that
thing return upon me chiefly when I was idle, and








A COUNTRY LTFE. 339
had nothing to do, nor anything of moment imme-
diately before me. To this purpose I bought a little
farm in the county of Bedford, and resolved to move
myself thither. I had a little convenient house upon
it; and the land about it, I found, was capable of
great improvement; and it was many ways suited
to my inclination, which delighted in cultivating,
managing, planting, and improving of land; and
particularly, being an inland country, I was removed
from conversing with sailors and things relating to
the remote parts of the world.
In a word, I went down to my farm, settled my
family, bought me ploughs, harrows, a cart, waggon,
horses, cows, and sheep, and setting seriously to
work, became, in one half year, a mere country
gentleman. My thoughts were entirely taken up in
managing my servants, cultivating the ground, in-
closing, planting, &c. And I lived, as I thought,
the most agreeable life that nature was capable of
directing, or that a man always bred to misfortunes
was capable of retreating to.
I farmed upon my own land, I had no rent to pay,
was limited by no articles. I could pull up or cut
down as I pleased. What I planted was for myself,
and what I improved was for my family; and having
thus left off the thoughts of wandering, I had not the
least discomfort in any part of life as to this world.
Now I thought, indeed, that I enjoyed the middle
state of life, which my father so earnestly recom-
mended to me and lived a kind of heavenly life,
22








340 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
something like what is described by the poet, upon
the subject of a country life-

"- Free from vices, free from care,
Age has no pain, and youth no snare."

But, in the middle of all this felicity, one blow
from unseen Providence unhinged me at once; and
not only made a breach upon me inevitable and in-
curable, but drove me, by its consequences, into a
deep relapse of the wandering disposition, which, as
I may say, being born in my very blood, soon re-
covered its hold of me, and, like the returns of a
violent distemper, came on with an irresistible force
upon me, so that nothing could make any more im-
pression upon me. This blow was the loss of my
wife. It is not my business here to write an elegy
upon my wife, give a character of her particular vir-
tues, and make my court to the sex by the flattery
of a funeral sermon. She was, in a few words, the
stay of all my affairs, the centre of all my enter-
prises, the engine that, by her prudence, reduced me
to that happy compass I was in, from the most ex-
travagant and ruinous project that fluttered in my
head, as above, and did more to guide my rambling
genius than a mother's tears, a father's instructions,
a friend's counsel, or all my own reasoning powers
could do. I was happy in listening to her entreaties,
and in being moved by her tears; and to the last
degree desolate and dislocated in the world by the
loss of her.








RETURN TO LONDON. 041
When she was gone, the world looked awkwardly
round me; I was as much a stranger in it, in
my thoughts, as I was in the Brazils, when I
first went on shore there; and as much alone,
except as to the assistance of servants, as I was
in my island. I knew neither what to think, nor
what to do.
My sage counsellor was gone; I was like a ship
without a pilot, that could only run afore the wind :
my thoughts ran all away again into the old affair;
my head was quite turned with the whimsies of
foreign adventures; and all the pleasant, innocent
amusements of my farm, my garden, my cattle, and
my family, which before entirely possessed me, were
nothing to me, had no relish, and were like music to
one who has no ear, food to one that has no taste. In
a word, I resolved to leave off house-keeping, let my
farm, and return to London; and, in a few months
after, I did so.
When I came to London I was still as uneasy as
I was before; I had no relish for the place, no em-
ployment in it, nothing to do but to saunter about
like an idle person, of whom it may be said he is
perfectly useless in God's creation, and it is not one
farthing's matter to the rest of his kind whether he
be dead or alive. This also was the thing which, of
all circumstances of life, was the most my aversion,
who had been all my days used to an active life;
and I would often say to myself; "A state of idleness
is the very dregs of life;" and, indeed, I thought







342 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
I was much more suitably employed when I was
twenty-six days making me a deal board.
It was now the beginning of the year 1693, when
my nephew, whom, as I have observed before, I had
brought up to the sea, and had made him commander
of a ship, was come home from a short voyage to
Bilboa, being the first he made. He came to me,
and told me that some merchants of his acquaintance
had been proposing to him to go a voyage for them
to the East Indies and to China, as private traders.
"And now, uncle," says he, "if you will go to sea
with me, I will engage to land you upon your old
habitation in the island; for we are to touch at the
Brazils. I hope it may not be an unlucky proposal,
sir," says he; I dare say you would be pleased to
see your new colony there, where you once reigned
with more felicity than most of your brother monarchs
in the world."
In a word, the scheme hit so exactly with my tem-
per, that is to say, the prepossession I was under,
that I told him in a few words, if he agreed with the
merchants, I would go with him but I told him I
would not promise to go any farther than my own
island. Why, sir," says he, you don't want to be
left there again, I hope?" "Why," said I, "can
you not take me up again on your return?" He told
me it would not be possible to do so; that the mer-
chants would never allow him to come that way with
a laden ship of such value, it being a month's sail
out of his way, and might be three or four. "Be-







THE OLD RESTLESSNESS. 343
sides, sir, if I should miscarry," said he, "and not
return at all, then you would be just reduced to the
condition you were in before."
This was very rational; but we both found out a
remedy for it: which was, to carry a framed sloop on
board the ship, which, being taken in pieces, and
shipped on board the ship, might, by the help of some
carpenters, whom we agreed to carry with us, be set
up again in the island, and finished fit to go to sea
in a few days.
I was not long resolving; for, indeed, the impor-
tunities of my nephew joined so effectually with my
inclination, that nothing could oppose me. On the
other hand, my wife being dead, I had nobody con-
cerned themselves so much for me as to persuade me
to one way or the other, except my ancient good
friend the widow, who earnestly struggled with me
to consider my years, my easy circumstances, and
the needless hazards of a long voyage; and, above all,
my young children. But it was all to no purpose;-
I had an intense desire to the voyage; and I told
her I thought there was something so uncommon in
the impressions I had upon my mind for the voyage,
that it would be a kind of resisting Providence if I
should attempt to stay at home: after which she
ceased her expostulations, and joined with me, not
only in making provision for my voyage, but also in
settling my family affairs for my absence, and pro-
viding for the education of my children.
In order to this I made my will, and settled the







344 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

estate I had in such a manner for my children, and
placed in such hands that I was perfectly easy and
satisfied they would have justice done them, whatever
might befall me; and for their education I left it
wholly to the widow, with a sufficient maintenance to
herself for her care: all which she richly deserved,
for no mother could have taken more care in their
education, or understood it better; and, as she lived
till I came home, I also lived to thank her for it.




CHAPTER XXXII.

MY nephew was ready to sail about the beginning of
January 1694-5; and I, with my man Friday, went
on board, in the Downs, the 8th: having, besides
that sloop which I mentioned above, a very consider-
able cargo of all kinds of necessary things for my
colony; which, if I did not find in good condition, I
resolved to leave so.
First, I carried with me some servants, whom I
purposed to place there as inhabitants, or, at least, to
set on work there, upon my account, while I stayed,
and either to leave them there, or carry them for-
ward, as they would appear willing; particularly I
carried two carpenters, a smith, and a very handy
ingenious fellow, who was a cooper by trade, and was
also a general mechanic; for he was dexterous at
making wheels, and hand-mills to grind corn; was a







A MOTLEY CARGO.


good turner, and a good pot-maker; he also made
anything that was proper to make of earth, or of
wood; in a word, we called him our Jack of all
trades. With these I carried a tailor, who had offered
himself to go a passenger to the East Indies with
my nephew, but afterwards consented to stay on our
new plantation; and proved a most necessary, handy
fellow, as could be desired, in many businesses besides
that of his trade: for, as I observed formerly, Ne-
cessity arms us for all employment."
My cargo, as near as I can recollect, for I have
not kept account of the particulars, consisted of a
sufficient quantity of linen, and some English thin
stuffs, for clothing the Spaniards that I expected to
find there; and enough of them as, by my calcula-
tion, might comfortably supply them for seven years.
If I remember right, the materials I carried for
clothing them, with gloves, hats, shoes, stockings,
and all such things as they could want for wearing,
amounted to above two hundred pounds, including
some beds, bedding, and household stuff, particularly
kitchen utensils, with pots, kettles, pewter, brass, &c.,
and near a hundred pounds more in ironwork, nails,
tools of every kind, staples, hooks, hinges, and every
necessary thing I could think of.
I carried also a hundred spare arms, muskets, and
fusees; besides some pistols, a considerable quantity
of shot of all sizes, three or four tons of lead, and
two pieces of brass cannon; and because I knew not
what time and what extremities I was providing for,







.40 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
I carried a hundred barrels of powder, besides swords,
cutlasses, and the iron part of some pikes and hal-
berts: so that, in short, we had a large magazine of
all sorts of stores; and I made my nephew carry two
small quarter-deck guns more than he wanted for his
ship, to leave behind, if there was occasion; that,
when we came there, we might build a fort, and man
it against all sorts of enemies : and, indeed, I at first
thought there would be need enough of all, and much
more, if we hoped to maintain our possession of the
island; as shall be seen in the course of that story.
I had not such bad luck in this voyage as I had
been used to meet with, and, therefore, shall have
the less occasion to interrupt the reader, who, per-
haps, may be impatient to hear how matters went
with my colony; yet some odd accidents, cross winds,
and bad weather, happened on this first setting out,
which made the voyage longer than I expected it at
first; and I, who had never made but one voyage,
namely, my first voyage to Guinea, in which I might
be said to come back again, as the voyage was at
first designed, began to think it was still my lot never
to be contented with being on shore, and yet to be
always unfortunate at sea.
Contrary winds first put us to the northward, and
we were obliged to put in at Galway, in Ireland,
where we lay wind-bound two-and-twenty days; but
we had this satisfaction with the disaster, that proil-
sions were here exceeding cheap, and in the utmost
plenty; so that, while we lay here, we never touched







A SHIP ON FIRE. 347
the ship's stores, but rather added to them. Here,
also, I took in several live hogs, and two cows, with
their calves; which I resolved, if I had a good pas-
sage, to put on shore in my island; but we found
occasion to dispose otherwise of them.
We set out on the 5th of February from Ireland,
and had a very fair gale of wind for some days. As
I remember, it might be about the twentieth day of
February, late in the evening, when the mate having
the watch came into the round-house and told us he
saw a flash of fire, and heard a gun fired; and, while
he was telling us of it, a boy came in, and told us the
boatswain heard another. This made us all run out
upon the quarter-deck, where for a while we heard
nothing; but in a few minutes we saw a great light,
and found that there was some very terrible fire at
a distance. Immediately we had recourse to our
reckonings, in which we all agreed that there could
be no land that way in which the fire showed itself,
no, not for 500 leagues, for it appeared at W.N. W.
Upon this we concluded it must be some ship on fire
at sea; and as, by our hearing the noise of guns just
before, we concluded that it could not be far off, we
stood directly towards it, and were presently satisfied
we should discover it; because the farther we sailed
the greater the light appeared; though, the weather
being hazy, we could not perceive anything but the
light for a while. In about half an hour's sailing,
the wind being fair for us, though not much of it,
and the weather clearing up a little, we could plainly







348 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
discern that it was a great ship on fire in the middle
of the sea.
I immediately ordered that five guns should be
fired, one soon after another; that, if possible, we
might give notice to them that there was help for
them at hand, and that they might endeavour to save
themselves in their boat; for, though we could see
the flames of the ship, yet they, it being night, could
see nothing of us.
We lay by some time upon this, only driving as
the burning ship drove, waiting for day-light; when,
on a sudden, to our great terror, though we had rea-
son to expect it, the ship blew up into the air; and
immediately, that is to say, in a few minutes, all the
fire was out: that is to say, the rest of the ship sunk.
This was a terrible, and, indeed, an afflicting sight,
for the sake of the poor men, who I concluded must
be either all destroyed in the ship, or be in the utmost
distress in their boat, in the middle of the ocean:
which at present, by reason it was dark, I could not
see. However, to direct them as well as I could, I
caused lights to be hung out in all the parts of the
ship where we could, and which we had lanthorns
for, and kept firing guns all the night long; letting
them know by this, that there was a ship not far off.
About eight o'clock in the morning we discovered
the ship's boats by the help of our perspective
glasses; found there were two of them both thronged
with people, and deep in the water. We perceived
they rowed, the wind being against them; that they







RESCUE OF CREW AND PASSENGERS.


saw our ship, and did their utmost to make us see
them.
We immediately spread our ancient, to let them
know we saw them, and hung a waft out, as a signal
for them to come on board; and then made more sail,
standing directly to them. In little more than half
an hour we came up with them; and, in a word, took
them all in, being no less than sixty-four men, women,
and children: for there were a great many passengers.
We found it was a French merchant ship of 300
tons, homeward bound from Quebec, in the river of
Canada. The master gave us a long account of the
distress of his ship; how the fire began in the steer-
age, by the negligence of the steersman; but, on his
crying out for help, was, as everybody thought,
entirely put out; but they soon found that some
sparks of the fire had gotten into some part of the
ship so difficult to come at, that they could not effec-
tually quench it; and afterwards getting in between
the timbers, and within the ceiling of the ship, it
proceeded into the hold, and mastered all the skill
and all the application they were able to exert.
They had no more to do then but to get into their
boats, which, to their great comfort, were pretty
large: being their long boat, and a great shallop,
besides a small skiff, which was of no great service
to them, other than to get some fresh water and pro-
visions into her, after they had secured their lives
from the fire. They had, indeed, small hope of their
lives by getting into these boats at that distance







350 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
from any land; only, as they said well, that they
were escaped from the fire, and a possibility that
some ship might happen to be at sea, and might take
them in. They had sails, oars, and a compass; and
were preparing to make the best of their way back
to Newfoundland, the wind blowing pretty fair, for it
blew an easy gale at S.E. by E. They had as much
provisions and water, as, with sparing it so as to be
next door to starving, might support them about
twelve days; in which, if they had no bad weather,
and no contrary winds, the captain said he hoped he
might get to the Banks of Newfoundland, and might
perhaps take some fish, to sustain them till they
might go on shore. But there were so many chances
against them in all these cases, such as storms, to
overset and founder them; rains and cold, to benumb
and perish their limbs; contrary winds, to keep them
out and starve them; that it must have been next to
miraculous if they had escaped.
In the midst of their consternation, every one
being hopeless and ready to despair, the captain,
with tears in his eyes, told me they were on a sudden
surprised with the joy of hearing a gun fire, and after
that, four more; these were the five guns which I
caused to be fired at first seeing the light. This
revived their hearts and gave them notice, which,"as
above, I desired it should, namely, that there was a
ship at hand for their help.
It is impossible for me to express the several ges
tures, the strange ecstacies, the variety of postures,







DANGER OF EXCESSIVE JOY.


which these poor delivered creatures ran into, to ex-
press the joy of their souls at so unexpected a de-
liverance.
There were two priests among them, one an old
man, and the other a young man; and that which
was strangest was, the old man was the worst. As
soon as he set his foot on board our ship, and saw
himself safe, he dropt down stone dead, to all ap-
pearance; not the least sign of life could be perceived
in him. Our surgeon immediately applied proper
remedies to recover him, and was the only man in
the ship that believed he was not dead. At length
he opened a vein in his arm, having first chafed and
rubbed the part, so as to warm it as much as possible.
Upon this the blood, which only dropped at first,
flowing freely in three minutes after, the man opened
his eyes; and a quarter of an hour after that, he
spoke, grew better, and, in a little time, quite well.
After the blood was stopped, he walked about; told
us he was perfectly well; took a dram of cordial
which the surgeon gave him, and was what we
called come to himself." About a quarter of an
hour after this, they came running into the cabin to
the surgeon, who was bleeding a French woman that
had fainted, and told him the priest was gone stark
mad. It seems he had begun to revolve the change
of circumstances in his mind, and again this put him
into an ecstacy of joy; his spirits whirled about faster
than the vessels could convey them, the blood grew
hot and feverish, and the man was as fit for Bedlam








352 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
as any creature that ever was in it. The surgeon
would not bleed him again in that condition, but
gave him something to doze and put him to sleep;
which, after some time, operated upon him, and he
awke next morning perfectly composed and well.
The younger priest behaved with great command
of his passions, and was really an example of a seri-
ous, well-governed mind.
He applied himself to his country-folks; laboured
to compose them; persuaded, entreated, argued, rea-
soned with them, and did his utmost to keep them
within the exercise of their reason; and with some
he had success, though others were for a time out of
all government of themselves.
We were something disordered by the extrava-
gances among our new guests for the first day; but
when they had been retired, lodging provided for
them, as well as our ship would allow, and they had
slept heartily-as most of them did, being fatigued
and frightened-they were quite another sort of
people the next day.
Nothing of good manners, or civil acknowledg-
ments for the kindness shown them, was wanting;
the French, it is known, are naturally apt enough
to exceed that way. The captain and one of the
priests came to me the next day, and desired to speak
with me and my nephew: the commander began to
consult with us what should be done with them.
As to setting them on shore, I told them, indeed,
that was an exceeding difficulty to us, for that the








IN A DILEMMA.


ship was bound to the East Indies; and, though we
were driven out of our course to the westward a very
great way, and, perhaps, were directed by Heaven
on purpose for their deliverance, yet it was impossible
for us wilfully to change our voyage on their parti-
cular account; nor could my nephew, the captain,
answer it to the freighters, with whom he was under
charter-party to pursue his voyage by the way of
Brazil: and all I knew we could do for them was,
to put ourselves in the way of meeting with other
ships homeward-bound from the West Indies, and
getting them a passage, if possible, to England or
France.
They were in a very great consternation, especially
the passengers, at the notion of being carried away
to the East Indies; and entreated me that, seeing I
was driven so far to the westward before I met with
them, I would at least keep on the same course to
the Banks of Newfoundland, where it was probable
I might meet with some ship or sloop, that they
might hire to carry them back to Canada, from
whence they came.
I thought this was but a reasonable request on
their part, so I consented that we would carry them
to Newfoundland, if wind and weather would permit;
and if not, that I would carry then to Martinico, in
the West Indies.
The wind continued fresh easterly, but the weather
pretty good; and as the winds had continued in the
points between N.E. and S.E. a long time we missed








354 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
several opportunities of sending them to France,
for we met several ships bound to Europe, whereof
two were French, from St. Christopher's; but they
had been so long beating up against the wind, that
they durst take in no passengers, for fear of wanting
provisions for the voyage, as well for themselves as
for those they should take in; so we were obliged to
go on. It was about a week after this that we made
the Banks of Newfoundland; where, to shorten my
story, we put all our French people on board a bark,
which they hired at sea there, to put them on shore,
and afterwards to carry them to France, if they could
get provisions to victual themselves with. When I
say all the French went on shore, I should remember
that the young priest I spoke of, hearing we were
bound to the East Indies, desired to go the voyage
with us, and to be set on shore on the coast of Coro-
mandel: which I readily agreed to, for I wonderfully
liked the man, and had very good reason, as will
appear afterwards: also four of the seamen entered
themselves on our ship, and proved very useful
fellows.
From hence we directed our course to the West
Indies, steering away S. and S. by E. for about
twenty days together, sometimes little or no wind
at all; when we met with another subject for our
humanity to work upon, almost as deplorable as that
before.








A WOFUL CONDITION.


CHAPTER XXXIII.

IT was in the latitude of 27 degrees 5 minutes north,
and the 19th day of March 1694-5, when we spied a
sail, our course, S.E. and by S; we soon perceived it
was a large vessel, and that she bore up to us, but
could not at first know what to make of her, till,
after coming a little nearer, we found she had lost her
main top-mast, fore-mast, and bowsprit; and, pre-
sently, she fired a gun, as a signal of distress. The
weather was pretty good, wind at N.N.W. a fresh gale,
and we soon came to speak with her.
We found her a ship of Bristol, bound home from
Barbadoes, but had been blown out of the road at
Barbadoes, a few days before she was ready to sail,
by a terrible hurricane, while the captain and chief
mate were both gone on shore: so that, besides the
terror of the storm, they were in an indifferent case
for good artists to bring the ship home. They had
been already nine weeks at sea, and had met with
another terrible storm, after the hurricane was over,
which had blown them quite out of their knowledge
to the westward, and in which they lost their masts,
as above.
But that which was worst of all was, that they
were almost starved for want of provisions, besides
the fatigues they had undergone: their bread and flesh
were quite gone; they had not one ounce left in the
ship, and had none for eleven days. The only relief
23








356 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
they had was, their water was not all spent, and they
had about half a barrel of flour left; they had sugar
enough; some succades, or sweetmeats, they had at
first, but they were devoured; and they had seven
casks of rum.
We immediately applied ourselves to give them
what relief we could spare.
But now they were in a new danger; for they
were afraid of eating too much, even of that little we
gave them. The mate, or commander, brought six
men with him in his boat; but these poor wretches
looked like skeletons, and were so weak, that they
could hardly sit to their oars. The mate himself was
very ill, and half starved; for he declared he had
reserved nothing from the men, and went share-and-
share alike with them in every bit they ate.
The sight of these people's distress was very mov-
ing to me, and brought to mind what I had a terrible
prospect of at my first coming on shore in my island,
where I had never the least mouthful of food, or any
prospect of procuring any; besides the hourly appre-
hensions I had of being made the food of other crea-
tures.
I kept the mate, whom we then called captain, on
board, with his men, to refresh them, ordered my own
boat to go on board the ship, to relieve the starving
crew that were left on board, and with my mate and
twelve men, to carry them a sack of bread, and four
or five pieces of beef to boil. Our surgeon charged
the men to cause the meat to be boiled while they








A SCENE OF MISERY. 3D0
stayed, and to keep guard in the cook-room, to pre-
vent the men taking it to eat raw, or taking it out of
the pot before it was well boiled, and then to give
every man but a very little at a time; and, by this
caution, he preserved the men, who would otherwise
have killed themselves with that very food that was
given them on purpose to save their lives.
At the same time I ordered the mate to go into the
great cabin, and see what condition the poor passen-
gers were in (there were three of them-a youth, his
mother, and maid-servant); and if they were alive, to
comfort them, and give them what refreshment was
proper; and the surgeon gave him a large pitcher,
with some of the prepared broth which he had given
the mate that was on board, and which he did not
question would restore them gradually.
I was not satisfied with this; but, as I said above,
having a great mind to see the scene of misery which
I knew the ship itself would present me with, in a
more lively manner than I could have it by report, I
took the captain of the ship, as we now called him,
with me, and went myself, a little after, in their boat.
I found the poor men on board almost in a tumult,
to get the victuals out of the boiler before it was
ready; but my mate observed his orders, and kept a
good guard at the cook-room door; and the man he
placed there, after using all possible persuasion to
have patience, kept them off by force.
But the misery of the poor passengers in the cabin
was of another nature, and far beyond the rest; for








358 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


as, first, the ship's company had so little for them-
selves, it was but too true that they had at first kept
them very low, and at last totally neglected them; so
that, for six or seven days, it might be said they had
really no food at all, and for several days before very
little. The poor mother, who, as the men reported,
was a woman of sense and good breeding, had spared
all she could so affectionately for her son, that at last
she entirely sunk under it; and when the mate of our
ship went in, she sat upon the floor, or deck, with her
back up against the sides, between two chairs, which
were lashed fast, and her head sunk between her
shoulders, like a corpse, though not quite dead. My
mate said all he could to revive and encourage her,
and with a spoon put some broth into her mouth.
She opened her lips, and lifted up one hand, but could
not speak; yet she understood what he said, and made
signs to him, intimating that it was too late for her,
but pointed to her child, as if she would have said,
they should take care of him. However, the mate,
who was exceedingly moved with the sight, endea-
voured to get some of the broth into her mouth, and,
as he said, got two or three spoonfuls down; though
I question whether he could be sure of it or not: but
it was too late, and she died the same night.
The youth, who was preserved at the price of his
most affectionate mother's life, was not so far gone;
yet he lay in a cabin bed, as one stretched out, with
hardly any life left in him. He had a piece of an old
glove in his mouth, having eaten up the rest of it.







A FAMISHED WOMAN. 359
However, being young, and having more strength than
his mother, the mate got something down his throat,
and he began sensibly to revive; though by giving
him some time after but two or three spoonfuls extra-
ordinary, he was very sick, and brought it up again.
But the next care was the poor maid: she lay all
along upon the deck, hard by her mistress, and just
like one that had fallen down with an apoplexy, and
struggled for life. Her limbs were distorted; one of
her hands was clasped round the frame of a chair, and
she griped it so hard, that we could not easily make
her let it go: her other arm lay over her head, and
her feet lay both together, set fast against the frame
of the cabin table. In short, she lay just like one in
the agonies of death, and yet she was alive too.
The poor creature was not only starved with
hunger, and terrified with the thoughts of death, but,
as the men told us afterwards, was broken-hearted
for her mistress, whom she saw dying for two or three
days before, and whom she loved most tenderly.
We knew not what to do with this poor girl; for
when our surgeon, who was a man of very great
knowledge and experience, had with great application
recovered her as to life, he had her upon his hands
as to her senses; for she was little less than dis-
tracted for a considerable time after, as shall appear
presently.
Whoever shall read these memorandums must be
desired to consider that visits at sea are not like a
journey into the country, where sometimes people







360 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON ORUSOE.
stay a week or a fortnight at a place. Our business
was to relieve this distressed ship's crew, but not lie
by for them; and though they were willing to steer
the same course with us for some days, yet we could
carry no sail to keep pace with a ship that had no
masts. However, as their captain begged of us to help
him to set up a main-topmast, and a kind of a top-
mast to his jury foremast, we did, as it were, lie by
him for three or four days; and then, having given
him five barrels of beef, a barrel of pork, two hogs-
heads of biscuit, and a proportion of peas, flour, and
what other things we could spare; and, taking three
casks of sugar, some rum, and some pieces of eight
from them for satisfaction, we left them; taking on
board with us, at their own earnest request, the youth
and the maid, and all their goods.
The young lad was about seventeen years of age;
a pretty, well-bred, modest, and sensible youth, greatly
dejected with the loss of his mother, and, as it seems,
had lost his father but a few months before at Barba-
does. He begged of the surgeon to speak to me to take
him out of the ship.
The surgeon told him how far we were going, and
that it would carry him away from all his friends, and
put him, perhaps, in as bad circumstances almost as
those we found him in; that is to stay, starving in the
world. IHe said it mattered not whither he went, if
he was but delivered from the terrible crew that he
was among; that the captain (by which he meant me,
for he could know nothing of my nephew) had saved








AN ORPHAN'S DISTRESS. 361
his life, and he was sure would not hurt him; and as
for the maid, he was sure, if she came to herself she
would be very thankful for it, let us carry them where
we would. The surgeon represented the case so affec-
tionately to me, that I yielded, and we took them both
on board, with all their goods, except eleven hogs-
heads of sugar, which could not be removed or come
at; and as the youth had a bill of lading for them, I
made his commander sign a writing, obliging himself
to go as soon as he came to Bristol, to one Mr. Rogers,
a merchant there, to whom the youth said he was
related, and to deliver a letter which I wrote to him,
and all the goods he had belonging to the deceased
widow; which I suppose was not done, for I could
never learn that the ship came to Bristol, but was, as
is most probable, lost at sea; being in so disabled a
condition, and so far from any land, that I am of
opinion, the first storm she met with afterwards, she
might founder in the sea; for she was leaky, and had
damage in her hold when we met with her.
I was now in the latitude of 19 degrees 32 minutes,
and had hitherto a tolerable voyage, as to weather,
though at first the winds had been contrary. I shall
trouble nobody with the little incidents of wind, wea-
ther, currents, &c., on the rest of our voyage; but, to
shorten my story, for the sake of what is to follow,
shall observe, that I came to my old habitation, the
island, on the 10th of April 1695. It was with no
small difficulty that I found the place; for, as I came
to it, and went from it before, on the south and east








362 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
side of the island, as coming from the Brazils, so now
coming in between the main and the island, and hav-
ing no chart for the coast, or any land-mark, I did
not know it when I saw it, or know whether I saw it
or not.
We beat about a great while, and went ashore on
several islands in the mouth of the great river Oro-
nooque, but none for my purpose; only this I learned
by my coasting the shore, that I was under one great
mistake before, namely, that the continent which I
thought I saw from the island I lived in, was really
no continent, but a long island, or rather a ridge of
islands, reaching from one to the other side of the ex-
tended mouth of that great river; and that the savages
who came to my island were not properly those which
we call Caribbees, but islanders, and other barbarians
of the same kind, who inhabited something nearer to
our side than the rest.
In short, I visited several of these islands to no
purpose; some I found were inhabited, and some were
not. On one of them I found some Spaniards, and
thought they had lived there; but speaking with them,
found they had a sloop lay in a small creek hard by,
and came thither to make salt, and to catch some
pearl muscles, if they could; but that they belonged
to the isle of Trinidad, which lay farther north, in
latitude of 10 and 11 degrees.
Thus, coasting from one island to another, some-
times with the ship, sometimes with the French-
man's shallop, which we had found a convenient








FRIDAY'S STRANGE BEHAVIOUR. 363
boat, and therefore kept her with their very good
will, at length I came fair on the south side of my
island, and presently knew the very countenance of
the place. So I brought the ship safe to an anchor,
broadside with the little creek where my old habita-
tion was.



CHAPTER XXXIV.

As soon as I saw the place, I called for Friday, and
asked him if he knew where he was. He looked about
a little, and presently, clapping his hands, cried, 0
yes, 0 there, 0 yes, 0 there I" pointing to our old
habitation, and fell dancing and capering like a mad
fellow; and I had much ado to keep him from jump-
ing into the sea, to swim ashore to the place.
Well, Friday," says I, do you think we shall
find anybody here or no ? And do you think we shall
see your father?" The fellow stood mute as a stock
a good while, but when I named his father, the poor
affectionate creature looked dejected, and I could
see the tears run down his face very plentifully.
"What is the matter, Friday?" says I; "are you
troubled because you may see your father?" "No,
no," says he, shaking his head, no see him more; no,
never more see him again." "Why so," said I,
" Friday; how do you know that ?" "0 no, 0 no,"
says Friday; he long ago die, long ago; he much
old man." Well, well," says I, "Friday, you








364 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
don't know; but shall we see any one else then ?"
The fellow, it seems, had better eyes than I, and he
points to the hill just above my old house; and,
though we lay half a league off, he cries out, We
see, we see; yes, yes, we see much man there, and
there, and there I" I looked, but I saw nobody, no,
not with a perspective glass, which was, I suppose,
because I could not hit the place; for the fellow was
right, as I found upon inquiry the next day; and
there were five or six men altogether, who stood to
look at the ship, not knowing what to think of us.
As soon as Friday told me he saw people, I caused
the English ancient to be spread, and fired three
guns, to give them notice we were friends; and, in
about half a quarter of an hour after, we perceived a
smoke arise from the side of the creek. So I immedi-
ately ordered a boat out, taking Friday with me; and
hanging out a white flag, or flag of truce, I went
directly on shore, taking with me the young friar I
mentioned, to whom I had told the story of my living
there, and the manner of it, and of every particular
both of myself and those I left there, and who was,
on that account, extremely desirous to go with me.
We had, besides, about sixteen men, well armed, if
we had found any new guests there which we did not
know of; but we had no need of weapons.
As we went on shore upon the tide of flood, near
high water, we rowed directly into the creek; and
the first man I fixed my eye upon was the Spaniard
whose life I had saved, and whom I knew, by his








SCENE OF FILIAL AFFECTION. 500
face, perfectly well: as to his habit, I shall describe
it afterwards. I ordered nobody to go on shore at
first but myself; but there was no keeping Friday in
the boat, for the affectionate creature had spied his
father at a distance, a good way off the Spaniards,
where, indeed, I saw nothing of him, and if they had
* not let him go ashore, he would have jumped into the
sea. He was no sooner on shore, than he flew away
to his father, like an arrow out of a bow. It would
have made any man shed tears, in spite of the firmest
resolution, to have seen the first transports of this poor
fellow's joy when he came to his father: how he em-
braced him, kissed him, stroked his face, took him up
in his arms, set him down upon a tree, and lay down
by him; then stood and looked at him, as any one
would look at a strange picture, for a quarter of an
hour together; then lie down on the ground, and
stroke his legs, and kiss them, and then get up again
and stare at him; one would have thought the fellow
bewitched. But it would have made a dog laugh
the next day to see how his passion ran out another
way. In the morning he walked along the shore, to
and again, with his father several hours, always lead-
ing him by the hand, as if he had been a lady; and
every now and then he would come to the boat to fetch
something or other for him, either a lump of sugar, a
dram, a biscuit-cake, or something or other that was
good. In the afternoon his frolics ran another way;
for then he would set the old man down upon the
ground and dance about him, and make a thousand








366 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
antic postures and gestures; and all the while he did
this he would be talking to him, and telling him one
story or other of his travels, and of what had hap-
pened to him abroad, to divert him.
But this is a digression : I return to my landing.
It would be needless to take notice of all the cere-
monies and civilities the Spaniards received me with.
The first Spaniard, who, as I said, I new very well,
was he whose life I had saved; he came towards the
boat, attended by one more, carrying a flag of truce
also; and he not only did not know me at first, but
he had no thoughts, no notion of its being me that was
come, till I spoke to him. Seignior," said 1, in Por-
tuguese, do you not know me ? At which he spoke
not a word, but giving his musket to the man that was
with him, threw his arms abroad, and saying some-
thing in Spanish that I did not perfectly hear, came
forward and embraced me; telling me he was inex-
cusable not to know that face again, that he had once
seen as if an angel from heaven sent to save his life.
He said abundance of very handsome things, as a well-
bred Spaniard always knows how, and then beckon-
ing to the person that attended him, bade him go
and call out his comrades. He then asked me if I
would walk to my own habitation, where he would
give me possession of my own house again, and where
I should see they had made but mean improvements.
So I walked along with him; but alas! I could no
more find the place again than if I had never been
there; for they had planted so many trees, and placed








THE SPANIARD'S STORY. 367
them in such a posture, so thick and close to one
another, and in ten years' time they were grown so
big, that, in short, the place was inaccessible, except
by such windings and blind ways as they themselves
only who made them could find.
I asked them what put them upon all these fortifi-
cations. He told me I would say there was need
enough of it, when they had given me an account
how they had passed their time since their arriving
in the island, especially after they had the misfortune
to find that I was gone. He told me he could not but
have some satisfaction in my good fortune, when he
heard that I was. gone in a good ship, and to my
satisfaction; and that he had oftentimes a strong per-
suasion that, one time or other, he should see me
again: but nothing that ever befell him in his life,
he said, was so surprising and afflicting to him at
first, as the disappointment he was under when he
came back to the island and found I was not there.
As to the three barbarians (so he called them) that
were left behind, and of whom, he said, he had a long
story to tell me, the Spaniards all thought themselves
much better among the savages, only that their num-
ber was so small; and, says he, had they been strong
enough, we had been all long ago in purgatory; and
with that he crossed himself on the breast. But,
sir," says he, "I hope you will not be displeased
when I shall tell you how, forced by necessity, we
were obliged, for our own preservation, to disarm
them, and make them our subjects, who would not be








368 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
content with being moderately our masters, but would
be our murderers." I answered I was heartily afraid
of it when I left them there, and nothing troubled me
at my parting from the island, but that they were not
come back, that I might have put them in possession
of everything first, and left the others in a state of
subjection as they deserved; but if they had reduced
them to it, I was very glad, and should be very far
from finding any fault with it; for I knew they were
a parcel of refractory ungoverned villains, and were
fit for any manner of mischief.
While I was thus saying this, the man came whom
he had sent back, and with him eleven men more.
In the dress they were in, it was impossible to guess
what nation they were of; but he made all clear,
both to them and me. First, he turned to me, and
pointing to them, said, These, sir, are some of the
gentlemen who owe their lives to you;" and then
turning to them, and pointing to me, he let them
know who I was; upon which they all came up, one
by one, not as if they had been sailors and ordinary
fellows, and the like, but really as if they had been
ambassadors of noblemen, and I a monarch, or great
conqueror. Their behaviour was to the last degree
obliging and courteous, and yet mixed with a manly,
majestic gravity, which very well became them; and
in short, they had so much more manners than I,
that I scarce knew how to receive their civilities,
much less how to return them in kind.
The history of their coming to and conduct in the








A RETROSPECT. Wa
island, after my going away, is so very remarkable,
and has so many incidents, which the former part of
my relation will help to understand, and which will,
in most of the particulars, refer to the account I have
already given, that I cannot but commit them, with
great delight, to the reading of those that come after
me.
I shall no longer trouble the story with a relation
in the first person, which will put me to the expense
of ten thousand said I's, and said he's, and he told
me's, and I told him's, and the like; but I shall col-
lect the facts historically, as near as I can gather
them out of my memory, from what they related to
me, and from what I met with in my conversing with
them and with the place.
In order to do this succinctly, and as intelligibly
as I can, I must go back to the circumstances in which
I left the island, and in which the persons were of
whom I am to speak. And, first, it is necessary to
repeat, that I had sent away Friday's father and the
Spaniard (the two whose lives I had rescued from the
savages), in a large canoe, to the main, as I then
thought it, to fetch over the Spaniard's companions
that he had left behind him, in order to save them
from the like calamity that he had been in, and in
order to succour them for the present; and that, if
possible, we might together find some way for our
deliverance afterwards.
When I sent them away, I had no visible appear-
ance of, or the least room to hope for, my own deliver-








370 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
ance, any more than I had twenty years before, much
less had I any foreknowledge of what afterwards hap-
pened-I mean of an English ship coming on shore
there to fetch me off; and it could not but be a very
great surprise to them, when they came back, not
only to find that I was gone, but to find three
strangers left on the spot, possessed of all that I had
left behind me, which would otherwise have been
their own.
The first thing, however, which I inquired into,
that I might begin where I left off, was of their own
part; and I desired he would give me a particular
account of his voyage back to his countrymen, with
the boat, when I sent him to fetch them over. He
told me there was little variety in that part, for no-
thing remarkable happened to them on the way,
having had very calm weather and a smooth sea. As
for his countrymen, it could not be doubted, he said,
but that they were overjoyed to see him (it seems he
was the principal man among them, the captain of
the vessel they had been shipwrecked in having been
dead some time); they were, he said, the more sur-
prised to see him, because they knew that he was
fallen into the hands of the savages, who, they were
satisfied, would devour him, as they did all the rest
of their prisoners; that when he told them the story
of his deliverance, and in what manner he was fur-
nished for carrying them away, it was like a dream
to them, and their astonishment, he said, was some-
what like that of Joseph's brethren, when he told








THE SHIPWRECKED SPANIARDS. 371
them who he was, and told them the story of his
exaltation in Pharaoh's court; but when he showed
them the arms, the powder, the ball, and provisions,
that he brought them for their journey or voyage,
they were restored to themselves, took a just share
of the joy of their deliverance, and immediately pre-
pared to come away with him.
Their first business was to get canoes; and in this
they were obliged not to stick so much upon the
honest part of it, but to trespass upon their friendly
savages, and to borrow two large canoes or periaguas,
on pretence of going out a-fishing, or for pleasure.
In these they came away the next morning. It seems
they wanted no time to get themselves ready, for they
had no baggage, neither clothes nor provisions, nor
anything in the world but what they had on them,
and a few roots to eat, of which they used to make
their bread.
They were, in all, three weeks absent; and in that
time, unluckily for them, I had the occasion offered
for my escape, as I mentioned before, and to get ofl
from the island, leaving three of the most impudent,
hardened, ungoverned, disagreeable villains behind
me that any man could desire to meet with; to the
poor Spaniard's great grief and disappointment, you
may be sure.
The only just thing the rogues did was, that when
the Spaniards came ashore, they gave my letter to
them, and gave them provisions and other relief, as I
had ordered them to do; also they gave them the
24








372 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
long paper of directions which I had left with them,
containing the particular methods which I took for
managing every part of my life there; the way how
I baked my bread, bred up tame goats, and planted
my corn; how I cured my grapes, made my pots,
and, in a word, everything I did; all this being
written down, they gave to the Spaniards (two of
them understood English well enough); nor did they
refuse to accommodate the Spaniards with anything
else, for they agreed very well for some time. They
gave them an equal admission into the house or cave,
and they began to live very sociably; and the head
Spaniard, who had seen pretty much of my methods,
and Friday's father together, managed all their affairs;
but as for the Englishmen, they did nothing but
ramble about the island, shoot parrots, and catch
tortoises; and when they came home at night, the
Spaniards provided their suppers for them.
The Spaniards would have been satisfied with this
had the others but have let them alone, which, how-
ever, they could not find in their hearts to do long,
but, like the dog in the manger, they would not eat
themselves, neither would they let the others eat.
The differences, nevertheless, were at first but trivial,
and such as are not worth relating; but at last
it broke out into open war, and it began with all
the rudeness and insolence that can be imagined-
without reason, without provocation, contrary to na-
ture, and, indeed, to common sense; and though, it
is true, the first relation of it came from the Spaniards








BREAKING OUT OF STRIFE.


themselves, whom I may call the accusers, yet, when
I came to examine the fellows, they could not deny a
word of it.



CHAPTER XXXV.

BUT before I come to the particulars of this part, I
must supply a defect in my former relation; and this
was, I forgot to set down among the rest, that just as
we were weighing the anchor to set sail, there hap-
pened a little quarrel on board of our ship, which I
was once afraid would turn to a second mutiny; nor
was it appeased till the captain, rousing up his cour-
age, and taking us all to his assistance, parted them
by force, and making two of the most refractory
fellows prisoners, he laid them in irons; and as they
had been active in the former disorders, and let fall
some ugly dangerous words, the second time he
threatened to carry them in irons to England, and
have them hanged there for mutiny, and running
away with the ship. This, it seems, though the cap-
tain did not intend to do it, frightened some other
men in the ship, and some of them had put it into
the heads of the rest that the captain only gave them
good words for the present, till they should come to
some English port, and that then they should all be
put into jail, and tried for their lives. The mate
got intelligence of this, and acquainted us with it,
upon which it was desired that I, who still passed for








374 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
a great man among them, should go down with the
mate, and satisfy the men, and tell them that they
might be assured, if they behaved well the rest of the
voyage, all they had done for the time past should be
pardoned. So I went, and, after passing my honour's
word to them, they appeared easy, and the more so
when I caused the two men that were in irons to be
released and forgiven.
But this mutiny had brought us to an anchor for
that night; the wind also falling calm the next morn-
ing, we found that our two men who had been laid in
irons, had stole each of them a musket, and some
other weapons (what powder or shot they had we
knew not), and had taken the ship's pinnace, which
was not yet hauled up, and ran away with her to
their companions in roguery on shore. As soon as
we found this, I ordered the long-boat on shore,
with twelve men and the mate, and away they went
to seek the rogues; but they could neither find them
nor any of the rest, for they all fled into the woods
when they saw the boat coming on shore. These two
men made their number five; but the other three
villains were so much more wicked than they, that,
after they had been two or three days together, they
turned the two new-comers out of doors to shift for
themselves, and would have nothing to do with them;
nor could they, for a good while, be persuaded to give
them any food. As for the Spaniards, they were not
yet come.
When the Spaniards came first on shore, the busi.








AN ENGLISH COLONY 375
ness began to go forward. The Spaniards would
have persuaded the three English brutes to have
taken in their two countrymen again, that, as they
said, they might be all one family; but they would
not hear of it, so the two poor fellows lived by them-
selves, and finding nothing but industry and applica-
tion would make them live comfortably, they pitched
their tents on the north shore of the island.
Here they built them two huts, one to lodge in,
and the other to lay up their magazines and stores in;
and the Spaniards having given them some corn for
seed, and, especially, some of the peas which I had
left them, they dug, planted, and enclosed, after the
pattern I had set for them all, and began to live
pretty well. Their first crop of corn was on the
ground; and though it was but a little bit of land
which they dug up at first, having had but a little
time, yet it was enough to relieve them, and find
them with bread and other eatables.
They were going on in this little thriving posture,
when the three unnatural rogues, their own country-
men too, in mere humour, and to insult them, came
and bullied them, and told them the island was theirs;
that the governor, meaning me, had given them the
possession of it, and nobody else had any right to it;
and that they should build no houses upon their
ground unless they would pay rent for them.
The two men, thinking they were jesting at first,
asked them to come in and sit down, and see what
fine houses they were that they had built, and to tell








376 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
them what rent they demanded; and one of them
merrily said, if they were the ground-landlords, he
hoped, if they built tenements upon their land, and
made improvements, they would, according to the cus-
tom of landlords, grant a long lease, and desired they
would get a scrivener to draw the writings. One of
the three, cursing and raging, told them they should
see they were not in jest; and going to a little place
at a distance, where the honest men had made a fire
to dress their victuals, he takes a firebrand, and claps
it to the outside of their hut, and very fairly set it on
fire; and it would have been all burned down in a
few minutes, if one of the two had not run to the
fellow, thrust him away, and trod out the fire with
his feet, and that not without some difficulty too.
The fellow was in such a rage at the honest man's
thrusting him away, that he returned upon him with
a pole he had in his hand; and had not the man
avoided the blow very nimbly, and ran into the hut,
he had ended his days at once. His comrade, seeing
the danger they were both in, ran in after him, and
immediately they came both out with their muskets,
and the man that was first struck at with the pole
knocked the fellow down that had begun the quarrel
with the stock of his musket, and that before the
other two could come to help him; and then, seeing
the rest come at them, they stood together, and pre-
senting the other ends of their pieces to them, bade
them stand off.
The others had fire-arms with them too; but one







RULE AND MISRULE.


of the two honest men, bolder than his comrade, and
made desperate by his danger, told them, if they
offered to move hand or foot, they were dead men.
and boldly commanded them to lay down their arms.
They did not, indeed, lay down their arms, but seeing
him so resolute, it brought them to a parley; and they
consented to take their wounded man with them and
be gone; and, indeed, it seems the fellow was wounded
sufficiently with the blow. However, they were much
in the wrong, since they had the advantage, that they
did not disarm them effectually, as they might have
done, and have gone immediately to the Spaniards,
and given them an account how the rogues had treated
them; for the three villains studied nothing but re-
venge, and every day gave them some intimation that
they did so.
But, not to crowd this part with an account of the
lesser part of their rogueries, such as treading down
their corn, shooting three young kids and a she-goat
which the poor men had got to breed up tame for their
store; and, in a word, plaguing them night and day
in this manner, it forced the two men to such a des-
peration, that they resolved to fight them all three
the first time they had a fair opportunity. In order
to do this, they resolved to go to the castle, as they
called it, that was my own dwelling, where the three
rogues and the Spaniards all lived together at that
time, intending to have a fair battle, and the Spaniards
should stand by to see fair play. So they got up in
the morning before day, and came to the place, and







378 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
called the Englishmen by their names, telling a
Spaniard that answered that they wanted to speak
with them.
It happened that the day before two of the Spaniards
having been in the woods, had seen one of the two
Englishmen, whom, for distinction, I called the honest
men, and he had made a sad, complaint to the Span-
iards of the barbarous usage they had met with from
their three countrymen, and how they had ruined their
plantation, and destroyed their corn, that they had
laboured so hard to bring forward, and killed the
milch-goat and their three kids, which was all they
had provided for their sustenance; and that, if he and
his friends, meaning the Spaniards, did not assist
them again, they should be starved. When the
Spaniards came home at night, and they were all at
supper, one of them took the freedom to reprove the
three Englishmen, though in very gentle and man-
nerly terms, and asked them how they could be so
cruel, they being harmless, inoffensive fellows: that
they were putting themselves in a way to subsist by
their labour, and that it had cost them a great deal
of pains to bring things to such perfection as they were
then in.
One of the Englishmen returned very briskly, What
had they to do there ? that they came on shore with-
out leave; and that they should not plant or build
upon the island; it was none of their ground. Why,"
says the Spaniard, very calmly, Scignior Inglesse,
they must not starve." The Englishmen replied, like







ENGLISH AND SPANIARDS.


a true rough-hewn tarpauling, they might starve for
aught he cared, they should not plant nor build in
that place. But what must they do then, Seignior ?"
said the Spaniard. Another of the brutes returned,
" Do ? Why, they should be servants, and work for
them." But how can you expect that of them ?"
says the Spaniard; "they are not bought with your
money; you have no right to make them servants."
The Englishman answered, the island was theirs; the
governor had given it to them, and no man had any-
thing to do there but themselves: and, with that,
swore that they would go and burn all their new huts;
they should build none upon their land. "Why,
Seignior," says the Spaniard, "1by the same rule, we
must be your servants too." Ay," says the bold
dog, and so you shall too, before we have done with
you" (mixing two or three shocking imprecations in
the intervals of his speech). The Spaniard only
smiled at that, and made him no answer. However,
this little discourse had heated them; and starting
up, one says to the other, I think it was he they called
Will Atkins, Come, Jack, let's go, and have t'other
brush with 'em: we'll demolish their castle, I'll war-
rant you; they shall plant no colony in our dominions."
Upon this, they went all trooping away, with every
man a gun, a pistol, and a sword, and muttered some
insolent things among themselves, of what they would
do to the Spaniards too, when opportunity offered.
Whither they went, or how they bestowed their
time that evening, the Spaniards said they did not







380 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
know; but it seems they wandered about the country
part of the night, and then, lying down in a place
which I used to call my bower, they were weary, and
overslept themselves. The case was this: they had
resolved to stay till midnight, and so to take the two
poor men when they were asleep, and, as they acknow-
ledged afterwards, intended to set fire to their huts
while they were in them, and either burn them there,
or murder them as they came out: as malice seldom
sleeps very sound, it was very strange they should
not have been kept awake.
However, as the two men had also a design upon
them, as I have said, though a much fairer one than
that of burning and murdering, it happened, and very
luckily for them all, that they were up and gone
abroad before the bloody-minded rogues came to their
huts.
When they came there, and found the men gone,
Atkins, who, it seems, was the forwardest man, called
out to his comrades, Ha, Jack, here's the nest, but
the birds are flown." They soon fell to work with
the poor men's habitation; they did not set fire, in-
deed, to anything, but they pulled down both their
houses, and pulled them so from limb to limb, that
they left not the least stick standing, or scarce any
sign on the ground where they stood: they tore all
their little collected household stuff in pieces, and
threw everything about in such a manner, that the
poor men afterwards found some of their things a mile
off their habitation. When they had done this, they








TWO AGAINST THREE. 381
pulled up all the young trees which the poor men
had planted; pulled up an enclosure they had made
to secure their cattle and their corn; and, in a word,
sacked and plundered everything as completely as a
horde of Tartars would have done.
The two men were, at this juncture, gone to find
them out, and had resolved to fight them wherever
they had been, though they were but two to three;
so that, had they met, there certainly would have been
bloodshed among them; for they were all very stout
resolute fellows, to give them their due.
But Providence took more care to keep them
asunder than they themselves could do to meet; for,
as if they dogged one another, when the three were
gone thither, the two were here; and, afterwards,
when the two went back to find them, the three were
come to the old habitation again: we shall see their
different conduct presently. When the three came
back like furious creatures, flushed with the rage
which the work they had been about had put them
into, they came up to the Spaniards, and told them
what they had done, by way of scoff and bravado;
and one of them stepping up to one of the Spaniards,
as if they had been a couple of boys at play, takes
hold of his hat, as it was upon his head, and giving
it a twirl about, fleering in his face, says to him,
" And you, Seignior Jack Spaniard, shall have the
same sauce, if you do not mend your manners." The
Spaniard, who, though a quiet civil man, was as brave
a man as could be, and withal a strong, well-made







382 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
man, looked at him for a good while, and then, hav-
ing no weapon in his hand, stepped gravely up to
him, and, with one blow of his fist, knocked him
down, as an ox is felled with a pole-axe; at which
one of the rogues, as insolent as the first, fired his
pistol at the Spaniard immediately. He missed his
body, indeed, for the bullets went through his hair,
but one of them touched the tip of his ear, and he
bled pretty much. The blood made the Spaniard
believe he was more hurt than he really was, and that
put him into some heat, for, before, he acted all in a
perfect calm; but now, resolving to go through with
his work, he stooped and took the fellow's musket
whom he had knocked down, and was just going to
shoot the man who had fired at him, when the rest of
the Spaniards, being in the cave, came out, and calling
to him not to shoot, they stepped in, secured the other
two, and took their arms from them.
When they were thus disarmed, and found they had
made all the Spaniards their enemies, as well as their
own countrymen, they began to cool, and giving the
Spaniards better words, would have their arms again;
but the Spaniards told them that they could not think
of giving them their arms again, while they appeared
so resolved to do mischief with them to their own
countrymen, and had even threatened them all to make
them their servants.
The rogues were now no more capable to hear rea-
son than to act with reason; but being refused their
arras, they went raving away, and raging like mad-







THREATENING THE SPANIARDS. 383
men, threatening what they would do, though they
had no fire-arms. But the Spaniards, despising their
threatening, told them, they should take care how they
offered any injury to their plantation or cattle, for, if
they did, they would shoot them as they would raven-
ous beasts, wherever they found them; and if they fell
into their hands alive, they should certainly be hanged.
However, this was far from cooling them, but away
they went raging and swearing. As soon as they
were gone, the two men came back, in passion and
rage enough also, though of another kind; for having
been at their plantation, and finding it all demolished
and destroyed as above, it will easily be supposed they
had provocation enough. They could scarce have
room to tell their tale, the Spaniards were so eager
to tell them theirs; and it was strange enough to find
that three men should thus bully nineteen, and receive
no punishment at all.
The Spaniards, indeed, despised them, and espe-
cially, having thus disarmed them, made light of their
threatening; but the two Englishmen resolved to
have their remedy against them, what pains soever it
cost to find them out. But the Spaniards interposed
here too, and told them, that as they had disarmed
them, they could not consent that they (the two)
should pursue them with fire-arms, and perhaps kill
them. But," said the grave Spaniard, who was
their governor, we will endeavour to make them do
you justice, if you will leave it to us; for there is no
doubt but they will come to us again, when their pas-








384 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
sion is over, being not able to subsist without our as-
sistance: we promise you to make no peace with
them, without having a full satisfaction for you; and
upon this condition, we hope you will promise to use
no violence with them, other than in your own de-
fence." The two Englishmen yielded to this very
awkwardly, and with great reluctance; but the Span-
iards protested that they did it only to keep them
from bloodshed, and to make all easy at last.




CHAPTER XXXVI.

IN about five days' time, the three vagrants, tired
with wandering, and almost starved with hunger, hav-
ing chiefly lived on turtles' eggs all that while, came
back to the grove; and finding my Spaniard, who,
as I have said, was the governor, and two more with
him, walking by the side of the creek, they came up
in a very submissive, humble manner, and begged
to be received again into the family. The Spaniards
used them civilly, but told them they had acted so
unnaturally by their countrymen, and so very grossly
by them (the Spaniards), that they could not come to
any conclusion without consulting the % j English-
men and the rest; but, however, they would go to
them, and discourse about it, and they should '-ow
in half an hour. It may be guessed that they were
very hard put to it; for, it seems, as they were to wait








PEACE IS CONCLUDED. 385
this half hour for an answer, they begged they would
send them out some bread in the meantime, which
they did, sending, at the same time, a large piece of
goat's flesh, and a boiled parrot, which they ate very
heartily, for they were hungry enough.
After an hour's consultation, they were called in,
and a long debate ensued; their two countrymen
charging them with the ruin of all their labour, and
a design to murder them; all which they owned be-
fore, and, therefore, could not deny now. Upon the
whole, the Spaniards acted the moderator between
them; and as they had obliged the two Englishmen
not to hurt the three while they were naked and
unarmed, so now they obliged the three to go and
rebuild their fellows' two. huts, one to be of the same,
and the other of larger dimensions, than they were
before; to fence their ground again where they had
pulled up their fences, plant trees in the room of those
pulled up, dig up the land again for planting corn,
where they had spoiled it, and, in a word, to restore
everything in the same state as they found it, as
near as they could; for entirely it could not be, the
season of the corn, and the growth of the trees and
hedges, not being possible to be recovered.
Well, they submitted to all this; and as they had
plenty of provisions given them all the while, they
grew very orderly, and the whole society began to
live pleasantly and agreeably together again: only,
that these three fellows could never be persuaded to
work, I mean for themselves, except now and then







386 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
a little, just as they pleased. However, the Spaniards
told them plainly that, if they would but live sociably
and friendly together, and study the good of the whole
plantation, they would be content to work for them,
and let them walk about and be as idle as they pleased;
and thus, having lived pretty well for a month or
two, the Spaniards gave them arms again, and gave
them liberty to go abroad with them as before.
It was not above a week after they had their arms,
and went abroad, but the ungrateful creatures began
to be as insolent and as troublesome as before; but,
however, an accident happened presently upon this,
which endangered the safety of them all; and they
were obliged to lay by all private resentments, and
look to the preservation of their lives.
It happened one night, that the Spanish governor,
as I call him, that is to say, the Spaniard whose life
I had saved, who was now the captain, or leader, or
governor of the rest, found himself very uneasy in
the night, and could by no means get any sleep. He
was perfectly well in body, as he told me the story,
only found his thoughts tumultuous; his mind ran
upon men fighting and killing one another, but was
broad awake, and could not, by any means, get any
sleep. In short, he lay a great while; but growing
more and more uneasy, he resolved to rise. As they
lay, being so many of them, upon goats' skins laid
thick upon such couches and pads as they had made
for themselves, and not in hammocks and ship-beds,
as I did, who was but one, so they had little to do,








MISCHIEF ABROAD.


when they were willing to rise, but to get upon their
feet, and perhaps put on a coat, such as it was, and
their pumps, and they were ready for going any way
that their thoughts guided them. Being thus got
up, he looked out; but, being dark, he could see
little or nothing; and besides, the trees which I had
planted, as in my former account is described, and
which were now grown tall, intercepted his sight, so
that he could only look up, and see that it was a clear
star-light night; and hearing no noise, he returned
and laid him down again. But it was all one; he
could not sleep, nor could he compose himself to
anything like rest, but his thoughts were to the last
degree uneasy, and he knew not for what.
Having made some noise with rising and walking
about, going out and coming in, another of them
waked, and calling, asked who it was that was up ?
The governor told him how it had been with him.
" Say you so?" says the other Spaniard: such
things are not to be slighted, I assure you; there is
certainly some mischief working near us:" and pre-
sently he asked him, Where are the Englishmen?"
" They are all in their huts," says he, safe enough."
It seems the Spaniards had kept possession of the
main apartment, and had made a place for the three
Englishmen, who, since their last mutiny, were
always quartered by themselves, and could not come
at the rest. Well," says the Spaniard, there is
something in it, I am persuaded from my own expe-
rience. I am satisfied our spirits embodied have a
25








388 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
converse with, and receive intelligence from, the
spirits unembodied, and inhabiting the invisible
world; and this friendly notice is given for our ad-
vantage, if we knew how to make use of it. Come,"
says he, "let us go and look abroad; and if we
find nothing at all in it to justify the trouble, I'll tell
you a story to the purpose, that shall convince you
of the justice of my proposing it."
In a word, they went out, to go up to the top of
the hill, where I used to go; but they being Atrong,
and a good company, not alone, as I was, used none
of my cautions, to go up by the ladder, and pulling
it up after them, to go up a second stage to the top,
but were going round through the grove, uncon-
cerned and unwary, when they were surprised with
seeing a light as of a fire, a very little way off from
them, and hearing the voices of men, not of one, or
two, but of a great number.
We need not doubt, but that the governor and the
man with him, surprised with this sight, ran back
immediately, and raised their fellows, giving them an
account of the imminent danger they were all in, and
they, again, as readily took the alarm; but it was
impossible to persuade them to stay close within,
where they were, but they must all run out to see
how things stood.
While it was dark, indeed, they were well enough,
and they had opportunity enough, for some hours, to
view them by the light of three fires they had made
at a distance from one another; what they were








BAD NEWS. 38
doing they knew not, and what to do themselves they
knew not. For, first, the enemy were too many;
and, secondly, they did not keep together, but were
divided into several parties, and were on shore in
several places.
After having mused a great while on the course
they should take, and beating their brains in consi-
dering their present circumstances, they resolved, at
last, while it was still dark, to send the old savage,
Friday's father, out as a spy, to learn, if possible,
something concerning them; as what they came for,
what they intended to do, and the like. The old
man readily undertook it; and stripping himself
quite naked, as most of the savages were, away he
went. After he had been gone an hour or two, he
brings word, that he had been among them undis-
covered; that he found they were two parties, and
of two several nations, who had war with one another,
and had a great battle in their own country: and
that both sides having had several prisoners taken
in the fight, they were, by mere chance, landed all
on the same island, for the devouring their prisoners
and making merry, but their coming so by chance to
the same place had spoiled their mirth; that they
were in a great rage at one another, and were so near,
that he believed they would fight again as soon as
day-light began to appear; but he did not perceive
that they had any notion of anybody being on the
island but themselves. He had hardly made an end
of telling his story, when they could perceive, by the








390 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
unusual noise they made, that the two little armies
were engaged in a bloody fight.
Friday's father used all the arguments he could to
persuade our people to lie close, and not be seen. He
told them their safety consisted in it, and that they
had nothing to do but lie still, and the savages would
kill one another to their hands, and then the rest
would go away; and it was so to a tittle. But it was
impossible to prevail, especially upon the English-
men; their curiosity was so importunate upon their
prudentials, that they must run out and see the battle;
however, they used some caution too, namely, they did
not go openly, just by their own dwelling, but went
farther into the woods, and placed themselves to ad-
vantage, where they might securely see them manage
the fight, and, as they thought, not to be seen by
them; but it seems the savages did see them, as we
shall find hereafter.
The battle was very fierce; and, if I might believe
the Englishmen, one of them said he could perceive
that some of them were men of great bravery, of
invincible spirits, and of great policy in guiding the
fight. The battle, they said, held two hours before
they could guess which party would be beaten; but
then, that party which was nearest our people's habi-
tation began to appear weakest, and, after some time
more, some of them began to fly; and this put our
men again into a great consternation, lest any one of
those that fled should run into the grove before their
dwelling for shelter, and thereby involuntarily dis-








A BATTLE, AND A VICTORY. 391
cover the place; and that, by consequence, the pur-
suers would do the like in search of them. Upon
this, they resolved that they would stand armed
within the wall, and whoever came into the grove,
they resolved to sally out over the wall and kill them:
so that, if possible, not one should return to give an
account of it. They ordered, also, that it should be
done with their swords, or by knocking them down
with the stocks of their muskets, but not by shooting
them, for fear of raising an alarm by the noise.
As they expected, it fell out: three of the routed
army fled for life, and, crossing the creek, ran directly
into the place, not in the least knowing whither they
went, but running as into a thick wood for shelter.
The scout they kept to look abroad gave notice of
this within, with this addition, to our men's great
satisfaction, namely, that the conquerors had not pur-
sued them, or seen which way they were gone. Upon
this, the Spaniard governor, a man of humanity, would
not suffer them to kill the three fugitives, but, sending
three men out by the top of the hill, ordered them to
go round, come in behind them, and surprise and take
them prisoners, which was done. The residue of the
conquered people fled to their canoes, and got off to
sea. The victors retired, made no pursuit, or very
little; but drawing themselves into a body together,
gave two great screaming shouts, which they sup-
posed was by way of triumph, and so the fight ended;
and the same day, about three o'clock in the after-
noon, they also marched to their canoes. And thus








392 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the Spaniards had their island again, free to them.
selves, their fright was over, and they saw no savages
in several years after.
This deliverance tamed our Englishmen; and, for
a great while after, they were tractable, and went
about the common business of the whole society well
enough; planted, sowed, reaped, and began to be all
naturalized to the country. But some time after this,
they fell into such simple measures again, as brought
them into a great deal of trouble.
They had taken three prisoners, as I observed;
and these three being lusty, stout young fellows, they
made them servants, and taught them to work for
them; and as slaves they did well enough; but they
did not take their measures with them as I did my
man Friday, namely, to begin with them upon the
principle of having saved their lives, and then in-
struct them in the rational principles of life; much
less of religion, civilizing, and reducing them by kind
usage and affectionate arguing; but as they gave
them their food every day, so they gave them their
work too, and kept them fully employed in drudgery
enough; but they failed in this by it, that they never
had them to assist them and fight for them, as I had
my man Friday, who was as true to me as the very
flesh upon my bones.







A TURBULENT FELLOW.


CHAPTER XXXVII.

THEY lived two years after this in perfect retirement,
and had no more visits from the savages. They had,
indeed, an alarm given them one morning, which put
them into a great consternation; for some of the
Spaniards being out early one morning on the west
side, or rather end, of the island (which was that
end where I never went, for fear of being discovered),
they were surprised with seeing above twenty canoes
of Indians just coming on shore. They made the
best of their way home in hurry enough: and giving
the alarm to their comrades, they kept close all that
day and the next, going out only at night to make
observation. But they had the good luck to be mis-
taken; for wherever the savages went they did not
land that time on the island, but pursued some other
design.
And now they had another broil with the three
Englishmen; one of whom, a most turbulent fellow,
being in a rage at one of the three slaves, which I
mentioned they had taken, because the fellow had not
done something right, which he bid him do, and
seemed a little untractable in his showing him, drew
a hatchet out of a frog-belt, in which he wore it by
his side, and fell upon the poor savage, not to cor-
rect him, but to kill him. One of the Spaniards,
who was by, seeing him give the fellow a barbarous
cut with a hatchet, which he aimed at his head. but







894 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
struck into his shoulders, so that he thought he had
cut the poor creature's arm off, ran to him, and
entreating him not to murder the poor man, placed
himself between him and the savage, to prevent the
mischief. The fellow being enraged the more at this,
struck at the Spaniard with his hatchet, and swore
he would serve him as he intended to serve the savage;
which the Spaniard perceiving, avoided the blow,
and with a shovel which he had in his hand (for they
were all working in the field about their corn land),
knocked the brute down. Another of the English-
men, running at the same time to help his comrade,
knocked the Spaniard down; and then two Spaniards
more came in to help their man, and a third Eng-
lishman fell in upon them. They had none of them
any fire-arms, or any other weapons but hatchets and
other tools, except this third Englishman; he had
one of my rusty cutlasses, with which he made at
the two last Spaniards, and wounded them both.
This fray set the whole family in an uproar, and
more help coming in, they took the three Englishmen
prisoners. The next question was, what should be
done with them ? They had been so often mutinous,
and were so very furious, so desperate and so idle
withal, they knew not what course to take with them,
for they were mischievous to the highest degree, and
valued not what hurt they did to any man; so that,
in short, it was not safe to live with them.
The Spaniard, who was governor, told them in so
many words, that if they had been of his own country







AN INTERNAL TROUBLE.


he would have hanged them; for all laws and all
governors were to preserve society, and those who
were dangerous to the society ought to be expelled
out of it; but as they were Englishmen, and that it
was to the generous kindness of an Englishman that
they all owed their preservation and deliverance, he
would use them with all possible lenity, and would
leave them to the judgment of the other two English-
men, who were their countrymen.
One of the two honest Englishmen stood up, and
said they desired it might not be left to them; "for,"
says he, I am sure we ought to sentence them to
the gallows ;" and, with that, he gives an account how
Will Atkins, one of the three, had proposed to have
all the five Englishmen join together, and murder all
the Spaniards when they were in their sleep.
When the Spanish governor heard this, he calls to
Will Atkins, How, Seignior Atkins, would you
murder us all? What have you to say to that?"
The hardened villain was so far from denying it, that
he said it was true; and they would do it still before
they had done with them. "Well, but Seignior
Atkins," says the Spaniard, what have we done to
you that you will kill us ? And what would you get
by killing us? And what must we do to prevent
you killing us ? Must we kill you, or you kill us ?
Why will you put us to the necessity of this, Seignior
Atkins?" says the Spaniard very calmly, and smiling.
Seignior Atkins was in such a rage at the Spaniard's
making a jest of it, that, had he not been held by







396 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOL.

three men, and withal had no weapon near him, it
was thought he would have attempted to have killed
the Spaniard in the middle of all the company. This
hair-brained carriage obliged them to consider seri-
ously what was to be done : the two Englishmen and
the Spaniard who saved the poor savage, were of
opinion that they should hang one of the three, for
an example to the rest; and that, particularly, it
should be he that had twice attempted to commit
murder with his hatchet; and, indeed, there was
some reason to believe that he had done it, for the
poor savage was in such a miserable condition with
the wound he had received, that it was thought he
could not live. But the governor Spaniard still said,
"No ;" it was an Englishman that had saved all their
lives, and he would never consent to put an English-
man to death, though he had murdered half of them;
nay, he said, if he had been killed himself by an
Englishman, and had time left to speak it, it should
be that they should pardon him.
After long debate, it was agreed, first, that they
should be disarmed, and not permitted to have either
gun, powder, shot, sword, or any weapon; and should
be turned out of the society, and left to live where
they would, and how they would, by themselves; but
that none of the rest, either Spaniards or English,
should converse with them, speak with them, or have
anything to do with them: that they should be forbid
to come within a certain distance of the place where
the rest dwelt; and if they offered to commit any








REFRACTORY SUBJECTS. 397
disorder, so as to spoil, burn, kill, or destroy any
of the corn, plantings, buildings, fences, or cattle,
belonging to the society, they should die without
mercy, and they would shoot them wherever they
could find them.
The governor, a man of great humanity, musing
upon the sentence, considered a little upon it; and,
turning to the two honest Englishmen, said, Hold;
you must reflect that it will be long ere they can
raise corn and cattle of their own, and they must not
starve; we must, therefore, allow them provisions;"
so he caused to be added, that they should have a
proportion of corn given to them to last them eight
months, and for seed to sow, by which time they
might be supposed to raise some of their own; that
they should have six milch-goats, four he-goats, and
six kids given them, as well for present subsistence
as for a store; and that they should have tools given
them for their work in the fields, such as six hatchets,
an adze, a saw, and the like; but they should have none
of those tools, or provisions, unless they would swear
solemnly that they would not hurt, or injure, any of
the Spaniards with them, or of their fellow Englishmen.
Thus they dismissed them the society, and turned
them out to shift for themselves. They went away
sullen and refractory, as neither content to go away,
nor to stay; but as there was no remedy, they went,
pretending to go and choose a plaqe where they would
settle themselves; and some provisions were given
them, but no weapons.








398 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
About four or five days after, they came again for
some victuals, and gave the governor an account
where they had pitched their tents, and marked them-
selves out a habitation and plantation; and it was a
very convenient place, indeed, on the remotest part
of the island, N.E., much about the place where I
providentially landed in my first voyage, when I was
driven out to sea, in my foolish attempt to sail round
the island.
Here they built themselves two handsome huts, and
contrived them in a manner like my first habitation,
being close under the side of the hill, having some
trees growing already on three sides of it, so that, by
planting others, it would be very easily covered from
the sight, unless narrowly searched for. They desired
some dried goats'-skins for beds and covering, which
were given them; and upon giving their words that
they would not disturb the rest, or injure any of their
plantations, they gave them hatchets and what other
tools they could spare; some peas, barley, and rice,
for sowing; and, in a word, anything they wanted,
except arms and ammunition.
They lived in this separate condition about six
months, and had got in their first harvest, though the
quantity was but small, the parcel of land they had
planted being but little; for, indeed, having all their
plantation to form, they had a great deal of work upon
their hands; and when they came to make boards
and pots, and such things, they were quite out of their
element, and could make nothing of it; and when the








WEARY OF WELL-DOING. 399
rainy season came on, for want of a cave in the earth,
they could not keep their grain dry, and it was in
great danger of spoiling, and this humbled them
much. So they came and begged the Spaniards to
help them, which they very readily did; and in four
days worked a great hole in the side of the hill for
them, big enough to secure their corn, and other
things from the rain; but it was but a poor place at
best, compared to mine, and especially as mine was
then, for the Spaniards had greatly enlarged it, and
made several new apartments in it.
About three quarters of a year after this separa-
tion, a new frolic took these rogues, which, together
with the former villany they had committed, brought
mischief enough upon them, and had very near been
the ruin of the whole colony. The three new associ-
ates began, it seems, to be weary of the laborious life
they led, and that without hope of bettering their
circumstances; and a whim took them, that they
would make a voyage to the continent, from whence
the savages came, and would try if they could seize
upon some prisoners among the natives there, and
bring them home, so as to make them do the laborious
part of their work for them.
The three fellows came down to the Spaniards one
morning, and in very humble terms desired to be
admitted to speak with them. The Spaniards very
readily heard what they had to say, which was this:
-That they were tired of living in the manner they
did; and that they were not handy enough to make








400 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the necessaries they wanted; and that, having no
help, they found they should be starved; but if the
Spaniards would give them leave to take one of the
canoes which they came over in, and give them arms
and ammunition proportioned to their defence, they
would go over to the main and seek their fortunes,
and so deliver them from the trouble of supplying
them with any other provisions.
The Spaniards were glad enough to get rid of them,
but very honestly represented to them the certain
destruction they were running into; told them they
had suffered such hardships upon that very spot, that
they could, without any spirit of prophecy, tell them
they would be starved or murdered, and bade them
consider of it.
The men replied audaciously, they should be
starved if they stayed here, for they could not work,
and would not work, and they could but be starved
abroad; and if they were murdered, there was an end
of them; they had no wives or children to cry after
them; and, in short, insisted importunately upon
their demand; declaring they would go, whether
they would give them any arms or no.
The Spaniards told them, with great kindness, that
if they were resolved to go, they should not go like
naked men, and be in no condition to defend them-
selves; and that, though they could ill spare their
fire-arms, having not enough for themselves, yet they
would let them have two muskets, a pistol, and a cut-
lass, and each man a hatchet, which they thought







A GOOD RTDDANCP. 401
was sufficient for them. In a word, they accepted
the offer; and having baked them bread enough to
serve them a month, and given them as much goats'
flesh as they could eat while it was sweet, and a great
basket of dried grapes, a pot of fresh water, and a
young kid alive, they boldly set out in the canoe for
a voyage over the sea, where it was at least forty
miles broad.
The boat, indeed, was a large one, and would very
well have carried fifteen or twenty men, and, there-
fore, was rather too big for them to manage; but, as
they had a fair breeze, and flood-tide with them, they
did well enough. They had made a mast of a long
pole, and a sail of four large goats' skins dried, which
they had sewed or laced together; and away they
went merrily enough; the Spaniards called after them,
Bon veyago; and no man ever thought of seeing them
any more.
The Spaniards were often saying to one another,
and to the two honest Englishmen who remained be-
hind, how quietly and comfortably they lived, now
these three turbulent fellows were gone; as for their
coming again, that was the remotest thing from their
thoughts that could be imagined; when, behold, after
two-and-twenty days' absence, one of the English-
men, being abroad upon his planting work, sees three
strange men coming towards him at a distance, with
guns upon their shoulders.
Away runs the Englishman, comes frightened and
amazed to the governor Spaniard, and tells him they







402 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

were all undone, for there were strangers landed
upon the island, but could not tell who. The Spaniard,
pausing awhile, says to him, How do you mean,
you cannot tell who? They are the savages to be
sure." "No, no," says the Englishman: "they are
men in clothes, with arms." Nay, then," says the
Spaniard, why are you concerned ? If they are not
savages, they must be friends; for there is no Chris-
tian nation upon earth but will do us good rather
than harm."
While they were debating thus, came the three
Englishmen, and standing without the wood, which
was new planted, hallooed to them: they presently
knew their voices, and so, all the wonder of that kind
ceased. But now the admiration was turned upon
another question, namely, What could be the matter,
and what made them come back again ?
It was not long before they brought the men in,
and inquiring where they had been, and what they
had been doing, they gave them a full account of their
voyage in a few words, namely, That they reached
the land in two days, or something less; but finding
the people alarmed at their coming, and preparing
with bows and arrows to fight them, they durst not
go on shore, but sailed on to the northward six or
seven hours, till they came to a great opening, by
which they perceived that the land they saw from
our island was not the main, but an island. Upon
entering that opening of the sea, they saw another
island on the right hand, north, and several more







A NOVEL ADVENTURE. 403
west; and being resolved to land somewhere, they
put over to one of the islands which lay west, and
went boldly on shore: that they found the people very
courteous and friendly to them; and that they gave
them several roots and some dried fish, and appeared
very sociable; and the women, as well as the men,
were very forward to supply them with anything they
could get for them to eat, and brought it to them a
great way upon their heads.
They continued here four days: and inquired, as
well as they could of them, by signs, what nations
were this way, and that way: and were told of seve-
ral fierce and terrible people that lived almost every
way, who, as they made known by signs to them,
used to eat men; but as for themselves, they said
they never eat men or women, except only such as
they took in the wars; and then, they owned, they
made a great feast, and ate their prisoners.
The Englishmen inquired when they had had a feast
of that kind; and they told them about two moons
ago, pointing to the moon, and to two fingers; and
that their great king had two hundred prisoners now,
which he had taken in his war, and they were feed-
ing them to make them fat for the next feast. The
Englishmen seemed mighty desirous of seeing those
prisoners; but the others mistaking them, thought
they were desirous to have some of them to carry
away for their own eating; so they beckoned to them,
pointing to the setting of the sun, and then to the
rising; which was to signify, that the next morning
26







404 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
at sun-rising they would bring some for them; and
accordingly, the next morning they brought down
five women and eleven men, and gave them to the
Englishmen to carry with them on their voyage,
just as we would bring so many cows and oxen down
to a sea-port town to victual a ship.
As brutish and barbarous as these fellows irere at
home, their stomachs turned at this sight, and they
did not know what to do. To refuse the prisoners
would have been the highest affront to the savage
gentry that could be offered them, and what to do
with them they knew not. However, after some de-
bate, they resolved to accept of them; and in return,
they gave the savages that brought them one of their
hatchets, an old key, a knife, and six or seven of
their bullets; which, though they did not understand
their use, they seemed particularly pleased with; and
then tying the poor creatures' hands behind them,
they dragged the prisoners into the boat for our
men.
Having taken their leave, with all the respect
and thanks that could well pass between people,
where, on either side, they understood not one word
they could say, the Englishmen put off with their
boat, and came back towards the first island; where,
when they arrived, they set eight of their prisoners
at liberty, there being too many of them for their
occasion.
In their voyage they endeavoured to have some
communication with their prisoners, but it was im-








THE NEW ARRIVAL. 405
possible to make them understand anything; nothing
they could say to them, or give them, or do for them,
but was looked upon as going to murder them.




CHAPTER XXXVIIL

WHEN the three wanderers had given this unaccount-
able history, or journal, of their voyage, the Spaniard
asked them where their new family was; and being
told that they had brought them on shore, and put
them into one of their huts, and were come up to beg
some victuals for them, they (the Spaniards) and the
other two Englishmen, that is to say, the whole
colony, resolved to go all down to the place, and see
them; and did so, and Friday's father with them.
When they had brought them on shore, they bound
their hands, that they might not take the boat, and
make their escape. There were three men, about
thirty to thirty-five years of age; and five women,
whereof two might be from thirty to forty; two more
not above four or five-and-twenty; and the fifth a
tall comely maiden, about sixteen or seventeen.
The first thing done was to cause the old Indian,
Friday's father, to go in, and see first if he knew any
of them, and then, if he understood any of their
speech. As soon as the old man came in, he looked
seriously at them, but knew none of them; neither
could he make any of them understand a word he







406 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
said, or a sign he could make, except one of the
women. However, this was enough to answer the
end, which was to satisfy them that the men into
whose hands they were fallen were Christians; that
they abhorred eating men or women: and that they
might be sure they would not be killed. As soon
as they were assured of this, they discovered such a
joy, and by such awkward gestures, several ways, as
is hard to describe; for it seems they were of several
nations.
The woman who was their interpreter, was bid, in
the next place, to ask them if they were willing to be
servants, and to work for the men who had brought
them away to save their lives; at which they all fell
a dancing; and presently one fell to take up this,
and another that, anything that lay next, to carry on
their shoulders, to intimate that they were willing to
work.
The governor, who found that the having women
among them would presently be attended with some
inconvenience, and might occasion some strife, and
perhaps blood, asked the three men what they in-
tended to do with these women, and how they in-
tended to use them. This matter was at last arranged,
and each of the five Englishmen took one of them as
his wife; the Spaniards declining to do so, saying,
they had wives in Spain. And so they set up a new
form of living; for the Spaniards and Friday's father
lived in my old habitation, which they had enlarged
exceedingly within. The three servants which were








CHOOSING WIVES. 407
taken in the late battle of the savages lived with
them; and these carried on the main part of the
colony, supplied all the rest with food, and assisted
them in anything as they could, or as they found
necessity required.
In selecting their wives, the Englishmen took a
good enough way to prevent quarrelling among them-
selves; for they set the five women by themselves in
one of their huts, and they went all into the other
hut, and drew lots among them who should choose
first.
He that drew to choose first went away by himself
to the hut where the poor naked creatures were, and
fetched out her he chose; and it was worth observing,
that he that chose first, took her that was reckoned
the homeliest and oldest of the five, which made mirth
enough among the rest; and even the Spaniards
laughed at it. But the fellow considered better than
any of them, that it was application and business
they were to expect assistance in, as much as in any-
thing else; and she proved the best wife of all the
parcel.
When they had done, the men went to work, and
the Spaniards came and helped them; and in a few
hours they had built them every one a new hut, or
tent, for their lodging apart: for those they had
already were crowded with their tools, household
stuff, and provisions. The three wicked ones had
pitched farthest off, and the two honest ones nearer,
but both on the north shore of the island, so that







408 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
they continued separate as before. And thus my
island was peopled in three places; and, as. I might
say, three towns were begun to be built.




CHAPTER XXXIX.

BUT I now come to a scene different from all that had
happened before, either to them or to me; and the
original of the story was this : Early one morning,
there came on shore five or six canoes of Indians or
savages, call them which you please, and there is no
room to doubt they came upon the old errand of feed-
ing upon their slaves; but that part was now so
familiar to the Spaniards, and to our men too, that
they did not concern themselves about it as I did;
but having been made sensible, by their experience,
that their only business was to lie concealed, and that
if they were not seen by any of the savages, they
would go off again quietly, when their business was
done, having as yet not the least notion of there being
any inhabitants in the island; I say, having been
made sensible of this, they had nothing to do but give
notice to all the three plantations to keep within doors,
and not show themselves, only placing a scout in a
proper place, to give notice when the boats went to
sea again.
This was, without doubt, very right; but a disaster
spoiled all these measures, and made it known among







LEFT BEHIND.


the savages that there were inhabitants there, which
was in the end, the desolation of almost the whole
colony. After the canoes with the savages were gone
off, the Spaniards peeped abroad again; and some of
them had the curiosity to go to the place where they
had been, to see what they had been doing. Here,
to their great surprise, they found three savages left
behind, and laying fast asleep upon the ground. It
was supposed they had either been so gorged with
their inhuman feast, that like beasts they were fallen
asleep, and would not stir when the others went, or
they had wandered into the woods, and did not come
back in time to be taken in.
The Spaniards were greatly surprised at this sight,
and perfectly at a loss what to do. The Spaniard
governor, as it happened, was with them, and his
advice was asked, but he professed he knew not what
to do. As for slaves, they had enough already; and
as to killing them, they were none of them inclined
to that. The Spaniard governor told me they could
not think of shedding innocent blood; for as to them,
the poor creatures had done them no wrong, in-
vaded none of their property, and they thought they
had no just quarrel against them, to take away their
lives. After some consultation, they resolved upon
this-that they would lie still a while longer, till, if
possible, these three men might be gone. But then,
the Spaniard governor recollected that the three
savages had no boat: and if they were left to rove
about the island, they would certainly discover that







410 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
there were inhabitants in it; and so they should be
undone that way. Upon this they went back again,
and there lay the fellows fast asleep still; and so they
resolved to waken them, and take them prisoners,
and they did so. The poor fellows were strangely
frightened when they were seized upon and bound,
for it seems those people think all the world does as
they do, eating men's flesh; but they were soon made
easy as to that, and away they carried them.
It was very happy for them that they did not carry
them home to their castle, I mean to my palace under
the hill; but they carried them first to the bower,
where was the chief of their country work, such as
keeping the goats, the planting the corn, &c.; and
afterwards they carried them to the habitation of the
two Englishmen.
Here they were set to work, though it was not
much they had for them to do; and whether it was
by negligence in guarding them, or that they thought
the fellows could not mend themselves, I know not,
but one of them ran away, and taking to the woods,
they could never hear of him any more.
They had good reason to believe he got home again
soon after, in some other boats, or canoes, of savages,
who came on shore three or four weeks afterwards;
and who, carrying on their revels as usual, went off
in two days' time. This thought terrified them
exceedingly; for they concluded, and that not with-
out good cause, indeed, that if this fellow came home
safe among his comrades, he would certainly give







AN INVASION OF SAVAGES. 411
them an account that there were people in this island,
and also how few and weak they were; for this
savage, as I had observed before, had never been
told, and it was very happy he had not, how many
there were, or where they lived: nor had he ever
seen or heard the fire of any of their guns, much less
had they shown him any of their other retired places;
such as the cave in the valley, or the new retreat
which the two Englishmen had made, and the like.
The first testimony they had that this fellow had
given intelligence of them was, that about two months
after this, six canoes of savages, with about seven,
eight, or ten men in a canoe, came rowing along the
north side of the island, where they never used to
come before, and landed about an hour after sunrise,
at a convenient place, about a mile from the habitation
of the two Englishmen, where this escaped man had
been kept. As the Spaniard governor said, had they
been all there, the damage would not have been so
much, for not a man of them would have escaped ;
but the case differed now very much, for two men to
fifty was too much odds. The two men had the hap-
piness to discover them about a league off, so that it was
above an hour before they landed ; and as they landed
a mile from their huts, it was some time before they
could come at them. Now, having great reason to
believe that they were betrayed, the first thing they
did was to bind the two slaves which were left, and
cause two of the three men whom they brought with
the women (who it seems proved very faithful to them)







412 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
to lead them, with their two wives, and whatever they
could carry away with them, to their retired places
in the wood, which I have spoken of above, and there
to bind the two fellows hand and foot, till they heard
farther.
In the next place, seeing the savages were all come
on shore, and that they had bent their course directly
that way, they opened the fences where the milch-
goats were kept, and drove them all out, leaving their
goats to straggle in the woods whither they pleased,
that the savages might think they were all bred wild ;
but the rogue that came with them was too cunning
for that, and gave them an account of it all, for they
went directly to the place.
They had not gone far, but that, from a rising-
ground, they could see the little army of their enemies
come on directly to their habitation, and in a moment
more, all their huts and household stuff flaming up
together, to their great grief and mortification. They
kept their station for a while, till they found the
savages, like wild beasts, spread themselves all over
the place, rummaging every way, and every place
they could think of, in search of prey.
The two Englishmen seeing this, thinking them-
selves not secure where they stood, because it was
likely some of the wild people might come that way,
and they might come too many together, thought it
proper to make another retreat about half a mile far-
ther, believing, as it afterwards happened, that the
farther they strolled, the fewer would be together.







A PERPLEXING SITUATION. 4 15
Their next halt was at the entrance into a very
thick grown part of the woods, and where an old trunk
of a tree stood, which was hollow and vastly large,
and in this tree they both took their standing. They
had not stood long before two of the savages appeared
running directly that way, as if they had already had
notice where they stood, and were coming up to at-
tack them; and, a little way farther, they espied
three more coming after them, and five more beyond
them, all coming the same way; besides which, they
saw seven or eight more, at a distance, running
another way, like sportsmen beating for their game.
The poor men were now in great perplexity whe-
ther they should stand and keep their posture or fly,
but they resolved to stand there; and, if they were
too many to deal with, then they would get up to the
top of the tree, from whence they doubted not to de-
fend themselves, fire excepted, as long as their am-
munition lasted.
Having decided on this, they resolved to let the
first two pass by, unless they should spy them in the
tree, and come to attack them. The first two savages
confirmed them also in this, by turning towards an-
other part of the wood; but the three, and the five
after them, came forward directly to the tree, as if
they had known the Englishmen were there. Seeing
them come so straight toward them, they resolved to
take them in a line as they came, and to fire but one
at a time.
While they were thus waiting, and the savages







414 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
came on, they plainly saw that one of the three was
the runaway savage that had escaped from them; and
they both knew him distinctly, and resolved that, if
possible, he should not escape, though they should
both fire. But the first was too good a marksman
to miss his aim; for, as the savages kept near one
another, a little behind in a line, he fired, and hit
two of them directly. The foremost was killed out-
right, being shot in the head; the second, which was
the runaway Indian, was shot through the body, and
fell, but was not quite dead; and the third had a
little scratch in the shoulder, perhaps by the same
ball that went through the body of the second; and,
being dreadfully frightened, though not so much hurt,
sat down upon the ground, screaming and yelling in
a hideous manner.
The five that were behind, more frightened with the
noise than sensible of the danger, stood still at first;
for the woods made the sound a thousand times bigger
than it really was, the echoes rattling from one side
to another, and the fowls rising from all parts, scream-
ing, and every sort making a different noise.
However, all being silent again, and they not
knowing what the matter was, came on unconcerned,
till they came to the place where their companions
lay, in a condition miserable enough; and here the
poor ignorant creatures, not sensible that they were
within reach of the same mischief, stood all of a huddle
over the wounded man, talking, and, as may be sup-
posed, inquiring of him how he came to be hurt; and








AN EASY VICTORY. 410
who, it is very rational to believe, told them, that a
flash of fire first, and immediately after that, thunder
from their gods, had killed those two and wounded
him.
Our two men, though, as they confessed to me, it
grieved them to be obliged to kill so many poor
creatures, who at the same time had no notion of
their danger, yet having them all thus in their power,
resolved to let fly both together among them, and
singling out, by agreement, which to aim at, they
shot together, and killed, or very much wounded,
four of them; the fifth, frightened even to death,
though not hurt, fell with the rest, so that our men,
seeing them all fall together, thought they had killed
them all.
The belief that the savages were all killed, made
our two men come boldly out from the tree, before
they had charged their guns, which was a wrong
step, and they were under some surprise when they
came to the place and found no less than four of them
alive, and two of them very little hurt, and one not
at all. This obliged them to fall upon them with the
stocks of their muskets, and first, they made sure
of the runaway savage, that had been the cause of
all the mischief, and of another that was hurt in the
knee, and put them out of their pain; then the man
that was hurt not at all came and kneeled down to
them, with his two hands held up, and made piteous
moans to them, by gestures and signs, for his life,
but could not say one word to them that they could







41 6 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
understand. However, they made signs to him to
sit down at the foot of a tree hard by, and one of the
Englishmen with a piece of rope twined, which he
had by great chance in his pocket, tied his two hands
behind him, and there they left him, and with what
speed they could made after the other two. They
came once in sight of them, but it was at a great
distance; however, they had the satisfaction to see
them cross over a valley towards the sea, quite the
contrary way from that which led to their retreat,
which they were afraid of; and being satisfied with
that, they went back to the tree where they left their
prisoner, who, as they supposed, was delivered by
his comrades, for he was gone, and the two pieces of
rope-yarn, with which they had bound him, lay just
at the foot of the tree.
They were now in as great a concern as before,
not knowing what course to take, or how near the
enemy might be, or in what numbers; so they resolved
to go away to the place where their wives were, to
see if all was well there, and to make them easy, who
were in fright enough to be sure, for though the
savages were their own country folk, yet they were
most terribly afraid of them, and, perhaps, the more
from the knowledge they had of them.
When they came there, they found the savages had
been in the wood, and very near that place, but had
not found it, for it was indeed inaccessible, by the
trees standing so thick, as before, unless the persons
seeking it had been directed by those that knew it,







TO KILL, OR NOT TO KILL 1 417
which these did not; they found, therefore, every-
thing very safe, only the women in a terrible fright.
While they were here, they had the comfort to have
seven of the Spaniards come to their assistance; the
other ten, with their servants, ani old Friday, I mean
Friday's father, were gone in a body to defend their
bower, and the corn and cattle that were kept there,
in case the savages should have roved over to that
side of the country, but they did not spread so far.
With the seven Spaniards came one of the three
savages, who, as I said, were their prisoners formerly,
and with them also came the savage whom the Eng-
lishmen had left bound hand and foot at the tree; for
it seems they came that way, and unbound and
brought him along with them, where, however, they
were obliged to bind him again, as they had the two
others who were left when the third ran away.
The prisoners began now to be a burthen to them,
and they were so afraid of their escaping, that they
were once resolving to kill them all, believing they
were under an absolute necessity to do so, for their
own preservation. However, the Spaniard governor
would not consent to it, but ordered, for the present,
that they should be sent out of the way, to my old
cave in the valley, and be kept there, with two Span-
iards to guard them.
When the Spaniards came, the two Englishmen
were so encouraged, that they could not satisfy them-
selves to stay any longer there; but taking five of
the Spaniards and themselves, with four muskets and








418 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
a pistol among them, and two stout quarter-staves,
away they went in quest of the savages. They re-
solved, though with all possible caution, to go forward
towards their ruined plantation; but a little before
they came thither, coming in sight of the sea-shore,
they saw plainly the savages all embarked again in
their canoes, in order to be gone, and they were very
well satisfied to be rid of them.
The poor Englishmen being now twice ruined, and
all their improvements destroyed, the rest all agreed
to come and help them to rebuild, and to assist them
with needful supplies. Their three countrymen who
were not yet noted for having the least inclination to
do any good, yet, as soon as they heard of it (for they
living remote, eastward, knew nothing of the matter
till all was over), came and offered their help and
assistance, and did very friendly work for several
days, to restore their habitation, and make neces-
saries for them. And thus, in a little time, they
were set upon their legs again.
About two days after this, they had the farther
satisfaction of seeing three of the savages' canoes
some driving on shore, and, at some distance from
them, two drowned men.
However, enough of them escaped to inform the
rest, as well of what they had done, as of what had
happened to them, and to whet them on to another
enterprise of the same nature, which they, it seems,
resolved to attempt, with sufficient force to carry all
before them; for, except what the first man had told








AN INTERVAL OF PEACE. 419
them of inhabitants, they could say little of it of their
own knowledge, for they never saw one man, and
the fellow being killed that had affirmed it, they had
no other witness to confirm it to them.




CHAPTER XL.

IT was five or six months after this before they heard
any more of the savages, in which time our men were
in hopes they had either forgot their former bad luck,
or given over their hopes of better, when, on a sudden,
they were invaded with a most formidable fleet of no
less than eight-and-twenty canoes, full of savages,
armed with bows and arrows, great clubs, wooden
swords, and such like engines of war, and put all our
people into the utmost consternation.
As they came on shore in the evening, and at the
easternmost side of the island, our men had that
night to consult and consider what to doi and in the
first place, knowing that their being entirely con-
cealed was their only safety before, and would be
much more so now, while the number of their enemies
was so great, they therefore resolved, first of all, to
take down the huts which were built for the two
Englishmen, and drive away their goats to the old
cave; because they supposed the savages would go
directly thither, as soon as it was day, to play the
old game over again, though they did not now land
27







420 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
within two leagues of it. In the next place, they
drove away all the flocks of goats they had at the
old bower, as I called it, which belonged to the
Spaniards, and, in short, left as little appearance of
inhabitants anywhere as was possible; and the next
morning early they posted themselves with all their
force at the plantation of the men, to wait for their
coming. As they guessed, so it happened; these
new invaders, leaving their canoes at the east end of
the island, came ranging along the shore directly
towards the place, to the number of two hundred and
fifty, as near as our men could judge. Our army
was but small, indeed, but that which was worse,
they had not arms for all their number either. The
whole account, it seems, stood thus: first, as to men,
seventeen Spaniards, five Englishmen, old Friday,
or Friday's father, the three slaves taken with the
women, who proved very faithful, and three other
slaves who lived with the Spaniards. To arm
these, they had eleven muskets, five pistols, three
fowling- pieces, five muskets or fowling- pieces,
which were taken by me from the mutinous sea-
men whom I reduced, two swords, and three old
halberds.
Their slaves had every one a halberd, with a great
spike of iron fastened into each end of it, and by his
side a hatchet; also every one of our men had a
hatchet. Two of the women would also come into
the fight, and they had bows and arrows, which the
Spaniards had taken from the savages when the first








A. DESPERATE ENCOUNTER. 12l
action happened, in addition to which they had hatchets
too.
The Spaniard governor commanded the whole, and
Will Atkins, who, though dreadful for wickedness,
was a most daring, bold fellow, commanded under
him. The savages came forward like lions; and
our men had no advantage in their situation, only
that Will Atkins, who now proved most useful, with
six men, was planted just behind a small thicket of
bushes, as an advance guard, with orders to let the
first of them pass by, and then fire into the middle of
them, and as soon as he had fired, to make his retreat
as nimbly as he could round a part of the wood, and
so come in behind the Spaniards, where they stood,
having a thicket of trees before them.
When the savages came on, they ran straggling
about every way in heaps, out of all manner of order,
and Will Atkins let about fifty of them pass by him;
then, seeing the rest come in a very thick throng, he
orders three of his men to fire. How many they
killed or wounded they knew not, but the consterna-
tion and surprise were inexpressible among the
savages; they were frightened to the last degree to
hear such a dreadful noise, and see their men killed,
and others hurt, but see nobody that did it. When,
in the middle of their fright, Will Atkins and his
other three let fly again among the thickest of them;
and in less than a minute, the first three being loaded
again, gave them a third volley.
Had Will Atkins and his men retired immediately







422 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
as soon as they had fired, as they were ordered to
do, the savages had been effectually routed; for the
terror that was among them came principally from
this, namely, that they were killed by the gods with
thunder and lightning, and could see nobody that
hurt them; but staying to load again, discovered the
cheat. Some of the savages who were at a distance,
spying them, came upon them behind; and though
Atkins and his men fired on them also, two or three
times, and killed above twenty, retiring as fast as
they could, yet they wounded Atkins himself
and killed one of his fellow Englishmen with
their arrows, as they did afterwards one Spaniard,
and one of the Indian slaves who came with the
women.
Our men being thus hard laid at, Atkins wounded,
and two other men killed, retreated to a rising
ground in the wood; and the Spaniards, after firing
three vollies upon them, retreated also; for their
number was so great, and they were so desperate,
though above fifty of them were killed, and more
than as many wounded, yet they came on in the teeth
of our men, fearless of danger, and shot their arrows
like a cloud; and it was observed that their wounded
men, who were not quite disabled, were made out-
rageous, and fought like madmen.
Finding our men were gone, they did not seem to
pursue them, but drew themselves up in a ring, which
is, it seems, their custom, and shouted twice, in token
of their victory; after which they had the mortifica-








A NIGHT ATTACK. 423
tion to see several of their wounded men fall, dying
with the mere loss of blood.
The Spaniard governor having drawn his little
body up together upon a rising ground, Atkins,
though he was wounded, would have had them march,
and charge again altogether at once; but the Spaniard
replied, Seignior Atkins, you see how their wounded
men fight, let them alone till morning; all the
wounded men will be stiff and sore with their wounds,
and faint with the loss of blood, and so we shall have
the fewer to engage." This advice was good; but
Will Atkins replied merrily, That is true, Seignior,
and so shall I too, and that is the reason I would go
on while I am warm." Well, Seignior Atkins,"
says the Spaniard, "you have behaved gallantly,
and done your part; we will fight for you, if you
cannot come on; but I think it best to stay till morn-
ing."
But as it was a clear moonlight night, and they
found the savages in great disorder about their dead
and wounded men, and a great noise and hurry
among them where they lay, they afterwards resolved
to fall upon them in the night, especially if they
could come to give them but one volley before they
were discovered, which they had a fair opportunity
to do; for one of the two Englishmen in whose quar-
ter it was where the fight began, led them round be-
tween the woods and the sea-side, westward, and
then turning short south, they came so near where
the thickest of them lay, that before they were seen







424 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
or heard, eight of them fired in among them, and did
dreadful execution upon them. In half a minute
more, eight others fired after them, pouring in their
small shot in such a quantity, that abundance
were killed and wounded; and all this while they
were not able to see who hurt them, or which way
to fly.
The Spaniards charged again with the utmost
expedition, and then divided themselves into three
bodies, and resolved to fall in among them altogether.
They had in each body eight persons, that is to say,
twenty-two men, and the two women, who, by the
way, fought desperately. They divided the fire-arms
equally in each party, and so the halberds and staves.
They would have had the women kept back, but they
said they were resolved to die with their husbands.
I having thus formed their little army, they marched
out from among the trees, and came up to the teeth
of the enemy, shouting and hallooing as loud as they
could. The savages stood altogether, but were in
the utmost confusion, hearing the noise of our men
shouting from three quarters together. They would
have fought if they had seen us; for as soon as we
came near enough to be seen, some arrows were shot,
and poor old Friday was wounded, though not dan-
gerously. But our men gave them no time, but run-
ning up to them, fired among them three ways, and
then fell in with the butt-end of their muskets, their
swords, armed staves, and hatchets, and laid about
them so well, that, in a word, they set up a dismal







THE VICTORY COMPLETE. 420
screaming and howling, flying to save their lives
which way soever they could.
Our men were tired with the execution, and killed
or mortally wounded, in the two fights, about 180 of
them; the rest, being frightened out of their wits,
scoured through the woods over the hills with all that
speed, fear, and nimble feet could help them to do;
and as we did not trouble ourselves much to pursue
them, they got altogether to the sea-side, where they
.landed, and where their canoes lay. But their dis-
aster was not at an end yet; for it blew a terrible
storm of wind that evening from the sea, so that it
was impossible for them to go off; nay, the storm
continuing all night, when the tide came up, their
canoes were most of them driven by the surge of the
sea so high upon the shore, that it required infinite toil
to get them off; and some of them were even dashed
to pieces against the beach, or against one another.
Our men, though glad of their victory, yet got
little rest that night; but having refreshed themselves
as well as they could, they resolved to march to that
part of the island where the savages were fled, and
see what posture they were in.
At length they came in view of the place where
the more miserable remains of the savages' army lay,
where there appeared about an hundred still. Their
posture was, generally, sitting upon the ground, with
their knees up towards their mouths, and the head
put between the two hands, leaning down upon the
knees.







426 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
When our men came within two musket-shots of
them, the Spaniard governor ordered two muskets to
be fired, without ball, to alarm them. This he did,
that, by their countenance, he might know what to
expect, namely, whether they were still in heart to
fight, or were so heartily beaten as to be dispirited
and discouraged, and so he might manage accord-
ingly. This stratagem took; for as soon as the
savages heard the first gun, and saw the flash of the
second, they started up upon their feet in the greatest
consternation imaginable; and as our men advanced
swiftly towards them, they all ran screaming and
yelling away, with a kind of howling noise, which
our men did not understand, and had never heard
before; and thus they run up the hills into the
country.
At first our men had much rather the weather had
been calm, and they had all gone away to sea; but
Will Atkins' advice was to clap in between them
and their boats, and so deprive them of the capacity
of ever returning any more to plague the island.
They consulted long about this. Some were
against it, for fear of making the wretches fly to the
woods, and so they should have them to hunt like
wild beasts, be afraid to stir about their business, and
have their plantation continually rifled, all their tame
goats destroyed, and, in short, to be reduced to a life
of continual distress.
Will Atkins told them they had better have to do
with an hundred men than with an hundred nations;







THE CANOES DESTROYED. 124
that, as they must destroy their boats, so they must
destroy the men, or be all of them destroyed them-
selves. In a word, he showed them the necessity of
it so plainly, that they all came into it. So they went
to work immediately with the boats, and getting some
dry wood together from a dead tree, they tried to set
some of them on fire, but they were so wet that they
would not burn; however, the fire so burned the
upper part, that it soon made them unfit for swim-
ming in the sea as boats. When the Indians saw
what they were about, some of them came running
out of the woods, and coming as near as they could
to our men, kneeled down and cried, Oa, Oa, Wara-
mokoa," and some other words of their language,
which none of the others understood anything of;
but as they made pitiful gestures and strange noises,
it was easy to understand they begged to have their
boats spared, and they would be gone, and never
come there again. But our men were now satisfied
that they had no way to preserve themselves, or to
save their colony, but effectually to prevent any of
these people from ever going home again; depend-
ing upon this, that if even so much as one of them
got back into their country to tell the story, the
colony was undone; so that, letting them know that
they should not have any mercy, they fell to work
with their canoes, and destroyed them every one that
the storm had not destroyed before. At the sight of
which the savages raised a hideous cry in the woods,
which our people heard plain enough, after which








428 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
they ran about the island like distracted men. They
had driven away their cattle, and the Indians did
not find out their main retreat, I mean my old castle
at the hill, nor the cave in the valley, yet they found
out my plantation at the bower, and pulled it all to
pieces, and all the fences and planting about it; trod
all the corn under foot, tore up the vines and grapes,
being just then almost ripe, and did our men an in-
estimable damage, though to themselves not one far-
thing's worth of service.
Though our men were able to fight them upon all
occasions, yet they were in no condition to pursue
them, or hunt them up and down; for as they were
too nimble of foot for our men, when they found
them single, so our men durst not go abroad single,
for fear of being surrounded with their numbers.
The best was, they had no weapons; for though they
made bows, they had no arrows left, nor any mate-
rials to make any; nor had they any edged tool or
weapon among them.
The extremity and distress they were reduced to
was great, and, indeed, deplorable; but at the same
time our men were also brought to very bad circum-
stances by them; for, though their retreats were pre-
served, yet their provision was destroyed, and their
harvest spoiled; and what to do, or which way to
turn themselves, they knew not. The only refuge
they had now was the stock of cattle they had in the
valley by the cave, and some little corn which grew
there, and the plantation of the three Englishmen,








SUBDUING THE SAVAGES. 429
Will Atkins and his comrades, who were now re.
duced to two; one of them being killed by an arrow,
which struck him on the side of his head, just under
the temples, so that he never spoke more; and it was
very remarkable that this was the same barbarous
fellow that cut the poor slave with his hatchet, and
who afterwards intended to have murdered the Span-
iards.
When our men saw what their circumstances were,
the first thing they concluded was, that they would,
if possible, drive them up to the farther part of the
island, south-west, that if any more savages came on
shore, they might not find one another: then our
men following them, and almost every day killing or
wounding some of them, they kept up in the woods
or hollow places so much, that it reduced them to the
utmost misery for want of food; and many were
afterwards found dead in the woods, without any
hurt, absolutely starved to death.
When our men found this, it made their hearts
relent, and pity moved them, especially the Spaniard
governor, who was the most generous-minded man
that ever I met with in my life; and he proposed, if
possible, to take one of them alive, and bring him to
understand what they meant, so far as to be able to
act as interpreter, and go among them, and see if
they might be brought to some condition that might
be depended upon, to save their lives and do us no
harm.
It was some while before any of them could be








430 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
taken; but, being weak and half starved, one of them
was at last surprised and made a prisoner. He was
sullen at first, and would neither eat nor drink; but
finding himself kindly used, and victuals given him,
and no violence offered him, he at last grew tractable,
and came to himself. They brought old Friday to
him, who talked often with him, and told him how
kind the others would be to them all; that they
would not only save their lives, but would give them
part of the island to live in, provided they would
give satisfaction that they would keep in their own
bounds, and not come beyond it to injure or prejudice
others; and that they should have corn given them
to plant, and make it grow, for their bread, and some
bread given them for their present subsistence: and
old Friday bade the fellow go and talk with the rest
of his countrymen, and see what they said to it;
assuring them, that if they did not agree immediately,
they should be all destroyed.
The poor wretches, thoroughly humbled, and re-
duced in number to about thirty-seven, closed with
the proposal at the first offer, and begged to have
some food given them; upon which twelve Spaniards
and two Englishmen, well armed, with three Indian
slaves and old Friday, marched to the place where
they were. The three Indian slaves carried them a
large quantity of bread, some rice boiled up to cakes
and dried in the sun, and three live goats; and they
were ordered to go to the side of a hill, where they
sat down, ate their provisions very thankfully, and







THE COLONY AT PEACE. 431
were the most faithful fellows to their words that
could be thought of; for, except when they came to
beg victuals and directions, they never came out of
their bounds: and there they lived when I came to
the island, and I went to see them.
They had taught them both to plant corn, make
bread, breed tame goats, and milk them. They were
confined to a neck of land, surrounded with high
rocks behind them, and lying plain towards the sea
before them, on the south-east corner of the island.
Our men taught them to make wooden spades,
such as I made for myself, and gave among them
twelve hatchets and three or four knives; and there
they lived the most subjected innocent creatures that
ever were heard of.
After this the colony enjoyed a perfect tranquillity
till I came to revisit them, which was about two years
after; not but that now and then some canoes of
savages came on shore for their triumphal unnatural
feasts; but as they were of several nations, and, per-
haps, had never heard of those that came before or
the reason of it, they did not make any search or in-
quiry after their countrymen.
Thus I think I have given a full account of all that
happened to them till my return, at least that was
worth notice. The Indians, or savages, were won-
derfully civilized by them. and they frequently went
among them; but forbid, on pain of death, any one
of the Indians coming to them, because they would
not have their settlement betrayed again.







432 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


CHAPTER XLI.

MY coming was a particular relief to these people,
because we furnished them with knives, scissors,
spades, shovels, pick-axes, and all things of that kind
which they could want. With the help of those tools
they were so very handy, that they came at last to
build up their huts, or houses, very handsomely,
raddling or working it up like basket-work, all the
way round; which was a very extraordinary piece
of ingenuity, and looked very odd, but was an exceed-
ing good fence, as well against heat as against all
sorts of vermin; and our men were so taken with it,
that they got the wild savages to come and do the
like for them; so that when I came to see the two
Englishmen's colonies, they looked at a distance as if
they all lived like bees in a hive. As for Will
Atkins, who was now become a very industrious,
useful, and sober fellow, he had made himself such a
tent of basket-work as I believe was never seen: it
was 120 paces round on the outside, as I measured
by my steps; the walls were as close worked as a
basket, in panels, or squares, of thirty-two in num-
ber, and very strong, standing about seven feet high:
in the middle was another, not above twenty-two
paces round, but built stronger, being octagon in its
form. The outer circuit was covered as a lean-to, all
round this inner apartment, and long rafters lay from
the thirty-two angles to the top posts of the inner







A STRANGE PIECE OF BASKET-WORK. 438
house, being about twenty feet distant; so that there
was a space like a walk, within the outer wicker-wall,
and without the inner, near twenty feet wide.
The inner place he partitioned off with the same
wicker-work, but much fairer, and divided it into six
apartments, so that he had six rooms on a floor, and
out of every one of these there was a door; first,
into the entry, or coming into the main tent, and an-
other door into the space, or walk, that was round it.
Such a piece of basket-work, I believe, was never
seen in the world, nor a house or tent so neatly con-
trived, much less so built. In this great bee-hive
lived the three families, that is to say, Will Atkins
and his companion; the third was killed, but his
wife remained with three children, and the other two
were not at all backward to give the widow her full
share of everything, I mean as to their corn, milk,
grapes, &c., and when they killed a kid, or found a
turtle on the shore; so that they all lived well enough,
though it was true they were not so industrious as
the other two, as has been observed already.
One thing, however, cannot be omitted, namely,
that as for religion, I do not know that there was any
thing of that kind among them: they often, indeed,
put one another in mind there was a God, by the
very common method of seamen, namely, swearing
by his name: nor were their poor ignorant savage
wives much better for having been married to Chris-
tians, as we must call them: for as they knew very
little of God themselves, so they were utterly incae







434 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
pable of entering into any discourse with their wives
about a God, or talk anything to them concerning
religion.
The utmost of all the improvement which I can
say the wives had made from them was, that they
had taught them to speak English pretty well; and
most of their children, which were near twenty in all,
were taught to speak English too, from their first
learning to speak, though they at first spoke it in a
very broken manner, like their mothers. The mothers
were all a good sort of well-governed, quiet, labori-
ous women, modest and decent, helpful to one another,
mighty observant and subject to their masters (I can-
not call them husbands,) and wanted nothing but to
be well instructed in the Christian religion, and to be
legally married; both of which were happily brought
about afterwards, in consequence of my coming among
them.
Having thus given an account of the colony in
general, and pretty much of my runagate English, I
must say something of the Spaniards, who were the
main body of the family, and in whose story there are
some incidents also remarkable enough.
I had a great many discourses with them about
their circumstances when they were among the sava-
ges. They gave me a minute account of their suffer-
ings, and of the share they were compelled to take
in the wars of the savages; as well as of their im-
perfect weapons and the defensive armour they pro-
vided for such occasions. Notwithstanding these, they








STORY OF THE SPANIARDS. 435
were sometimes in great danger; and five of them
were once knocked down together with the clubs of the
savages, which was the time when one of them was
taken prisoner, that is to say, the Spaniard whom I
had relieved. At first, they thought he had been
killed; but, when they afterwards heard he was
taken prisoner, they were under the greatest grief
imaginable, and would willingly have all ventured
their lives to have rescued him.
They told me, that, when they were so knocked
down, the rest of their company rescued them, and
stood over them fighting till they were come to them-
selves, all but him whom they thought had been dead;
and then they made their way with their halberds
and pieces, standing close together in a line, through
a body of above a thousand savages, and beating
down all that came in their way, got the victory over
their enemies, but, to their great sorrow, because it
was with the loss of their friend, whom the other
party, finding him alive, carried off, with some others,
as I gave an account before.
They described most affectionately how they were
surprised with joy at the return of their friend and
companion in misery, who, they thought, had been
devoured by wild men; and yet how, more and more,
they were surprised with the account he gave them
of his errand, and that there was a Christian in any
place near, much more one that was able, and had
humanity enough to contribute to their deliverance.
They described how they were astonished at the
28







436 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
sight of the relief I sent them, and at the appear.
ance of loaves of bread, things they had not seen
since their coming to that miserable place; how often
they blessed it as bread sent from Heaven; and
what a reviving cordial it was to their spirits to taste
it, as also the other things I had sent for their supply;
and, after all, they would have told me something of
the joy they were in at the sight of a boat and
pilots, to carry them away to the person and place
from whence all these comforts came; but it was im-
possible to express it by words, for their excessive
joy naturally driving them to unbecoming extrava-
gances, they had no way to describe them, but by
telling me they bordered upon lunacy, having no way
to give vent to their passions suitable to the sense
that was upon them : that in some, it worked one
way, and in some another; and that some of them,
through a surprise of joy, would burst into tears,
others be stark mad, and others immediately faint.
This discourse extremely affected me, and called to
my mind Friday's ecstacy when he met his father,
and the poor people's ecstacy when I took them up
at sea after their ship was on fire; the joy of the
mate of the ship, when he found himself delivered,
in the place where he expected to perish; and my
own joy, when, after twenty-eight years' captivity, I
found a good ship, ready to carry me to my own
country. All these things made me more sensible
of the relation of these poor men, and more affected
with it.







UNTON OF INTEREST. 437
Having thus given a view of the state of things as
I found them, I must relate the heads of what I did
for these people, and the condition in which I left
them. It was their opinion and mine too, that they
would be troubled no more with the savages, or if they
were, they would be able to cut them off, if they were
twice as many as before; so they had no concern
about that. Then I entered into a serious discourse
with the Spaniard, whom I call governor, about their
stay in the island; for, as I was not come to carry
any of them off, so it would not be just to carry ofi
some and leave others.
They were all together when I talked thus to them;
and, before I delivered to them the stores I had
brought, I asked them, one by one, if they had en-
tirely forgot and buried the first animosities that had
been among them, and engaged in strict friendship
and union of interest, that so there might be no more
misunderstandings or jealousies.
Will Atkins, with abundance of frankness and good
humour, said, they had met with affliction enough to
make them all sober, and enemies enough to make
them all friends; that, for his part, he was so far from
designing anything against the Spaniards, that he had
owned they had done nothing to him but what his own
bad humour made necessary, and that he would ask
them pardon, if I desired it, for the foolish and brutish
things he had done to them, and was very willing and
desirous of living .in terms of entire friendship and
union with them; and would do anything that lay in







438 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
his power to convince them of it: and, as for going to
England, he cared not if he did not go thither these
twenty years.
The Spaniard said they had, indeed, at first, dis-
armed and excluded Will Atkins and his two country-
men, for their ill conduct, as they had let me know,
and they appealed to me for the necessity they were
under to do so; but that Will Atkins had behaved
himself so bravely in the great fight they had with
the savages, and on several occasions since, and had
showed himself so faithful to, and concerned for, the
general interest of them all, that they had forgotten.
all that was past, and thought he merited as much to
be trusted with arms and supplied with necessaries, as
any of them; and they most heartily embraced the
occasion of giving me this assurance, that they would
never have any interest separate from one another.
Upon these frank and open declarations of friend-
ship, we appointed the next day to dine all together;
and indeed we made a splendid feast. I caused the
ship's cook and his mate to come on shore and dress
our dinner, and the old cook's mate we had on shore
assisted. We brought on shore six pieces of good
beef, and four pieces of pork, out of the ship's pro-
vision, with our punch-bowl, and materials to fill it;
and, in particular, I gave them ten bottles of French
claret, and ten bottles of English beer; things that
neither the Spaniards nor the English had tasted for
many years, and which, it may be supposed they were
very glad of. The Spaniards added to our feast five








EXHIBITING THE STORE. 461
whole kids, which the cooks roasted; and three of
them were sent, covered up close, on board the ship
to the seamen, that they might feast on fresh meat
from on shore, as we did with their salt meat from on
board.
After this feast, at which we were very innocently
merry, I brought out my cargo of goods; wherein,
that there might be no dispute about dividing, I
showed them that there was a sufficiency for them
all, desiring that they might all take an equal quantity
of the goods that were for wearing; linen sufficient to
make every one of them four shirts, at the Spaniards'
request, afterwards made up six. I allotted the thin
English stuffs, to make every one a light coat fittest
for the heat of the season, cool and loose: and ordered
that whenever they decayed, they should make more,
as they thought fit; the like for pumps, shoes, stock-
ings, hats, &c.
I cannot express what pleasure, what satisfaction
sat upon the countenances of all these poor men, when
they saw the care I had taken of them, and how well
I had furnished them. They told me I was a father
to them; and that, having such a correspondent as I
was in so remote a part of the world, it would make
them forget that they were left in a desolate place;
and they all voluntarily engaged to me not to leave
the place without my consent.
Then I presented to them the people I had brought
with me, particularly the tailor, the smith, and the
two carpenters, all of them most necessary people:








440 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
but, above all, my general artificer, than whom they
could not name anything that was more useful to
them: and the tailor, to show his concern for them,
went to work immediately, and with my leave, made
them every one a shirt, the first thing he did; and
which was still more, he taught the women, not only
how to sew and stitch, and use the needle, but made
them assist to make the shirts for their husbands, and
for all the rest.
As to the carpenters, I scarce need mention how
useful they were; for they took to pieces all my
clumsy, unhandy things, and made them clever con-
venient tables, stools, bedsteads, cupboards, lockers,
shelves, and everything they wanted of that kind.
But, to let them see how nature made artificers at first,
I carried the carpenters to see Will Atkins' basket-
house, as I called it; and they both owned they nevel
saw an instance of such natural ingenuity before, nor
anything so regular and so handily built, at least of
its kind; and one of them, when he saw it, after mus-
ing a good while, turning about to me, I am sure,"
says he, that man has no need of us; you need do
nothing but give him tools."
Then I brought them out all my store of tools, and
gave every man a digging spade, a shovel, and a rake,
for we had no harrows, nor ploughs; and to every
separate place a pick-axe, a crow, a broad-axe, and a
saw; always appointing, that as often as any were
broken or worn out they should be supplied, without
grudging, out of the general stores that I left behind.







TOOLS AND WEAPONS. 441
Nails, staples, hinges, hammers, chisels, knives, scis.
sors, and all sorts of iron-work, they had without tale,
as they required; for no man would take more than
he wanted, and he must be a fool that would waste or
spoil them on any account whatever; and for the use
of the smith I left two tons of unwrought iron for a
supply.
My magazine of powder and arms which I brought
them was such, even to profusion, that they could not
but rejoice at them; for now they could march, as I
used to do, with a musket upon each shoulder, if there
was occasion, and were able to fight a thousand
savages, if they had but some little advantages of
situation, which also they could not miss, if they had
occasion.
I carried on shore with me the young man whose
mother was starved to death, and the maid also: she
was a sober, well-educated, religious young woman,
and behaved so inoffensively that every one gave her
a good word. She had, indeed, an unhappy life with
us, there being no woman in the ship but herself but
she bore it with patience. After a while, seeing things
so well ordered, and in so fine a way of thriving upon
my island, and considering that they had neither
business nor acquaintance in the East Indies, nor
reason for taking so long a voyage; both of them came
to me and desired I would give them leave to remain
on the island, and be entered among my family, as
they called it. I agreed to this readily; and they
had a little plot of ground allotted them, where they








442 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
had three tents or houses set up, surrounded with a
basket-work, pallisadoed like Atkins's, adjoining to
his plantation. Their tents were contrived so, that
they had each of them a room apart to lodge in, and
a middle tent like a great storehouse, to lay their
goods in, and to eat and'drink in. And now the other
two Englishmen removed their habitation to the same
place; and so the island was divided into three colo-
nies and no more, namely, the Spaniards, with old
Friday, and the first servants, at my old habitation
under the hill, which was, in a word, the capital city,
and where they had so enlarged and extended their
works, as well under as on the outside of the hill, that
they lived, though perfectly concealed, yet full at large.
The other colony was that of Will Atkins, where
there were four families of Englishmen, I mean those
I had left there, with their wives and children; three
savages that were slaves; the widow and the children
of the Englishman that was killed; the young man
and the maid: and by the way, we made a wife of
her before we went away. There were also the two
carpenters and the tailor, whom I brought with me
for them; also the smith, who was a very necessary
man to them, especially as a gunsmith, to take care
of their arms; and my other man whom I called
Jack-of-all-trades, who was in himself as good almost
as twenty men; for he was not only a very ingenious
fellow, but a very merry fellow; and before I went
away we married him to the honest maid that came
with the youth in the ship I mentioned before.







THE FRENCH PRIEST. 44J
And now I speak of marrying, it brings me natur-
ally to say something of the French ecclesiastic that
I had brought with me out of the ship's crew whom
I took up at sea; perhaps it may give offence to some
hereafter, if I leave anything extraordinary upon
record of a man whom, before I begin, I must (to
set him out in just colours) represent in terms very
much to his disadvantage, in the account of Protes-
tants: as, first, that he was a Papist; secondly, a
Popish priest; and thirdly, a French Popish priest.
But justice demands of me to give him a due cha-
racter; and I must say he was a grave, sober, pious,
and most religious person: exact in his life, extensive
in his charity, and exemplary in almost everything
he did. What, then, can any one say against being
very sensible of the value of such a man, notwith-
standing his profession? though it may be my opinion,
perhaps, as well as the opinion of others who shall
read this, that he was mistaken.
After we had seen the state of the island, he had
many conversations with me about it, deploring alike
the ignorance and irreligion of the Europeans, and
the degraded state of the natives, he at length pro-
posed to abandon all thoughts of prosecuting his
voyage to the East Indies, and taking up his abode
among them. His zeal and earnest simplicity greatly
interested me. I paused a considerable while before
I could tell what to say to him; for I was really sur-
prised to find a man of such sincerity and zeal, and
carried out in his zeal beyond the ordinary rate of







444 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
men, not of his profession only, but even of any pro-
fession whatsoever. But after I had considered it
awhile, I asked him seriously, if he was in earnest,
and that he would venture on the single consideration
of an attempt on those poor people, to be locked up
in an unplanted island for perhaps his life, and at
last might not know whether he should be able to do
them good or not?
lie turned short upon me, and asked me what I
called a venture? Pray, sir," said he, what do you
think I consented to go in your ship to the East
Indies for?" "Nay," said I, "that I know not,
unless it was to preach to the Indians." Doubtless
it was," said he: "and do you think, if I can con-
vert these thirty-seven men to the faith of Jesus
Christ, it is not worth my time, though I should
never be fetched off the island again; nay, is it not
infinitely of more worth to save so many souls, than
my life is, or the life of twenty more of the same pro-
fession ? Yes, sir," says he, I would give God
thanks all my days, if I could be made the least
happy instrument of saving the souls of those poor
men, though I was never to set my foot off this
island, or see my native country any more. But
since you will honour me with putting me into this
work, for which I will pray for you all the days ot
my life, I have one humble petition to you besides."
"What is that?" said I. "Why," says he, "it
is, that you will leave your man Friday with me,
to be my interpreter to them, and to assist me; for,







FRIDAY IN DEMAND. 445
without some help, I cannot speak to them or they
to me."
I was sensibly touched at his requesting Friday,
because I could not think of parting with him, and
that for many reasons: he had been the companion
of my travels; he was not only faithful to me, but
sincerely affectionate to the last degree, and I had
resolved to do something considerable for him, if he
outlived me, as it was probable he would. However,
a sudden thought relieved me in this strait, and it was
this : I told him I could not say that I was willing
to part with Friday, on any account whatever, though
a work that, to him, was of more value than his life,
ought to be to me of much more value than the keep-
ing or parting with a servant. But, on the other
hand, I was persuaded that Friday would by no
means agree to part with me, and I could not force
him to it without his consent, without manifest in-
justice; because I had promised I would never put
him away, and he had promised and engaged to me,
that he would never leave me, unless I put him
away.
He seemed very much concerned at it, for he had
no rational access to these poor people, seeing he did
not understand one word of their language, nor they
one word of his. To remove this difficulty, I told
him Friday's father had learned Spanish, which I
found he also understood, and he should serve him
as an interpreter. So he was much better satisfied;
and nothing could persuade him but he would stay








446 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
and endeavour to convert them; but Providence gave
another very happy turn to all this.





CHAPTER XLII.

WHEN we came to the Englishmen, I sent for them all
together, and, after some account given them of what
I had done for them, namely, what necessary things
I had provided them, and how they were distri-
buted, which they were very sensible of, and very
thankful for, I began to talk to them of the scandal-
ous life they led, and gave them a full account of
the notice the clergyman had taken of it; and argu-
ing how unchristian and irreligious a life it was, I
first asked them, if they were married men or bache-
lors. They soon explained their conditions to me,
and showed that two of them were widowers, and the
other three were single men, or bachelors. I asked
them with what conscience they could take those
women, as they had done, call them their wives, and
not be lawfully married to them?
They all gave me the answer I expected, namely,
that there was nobody to marry them; that they
agreed before the governor to keep them as their
wives, and to maintain them, and own them as their
wives; and they thought, as things stood with them,
they were as legally married as if they had been







CRUSOE ON MATRIMONY. 447
married by a parson, and with all the formalities in
the world.
I told them that, no doubt, they were married in
the sight of God, and were bound in conscience to
keep them as their wives; but that the laws of men
being otherwise, they might desert the poor women
and children hereafter; and that, their wives being
poor desolate women, friendless and moneyless, would
have no way to help themselves. I therefore told
them that, unless I was assured of their honest intent,
I could do nothing for them, but would take care
what I did should be for the women and children.
All this went on as I expected, and they told me,
especially Will Atkins, who now seemed to speak for
the rest, that they loved their wives as well as if they
had been born in their own native country, and would
not leave them upon any account whatever; and they
did verily believe their wives were as virtuous and
modest, and did to the utmost of their skill, as much
for them and for their children, as any women could
possibly do. Will Atkins, for his own particular,
added, that if any man would take him away, and
offer to carry him home to England, and make him
captain of the best man-of-war in the navy, he would
not go with him if he might not carry his wife and
children with him; and, if there was a clergyman in
the ship, he would be married to her now with all his
heart.
This was just as I would have it. The priest was
not with me at that moment, but was not far off; so,








448 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
to try him farther, I told him I had a clergyman
with me, and if he was sincere, I would have him
married next morning. I then told him, that my
friend the minister was a Frenchman, and could not
speak English, but I would act the clerk between
them. Hle never so much as asked me whether he
was Papist or Protestant. I went back to my clergy-
man, and Will Atkins went into talk with his com-
panions. I desired the French gentleman not to say
anything to them, till the business was thorough
ripe, and I told him what answer the men had given
me.
Before I went from their quarter, they all came to
me, and told me they had been considering what I
had said, that they were glad to hear I had a clergy-
man in my company, and they were very willing to
give me the satisfaction I desired, and to be formally
married as soon as I pleased, for they were far from
desiring to part with their wives, and that they
meant nothing but what was very honest, when they
chose them. So I appointed them to meet me the
next morning, and, in the meantime, they should let
their wives know the meaning of the marriage law;
and that it was not only to prevent any scandal, but
also to oblige them that they should not forsake them,
whatever might happen.
The women were easily made sensible of the mean-
ing of the thing, and were very well satisfied with it,
as indeed they had reason to be; so they failed not to
attend, all together, at my apartment, next morning.








THE PRIEST AND THE COLONISTS.


where I brought out my clergyman; and though he
had not on a minister's gown, after the manner of
England, or the habit of a priest, after the manner
of France, yet having a black vest, something like
a cassock, with a sash round it, he did not look
very unlike a minister; and as for his language, I
was his interpreter. But the seriousness of his be-
haviour to them, and the scruples he made of marry-
ing the women, because they were not baptized and
professed Christians, gave them an exceeding rever-
ence for his person, and there was no need after that
to inquire whether he was a clergyman or not. In-
deed I was afraid his scruples would have been carried
so far, as that he would not have married them at all.
He told them that nothing but the consenting to
marry, or effectually separating them from one another,
could now do; but there was a difficulty in it too,
with respect to the laws of Christian matrimony,
which he was not fully satisfied about, namely, that of
marrying one that is a professed Christian to a savage,
an idolator, and a heathen, one that is not baptized;
and yet, that he did not see that there was time left
for him to endeavour to persuade the women to be
baptized, or to profess the name of Christ, whom they
had, he doubted, heard nothing of. He told them
he doubted they were but indifferent Christians them-
selves, that they had but little knowledge of God, or
of his ways, and therefore he could not expect that
they had said much to their wives on that head yet;
but that, unless they would promise him to use their








450 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
endeavours with their wives to persuade them to be-
come Christians, and would, as well as they could,
instruct them in the knowledge and belief of God
that made them, and to worship Jesus Christ that
redeemed them, he could not marry them; for he
would have no hand in joining Christians with sa-
vages.
They heard all this very attentively, and I deliver-
ed it very faithfully to them from his mouth, as near
in his own words as I could, only, sometimes, adding
something of my own, to convince them how just it
was, and how I was of his mind, and I always very
faithfully distinguished between what I said from
myself, and what were the clergyman's words. They
told me it was very true what the gentleman said,
that they were very indifferent Christians themselves,
and that they had never talked to their wives about
religion. "Why, sir," says Will Atkins, "how
should we teach them religion? why, we know no-
thing ourselves; and besides, sir," said he, should
we talk to them of God and Jesus Christ, and heaven
and hell, it would make them laugh at us, and ask
us what we believe ourselves. And if we should tell
them that we believe all the things we speak of to
them, such as of good people going to heaven, and
wicked people to the devil, they would ask us where
we intend to go ourselves, that believe all this, and
are such wicked fellows, as we indeed are? Why,
sir, 'tis enough to give them a surfeit of religion at
first hearing; folks must have some religion them-








CRUSOE AND WILL ATKINS. 451
selves before they pretend to teach other people."
" Will Atkins," said I to him, though I am afraid
that what you say has too much truth in it, yet can
you not tell your wife that she is in the wrong ? that
there is a God, and a religion better than her own:
that her gods are idols; that they can neither hear
nor speak; that there is a great Being that made all
things, and that can destroy all that he has made:
that he rewards the good and punishes the bad; and
that we are to be judged by him at last, for all we do
here. You are not so ignorant, but even nature itself
will teach you, that all this is true, and I am satisfied
you know it all to be true, and believe it yourself."
Atkins had his difficulties still, for he felt the incon-
sistency of teaching what he had never practised;
but the priest would not let him off. Oh," said he,
" tell him there is one thing will make him the best
minister in the world to his wife, and that is, repen-
tance; for none teach repentance like true penitents.
He will then be able to tell that there is not only a
God, and that he is a just rewarder of good and evil,
but that he is a merciful Being, and, with infinite
goodness and long-suffering, forbears to punish those
that offend, waiting to be gracious, and willing not
the death of a sinner, but rather that he should return
and live."
I repeated all to Atkins, who looked very serious
all the while, and who, we could easily perceive, was
more than ordinarily affected with it: when, being
eager, and hardly suffering me to make an end-" I
29







452 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

know all this, master," says he, and a great deal
more; but I have not the impudence to talk thus to
my wife, when God and my conscience knows, and
my wife will be an undeniable evidence against me,
that I have lived as if I had never heard of a God,
or a future state, or anything about it; and to talk
of my repenting, alas l (and with that he fetched a
deep sigh, and I could see that the tears stood in his
eyes), all 'tis past that with me." "Past it, Atkins ?"
said I, what dost thou mean by that?" I know
well enough what I mean," says he, I mean 'tis
too late, and that it is too true," and then he gave
way to all the violence of a guilty and despairing
conscience.
I told the clergyman, word for word, what he said;
the poor zealous priest-I must call him so, for be his
opinion what it will, he had certainly a most singular
affection for the good of other men's souls, and it
would be hard to think he had not the like for his
own.
The clergyman shook his head, with great concern
in his face, when I told him all this; but, turning quick
to me upon it, says, "If that be his case, we may
assure him it is not too late; Christ will give him
repentance. But pray," says he, "explain this to him;
that, as no man is saved but by Christ, and the merit
of his passion procuring divine mercy for him, how
can it be too late for any man to receive mercy?
Does he think he is able to sin beyond the power or
reach of divine mercy? Pray tell him, there may be







A SINOERE CONVERT. 4OD
a time when provoked mercy will no longer strive,
and when God may refuse to hear, but that 'tis never
too late for men to ask mercy, and we that are Christ's
servants, are commanded to preach mercy at all times,
in the name of Jesus Christ, to all those that sincerely
repent; so that it is never too late to repent."
I told Atkins all this, and he heard me with great
earnestness, but it seemed as if he turned off the dis-
course to the rest, for he said to me he would go and
have some talk with his wife; so he went out awhile,
and we talked to the rest. I perceived they were all
stupidly ignorant as to matters of religion, as much
as I was when I went rambling away from my father,
and yet there were none of them backward to hear
what had been said, and all of them seriously pro-
mised, that they would talk with their wives about
it, and do their endeavours to persuade them to turn
Christians.
The clergyman smiled upon me when I reported
what answer they gave, but said nothing a good while;
but at last, shaking his head, "We that are Christ's
servants," says he, can go no farther than to exhort
and instruct, and when men comply, submit to the
reproof and promise what we ask, 'tis all we can do;
we are bound to accept their good works; but believe
me, sir," said he, "whatever you may have known
of the life of that man you call Will Atkins, I be-
lieve he is the only sincere convert among them; I take
that man to be a true penitent, I will not despair of
the rest, but that man is apparently struck with the








454 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
sense of his past life, and I doubt not, when he comes
to talk of religion to his wife, he will talk himself
effectually into it; for attempting to teach others, is
sometimes the best way of teaching ourselves. I
knew a man, who, having nothing but a summary
notion of religion himself, and being wicked and pro-
fligate to the last degree in his life, made a thorough
reformation in himself by labouring to convert a Jew.
If that poor Atkins begins but once to talk seriously
of Jesus Christ to his wife, my life for it, he talks
himself into a thorough convert, makes himself a
penitent, and who knows what may follow.
Upon this discourse, however, and their promising
as above, to endeavour to persuade their wives to em-
brace Christianity, he married the other two couple;
but Will Atkins and his wife were not yet come in.
After this, my clergyman, waiting awhile, was curious
to know where Atkins was gone; and, turning to me,
said, "I entreat you, sir, let us walk out of your.
labyrinth here, and look; I dare say we shall find
this poor man, somewhere or other, talking seriously
to his wife, and teaching her already something of
religion." I began to be of the same mind; so we
went out together, and I carried him a way which
none knew but myself, and where the trees were so
very thick, that it was not easy to see through the
thicket of leaves, and far harder to see in, than to see
out; when coming to the edge of the wood, I saw
Atkins and his tawny savage wife sitting under the
shade of a bush, very eager in discourse. I stopped








ATKINS AND HIS WIFE. 455
short till my clergyman came up to me, and then,
having shown him where they were, we stood and
looked very steadily at them a good while. We ob-
served him very earnest with her, pointing up to the
sun, and to every quarter of the heavens, and then
down to the earth, then out to the sea, then to him-
self, then to her, to the woods, to the trees. "Now,"
says my clergyman, "you see my words are made
good; the man preaches to her; mark him, now; he
is telling her, that our God has made him and her,
and the heavens, the earth, the sea, the woods, the
trees, &c." "I believe he is," said I. Immediately
we perceived Will Atkins start upon his fdet, fall
down on his knees, and lift up both hands. We
supposed he said something, but we could not hear
him; it was too far for that. He did not continue
kneeling half a minute, but comes and sits down
again by his wife, and talks to her again; we per-
ceived then the woman very attentive, but wheth :r
she said anything to him we could not tell. While
the poor fellow was upon his knees, I could see the
tears run plentifully down my clergyman's cheeks,
and I could hardly forbear myself; but it was a
great affliction to us both, that we were not near
enough to hear anything that passed between them.
Well, however, we could come no nearer, for fear of
disturbing them; so we resolved to see an end of
this piece of still conversation, and it poke loud
enough to us without the help of voice. He sat
down again, as I have said, close by her, and talked








456 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
again earnestly to her, and two or three times we
could see him embrace her most passionately; another
time we saw him take out his handkerchief and wipe
her eyes, and then kiss her again, with a kind of
transport very unusual; and after several of these
things, we saw him, on a sudden, jump up again, and
lend her his hand to hold her up, when, immediately
leading her by the hand, a step or two, they both
kneeled down together, and continued so about two
minutes.
My friend could bear it no longer; but cries out
aloud, St. Paul, St. Paul, behold he prayeth I
was afraid Atkins would hear him; therefore, I en-
treated him to withhold himself a while, that we
might see an end of the scene, which, to me; I must
confess, was the most affecting that ever I saw in my
life. Well, he strove with himself for a while, but
was in such raptures to think that the poor heathen
woman was become a Christian, that he was not able
to contain himself. He wept several times, then
throwing up his hands, and crossing his breast, said
over several things ejaculatory, and by way of giv-
ing God thanks for so miraculous a testimony of the
success of our endeavours. Some he spoke softly, and
I could not well hear others; some in Latin, some in
French; then two or three times the tears would in-
terrupt him, that he could not speak at all; but I
begged that he would contain himself, and let us
more narrowly and fully observe what was before us,
which he did for a time, the scene not being near







INFLUENCE OF TRUE RELIGION. 407
ended yet, for after the poor man and his wife were
risen again from their knees, we observed he stood
talking still eagerly to her, and we observed her mo-
tion, that she was greatly affected with what he said,
by her frequently lifting up her hands, laying her
hand to her breast, and such other postures as express
greatest seriousness and attention. This continued
about half a quarter of an hour, and then they walked
away; so we could see no more of them in that situa-
tion. I took this interval to talk with my clergy-
man; and first, I was glad to see the particulars we
had both been witnesses to, that though I was hard
enough of belief in such cases, yet that I began to
think it was all very sincere here, both in the man
and his wife, however ignorant they might both be,
and I hoped such a beginning would yet have a more
happy end: "And who knows," says I, "but these
two may, in time, by instruction and example, work
upon some of the others?" Some of them?" said
he, turning quick upon me; "ay, upon all of them:
depend upon it, if those two savages, for he has been
but little better, as you relate it, should embrace
Jesus Christ, they will never leave it till they work
upon all the rest; for true religion is naturally com-
municative, and he that is once made a Christian will
never leave a pagan behind him, if he can help it."
I owned it was a most Christian principle to think so,
and a testimony of true zeal, as well as a generous
heart in him. But, my friend," said I, "will you
give me leave to start one difficulty here? I cannot







458 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
tell how to object the least thing against that affect.
tionate concern which you show for the turning the
people from their paganism to the Christian religion:
but how does this comfort you, while these people
are, in your account, out of the pale of the Catholic
Church, without which you believe there is no salva-
tion? so that you esteem these but heretics for other
reasons, as effectually lost as the pagans themselves."
To this he answered with abundance of candour,
thus:-" Sir, I am a Catholic of the Roman Church,
and a priest of the order of St. Benedict, and I em-
brace all the principles of the Roman faith; but yet,
if you will believe me, and that I do not speak in
compliment to you, or in respect to my circumstances
and your civilities; I say, nevertheless, I do not look
upon you, who call yourselves reformed, without some
charity: I dare not say (though I know it is our
opinion in general) that you cannot be saved: I will
by no means limit the mercy of Christ so far as to
think that he cannot receive you into the bosom of
his church in a manner to us unperceivable; and I
hope you have the same charity for us; I pray daily
for your being all restored to Christ's church by what-
soever method he, who is all-wise, is pleased to direct.
In the meantime, sure you will allow that it consists
with me, as a Roman, to distinguish fir between a
Protestant and a pagan; between one that calls on
Jesus Christ, though in a way which I do not think
is according to the true faith, and a savage or a bar-
barian that knows no God, no Christ, no Redeemer;







A PRIEST ON RELIGION. 459
and if you are not within the pale of the Catholic
Church, we hope you are nearer being restored to it
than those that know nothing of God or of his church;
and I rejoice, therefore, when I see this poor man,
who you say has been a profligate, and almost a mur-
derer, kneel down and pray to Jesus Christ, as we
supposed he did, though not fully enlightened; be-
lieving that God, from whom every such work pro-
ceeds, will sensibly touch his heart, and bring him to
the farther knowledge of that truth in his own time:
and if God shall influence this poor man to convert
and instruct the ignorant savage, his wife, I can never
believe that he shall be cast away himself. And
have I not reason then to rejoice the nearer any are
brought to the knowledge of Christ, though they may
not be brought quite home into the bosom of the
Catholic Church, just at the time when I -may desire
it, leaving it to the goodness of Christ to perfect his
work in his own time and in his own way ? Cer-
tainly I would rejoice if all the savages in America
were brought, like this poor woman, to pray to God,
though they were all to be Protestants at first, rather
than they should continue pagans or heathens; firmly
believing, that he that had bestowed the first light to
them, would farther illuminate them with a beam of
his heavenly grace, and bring them into the pale of
the church when he should see good."
I was astonished at the sincerity and temper of
this pious Papist, as much as I was oppressed by the
power of his reasoning; and it presently occurred to








460 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
my thought that if such a temper was universal, we
might be all Catholic Christians, whatever church or
particular profession we joined in; that a spirit of
charity would soon work us all up into right prin.
ciples; and as he thought that the like charity would
make us all Catholics, so I told him I believed had all
the members of his church the like moderation, they
would soon all be Protestants. And there we left
that part; for we never disputed at all.
However, I talked to him another way, and, taking
him by the hand, My friend," says I, I wish all
the clergy of the Roman Church were blessed with
such moderation, and had an equal share of your
charity. I am entirely of your opinion; but I must
tell you, that if you should preach such doctrines in
Spain or Italy, they would put you into the Inquisi-
tion." It may be so," said he; I know not what
they would do in Spain and Italy; but I will not
say they will be the better Christians for that severity;
for I am sure there is no heresy in abounding with
charity."




CHAPTER XLIII.

WELL, as Will Atkins and his wife were gone, our
business there was over, so we went back our own
way; and when we came back we found them waiting
to be called in: observing this, I asked my clergy.








CRUSOE AND WILL ATKINS. 461
man if we should discover to him that we had seen
him under the bush or not; and it was his opinion
we should not, but that we should talk to him first,
and hear what he would say to us. So we called him
in alone, nobody being in the place but ourselves;
and I began with him thus:-
Will Atkins, said I, prithee what education had
you; what was your father?
His replies went to my own heart. His father, it
seemed, had been a clergyman, and a most tender and
affectionate parent, whose days he had shortened by
his ungrateful and wicked conduct.
Pray, Will, said I, let us know what passed be-
tween you and your wife; for I know something of
it already.
W. A. Sir, it is impossible to give you a full ac-
count of it; I am too full to hold it, and yet have no
tongue to express it: but let her have said what she
will, and though I cannot give you an account of it,
this I can tell you, that I have resolved to amend and
reform my life.
R. C. But tell us some of it: how did you begin,
Will? For this has been an extraordinary case, that
is certain. She has preached a sermon, indeed, if she
has wrought this upon you.
W. A. Why, I first told her the nature of our laws
about marriage, and what the reasons were that men
and women were obliged to enter into such compacts,
as it was neither in the power of one nor the other to
break; that, otherwise, order and justice could not be








462 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
maintained, and men would run from their wives, and
abandon their children, mix confusedly with one
another, and neither families be kept entire, nor in-
heritances be settled by legal descent.
R. C. You talk like a civilian, Will; could you
make her understand what you meant by inheritance
and families? They know no such things among
savages, but marry any how, without regard to rela-
tion, consanguinity, or family; but what did she say
to what you told her?
W. A. She said she liked it very well, and it was
much better than in her country.
R. C. But did you tell her what marriage was?
W. A. Ay, ay; there began our dialogue. I
asked her if she would be married to me our way?
She asked me what way that was; I told her marriage
was appointed by God; and here we had a strange
talk together, indeed, as ever man and wife had, I be-
lieve.
This dialogue between Will Atkins and his wife I
took down in writing, just after he had told it me,
which was as follows:-
Wife. Appointed by your God? Why, have you
a God in your country?
W. A. Yes, my dear, God is in every country.
Wife. No your God in my country; my country
have the great old Benamuckee God.
W. A. Child, I am very unfit to show you who
God is; God is in heaven, and made the heaven and
the earth, the sea, and all that in them is.








A RELIGIOUS COLLOQUY. 463
Wife. No make de earth; no you God make
all earth; no make my country.
Will Atkins laughed a little at her expression of
God not making her country.
Wife. No laugh; why laugh me? This nothing
to laugh.
He was justly reproved by his wife, for she was
more serious than he at first.
W. A. That's true, indeed; I will not laugh any
more, my dear.
Wife. Why you say you God make all.
W. A. Yes, child, our God made the whole world,
and you and me, and all things; for he is the only
true God, and there is no God but him; he lives for
ever in heaven.
Wife. Why you no tell me long ago?
W. A. That's true, indeed; but I have been a
wicked wretch, and have not only forgotten to ac-
quaint thee with anything before, but have lived with-
out God in the world myself.
Wife. What, have you a great God in ydur coun-
try, you no know him? No say 0 to him? No do
good thing for him ? That no possible.
W. A. It is too true; though, for all that, we live
as if there was no God in heaven, or that he had no
power on earth.
Wife. But why God let you do so? Why he no
make you good live?
W. A. It is all our own fault.
Wife. But you say me, he is great, much great,








464 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
have much great power, can make kill when he
will: why he no make kill when you no serve him;
no say 0 to him, no be good mans?
W. A. That is true; he might strike me dead;
and I ought to expect it, for I have been a wicked
wretch, that is true; but God is merciful, and does
not deal with us as we deserve.
Wife. But then, do you not tell God thankee for
that too?
W. A. No, indeed, I have not thanked God for his
mercy, any more than I have feared God for his power.
Wife. Then you God no God; me no think believe
he be such one, great much power, strong; no make
kill you, though you make him much angry.
W. A. What, will my wicked life hinder you from
believing in God ? What a dreadful creature am I
and what a sad truth is it, that the horrid lives of
Christians hinders the conversion of heathens 1
Wife. How me think you have great much God
up there (she points up to heaven), and yet no do
well, no do good thing? Can he tell ? Sure he no
tell what you do ?
W. A. Yes, yes, he knows and sees all things; he
hears us speak, sees what we do, knows what we
think, though we do not speak.
Wife. What! he no hear you curse, swear, speak
de great damn?
W. A. Yes, yes; he hears it all.
Wife. Where be, then, the much great power
strong ?







A RELIGIOUS COLLOQUY. 4O0
W. A. He is merciful, that is all we can say for
it; and this proves him to be the true God; he is
God, and not man, and, therefore, we are not con-
sumed.
Here Will Atkins told us he was struck with
horror, to think how he could tell his wife so clearly
that God sees, and hears, and knows the secret
thoughts of the heart, and all that we do, and yet
that he had dared to do all the vile things he had
done.
Wife. Merciful l What you call that ?
W. A. He is our Father and Maker, and he pities
and spares us.
Wife. So, then, he never make kill, never angry
when you do wicked; then he no good himself or no
great able.
W. A. Yes, yes, my dear, he is infinitely good
and infinitely great, and able to punish too; and
sometimes, to show his justice and vengeance, he lets
fly his anger to destroy sinners and make examples;
many are cut off in their sins.
Wife. But no make kill you yet; then he tell
you, may be, that he no make you kill; so you
make de bargain with him, you do bad thing, he
no be angry at you when he be angry at other
mans.
W. A. No indeed; my sins are all presumptions
upon his goodness; and he would be infinitely just if
he destroyed me as he has done other men.
Wife. Well, and yet no kill, no make you dead:








466 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
what you say to him for that? You no tell him
thankee for all that too I
W. A. I am an unthankful, ungrateful dog, that
is true.
Wife. Why he no make you much good better ?
You say he make you.
W. A. He made me as he made all the world. It
is I have deformed myself and abused his goodness,
and made myself an abominable wretch.
Wife. I wish you make God know me; I no
make him angry, I no do bad wicked thing.
Here, Will Atkins said, his heart sunk within him,
to hear a poor untaught creature desire to be taught
to know God, and he such a wicked wretch that he
could not say one word to her about God, but what
the reproach of his own carriage would make most
irrational to her to believe; nay, that already she had
told him that she could not believe in God, because
he, that was so wicked, was not destroyed.
W. A. My dear, you mean you wish I could teach
you to know God, not God to know you: for he
knows you already, and every thought in your heart.
Wife. Why, then, he know what I say to you now;
he know me wish to know him; how shall me know
who make me?
W. A. Poor creature I he must teach thee, I can-
not teach thee; I will pray to him to teach thee to
know him, and forgive me, that am unworthy to
teach thee.
The poor fellow was in such an agony at her








A RELIGIOUS COLLOQUY. 467
desiring him to make her know God, and her wish
ing to know him, that he said he fell down on his
knees before her, and prayed to God to enlighten
her mind with the saving knowledge of Jesus Christ,
and to pardon his sins, and accept of his being the
unworthy instrument of instructing her in the prin-
ciples of religion: after which he sat down by her
again, and their dialogue went on. This was the
time when we saw him kneel down, and hold up his
hands.
Wife. What you put down the knee for? What
you hold up the hand for ? What you say ? Who
you speak to ? What is all that ?
W. A. My dear, I bow my knees in token of my
submission to him that made me: I said 0 to him as
you call it, and as your old men do to their idol,
Benamuckee; that is, I prayed to him
Wife. What you say 0 to him for ?
W. A. I prayed to him to open your eyes, and
your understanding, that you may know him, and
be accepted by him.
Wife. Can he do that too ?
W. A. Yes, he can; he can do all things.
Wife. But now he hear what you say ?
W. A. Yes; he has bid us pray to him, and pro-
mised to hear us.
Wife. Bid you pray? When he bid you? How
he bid you ? What you hear him speak ?
W. A. No, we do not hear him speak; but he has
revealed himself many ways to us.
3U








068 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
Here he was at a great loss to make her under.
stand that God has revealed himself to us by his
word, and what hi.s word was: but at last he told it
her thus:-
W. A. God has spoken to some good men in
former days, even from heaven, by plain words;
and God has inspired good men by his Spirit; and
they have written all his laws down in a book.
Wife. Me no understand that; where is book?
W. A. Alas I my poor creature, I have not this
book; but I hope I shall, one time or other, get it
for you, and help you to read it.
Here he embraced her with great affection; but
with inexpressible grief that he had not a Bible.
Wife. But how you make me know that God
teachee me would understand, me fain see: if he
teachee all good thing, he make all good thing, he
give all thing, he hear me when I say 0 to him, as
you do just now; he make me good, if I wish to be
good; he spare me, no make kill me when I no be
good: all this you say he do, yet he be great God:
me take, think, believe him to be great God: me say
0 to him with you, my dear.
Here the poor man could forbear no longer, but
raised her up, made her kneel by him, and he prayed
to God aloud to instruct her in the knowledge of him-
self by his Spirit; and that, by some good providence,
if possible, she might, some time or other, come to
have a Bible, that she might read the Word of God,
and be taught by it to know him. This was the time








AN AFFECTING STORY. 469
that we saw him lift her up by the hand, and saw him
kneel down by her, as above.
They had several other discourses, it seems, after
this, too long to be set down here: and, particularly,
she made him promise, that since he confessed his
own life had been a wicked, abominable course of
provocations against God, he would reform it, and
not make God angry any more; lest he should make
him dead, as she called it, and then she would be left
alone, and never be taught to know this God better;
and lest he should be miserable, as he had told her
wicked men would be after death.
This was a strange account, and very affecting to
us both, but particularly to the young clergyman.
He was, indeed, wonderfully surprised with it, but
under the greatest affliction imaginable that he could
not talk to her, that he could not speak English to
make her understand him; and as she spoke but very
broken English, he could not understand her; how-
ever, he turned himself to me, and told me, that he
believed that there must be more to do with this
woman than to marry her. I did not understand
him at first, but at length he explained himself
namely, that she ought to be baptized. I agreed
with him in that part readily, and was for going
about it presently. "No, no; hold, sir," said he;
" though I would have her be baptized by all means,
yet I must observe that Will Atkins, her husband,
has indeed brought her in a wonderful manner to be
willing to embrace a religious life, and has given her








470 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
just ideas of the being of a God; of his power, justice,
and mercy: yet I desire to know of him, if he has
said anything to her of Jesus Christ, and of the sal-
vation of sinners; of the nature of faith in him, and
redemption by him; of the Holy Spirit, the resurrec-
tion, the last judgment, and a future state?"
I called Will Atkins again, and asked him; but
the poor fellow fell immediately into tears, and told
us he had said something to her of all those things,
but that he was himself so wicked a creature, and his
own conscience so reproached him with his horrid,
ungodly life, that he trembled at the apprehensions,
that her knowledge of him should lessen the attention
she should give to'those things, and make her rather
contemn religion than receive it; but he was assured,
he said, that her mind was so disposed to receive
due impressions of all those things, and that, if I
would but discourse with her, she would make it
appear to my satisfaction that my labour would not
be lost upon her.
Accordingly, I called her in, and placing myself
as interpreter between my religious priest and the
woman, I entreated him to begin with her; but sure
such a sermon was never preached by a popish priest
in these latter ages of the world; and, as I told him,
I thought he had all the zeal, all the knowledge, all
the sincerity of a Christian, without the error of a
Roman Catholic; and that I took him to be such a
clergyman as the Roman bishops were before the
Church of Rome assumed spiritual sovereignty over







A CHRISTIAN MARRIAGE. 471
the consciences of men. In a word, he brought the
poor woman to embrace the knowledge of Christ, and
of redemption by him, not with wonder and astonish-
ment only, as she did the first notions of a God, but
with joy and faith; with an affection and a surprising
degree of understanding, scarce to be imagined, much
less to be expressed; and, at her own request, she
was baptized.
As soon as this was over, we married them; and
after the marriage, he turned to Will Atkins, and,
in a very affectionate manner, exhorted him not only
to persevere in that good disposition he was in, but
to support the convictions that were upon him by a
resolution to reform his life. He said a great many
good things to them both; and then, recommending
them to God's goodness, gave them the benediction
again, I repeating everything to them in English:
and thus ended the ceremony. I think it was the
most pleasant and agreeable day to me that ever I
passed in my whole life.
But my clergyman had not done yet: his thoughts
hung continually upon the conversion of the thirty-
seven savages, and fain he would have stayed upon
the island to have undertaken it; but I convinced
him first, that his undertaking was impracticable in
itself; and secondly, that perhaps I would put it into
a way of being done in his absence to his satisfac-
tion; of which by-and-by.








072 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOl.


CHAPTER XLIV.

HAVING thus brought the affairs of the island to a
narrow compass, I was preparing to go on board the
ship, when the young man I had taken out of the
famished ship's company came to me, and told me he
understood I had a clergyman with me, and that I
had caused the Englishmen to be married to the
savages; that he had a match too, which he desired
might be finished before I went, between two Chris-
tians, which he hoped would not be disagreeable
to me.
I knew this must be the young woman who was
his mother's servant, for there was no other Christian
woman on the island: so I began to persuade him not
to do anything of that kind rashly, or because he
found himself in this solitary circumstance. I repre-
sented to him that he had some considerable sub-
stance in the world, and good friends, as I understood
by himself; and the maid also; that he might, very
probably, with my assistance, make a remove from
this wilderness, and come into his own country again:
and that then it would be a thousand to one but he
would repent his choice, and the dislike of that cir-
cumstance might be disadvantageous to both. I was
going to say more, but he interrupted, smiling, and
told me, with a great deal of modesty, that I mistook
in my guesses; that he had nothing of that kind in
his thoughts; and he was very glad to hear that I








AGREEABLE DIBOOURSE.


had an intent of putting them in a way to see their
own country again; and nothing should have put him
upon staying there, but that the voyage I was going
was so exceeding long and hazardous, and would carry
him quite out of the reach of all his friends; that he
had nothing to desire of me, but that I would settle
him in some little property in the island where he
was, give him a servant or two, and some few neces-
saries, and he would settle himself here like a planter,
waiting the good time, when, if ever I returned to
England, I would redeem them; and hoped I would
not be unmindful of him when I came to England:
that he would give me some letters to his friends in
London, to let them know how good I had been to
him, and in what part of the world, and what circum-
stances I had left him in; and he promised me that,
whenever I redeemed him, the plantation, and all the
improvements he had made upon it, let the value be
what it would, should be wholly mine.
His discourse was very prettily delivered, consider-
ing his youth, and was the more agreeable to me, be-
cause he told me positively the match was not for
himself. I gave him all possible assurances, that if
I lived to come safe to England, I would deliver his
letters, and do his business effectually; and that he
might depend I should never forget the circumstances
I had left him in. But still I was impatient to know
who was the person to be married; upon which he
told me it was my Jack-of-all-trades and his maid
Susan. I was most agreeably surprised when he







474 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
named the match, for, indeed, I thought it very suit.
able. The character of that man I have given al-
ready: and as for the maid, she was a very honest,
modest, sober, and religious young woman.
The match being proposed in this manner, we mar-
ried them the same day; and as I was father at the
altar, as I may say, and gave her away, so I gave
her a portion; for I appointed her and her husband a
handsome large space of ground for their plantation;
and, indeed, this match, and the proposal the young
gentleman made to give him a small property in the
island, put me upon parcelling it out amongst them,
that they might not quarrel afterwards about their
situation.
This sharing out the land to them I left to Will
Atkins, who was now grown a sober, grave, manag-
ing fellow, perfectly reformed, exceedingly pious and
religious, and, as far as I may be allowed to speak
positively in such a case, I verily believe he was a
true penitent. He divided things so justly, and so
much to every one's satisfaction, that they only de-
sired one general writing under my hand for the whole,
which I caused to be drawn up, and signed and sealed
to them, setting out the bounds and situation of every
man's plantation, and testifying that I gave them
thereby, severally, a right to the whole possession and
inheritance of the respective plantations, or farms,
with their improvements, to them and their heirs, re-
serving all the rest of the island as my own property,
and a certain rent for every particular plantation after







DISPOSAL OF THE INDIANS. 470
eleven years, if I, or any one from me, or in my name,
came to demand it, producing an attested copy of the
same writing.
As to the government and laws among them, I told
them I was not capable of giving them better rules
than they were able to give themselves: only I made
them promise me to live in love and good neighbour-
hood with one another; and so I prepared to leave
them.
One thing I must not omit, and that is, that being
now settled in a kind of commonwealth among them-
selves, and having much business in hand, it was but
odd to have seven-and-thirty Indians live in a nook
of the island, independent, and indeed unemployed;
for, excepting the providing themselves food, which
they had difficulty enough to do, sometimes they had
no manner of business or property to manage. I pro-
posed, therefore, to the governor Spaniard, that he
should go to them, with Friday's father, and propose
to them to remove, and either plant for themselves, or
take them into their several families as servants, to be
maintained for their labour, but without being absolute
slaves; for I would not admit them to make them
slaves by force, by any means; because they had their
liberty given them by capitulation, as it were articles
of surrender, which they ought not to break.
They most willingly embraced the proposal, and
came all very cheerful along with him; so we allotted
them land, and plantations, which three or four ao-
cepted of but all the rest chose to be employed as







476 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
servants in the several families we had settled; and
thus my colony was in a manner settled, as follows:
-The Spaniards possessed my original habitation,
which was the capital city, and extended their plan-
tations all along the side of the brook, which made
the creek that I have so often described, as far as my
bower; and as they increased their culture, it went
always eastward. The English lived in the north-
east part, where Will Atkins and his comrades began,
and came on, southward and south-west, towards the
back part of the Spaniards; and ever
The life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073605/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Uncontrolled: Life & adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 593 p., 7 leaves of plates : ill. ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Gilbert, John, 1817-1897 ( Illustrator )
Jackson, John, 1801-1848 ( Engraver )
Adeney ( Engraver )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Thomas Nelson & Sons ( Publisher )
Publisher: T. Nelson and Sons
Place of Publication: London
Edinburgh
New York
Publication Date: 1882
Copyright Date: 1882
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1882   ( rbgenr )
Genre: fiction   ( marcgt )
Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh
United States -- New York -- New York
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: written by himself ; with illustrations.
General Note: Spine title: Robinson Crusoe; cover title: Life & adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Some ills. signed Gilbert; some engraved by Jackson and Adeney.
General Note: Front. is included in the pagination.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe, divided into chapters. Part II originally published under title: The farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28229603
System ID: UF00073605:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page 1
    Half Title
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    Frontispiece
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    Title Page
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    Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
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* i..E 1 .,:rI. B i ~I _Ili:-.-I i








THE LIFE


,nab strange Snrprising Abbentutes

OF


ROBINSON CRUSOE
OF YORK, MARINER.


WRITTEN BY HIMSELF








WITH ILLUSTRATIONS.








J-vanbotn:
T. NELSON AND SONS, PATERNOSTER ROW.
EDINBURGH; AND NEW YORK.
1882.
















LIFE AND ADVENTURES


OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.




CHAPTER I.

I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of
a good family, though not of that country, my father
being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull.
He got a good estate by merchandise, and leaving off
his trade, lived afterwards at York; from whence he
had married my mother, whose relations were named
Robinson, a very good family in that country, and
from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but
by the usual corruption of words in England, we are
now called, nay, we call ourselves, and write our
name, Crusoe; and so my companions always called
me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieu-
tenant-colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flan-
ders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel
Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk
against the Spaniards. What became of my second








8 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
brother, I never knew, any more than my father and
mother did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to
any trade, my head began to be filled very early
with rambling thoughts. My father, who was very
ancient, had given me a competent share of learning,
as far as house education and a country free-school
generally go, and designed me for the law; but I
would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and
my inclination to this led me strongly against the
will, nay, the commands of my father, and against
all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and
other friends.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious
and excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my
design. He called me one morning into his chamber,
where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated
very warmly with me upon this subject: he asked me
what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination,
I had for leaving his house, and my native country,
where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect
of raising my fortune, by application and industry,
with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was
for men of desperate fortunes, on one hand, or of aspir-
ing, superior fortunes on the other, who went abroad
upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make them-
selves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the
common road; that these things were all either too far
above me, or too far below me; that mine was the
middle state, or what might be called the upper sta-








WISE WORDS AND SAGE COUNSEL. 9
tion of low life, which he had found, by long experi-
ence, was the best state in the world, the most suited
to human happiness; not exposed to the miseries and
hardships, the labour and sufferings, of the mechanic
part of mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride,
luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper part of
mankind: he told me I might judge of the happiness
of this state by one thing-namely, that this was
the state of life which all other people envied; that
kings have frequently lamented thelmiserable con-
sequences of being born to great things, and wished
they had been placed in the middle of two extremes,
between the mean and the great; that the wise man
gave his testimony to this, as the just standard of
true felicity, when he prayed to have neither
poverty nor riches."
He bid me observe it, and I should always find
that the calamities of life were shared among the
upper and lower parts of mankind; but that the
middle station had the fewest disasters, and was not
exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or
lower part of mankind: nay, they were not subjected
to so many distempers and uneasinesses, either oi
body or mind, as those were, who, by vicious living,
luxury, and extravagances on one hand, or by hard
labour, want of necessaries, and mean and insufficient
diet on the other hand, bring distempers upon them-
selves by the natural consequence of their way of
living; that the middle station of life was calculated
for all kinds of virtues, and all kinds of enjoyments;








10 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a
middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quiet-
ness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and
all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending
the middle station of life; that this way men went
silently and smoothly through the world, and com-
fortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours
of the hands, or of the head, not sold to the life of
slavery for daily bread, nor harassed with perplexing
circumstances, which rob the soul of peace, and the
body of rest; not enraged with the passion of envy,
nor secret burning lust of ambition for great things;
but, in easy circumstances, sliding gently through
the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living,
without the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and
learning, by every day's experience, to know it more
sensibly.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the
most affectionate manner, not to play the young man,
not to precipitate myself into miseries, which nature,
and the station of life I was born in, seemed to have
provided against; that I was under no necessity of
seeking my bread; that he would do well for me,
and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of
life which he had been just recommending to me;
and that, if I was not very easy and happy in the
world, it must be my mere fault that must hinder it;
and that he should have nothing to answer for, hav-
ing thus discharged his duty in warning me against
measures which he knew would be to my hurt. In








A FATHER'S EXPOSTULATION. 11
a word, that, as he would do very kind things for
me, if I would stay and settle at home, as he directed,
so he would not have so much hand in my misfor-
tunes as to give me any encouragement to go away;
and, to close all, he told me I had my elder brother
for an example, to whom he had used the same ear-
nest persuasions to keep him from going into the
Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young
desires prompting him to run into the army, where
he was killed; and though, he said, he would not
cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say to
me, that, if I did take this foolish step, God would
not bless me; and I would have leisure hereafter
to reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when
there might be none to assist in my recovery.
I observed, in this last part of his discourse, which
was truly prophetic, though, I suppose, my father
did not know it to be so himself; I say, I observed
the tears run down his face very plentifully, especi-
ally when he spoke of my brother who was killed;
and that, when he spoke of my having leisure to re-
pent, and none to assist me, he was so moved, that
he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was
so full he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse; as,
indeed, who could be otherwise? and I resolved not
to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at
home, according to my father's desire. But, alas!
a few days wore it all off: and, in short, to prevent
any of my father's further importunities, in a few








12 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
weeks after I resolved to run quite away from him.
However, I did not act so hastily neither, as my
first heat of resolution prompted; but I took my
mother, at a time when I thought her a little plea-
santer than ordinary, and told her my thoughts were
so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I should
never settle to anything with resolution enough to
go through with it, and my father had better give
me his consent than force me to go without it; that
I was now eighteen years old, which was too late to
go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney;
that I was sure if I did I should never serve out my
time, and I should certainly run away from my
master before my time was out, and go to sea; and,
if she would speak to my father to let me make but
one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did
not like it, I would go no more; and I would pro-
mise, by a double diligence, to recover the time I
had lost.
This made my mother very angry: she told me
she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my
father upon any such a subject; that he knew too
well what was my interest to give his consent to
anything so much for my hurt; and that she won-
dered how I could think of any such thing, after
such a discourse as I had had from my father, and
such kind and tender expressions as she knew my
father had used to me: and that, in short, if I would
ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might
depend I should never have their consent to it; that,








CRUSOE GOES TO SEA.


for her part, she would not have so much hand in
my destruction; and I should never have it to say
" that my mother was willing, when my father was
not."
Though my mother refused to move it to my
father, yet, as I have heard afterwards, she reported
all the discourse to him; and that my father, after
showing a great concern at it, said to her with a
sigh, That boy might be happy, if he would stay
at home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most
miserable wretch that ever was born; I can give no
consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke
loose; though, in the meantime, I continued obsti-
nately deaf to all proposals of settling to business,
and frequently expostulating with my father and
mother about their being so positively determined
against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But, being one day at Hull, where I went
casually, and without any purpose of making an
elopement at that time, and one of my companions
then going to London by sea in his father's ship,
and prompting me to go with them by the common
allurement of seafaring men, namely, that it should
cost me nothing for my passage," I consulted neither
father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent
them word of it; but left them to hear of it as they
might, without asking God's blessing, or my father's,
without any consideration of circumstances or conse-
quences, and in an ill hour, God knows.








14 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


CHAPTER II.

ON the 1st of September 1651, I went on board a
ship bound for London. Never any young adven-
turer's misfortunes, I believe, began earlier, or con-
tinued longer than mine. The ship had no sooner
got out of the Humber, than the wind began to blow,
and the waves to rise, in a most frightful manner;
and as I had never been at sea before, I was most
inexpressibly sick in body and terrified in mind: I
began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done,
and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of
Heaven, for wickedly leaving my father's house, and
abandoning my duty. All the good counsel of my
parents, my father's tears, and my mother's entreaties,
came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience,
which was not yet come to the pitch of hardiness to
which it has been since, reproached me with the
contempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to
God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea,
which I had never been upon before, went very high,
though nothing like what I have seen many times
since; no, nor what I saw a few days after; but such
as it was, enough to affect me then, who was but a
young sailor, and had never known anything of the
matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed
us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I
thought, in the trough, or hollow of the sea, we








A CAPFUL OF WIND. 15
should never rise more; and in this agony of mind
I made many vows and resolutions, that, if it would
please God to spare my life this voyage, if ever I
got my foot once on dry land, I would go directly
home to my father, and never set it into a ship again
while I lived; that I would take his advice, and never
run myself into such miseries as these any more.
These thoughts continued during the storm, and
indeed some time after; but the next day, as the
wind was abated, and the sea calmer, I began to be
a little inured to it. However, I was very grave
that day, being also a little sea-sick still: but to-
wards night the weather cleared up, the wind was
quite over, and a charming fine evening followed;
the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the
next morning; and, having little or no wind, and a
smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was,
as I thought, the most delightful that I ever saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no
more sea-sick, but very cheerful, looking with won-
der upon the sea that was so rough and terrible the
day before, and could be so calm and pleasant in a
little time after.
And now, lest my good resolutions should con-
tinue, my companion, who had indeed enticed me
away, came to me and said, Well, Bob," clapping
me on the shoulder, "how do you do after it? 1
warrant you were frightened, wa'n't you, last night,
when it blew out a capful of wind?" A capful do
you call it?" said I. "'twas a terrible storm." A








16 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
storm, you fool!" replies he, do you call that a
storm? Why, it was nothing at all: give us but a
good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of
such a squall of wind as that: you are but a fresh-
water sailor, Bob; come, let us make a bowl of
punch, and we'll forget all that. D'ye see what
charming weather 'tis now?" To make short this
sad part of my story, we went the way of too many
sailors; the punch was made, and I was made drunk
with it; and in that one night's wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon
my past conduct, and all my resolutions for the
future. I found afterwards, indeed, some intervals
of reflection; and serious thoughts did, as it were,
endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook
them off; and roused myself from them, as it were
from a distemper, and, applying myself to drink and
company, soon mastered the returns of those fits-
for so I called them; and I had in five or six days
got as complete a victory over conscience as any
young fellow, that resolved not to be troubled with
it, could desire.
But I was to have another trial for it still; and
Providence, as in such cases generally it does, re-
solved to leave me entirely without excuse; for, if I
would not take this for a deliverance, the next was
to be such an one, as the worst and most hardened
wretch among us would confess both the danger and
the mercy of. The sixth day of our being at sea,
we came into Yarmouth roads; the wind having







A TERRIBLE STORM. 17
been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made
but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the
wind continuing contrary, namely, at south-westp for
seven or eight days, during which time a great many
ships from Newcastle came into the same roads, as
the common harbour where the ships might wait for
a wind for the river. We had not, however, rid
here so long, and should have tided up the river, but
that the wind blew too fresh; and after we had lain
four or five days, blew very hard. However, the
roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the
anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong,
our men were unconcerned, and not in the least ap-
prehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and
mirth, after the manner of the sea. But the eighth
day, in the morning, the wind increased, and we had
all hands at work to strike our topmasts, and make
everything snug and close, that the ship might ride
as easy as possible. By noon the sea went very
high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped
several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor
had come home; upon which our master ordered out
the sheet-anchor; so that we rode with two anchors
a-head, and the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and
now I began to see terror and amazement in the faces
even of the seamen themselves. The master was
vigilant in the business of preserving the ship; but
as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could







18 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
hear him softly say to himself several times, Lord,
be merciful to us I we shall be all lost; we shall be
all undone!" and the like During these first hur-
ries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was
in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper. I
could ill re-assume the first penitence, which I had
so apparently trampled upon, and hardened myself
against; I thought that the bitterness of death had
been past, and that this would be nothing too, like
the first; but when the master himself came by me,
as I said just now, and said we should be all lost,
I was dreadfully frightened. I got up out of my
cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sight I
never saw: the sea went mountains high, and broke
upon us every three or four minutes. When I could
look about, I could see nothing but distress around
us; two ships that rid near us, we found had cut their
masts by the board, being deeply laden; and our men
cried out that a ship, which rid about a mile a-head
of us, was foundered. Two more ships, being driven
from their anchors, were run out of the roads to sea,
at all adventures, and that with not a mast standing.
Toward evening, the mate and boatswain begged the
master of our ship to let them cut away the fore-
mast, which he was very loth to do; but the boat-
swain protesting to him that, if he did not, the ship
would founder, he consented; and when they had
cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood so close,
and shook the ship so much, that they were obliged
to cut it away also, and make a clear deck.







ALL HANDS TO THE PUMP. 19
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in
at all this, who was but a young sailor, and who had
been in such a fright before at but a little. But it
I can express, at this distance, the thoughts I had
about me at that time, I was in ten-fold more horror
of mind upon account of my former convictions, and
the having returned from them to the resolutions I
had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death
itself; and these, added to the terror of the storm, put
me into such a condition, that I can by no words
describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the
storm continued with such fury, that the seamen
themselves acknowledged that they had never known
a worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep
laden, and so wallowed in the sea, that the seamen
every now and then cried out she would founder.
It was my advantage, in one respect, that I did not
know what they meant by founder," till I inquired.
However, the storm was so violent, that I saw, what
is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some
others, more sensible than the rest, at their prayers,
and expecting every moment the ship would go to
the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under
all the rest of our distresses, one of the men, that
ha& been down on purpose to see, cried out, "we
had sprung a leak;" another said, "there was four
feet water in the hold." Then all hands were called
to the pump. At that very word, my heart, as I
thought, died within me; and I fell backwards upon
the side of my bed, where I sat in the cabin. How-








20 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
ever, the men roused me, and told me, that I," who
was able to do nothing before, was as well able to
pump as another:" at which I stirred up and went
to the pump, and worked very heartily.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the
hold, it was apparent that the ship would founder;
and, though the storm began to abate a little, yet, as
it was not possible she could swim till we might run
into a port, so the master fired several guns for help;
and a light ship, who had rid it out just a-head of us,
ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the
utmost hazard the boat came near us, but it was im-
possible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie
near the ship's side; till, at last, the men rowing
very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours,
our men cast them a rope over the stern with a
buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length,
which they, after great labour and hazard, took hold
of, and we hauled them close under our stem, and
got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for
them, or us, after we were in the boat, to think of
reaching their own ship; so all agreed to let her
drive, and only pull her in towards shore as much as
we could; and our master promised them, that if the
boat was staved upon the shore, he would make* it
good to their master; so, partly rowing, and partly
driving, our boat went away to the northward, slop-
ing towards the shore almost as far as Winterton-
Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour







SAFE ON SHORE. 21
out of our ship when we saw her sink; and then I
understood, for the first time, what was meant by a
ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I
had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me
" she was sinking;" for, from that moment, they
rather put me into the boat, than that I might be
said to go in. My heart was, as it were, dead
within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of
mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet
labouring at the oar to bring the boat near the shore,
we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves, we
were able to see the shore) a great many people run-
ning along the strand to assist us when we should
come near; but we made slow way towards the shore,
nor were we able to reach it, till, being past the light-
house at Winterton, the shore falls off to the west-
ward towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a
little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and,
though not without much difficulty, got all safe onshore,
and walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as
unfortunate men,, we were used with great humanity,
as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned
us good quarters, as by the particular merchants and
owners of ships; and had money given us sufficient
to carry us either to London, or back to Hull, as we
thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to
Hull, and have gone home, I had been happy; and my
father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour's parable,








22 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
had even killed the fatted calf for me; for, hearing
the ship I went in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads,
it was a great while before he had any assurance thai
I was not drowned.
But my wayward disposition pushed me on with
an obstinacy that nothing could resist; and, though
I had several times loud calls from my reason, and
my more composed judgment, to go home, yet I rushed
on with my eyes open.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before,
and who was the master's son, was now less forward
than I; the first time he spoke to me after we were
at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days,
for we were separated in the town to several quarters;
I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone
was altered, and, looking very melancholy, and shak-
ing his head, asked me how I did; telling his father
who I was, and how I had come this voyage only
for a trial, in order to go further abroad. His father,
turning to me, with a grave and concerned tone,
"Young man," says he, "you ought never to go to
sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain and
visible token that you are not to be a seafaring man."
"Why, sir," said I, "will you go to sea no more?"
" That is another case," said he; it is my calling,
and therefore my duty; but as you made this voyage
for a trial, yot see what a taste Heaven has given
you of what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps
this has all befallen us on your account, like Jonah
in the ship of Tarshish: pray," continues he, what







RELUCTANCE TO GO HOME. 23
are you, and on what account did you go to sea?"
Upon that I told him some of my story, at the end of
which he burst out with a strange kind of passion.
" What had I done," said he, that such an unhappy
wretch should come into my ship ? I would not set
my foot in the same ship with thee again for a thou-
sand pounds." This indeed was, as I said, an excur-
sion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by the
sense of his loss, and was further than he could have
authority to go. However, he afterwards talked very
gravely to me, exhorted me to go back to my father,
and not tempt Providence to my ruin; told me I might
see a visible hand of Heaven against me; and, young
man," said he, "depend upon it, if you do not go back,
wherever you go you will meet with nothing but dis-
asters and disappointments, till your father's words
are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after, for I made him little answer,
ahd I saw him no more; which way he went I know
not; as for me, having some money in my pocket, I
travelled to London by land, and there, as well as on
the road, had many struggles with myself what course
of life I should take, and whether I should go home,
or go to sea. As to going home, shame opposed the
best motions that offered to my thoughts; and it
immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed
at among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to
see, not my father and mother only, but even every-
body else. From whence I have often since observed,
how incongruous and irrational the common temper







24 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
of mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason
which ought to guide them in such cases, namely,
that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed
to repent; not ashamed of the action for which they
ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of
the returning, which only can make them be esteemed
wise men.



CHAPTER III.

[N this state of life, however, I remained some time,
uncertain what measures to take, and what course of
life to lead, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts
of going home, and looked out for a voyage. That
evil influence which carried me first away from my
father's house, presented the most unfortunate of all
enterprises to my view, and I went on board a vessel
bound to the coast of Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly
call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune that, in all these ad-
ventures, I did not ship myself as a sailor; but, as I
always chose for the worse, so I did here, for having
money in my pocket, and good clothes upon my back,
I would always go on board in the habit of a gentle-
man; and so I neither had any business in the ship,
nor learned to do any. It was my lot, first of all, to
fall into pretty good company in London, which does
not always happen to such loose and misguided young
fellows as I then was; the devil generally not omit-







A SUCCESSFUL VOYAGE. 25
ing to lay some snare for them very early. But it
was not so with me; I first fell acquainted with the
master of a ship who had been on the coast o Guinea,
and who, having had very good success there, was
resolved to go again. He, taking a fancy to my con-
versation, which was not at all disagreeable at that
time, and hearing me say I had a mind to see the
world," told me, that if I would go the voyage with
him, I should be at no expense, I should be his mess-
mate and his companion, and if I could carry any-
thing with me I should have all the advantage of it
that the trade would admit, and perhaps I might meet
with some encouragement. I embraced the offer, and
entering into a strict friendship with this captain, who
was an honest and plain-dealing man, I went the voy-
age with him, and carried a small adventure with me,
which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the
captain, I increased very considerably, for I carried
about 40 in such toys and trifles as the captain di-
rected me to buy. This 40 I had mustered together
by the assistance of some of my relations, whom I
corresponded with, and who, I believe, got my father,
or at least my mother, to contribute so much as that
to my first adventure. This was the only voyage
which I may say was successful in all my adventures,
and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my
friend the captain, under whom, also, I got a com-
petent knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of
navigation, learned how to keep an account of the
ship's course, take an observation, and, in short, to







26 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
understand some things that were needful to be un-
derstood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to instruct
me, I took delight to learn, and, in a word, this voy-
age made me both a sailor and a merchant, for I
brought home 5 lb. 9 oz. of gold dust for my adven-
ture, which yielded me in London at my return almost
300; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts
which have since so completed my ruin.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader, and my
friend, to my great misfortune, dying soon after his
arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again; and
I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his
mate in the former voyage, and had now got the com-
mand of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage
that ever man made, for though I did not carry quite
100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I had 200
left, and which I lodged with my friend's widow, who
was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes
in this voyage; and the first was this, namely, our
ship, making her course towards the Canary Islands,
or rather between those islands and the African shore,
was surprised, in the gray of the morning, by a Turk-
ish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the
sail she could make. We crowded also as much can-
vass as our yards would spread, or our masts carry,
to get clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us,
and would certainly come up with us in a few hours,
we prepared to fight, our ship having twelve guns,
and the rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon
he came up with us, and bringing to by mistake just








CRUSOE AS A SLAVE. W1
athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as
he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on
that side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which
made him shear off again, after returning our fire,
and pouring in also his small shot from nearly 200
men which he had on board. However, we had not
a man touched, all our men keeping close. He pre-
pared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves;
but, laying us on board the next time upon our other
quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who
immediately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and
rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes,
powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of
them twice. However, to cut short this melancholy
part. of our story, our ship being disabled, and three
of our men killed and eight wounded, we were obliged
to yield, and carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port
belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at
first I apprehended; nor was I carried up the country
to the emperor's court, as the rest of our men were,
but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper
prize, and made his slave, being young and nimble,
and fit for his business. But, alas I this was but a
taste of the misery I was to go through, as will appear
in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home
to his house, so I was in hopes he would take me with
him when he went to sea again, believing that it would,
some time or other, be his fate to be taken by a Span-








28 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
ish or Portuguese man of war; and that then I should
be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon
taken away, for when he went to sea he left me on
shore to look after his little garden, and do the com-
mon drudgery of the slaves about his house; and
when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered
me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and whai
method I might take to effect it, but found no way
that had the least probability in it.
After about two years an odd circumstance pre-
sented itself which put the old thought of making
some attempt for my liberty again in my head. My
patron lying at home longer than usual without fitting
out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of
money, he used constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the
ship's pinnace, and go out into the road a fishing;
and as he always took me and a young Moresco
with him to row the boat, we made him very merry,
and I proved very dexterous in catching fish, inso-
much that he would sometimes send me with a Moor,
one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Moresco, as
they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a
stark calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that, though
we were not half a league from the shore, we lost
sight of it, and rowing, we knew not whither, or
which way, we laboured all day and all the next
night, and when the morning came we found we had








FISHING EXCURSIONS. 29
pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in for the shore,
and that we were at least two leagues from the shore;
however, we got well in again, though with a great
deal of labour.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved
to take more care of himself for the future; and, hav-
ing lying by him the long-boat of our English ship
he had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing
any more without a compass and some provision; so
he ordered the carpenter of the ship, who was an
English slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin,
in the middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge,
with a place to stand behind it, to steer and haul home
the main-sheet, and with room before for a hand or
two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with
what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail, and the boom
gibb'd over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug
and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a
slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some small
lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he
thought fit to drink, and particularly his bread, rice,
and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing,
and as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he
never went without me. It happened that he had
appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or
for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinction
in that place, and for whom he had provided extra-
ordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat,
overnight, a larger store of provision than ordinary,







30 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
and had ordered me to get ready three fusees, with
powder and shot, which were on board his ship, for
that they designed some sport of fowling, as well as
fishing.
I got all things ready, as he directed, and waited
the next morning with the boat washed clean, her
ensign and pendants out, and everything to accom-
modate his guests, when, by-and-by, my patron came
on board alone, and told me his guests had put ofl
going, upon some business that fell out, and ordered
me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with
the boat and catch them some fish, for that his friends
were to sup at his house; and commanded, that as
soon as I had got some fish, I should bring it home
to his house: all which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance
darted into my thoughts, for now I found I was like
to have a little ship at my command; and, my master
being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for a
fishing business, but for a voyage: though I knew
not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I
should steer; for anywhere, to get out of that place,
was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to
speak to this Moor to get something for our subsist-
ence on board; for I told him we must not presume
to eat of our patron's bread: he said that was true;
so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit, of
their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the
boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles







A PLAN OF ESCAPE. 31
stood, which it was evident, by the make, were taken
out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into
the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had
been there before for our master. I conveyed also a
great lump of bees'-wax into the boat, which weighed
above half a hundred weight, with a parcel of twine
or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which
were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax
to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him,
which he innocently came into also: his name was
Ismael, whom they call Muley, or Moley: so I called
to him, "Moley," said I, "our patron's guns are on
board the boat, can you get a little powder and shot?
it may be we may kill some alcamies (fowls like our
curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gun-
ner's stores in the ship." "Yes," says he, "I'll bring
some;" and, accordingly, he brought a great leather
pouch, which held about a pound and a half of pow-
der, or rather more, and another with shot, that had
five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into
the boat; at the same time I found some powder of
my master's in the great cabin, with which I filled
one of the large bottles in the case, which was almost
empty, pouring what was in it into another; and thus
furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of
the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance
of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of
us; and we were not above a mile out of the port,
before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish.
The wind blew from N.N.E., which was contrary to








32 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
my desire; for, had it blown southerly, I had been
sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at last
reached to the bay of Cadiz: but my resolutions were,
blow which way it would, I would be gone from the
horrid place where I was.
After we had fished some time, and catched no-
thing; for, when I had fish on my hook I would not
pull them up, that he might not see them, I said to
the Moor, This will not do; our master will not be
thus served; we must stand farther off." He, think-
ing no harm, agreed; and being at the head of the
boat, set the sails; and, as I had the helm, I run the
boat near a league further, and then brought-to as if
I would fish. Then, giving the boy the helm, I
stepped forward to where the Moor was, and I took
him by surprise, with my arm under his waist, and
tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose
immediately, for he swam like a cork, and calling to
me, begged to be taken in, and told me he would go
all the world over with me. He swam so strong
after the boat, that he would have reached me very
quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I
stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowl-
ing-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had
done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet, I would
do him none: "But," said I, "you swim well enough
to reach the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best
of your way to shore, and I will do you no harm;
but, if you come near the boat, I will shoot you
through the head; for I am resolved to have my







CRUSOE AND XURY. 33
liberty." So he turned himself about, and swam for
the shore; and I make no doubt but he reached it with
ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.




CHAPTER IV.

I could have taken this Moor with me, and have
drowned the boy; but there was no venturing to trust
him, and humanity forbade the other. When he
was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called
Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you will be faith-
ful to me, I will make you a great man: but if you
will not stroke your face to be true to me (that is,
swear by Mahomet and his father's beard), I must
throw you into the sea too." The boy smiled in my
face and spoke so innocently that I could not mistrust
him; and swore to be faithful to me and go all over
the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swim-
ming, I stood out directly to sea with the boat rather
stretching to windward, that they might think me
gone towards the Strait's mouth (as, indeed, any one
that had been in their wits must have been supposed
to do); for who would have supposed we were sailing
on to the southward, to the truly barbarian coast,
where whole nations of negroes were sure to surround
us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could
never once go on shore, but we should be devoured







34 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of human
kind?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I
changed my course, and steered directly south and
by east, bending my course a little toward the east,
that I might keep in with the shore; and having a
fair fresh gale of wind and a smooth quiet sea, I
made such sail, that I believe by the next day at
three o'clock in the afternoon, when I made the land, I
could not be less than 150 miles south of Sallee, quite
beyond the Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed
of any other king thereabout; for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors,
and the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into
their hands, that I would not stop or go on shore, or
come to anchor, the wind continuing fair, till I had
sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind
shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if
any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also
would now give over: so I ventured to make to the
coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little
river; I knew not what nor where, neither what
latitude, what country, what nation, nor what river.
I neither saw nor desired to see any people; the
principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came
into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on
shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the coun-
try; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such
dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling
of wild creatures, of we knew not what -kinds, that







MONSTERS OF THE DEEP.


the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged
of me not to go on shore till day. "Well, Xury,"
said I, "then I will not; but it may be we may see
men by day who will be as bad to us as those lions."
" Then'we may give them the shoot-gun," says Xury
laughing; "make them run away." Such English
Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. How-
ever, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I
gave him a dram out of our patron's case of bottles
to cheer him up. After all, Xury's advice was good,
and I took it. We dropped our little anchor, and
lay still all night: I say still, for we slept none ; for
in two or three hours we saw vast creatures (we
knew not what to call them), of many sorts, come
down to the sea-shore, and run into the water, wal-
owing and washing themselves, for the purpose of
cooling themselves; and they made such hideous howl-
ings and yelling, that I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frightened, and, indeed, so
was I too; but we were both more frightened when
we heard one of these mighty creatures swimming
towards our boat; we could not see him, but we
might hear him, by his blowing, to be a monstrous,
huge, and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion,
and it might be so, for aught I know; but poor Xury
cried to me to weigh the anchor, and row away.
No," says I, Xury; we can slip our cable with
the buoy to it, aLd go off to sea: they cannot follow
us far." I had no sooner said so, but I perceived
the creature (whatever it was) within two oars'
3








36 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
length, which something surprised me: however, I
immediately stept to the cabin door, and, taking up
my gun, fired at him; upon which he turned round
and swam to the shore again.
In the morning Xury said, if I would let him go
on shore with one of the jars, he would find if there
was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him
why he would go; why I should not go, and he stay
in the boat? The boy answered with so much affec-
tion, that he made me love him ever after. Says he,
" If wild mans come, they eat me, you go away."
"Well, Xury," said I, "we will both go; and ii
the wild mans come, we will kill them; they shall
eat neither of us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk
bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron's case of
bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled in
the boat as near the shore as we thought was proper,
and so waded to shore, carrying nothing but our
arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fear-
ing the coming of canoes with savages down the
river; but the boy, seeing a low place, about a mile
up the country, rambled to it; and, by-and-by, I saw
him come running towards me. I thought he was
pursued by some savage, or frightened by some wild
beast, and I therefore ran forward to help him; but
when I came nearer to him, I saw something hang-
ing over his shoulders, which was a creature that he
had shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and
longer legs; however, we were very glad of it, and







A COASTING VOYAGE.


it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor
Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good
water, and seen no wild mans. So we filled our jars,
and having a fire, feasted on the hare we had killed;
and prepared to go on our way, having seen no foot-
steps of any human creature in that part of the
country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I
knew very well that the islands of the Canaries, and
the Cape de Verd islands also, lay not far from the
coast. But, as I had no instruments to take an
observation, to find what latitude we were in; and
did not exactly know, or at least remember, what
latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for
them, or when to stand off to sea towards them, other-
wise I might now have easily found some of these
islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along this
coast till I came to the part where the English traded,
I should find some of their vessels upon their usual
design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, the place where I
now was must be that country, which, lying between
the Emperor of Morocco's dominions and the Negroes,
lies wasted and uninhabited, except by wild beasts.
Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw
the Pike of Teneriffe, being the top of the mountain
Teneriffe, in the Canaries, and had a great mind to
venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but, having
tried twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds,
the sea also going too high for my little vessel: so I







38 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
resolved to pursue my'first design, and keep along
the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh
water, after we had left this place; and once, in par-
ticular, being early in the morning, we came to an
anchor under a little point of land, which was pretty
high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still, to
go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about
him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and
tells me that we had best go further off the shore;
for, says he, look, yonder lies a dreadful monster
on the side of that hillock, fast asleep." I looked
where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed,
for it was a terrible great lion, that lay on the side
of the shore, under a shade of a piece of the hill, that
hung, as it were, over him. Xury," says I, you
shall go on shore and kill him." Xury looked
frightened and said, "Me kill! he eat me at one
mouth:" one mouthful he meant. However, I said
no more to the boy, but bade him be still; and I took
our biggest gun, which was almost musquet bore,
and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with
two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another
gun with two bullets; and a third, for we had three
pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took
the best aim I could with the first piece, to have shot
him in the head; but he lay so, with his leg raised
a little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg
about the knee, and broke the bone; he started up,
growling at first; but finding his leg broke, fell down








ADVENTURE WITH A LION.


again, and then got up upon three legs, and gave
the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a
little surprised that I had not hit him on the head;
however, I took up the second piece immediately,
and though he began to move off, fired again, and
shot him in the head, and had the pleasure to see
him drop, and make but little noise, but lie strug-
gling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would
have me let him go on shore. Well, go," said I;
so the boy jumped into the water, and taking a little
gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other hand,
and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of
the piece to his ear and shot him in the head again,
which despatched him quite.
This was game, indeed, to us, but it was no food;
and I was very sorry to lose three charges of powder
and shot upon a creature that was good for nothing
to us. However, Xury said he would have some of
him; so he comes on board, and asked me to give
him the hatchet. For what, Xury?" said I. "Me
cut off his head," said he. However, Xury could
not cut off his head; but he cut off a foot, and brought
it with him, and it was a monstrous great one. I
bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of
him might, one way or other, be of some value to us;
and I resolved to take off his skin, if I could. So
Xury and I went to work with him; but Xury was
much the better workman at it, for I knew very ill
how to do it. Indeed, it took us both up the whole
day; but at last we got off the hide of him, and








40 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectu-
ally dried it in two days' time, and it afterwards
served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward con-
tinually, for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly
on our provisions, which began to abate very much,
and going no oftener into the shore than we were
obliged to for fresh water. My design in this, was
to make the river Gambia, or Senegal; that is to say,
anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in
hopes to meet with some European ship; and if I did
not, I knew not what course I had to take, but to
seek for the islands, or perish among the negroes.
When I pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, as I have said, I began to see that the land
was inhabited; and, in two or three places, as we
sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to
look at us: we could also perceive they were quite
black, and stark naked. I was once inclined to have
gone on shore to them; but Xury was my better
counsellor, and said to me, No go, no go." How-
ever, I hauled in nearer the shore, that I might talk
to them; and I found they run along the shore by
me a good way. I observed they had no weapons
in their hands, except one, who had a long, slender
stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they
would throw them a great way with good aim; so I
kept at a distance, but talked to them by signs as
well as I could, and particularly made signs for some-
thing to eat. They beckoned to me to stop my boat,








CRUSOE AND THE SAVAGES. 41
and they would fetch me some meat: upon this, I
lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of
them run up into the country; and, in less than half
an hour, came back, and brought with them two
pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as is the pro-
duce of their country; but we neither knew what the
one or the other was; however, we were willing to
accept it. But how to come at it was our next dis-
pute, for I was not for venturing on shore to them,
and they were as much afraid of us; but they took a
safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore,
and laid it down, and went and stood a great way off
till we fetched it on board, and then came close to
us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had noth-
ing to make them amends: but an opportunity offered
that very instant to oblige them wonderfully; for,
while we were lying by the shore, came two mighty
creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with
great fury from the mountains towards the sea; the
people were terribly frightened, especially the women.
The man that had the lance or dart did not fly from
them, but the rest did ; however, as the two creatures
ran directly into the water, they did not seem to offer
to fall upon any of the negroes, but plunged them-
selves into the sea and swam about as if they had
come for their diversion; at last one of them began
to come nearer our boat than at first I expected; but
I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with
all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the







12 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach,
I fired and shot him directly in the head; immedi-
ately he sunk down into the water, but rose instantly
and plunged up and down struggling for life, he im-
mediately made to the shore, but died just when he
reached it.
The other creature, frightened with the flash of
fire and the noise of the gun, swam on shore and ran
up directly to the mountains. I found quickly the
negroes were for eating the flesh of the creature I had
killed, so I was willing to have them take it as a
favour from me, which, when I made signs to them
that they might take him, they were very thankful
for. Immediately they fell to work with him; and,
though they had no knife, yet with a sharpened piece
of wood they took off his skin as readily, and much
more readily than we could have done with a knife.
They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined,
making as if I would give it them, but made signs
for the skin which they gave me very freely, and
brought me a great deal more of their provisions,
which, though I did not understand, yet I accepted.
I then made signs to them for some water, and held
out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward
to show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have
it filled. They called immediately to some of their
friends, and there came two women and brought a
great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose, in
the sun; this they set down for me as before, and I
sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all








A SAIL A SAIL !" 43

three. The women were as stark naked as the
men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as
it was, and water; and leaving my friendly negroes,
I made forward for about eleven days more without
offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run
out a great length into the sea, at about the distance
of four or five leagues before me; and the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point.
At length doubling the point, at about two leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side
to seaward; then I concluded, as it was most certain
indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and those
the islands, called from thence Cape de Verd Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could
not well tell what I had best to do; for if I should
be taken with a gale of wind, I might neither reach
one nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped
into the cabin and sat me down, Xury having the
helm, when, on a sudden, the boy cried out, Master,
master, a ship with a sail I" and the foolish boy was
frightened out of his wits, thinking it must needs be
some of his master's ships sent to pursue us, when I
knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach.
I jumped out of the cabin and immediately saw, not
only the ship, but- what she was, namely, that it was
a Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bound to
the coast of Guinea for negroes. But when I ob-
served the course she steered, I was soon convinced







44 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
they were bound some other way, and did not design
to come any nearer to the shore; upon which I
stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to
speak with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should
not be able to come in their way, but that they would
be gone by before I could make any signal to them;
but after I had crowded to the utmost and began to
despair, they, it seems, saw me by the help of their
perspective glasses, and that it was some European
boat, which, they supposed, must belong to some ship
that was lost; so they shortened sail to let me come
up. I was encouraged with this, and as I had my
patron's ensign on board, I made a waft of it to them
for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which
they saw; for they told me they saw the smoke,
though they did not hear the gun. Upon these
signals, they very kindly brought to and lay by for
me; and in about three hours' time I came up with
them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in
Spanish, and in French, but I understood none of
them; but, at last, a Scotch sailor who was on board
called to me, and I answered him, and told him I
was an Englishman; that I had made my escape
out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee. They then
bade me come on board, and very kindly took me
in and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one
will believe, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed








AN HONEST SEA-CAPTAIN. 40
it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless con-
dition as I was in; and I immediately offered all I
had to the captain of the ship as a return for my de-
liverance; but he generously told me he would take
nothing from me, but that all I had should be delivered
safe to me when I came to the Brazils. For," says
he, "I have saved your life on no other terms than
I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one
time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same
condition. No, no, Seignior Inglese" (Mr. English-
man), says he, I will carry you to the Brazils in
charity, and these things will help to buy your sub-
sistence there and your passage home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was
just in the performance to a tittle; for he ordered the
seamen that none should offer to touch anything I
had; then he took everything into his own possession,
and gave me back an exact inventory of them that I
might have them, even so much as my three earthen
jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that
he saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the
ship's use, and asked me what I would have for it?
I told him he had been so generous to me in every-
thing, that I could not offer to make any price of the
boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which he told
me he would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty
pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came
there, if any one offered to give more he would make
it up. He offered me also sixty pieces of eight more








46 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
for my boy Xury which I was loth to take; not that
I was not willing to let the captain have him, but I
was very loth to sell the poor boy's liberty who had
assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. How-
ever, when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be
just, and offered me this medium, that he would give
the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years if
he turned Christian; upon this, and Xury saying he
was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good passage to the Brazils, and
arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints'
Bay, in about twenty-two days after.
The generous treatment the captain gave me I can
never enough remember; he would take nothing of
me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the
leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I
had in my boat, and caused everything I had in the
ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what I
was willing to sell he bought of me; such as the case
of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump
ofbees'-wax, for I had made candles of the rest; in
a word, I made about two hundred and twenty pieces
of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock I went
on shore in the Brazils.








ON SHORE IN THE BRAZILS.


CHAPTER V.

I HAD not long been here, before I was recommended
to the house of a good honest man, like himself, who
had an ingenio, as they call it (that is, a plantation
and a sugar house). I lived with him some time,
and acquainted myself by that means, with the man-
ner of planting and making of sugar; and seeing
how well the planters lived, and how they got rich
suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a license to settle
there, I would turn planter among them; endeavour-
ing in the meantime to find out some way to get my
money, which I had left in London, remitted to me.
To this purpose, getting a kind of letter of naturaliza-
tion, I purchased as much land that was uncured as
my money would reach, and formed a plan for my
plantation and settlement; such a one as might be
suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to
receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but
born of English parents, whose name was Wells, and
in much such circumstances as I was. I call him
my neighbour, because his plantation lay next to
mine, and we went on very sociably together. My
stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather
planted for food than anything else, for about two
years. However, we began to increase, and our land
began to come into order; so that the third year we
planted some tobacco and made each of us a large








48 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year
to come; but we both wanted help, and now I found,
more than before, I had done wrong in parting with
my boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did
right, was no great wonder. I had no remedy but
to go on; I had got into an employment quite remote
to my genius, and directly contrary to the life I de-
lighted in, and for which I fqrsook my father's house,
and broke through all his good advice.
I began to look upon my condition with the ut-
most regret. I had nobody to converse with but,
now and then, this neighbour; no work to be done,
but by the labour of my hands; and I used to say, I
lived just like a man cast away upon some desolate
island, that had nobody there but himself.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for
carrying on the plantation, before my kind friend, the
captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went
back; for the ship remained there, in providing his
lading, and preparing for his voyage, near three
months; when telling him what little stock I had
left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly
and sincere advice:-" Seignior Inglese," says he (for
so he always called me), if you will give me let-
ters, and a procuration here in form to me, with
orders to the person who has your money in London,
to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I
shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this
country, I will bring you the produce of them, God








WHOLESOME ADVICE. 49
willing, at my return; but, since human affairs are all
subject to changes and disasters, I would have you
give orders for but one hundred pounds sterling,
which you say is half your stock, and let the hazard
be run for the first; so that, if it come safe, you may
order the rest the same way; and if it miscarry, you
may have the other half to have recourse to for your
supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so
friendly, that I could not but be convinced it was the
best course I could take.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account
of all my adventures; my slavery, escape, and how 1
had met with the Portuguese captain at sea, the
humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I was
now in, with all other necessary directions for my
supply; and when this honest captain came to Lis-
bon, he found means, by some of the English mer-
chants there, to send over, not the order only, but a
full account of my story, to a merchant at London,
who represented it effectually to her; whereupon she
not only delivered the money, but, out of her own
pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a very handsome
present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred
pounds in English goods, such as the captain had
wrote for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and he
brought them all safe to me at the Brazils; among
which, without my direction (for I was too young in
my business to think of them), he had taken care to








50 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE
have all sorts of tools, iron-work, and utensils neces-
sary for my plantation, and which were of great use
to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune
made, for I was surprised with the joy of it; and my
good steward, the captain, had laid out the five pounds,
which my friend had sent him as a present for him-
self, to purchase and bring me over a servant, under
bond for six years' service, and would not accept of
any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I
would have him accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; but my goods, being all English
manufactures, such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things
particularly valuable and desirable in the country, I
found means to sell them to a very great advantage; so
that I might say I had more than four times the value
of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my
poor neighbour, I mean in the advancement of my
plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me a
negro slave, and an European servant also; I mean
another besides that which the captain brought me
from Lisbon.
But, as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the
very means of our greatest adversity, so was it with
me. I went on the next year with great success in
my plantation; I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco
on my own ground, more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbours; and these fifty
rolls, being each of above 100 lb., were well cured,
and laid by against the return of the fleet from Lis-








CRUSOE'S FELLOW-PLANTERS. 51
bon; and, now increasing in business and in wealth,
my head began to be full of projects and undertakings
beyond my reach; such as are, mdeed, often the
ruin of the best heads in business.
You may suppose, that, having now lived almost four
years in Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper
very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned
the language, but had contracted an acquaintance and
friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as
among the merchants at St. Salvador, which was our
port; and that, in my discourses among them, I had
frequently given them an account of my two voyages
to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with
the negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase
on the coast, for trifles-such as beads, toys, knives,
scissors, hatchets, bits of glass and the like- not
only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c.,
but negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great
numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my dis-
courses on these heads, but especially to that part
which related to the buying negroes; which was a
trade at that time, not only not far entered into, but,
as far as it was, had been carried on by the Assientos,
or permission of the Kings of Spain and Portugal,
and engrossed from the public; so that few negroes
were bought, and those excessively dear.
It happened, being in company with some mer-
chants and planters of my acquaintance, and talking
of those things very earnestly, three of them came
4







52 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOR,
to me the next morning, and told me they had been
musing very much upon what I had discoursed with
them of the last night, and they came to make a
secret proposal to me; and after enjoining me to
secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to fit
out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all planta-
tions as well as I, and were straightened for nothing
so much as servants; that as it was a trade that
could not be carried on, because they could not
publicly sell the negroes when they came home, so
they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the
negroes on shore privately, and divide them among
their own plantations; and, in a word, the question
was, whether I would go their supercargo in the
ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of
Guinea ? and they offered me that I should have an
equal share of the negroes, without providing any
part of the stock.
I, that was always my own destroyer, would no
more resist the offer, than I would restrain my first
rambling designs, when my father's good counsel
was lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would
go with all my heart, if they would undertake to
look after my plantation in my absence, and would
dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried.
This they all engaged to do, and entered into writ-
ings, or covenants, to do so; and I made a formal
will, disposing of my plantation and effects, in case
of my death; making the captain of the ship that
had saved my life as before, my universal heir; but








AN EVIL DAY. 05
obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed
in my will; one half of the produce being to himself,
and the other to be shipped to England.
I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates
of my fancy, rather than my reason; and, accord-
ingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo fur-
nished, and all things done as by agreement by my
partners in the voyage, I went on board, in an evil
hour again, the first of September 1659, being the
same day eight years that I went from my father and
mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their
authority, and the fool to my own interest.




CHAPTER VI.

THE same day I went on board, we set sail; standing
away to the northward upon our own coast, with de-
sign to stretch over for the African coast. When
they came about ten or twelve degrees of northern
latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of their
course in those days, we had very good weather, only
excessively hot, all the way upon our own coast, till
we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino; from
whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight of
land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle
Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by
N., and leaving those isles on the east. In this
course we passed the Line in about twelve days'








54 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
time, and were, by our last observation, in 7 degrees
22 minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado,
or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge. It
began from the south-east, came about to the north-
west, and then settled in the north-east; from whence
it blew in such a terrible manner, that, for twelve
days together, we could do nothing but drive, and
scudding away before it, let it carry us whither the
fury of the winds directed; and, during these twelve
days, I need not say that I expected every day to be
swallowed up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship ex-
pect to save their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the
storm, one of our men died of the calenture, and one
man and a boy washed overboard I About the twelfth
day, the weather abating a little, the master made an
observation, as well as he could, and found that he
was in about 11 degrees north latitude, but that he
was 22 degrees of longitude difference west from
Cape St. Augustino; so that he found that he was
got upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of
Brazil, beyond the River Amazons, toward that of
the River Oroonoque, commonly called the Great
River; and began to consult with me what course he
should take, for the ship was leaky and very much
disabled, and he was going directly back to the coast
of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and, looking over
the charts of the sea-coast of America with him, we
concluded there was no inhabited country for us to








A DREADFUL CONDITION. 55
have recourse to, till we came within the circle of the
Caribbee islands, and, therefore, resolved to stand
away for Barbadoes; which, by keeping off to sea, to
avoid the in-draft of the bay or Gulf of Mexico, we
might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen
days' sail; whereas we could not possibly make our
voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance,
both to our ship and ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and
steered away N.W. by W., in order to reach some of
our English islands, where I hoped for relief; but
our voyage was otherwise determined; for, being in
the latitude of 12 degrees 18 minutes, a second storm
came upon us, which carried us away with the same
impetuosity westward, and drove us out of the very
way of all human commerce.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard,
one of our men, early in the morning, cried out land
and we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out,
in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were,
but the ship struck upon a sand, and, in a moment,
her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her
in such a manner that we expected we should all
have perished immediately.
We were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had
nothing to do but to think of saving our lives as well
as we could. We had a boat at our stern just before
the storm, but she was first staved, by dashing against
the ship's rudder, and, in the next place, she broke
away, and either sunk or was driven off to sea; so








56 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
there was no hope from her. We had another boat
on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a
doubtful thing; however, there was no room to de-
bate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces
every minute, and some told us she was actually
broken already.
In this distress the mate of our vessel laid hold of
the boat, and, with the help of the rest of the men,
they got her flung over the ship's side; and getting
all into her, let her go. We committed our souls to
God in the most earnest manner; and the wind driv-
ing us toward the shore, we hastened our destruction
with our own hands, pulling, as well as we could, to-
wards land.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a
league and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave,
mountain like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly
bade us expect the coup de grace. In a word, it
took us with such a fury that it overset the boat at
once; and separating us, as well from the boat as
from one another, gave us not time hardly to say, 0
God I" for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought
which I felt when I sunk into the water; for though
I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself
from the waves so as to draw. my breath, till that
wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast
way on towards the shore, and having spent itself,
went back and left me upon the land, almost dry,
but half dead with the water I took in.








CAST UPON THE ROCKS. 57
Another wave that came upon me buried me at
once twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body, and
I could feel myself carried, with a mighty force and
swiftness, towards the shore a very great way; but
I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still
forward with all my might. I was ready to burst
with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising
up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and
hands shoot out above the surface of the water; and,
though it was not two seconds of time that I could
keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me
breath, and new courage. I was covered again with
water a good while, but not so long but I held it
out; and finding the water had spent itself, and
began to return, I struck forward against the return
of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I
stood still a few moments to recover breath, and till
the water went from me, and then took to my heels,
and ran, with what strength I had, farther towards
the shore. But neither would this deliver me from
the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me
again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves,
and carried forwards as before, the shore being very
flat. At last, to my great comfort, I got to the
mainland, and clambered up the cliffs of the shore,
and sat me down. upon the grass, free from danger,
and quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore; and began
to look up and thank God that my life was saved, in
a case wherein there was, some minutes before, scarce








58 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to ex-
press, to the life, what the ecstacies and transports of
the soul are when it is so saved, as I may say, out of
the grave.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands,
and my whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the
contemplation of my deliverance; making a thousand
gestures and motions which I cannot describe; reflect-
ing upon all my comrades that were drowned, and
that there should not be one soul saved but myself;
for as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any
sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and
two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel-when the
beach and froth of the sea being so big, I could
hardly see it, it lay so far off-and considered, how
was it possible I could get on shore!
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable
part of my condition, I began to look round me, to
see what kind of a place I was in, and what was next
to be done; and I soon found my comforts abate, and
that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance; for I
was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything,
either to eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I
see any prospect before me, but that of perishing
with hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts;
and that which was particularly afflicting to me was,
that I had no weapon, either to hunt or kill any crea-
ture for my sustenance, or to defend myself against
any other creature that might desire to kill me for








A LODGING FOR THE NIGHT.


theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a
knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box.
This was all my provision; and this threw me into
such terrible agonies of mind, that for a while I ran
about like a madman. Night coming upon me, I
began with a heavy heart to consider what would
be my lot, if there were any ravenous beasts in that
country, seeing at night they always come abroad
for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that
time, was to get up in a thick bushy tree, like a fir,
but thorny-which grew near me, and where I
resolved to sit all night-and consider the next day
what death I should die, for as yet I saw no pro-
spect of life. I walked about a furlong from the
shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink,
which I did, to my great joy; and having drank,
and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it,
endeavoured to place myself so, as that, if I should
sleep, I might not fall; and having cut me a short
stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my
lodging; and having been excessively fatigued, I
fell asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few
could have done in my condition; and felt myself the
most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on
such an occasion.








60 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.


CHAPTER VII.

WHEN I waked, it was broad day, the weather clear,
and the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and
swell as before; but that which surprised me most
was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from the
sand where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and
was driven up among the rocks about a mile from
the shore where I was, and as she seemed to stand
upright still, I wished myself on board, that at least
I might save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree,
I looked about me again, and the first thing I found
was the boat; which lay, as the wind and the sea had
tossed her up upon the land, about two miles on my
right hand. I walked as far as I could upon the
shore to have got to her, but found a neck or inlet
of water between me and the boat, which was about
half a mile broad; so I came back for the present,
being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I
hoped to find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and
the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come within a
quarter of a mile of the ship. I resolved if possible
to get to it, so I pulled of my clothes, for the weather
was hot to extremity, and took the water: but when
I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to
know how to get on board; for as she lay aground,
and high out of the water, there was nothing within








A VISIT TO THE SHIP. 01
my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice,
and the second time I spied a small piece of a rope,
which I wondered I did not see at first, hang down
by the fore-chains, so low as that with great difficulty
I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got into
the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the
ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her
hold; but that she lay so on the side of a bank of
hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted
up upon the bank, and her head low, almost to the
water. By this means all her quarter was free, and
all that was in that part was dry; for you may be
sure my first work was to search, and to see what
was spoiled, and what was free: and, first, I found
that all the ship's provisions were dry and untouched
by the water; and, being very well disposed to eat, I
went to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with
biscuit, and ate it as I went about other things, for I
had no time to lose. I also found some rum in the
great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which
I had indeed need enough of, to spirit me for what
was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat,
to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw
would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still, and wish for what was
not to be had, and this extremity roused my applica-
tion; we had several spare yards, and two or three
large spars of wood, and a spare topmast or two in
the ship; I resolved to fall to work with these, and
flung as many overboard as I could manage for their








62 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might
not drive away. When this was done, I went down
the ship's side, and pulling them to me, I tied four
of them fast together at both ends as well as I could
in the form of a raft, and laying two or three short
pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found I could
walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to
bear any great weight, the pieces being too light: so
I went to work, and with the carpenter's saw I cut
a spare topmast into three lengths, and added them
to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains.
But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries
encouraged me to go beyond what I should have
been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any rea-
sonable weight. My next care was what to load it
with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea; but I was not long considering
this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it
that I could get, and, having considered well what
I most wanted, I got three of the seamen's chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered
them down upon my raft; these I filled with provi-
sions, namely, bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five
pieces of dried goats' flesh (which we lived much
upon), and a little remainder of European corn,
which had been laid by for some fowls which we had
brought to sea with us; but the fowls were killed.
There had been some barley and wheat together, but,
to my great disappointment, I found afterwards that






































































L_. i IH


Page 63.


. ai -






E7- ; :- '--







THE FIRST CARGO.


the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors,
I found several cases of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which were some cordial waters; and, in
all, about five or six gallons of rack. These I stowed
by themselves, there being no need to put them into
the chests, nor any room for them. While I was
doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though
very calm; and I had the mortification to see my
coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore
upon the sand, swim away; as for my breeches,
which were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on
board in them and my stockings. However, this
put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found
enough, but took no more than I wanted for present
use, for I had other things which my eye was more
upon; as, first, tools to work with on shore: and it
was after long searching that I found the carpenter's
chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me,
and much more valuable than a ship-lading of gold
would have been at that time. I got it down to my
raft, even whole as it was, without losing time to
look into it, for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms.
There were two very good fowling-pieces in the great
cabin, and two pistols; these I secured first, with
some powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and two
old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels
of powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner
had stowed them; but, with much search, I found
them; two of them dry and good, the third had taken







64 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
water. Those two I got to my raft, with the arms.
And now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and
began to think how I should get to shore with them,
having neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least
capful of wind would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: 1st, A smooth, calm
sea; 2dly, The tide rising, and setting in to the shore;
3dly, What little wind there was, blew me towards
the land. And thus, having found two or three
broken oars belonging to the boat, and, besides the
tools which were in the chest, I found two saws, an
axe, and a hammer; and, with this cargo, I put to
sea. For a mile or thereabouts my raft went very
well, only that I found it drive a little distance from
the place where I had landed before; by which I
perceived that there was some in-draft of the water,
and, consequently, I hoped to find some creek or
river there, which I might make use of as a port to
get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before
me a little opening of the land, and I found a strong
current of the tide set into it; so I guided my raft,
as well as I could, to get into the middle of the
stream, and at length found myself in the mouth of
a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong
current, or tide, running up. I looked on both sides
for a proper place to get to shore, for I was not will-
ing to be driven too high up the river; hoping, in
time, to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved
to place myself as near the coast as I could.







A TOUR OF DISCOVERY. 60
At length I spied a little cove, on the right shore
of the creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty,
I guided my raft, and at last got my raft and all
my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek
a proper place for my habitation, and where to stow
my goods, to secure them from whatever might
happen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether
on the continent, or on an island; whether inhabited,
or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts
or not. There was a hill, not above a mile from me,
which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed
to over-top some other hills, which lay as in a ridge,
from it, northward. I took out one of the fowling-
pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder;
and, thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the
top of that hill; where, after I had, with great labour
and difficulty, got up to the top, I saw my lot, to my
great affliction, namely, that I was in an island, en-
vironed every way with the sea, no land to be seen
except some rocks, which lay a great way off, and
two small islands, less than this, which lay about
three leagues to the west.
I found, also, that the island I was in was barren,
and, as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited,
except by wild beasts, of whom, however, I saw none;
yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their
kinds; neither, when I killed them, could I tell what
was fit for food, and what not.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my







66 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore,
which took me up the rest of that day: what to do
with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where
to rest: for I was afraid to lie down on the ground,
not knowing but some wild beasts might devour me;
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no
need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself
round with the chests and boards that I had brought
on shore, and made a kind of hut for that night's
lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way to
supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures like hares run out of the wood.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a
.great many things out of the ship which would be
useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging
and sails, and such other things as might come to
land; and I resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel, if possible. And, as I knew that
the first storm that blew must necessarily break her
all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart,
till I got everything out of the ship that I could get.
Then I called a council, that is to say, in my thoughts,
whether I should take back the r*'t; but this appeared
impracticable: so I resolved to go as before, when
the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped
before I went from my hut, having nothing on but a
chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair
of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a







A SECOND VISIT TO THE WRECK. 67
second raft; and, having had experience of the first,
I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so
hard, but yet I brought away several things very
useful to me: as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I
found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a
great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets; and,
above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone.
All these I secured, together with several things
belonging to the gunner; particularly, two or three
iron crows, and two barrels of musket-bullets, seven
muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small
quantity of powder more; a large bag full of small
shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead; but this last was
so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it over the
ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes
that I could find, and a spare fore top-sail, a ham-,
mock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my
second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to
my great comfort.
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I
was fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring
them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being
large casks-I went to work to make me a little tent,
with the sail, and some poles which I cut for that
purpose; and into this tent I brought everything
that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun; and
I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle
round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt
either from man or beast.








68 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of
the tent with some boards within, and an empty
chest set up on end without; and, spreading one of
the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just
at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed, for the first time, and slept very quietly all night,
for I was very weary and heavy; for the night before
I had slept little, and had laboured very hard all day,
as well to fetch all those things from the ship, as to
get them on shore.
After I had made five or six such voyages to the
ship, and thought I had nothing more to expect that
was worth my meddling with; I say, after all this,
I found a great hogshead of bread, and three large
runlets of rum or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a
barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me, be-
'cause I had given over expecting any more provi-
sions, except what was spoiled by the water. I soon
emptied the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it
up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I
cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore
also.
The next day I made another voyage; and now,
having plundered the ship of what was portable and
fit to hand out, I began with the cables, and cutting
the great cable into pieces, such as I could move, I
got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the
iron-work I could get; and, having cut down the
spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and everything
I could to make a large raft, I loaded it with all








CLEARING OUT THE WRECK.


those heavy goods, and came away; but this raft was
so unwieldy, and so overladen, that, after I was en-
tered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of
my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as
I did the other, it overset, and threw me and all my
cargo into the water. As for myself, it was no great
harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo,
it was the greater part of it lost, especially the iron,
which I expected would have been of great use to me.
However, when the tide was out, I got most of the
pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though
with infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into
the water, a work which fatigued me very much.
After this I went every day on board, and brought
away what I could get.




CHAPTER VIII.

I HAD been now thirteen days on shore, and had been
eleven times on board the ship; in which time I had
brought away all that one pair of hands could well
be supposed capable to bring; though, I believe
verily, had the calm weather held, I should have
brought away the whole ship, piece by piece; but
preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found
the wind began to rise. However, at low water I
went on board; and though I thought I had rum-
maged the cabin so effectually as that nothing more







70 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
could be found, yet I discovered a locker, with drawers
in it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and
one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen
of good knives and forks; in another I found about
thirty-six pounds value in money, some European
coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold,
and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. 0
drug" said I aloud, "what art thou good for? Thou
art not worth to me, no, not the taking off the ground;
one of those knives is worth all this heap. I have no
manner of use for thee; e'en remain where thou art,
and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not
worth saving." However, upon second thoughts, I
took it away, and wrapping all this in a piece of can-
vass, I began to think of making another raft; but
while I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast,
and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an
hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It pre-
sently occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend
to make a raft with the wind off shore; and that it
was my business to be gone before the tide of flood
began, or otherwise I might not be able to reach the
shore at all. Accordingly, I let myself down into
the water, and swam across the channel which lay
between the ship and the sands, and even that with
difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the things
I had about me, and partly the roughness of the
water; for the wind rose very hastily, and before it
was quite high water it blew a storm.








PLANS FOR DEFENCE.


But I was got home to my little tent, where I lay,
with all my wealth about me, very secure. It blew
very hard all that night, and in the morning, when I
looked out, behold, no more ship was to be seen I
was a little surprised, but recovered myself with this
satisfactory reflection, namely, that I had lost no
time, nor abated no diligence, to get everything out
of her that could be useful to me, and that, indeed,
there was little left in her that I was able to bring
away, if I had had more time.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about
securing myself against either savages, if any should
appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island; and
I had many thoughts of the method how to do this,
and what kind of dwelling to make, whether I should
make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the
earth; and in short, I resolved upon both: the man-
ner and description of which it may not be improper
to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my
settlement, particularly because it was upon a low,
moorish ground near the sea, and I believed it would
not be wholesome, and more particularly, because
there was no fresh water near it; so I resolved to
find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
ground.
I consulted several things in my situation which I
found would be proper for me--st, Health and fresh
water, I just now mentioned; 2dly, Shelter from the
heat of the sun; 3dly, Security from ravenous crea-







72 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
tures, whether men or beasts; 4thly, A view to the
sea, that, if God sent any ship in sight, I might not
lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I
was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.
In search for a proper place for this, I found a little
plain on the side of a rising hill, on which was a rock
whose front towards this little plain was steep as a
house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me
from the top. On the side of this rock there was a
hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance
or door of a cave; but there was not really any cave
or way into the rock at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow
place, I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was
not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice as
long, and lay like a green before my door; and, at the
end of it, descended irregularly every way down into
the low ground by the sea-side. It was on the
N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was sheltered from
the heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S.
sun, or thereabouts, which in those countries is near
the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle be-
fore the hollow place, which took in about ten yards
in its semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty yards
in its diameter from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong
stakes, driving them into the ground till they stood
very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of the
ground about five feet and a half, and sharpened on







PATIENCE AND PERSEVERANCE. 73
the top. The two rows did not stand above six inches
from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in
the ship, and laid them in rows, one above another,
within the circle between these two rows of stakes,
up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside lean-
ing against them, about two feet and a half high, like
a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong that
neither man nor beast could get into it, or over it.
This cost me a great deal of time and labour, espe-
cially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to
the place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by
a door, but by a short ladder to get over the top:
which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me;
and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I
thought, from all the world, and consequently slept
secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have
done; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was
no need of all this caution from the enemies that I
apprehended danger from.
Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labour, I
carried all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition,
and stores, of which you have the account above; and
I made me a large tent, which, to preserve me from
the rains, that in one part of the year are very violent
there, I made double, namely, one smaller tent within,
and one larger tent above it, and covered the upper.
most with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among
the sails.








74 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed
which I had brought on shore, but in a hammock,
which was indeed a very good one, and belonged to
the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and
everything that would spoil by the wet; and having
thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance,
which, till now, I had left open, and so passed and
repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way
into the rock, and bringing all the earth and stones
that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them up
within my fence in the nature of a terrace, so that it
raised the ground within about a foot and a half, and
thus I made me a cave, just behind my tent, which
served me like a cellar to my house. It cost me
much labour, and many days, before all these things
were brought to perfection; and therefore I must go
back to some other things which took up some of my
thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had
laid my schemes for the setting up my tent, and
making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a
thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning hap-
pened, and after that a great clap of thunder, as is
naturally the effect of it. I was not so much sur-
prised with the lightning as I was with the thought
which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning
itself, 0, my powder!" My very heart sunk within
me, when I thought that, at one blast, all my powder
might be destroyed, on which not my defence only,








NEEDFUL PRECAUTIONS.


but the providing me food, as I thought, entirely de-
pended. I was nothing near so anxious about my
own danger, though, had the powder took fire, I had
never known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that, after
the storm was over, I laid aside all my works, my
building and fortifying, and applied myself to make
bags and boxes to separate the powder, and to keep
it a little and a little in a parcel, in hope that what-
ever might come, it might not all take fire at once;
and to keep it so apart that it should not be possible
to make one part fire another. I finished this work
in about a fortnight; and I think my powder, which
in all was about 240 lb. weight, was divided in not
less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that
had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from
that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my
fancy, I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and
down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might
come to it, marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went
out at least once every day with my gun, as well to
divert myself as to see if I could kill anything fit for
food, and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with
what the island produced. The first time I went out
I presently discovered that there were goats upon the
island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then
it was attended with this misfortune to me, namely,
that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot,
that it was the most difficult thing in the world tc







76 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
come at them; but I was not discouraged at this, not
doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it
soon happened; for after I had found their haunts a
little, I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed,
if they saw me in the valleys, though they were upon
the rocks, they would run away, as if in a terrible
fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys and I
was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from
whence I concluded that, by the position of their
optics, their sight was so directed downward that they
did not readily see objects that were above them; so,
afterwards, I took this method-I always climbed
the rocks first, to get above them, and then had fre-
quently a fair mark. The first shot I made among
these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which had a little
kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved
me heartily; but when the old one fell, the kid stood
stock-still by her till I came and took her up: and
not only so, but when I carried the old one with me
upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to
my enclosure, upon which I laid down the dam and
took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale,
in hopes to have it bred up tame; but it would not
eat, so I was forced to kill it and eat it myself. These
two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate
sparingly, and preserved my provisions (my bread
especially) as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it abso-
lutely necessary to provide a place to make a fire in,
and fuel to burn; and what I did for that, as also how







CRUSOE'S ACTUAL CONDITION. 77
I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made,
I shall give a full account of it in its proper place;
but I must first give some little account of myself
and of my thoughts about living, which, it may be
well supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for, as I
was not cast away upon that island without being
driven, as is said, by a violent storm, quite out of
the course of our intended voyage, and a great way,
namely, some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary
course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to
consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this
desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should
end my life. The tears would run plentifully down
my face when I made these reflections; and some-
times I would expostulate with myself why Provi-
dence should thus completely ruin its creatures, and
render them so absolutely miserable; so abandoned
without help, so entirely depressed, that it could
hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to
check these thoughts, and to reprove me; and parti-
cularly, one day, walking with my gun in my hand
by the sea-side, I was very pensive upon the subject
of my present condition, when reason, as it were, ex-
,postulated with me the other way, thus:-" Well,
you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but pray
remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you
come, eleven of you, into the boat? Where are the ten?
Why were they not saved, and you lost? Why were








78 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
you singled out? Is it better to be here or there?"
And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be
considered with the good that is in them, and with
what worse attends them.




CHAPTER IX.

AND now, being to enter into a melancholy relation
of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never
heard of in the world before, I shall take it from its
beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by
my account, the 30th of September, when, in the
manner as above said, I first set footupon this horrible
island; when the sun, being to us in its autumnal
equinox, was almost just over my head; for I reckoned
myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of 9 de
grees 22 minutes north of the Line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it
came into my thoughts that I should lose my reckon-
ing of time for want of books, and pen and ink, and
should even forget the Sabbath-days from the work-
ing-days; but to prevent this, I cut it, with my knife,
upon a large post, in capital letters; and making it
into a great cross, I set it up on the shore where I
first landed, namely, I came on shore here on the
30th of September 1659." Upon the sides of this
square post I cut, every day, a notch with my knife
and every seventh notch was as long again as the







A TRUSTY SERVANT. 79
rest, and every first day of the month as long again
as that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or
weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
But it happened that, among the many things
which I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages
which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got several
things of less value, but not at all less useful to me,
which I found some time after, in rummaging the
chests; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper; several
parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and car-
penter's keeping; three or four compasses, some ma-
thematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and
books of navigation; all which I huddled together,
whether I might want them or no: also, I found three
very good Bibles, which came to me in my cargo
from England, and which I had packed up among my
things; some Portuguese books also, and among them
two or three Popish prayer-books, and several other
books, all which I carefully secured. And I must
not forget that we had in the ship a dog, and two
cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion
to say something in its place: for I carried both the
cats with me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of
the ship himself, and swam on shore to me, the day
after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a
trusty servant to me for many years; I wanted nothing
that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could
make up to me; I only wanted to have him talk to
me, but that would not do. As I observed before, I
found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to







80 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
the utmost; and I shall show, that, while my ink
lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that was
gone, I could not; for I could not make any ink, by
any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things,
notwithstanding all that I had amassed together; and
of these, this of ink was one; as also a spade, pick-
axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles,
pins, and thread: as for linen, I soon learned to want
that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on
heavily; and it was near a whole year before I had
entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded habita-
tion. The piles, or stakes, which were as heavy as I
could well lift, were a long time in cutting and pre-
paring in the woods, and more, by far, in bringing
home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting
and bringing home one of those posts, and a third day
in driving it into the ground: for which purpose I got
a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought
myself of one of the iron crows; which, however,
though I found it, yet it made driving these posts, or
piles, very laborious and tedious work.
I now began to consider seriously my condition,
and the circumstances I was reduced to; and I drew
up the state of my affairs in writing, not so much to
leave them to any that were to come after me (for I
was like to have but few heirs), as to deliver my
thoughts from daily poring upon them, and afflicting
my mind: and, as my reason began now to master









A DEBTOR AND CREDITOR ACCOUNT. 81

my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well
as I could, and to set the good against the evil, that I
might have something to distinguish my case from
worse; and I stated it very impartially, like debtor
and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against the
miseries I suffered, thus:-


EVIL.


Goon


I am cast upon a horrible,
desolate island, void of all
hope of recovery.

I am singled out and sepa-
rated, as it were, from all the
world to be miserable.




I am divided from man-
kind, a solitaire: one banish-
ed from human society.

I have no clothes to cover
me.


I am without any defence,
or means to resist any vio-
lence of man or beast.


But I am alive and not
drowned, as all my ship's
company were.

But I am singled out, too,
from all the ship's crew, to
be spared from death; and
He that providentially saved
me from death, can deliver
me from this condition.

But I am not starved, and
perishing in a barren place,
affording no sustenance.

But I am in a hot climate,
where, if I had clothes, I
could hardly wear them.

But I am cast on an island,
where I see no wild beasts
to hurt me, as I saw on the
coast of Africa, and what if
I had been shipwrecked
there I








82 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
I have no soul to speak to, But God wonderfully sent
or relieve me. the ship in near enough to
the shore, that I have got
out so many necessary things
as will either supply my
wants, or enable me to sup-
ply myself, even as long as
I live.


Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony,
that there was scarce any condition in the world so
miserable, but there was something negative, or some-
thing positive, to be thankful for in it; and let this
stand as a direction, from the experience of the most
miserable of all conditions in this world, that we may
always find in it something to comfort ourselves from,
and to set, in the description of good and evil, on the
credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my
condition, and giving over looking out to sea, to see if
I could spy a ship; I say, giving over these things, I
began to apply myself to accommodate my way of
living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was
a tent under the side of a rock, surrounded with a
strong pale of posts and cables; but I might now
rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall against
it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside; and,
after some time (I think it was a year and a half), I
raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched
or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as







CRUSOE AS A CABINET-MAKER. 83
I could get, to keep out the rain; which I found, at
some time of the year, very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my
goods into this pale, and into the cave which I had
made behind me. But I must observe, too, that at
first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they
lay in no order, so they took up all my place; I had
no room to turn myself; so I set myself to enlarge
my cave, and work farther into the earth, for it was
a loose, sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labour
I bestowed on it; and when I found I was pretty
safe as to the beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to
the right hand, into the rock, and then, turning to
the right again, worked quite out, and made me a
door to come out on the outside of my pale or forti-
fication.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it
were, a back way to my tent and to my storehouse,
but gave me room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such
necessary things as I found I most wanted, particu-
larly a chair and a table; for, without these, I was
not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world;
I could not write, or eat, or do several things with so
much pleasure, without a table; so I went to work.
And here I must needs observe, that, as reason is the
substance and original of the mathematics, so by stat-
ing and squaring everything by reason, and by mak-
ing the most rational judgment of things, every man
may be, in time, master of every mechanic art. I








84 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
had never handled a tool in my life; and yet, in
time, by labour, application, and contrivance, I found
at last that I wanted nothing but I could have made,
especially if I had had tools. However, I made
abundance of things even without tools, and some
with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet,
which, perhaps, were never made that way before,
and that with infinite labour. For example, if I
wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down
a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on
either side with my axe, till I had brought it to be
as thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my
adze. It is true, by this method I could make but
one board out of a whole tree; but this I had no
remedy for but patience, any more than I had for
the prodigious deal of time and labour which it took
me to make up a plank or board; but my time or
labour was little worth, and so it was as well em-
ployed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I ob-
served above, in the first place; and this I did out of
the short pieces of boards that I brought on my rafl
from the ship. But, when I wrought out some boards,
as above, I made large shelves, of the breadth of a
foot and a half, one over another, all along one side
of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron work
on; and, in a word, to separate everything at large
in their places, that I might easily come at them. I
knocked pieces into the wall of the rock, to hang my
guns, and all things that would hang up, so that, had







CRUSOE'S NARRATIVE. 85
my cave been seen, it looked like a general magazine
of all necessary things; and I had everything so ready
at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see
all my goods in such order, and especially to find my
stock of all necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of
every day's employment, of which I shall here give
you the copy (though in it will be told all those par-
ticulars over again) as long as it lasted; for, having
no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.



THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson
Crusoe, being shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm,
in the offing, came on shore on this dismal unfortu-
nate island, which I called the ISLAND OF DESPAIR;
all the rest of the ship's company being drowned, and
myself almost dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting inyself
at the dismal circumstances I was brought to, namely,
I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place
to fly to; and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing
but death before me; that I should either be devoured
by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to
death for want of food. At the approach of night, I
slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures, but slept
soundly, though it rained all night.







86 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
October 1. In the morning, I saw, to my great
surprise, the ship had floated with the high tide, and
was driven on shore again much nearer the island;
which, as it was some comfort on one hand (for seeing
her sit upright and not broken in pieces, I hoped, if
the wind abated, I might get on board, and get some
food and necessaries out of her for my relief), so, on
the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my
comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on
board, might have saved the ship, or, at least, that
they would not have been all drowned, as they were;
and that, had the men been saved, we might, perhaps,
have built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship, to
have carried us to some other part of the world. I
spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on
these things; but at length, seeing the ship almost
dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and
then swam on board. This day, also, it continued
raining, though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October till the 24th. All these
days entirely spent in making several voyages to
get all I could out of the ship, which I brought
on shore, every time of flood, upon rafts. Much
rain also on these days, though with some intervals
of fair weather; but it seems this was the rainy
season.
Oct. 20. I overset my raft and all the goods I had
got upon it, but being in shoal water, and the things
being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when
the tide was out.








DAY AFTER DAY. 87
Oct. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some
gusts of wind, during which time the ship broke in
pieces (the wind blowing a little harder than before),
and was no more to be seen except the wreck of her,
and that only at low water. I spent this day in
covering and securing the goods which I had saved,
that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day
to find out a place to fix my habitation; greatly con-
cerned to secure myself from any attack in the night,
either from wild beasts or men. Towards night I
fixed upon a proper place under a rock, and marked
out a semicircle for my encampment, which I resolved
to strengthen with a work wall or fortification, made
of double piles, lined within with cables and without
with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in
carrying all my goods to my new habitation, though
some part of the time it rained exceedingly hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the
island with my gun to seek for some food, and dis-
cover the country, when I killed a she-goat, and her
kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed also
because it would not feed.
November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and
lay there for the first night, making it as large as I
could with stakes driven in to swing my hammock
upon.
Nov. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the
pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with them








88 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
formed a fence round me, a little within the place I
had marked out for my fortification.
Nov. 3. I went out with my gun and killed two
fowls like ducks, which were very good food. In the
afternoon I went to work to make me a table.
Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times
of work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and
time of diversion: namely, every morning I walked
out with my gun for two or three hours if it did not
rain; then employed myself to work till about eleven
o'clock; then ate what I had to live on; and from
twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
excessive hot; and then in the evening to work
again. The working part of this day and the next
was wholly employed in making my table, for I was
yet but a very sorry workman; though time and ne-
cessity made me a complete natural mechanic soon
after, as I believe they would any one else.
Nov. 5. This day went abroad with my gun and
dog, and killed a wild-cat; her skin pretty soft, but
her flesh good for nothing; of every creature that
I killed, I took off the skins and preserved them.
Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw many sorts of
sea-fowl which I did not understand; but was sur-
prised and almost frightened with two or three seals,
which, while I was gazing at them (not well know-
ing what they were), got into the sea and escaped me
for that time.
Nov. 6. After my morning walk I went to work
with my table again, and finished it, though not to







A REFRACTORY CHAIR.


my liking; nor was it long before I learned to mend
it.
Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather.
The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for
the 11th was Sunday, according to my reckoning), I
took wholly up to make me a chair, and, with much
ado, brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to
please me; and even in the making, I pulled it in
pieces several times.
Note. I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for,
omitting my mark for them on my post, I forgot
which was which.
Nov. 13. This day it rained, which refreshed me
exceedingly and cooled the earth, but it was accom-
panied with terrible thunder and lightning, which
frightened me dreadfully for fear of my powder. As
soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my stock
.of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that
it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in mak-
ing little square chests or boxes, which might hold
about a pound or two pounds at most of powder; and
so putting the powder in, I stowed it in places as
secure and as remote from one another as possible.
On one of these three days, I killed a large bird that
was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.
Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent
into the rock, to make room for my farther conveni-
ence.
Note. Three things I wanted exceedingly for this








90 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
work, namely, a pick-axe, a shovel, and a wheel-
barrow or basket; so I desisted from my work, and
began to consider how to supply these wants, and
make me some tools. As for a pick-axe, I made use
of the iron crows, which were proper enough, though
heavy; but the next thing was a shovel or spade:
this was so absolutely necessary, that indeed I could
do nothing effectually without it; but what kind of
one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I
found a tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the
Brazils, they call the Iron tree, from its exceeding
hardness; of this, with great labour and almost spoil-
ing my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home too,
with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy,
The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having
no other way, made me a long while upon this
machine; for I worked it effectually by little and
little into the form of a shovel or spade, the handle
exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the
broad part, having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it
would not last me so long; however, it served well
enough for the uses which I had occasion to put it
to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after
that fashion, or so long a-making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a
wheelbarrow. A basket I could not make by any
means, having no such things as twigs that would
bend to make wicker-ware; at least none yet found
out, and as to the wheelbarrow I fancied I could








NECESSITY THE MOTHER OF INVENTION. 91
make all but the wheel, but that I had no notion of
neither did I know how to go about it; besides, I had
no possible way to make iron gudgeons, for the
spindle or axis of the wheel to run in; so I gave it
over; and for carrying away the earth which I dug
out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod which
the labourers carry the mortar in for the bricklayers.
This was not so difficult to me as the making the
shovel; and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt
which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took
me up no less than four days; I mean always ex-
cepting my morning walk with my gun, which I sel-
dom omitted, and very seldom failed also bringing
home something fit to eat.
Nov. 23. My other work having now stood still,
because of my making these tools, when they were
finished I went on, and working every day as my
strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days en-
tirely in widening and deepening my cave, that it
might hold my goods commodiously.
Note. During all this time I worked to make this
room or cave spacious enough to accommodate me as
a warehouse, or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room,
and a cellar. As for a lodging, I kept to the tent,
except that sometimes in the wet season of the year
it gained so hard that I could not keep myself dry,
which caused me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles in the form of rafters
leaning against the rock, and load them with flags
and large leaves of trees like a thatch.







92 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
December 10. I began now to think my cave or
vault finished; when on a sudden (it seems I had
made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell down
from the top and one side; so much that, in short,
it frightened me, and not without reason too, for if I
had been under it I should never have wanted a
grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had a great deal
of work to do over again, for I had the loose earth to
carry out; and, which was of more importance, I had
the ceiling to prop up so that I might be sure no
more would come down.
Dec. 11. This day I went to work with it accord-
ingly, and got two shores or posts pitched upright to
the top, with two pieces of board across over each
post; this I finished the next day, and, setting more
posts up with boards, in about a week more I had the
roof secured; and the posts standing in rows served
me for partitions to part of my house.
Dec. 17. From this day to the 20th I placed
shelves, and knocked up nails on the posts, to hang
everything up that could be hung up; and now I
began to be in some order within doors.
Dec. 20. I carried everything into the cave, and
began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of
boards like a dresser, to order my victuals upon; but
boards began to be very scarce with me; also I made
me another table.
Dec. 24. Much rain all night and all day; no stir-
ring out.
Dec. 25. Rain all day.








A TAME GOAT.


Dec. 26. No rain, and the earth much cooler than
before, and pleasanter.
Dec. 27. Killed a young goat, and lamed another,
so that I catched it and led it home in a string;
when I had it home I bound and splintered up its
leg, which was broke.
N.B. I took such care of it that it lived, and the
leg grew well and as strong as ever; but by nursing
it so long it grew tame, and fed upon the little green
at my door, and would not go away. This was the
first time that I entertained a thought of breeding up
some tame creatures, that I might have food when
my powder and shot was all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31. Great heats and no breeze,
so that there was no stirring abroad, except in the
evening, for food; this time I spent in putting all my
things in order within doors.
January 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad early
and late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of
the day. This evening, going farther into the valleys
which lay towards the centre of the island, I found
there was plenty of goats, though exceeding shy
and hard to come at; however, I resolved to try if
I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.
Accordingly, the next day I went out with my
dog, and set him upon the goats, but I was mis-
taken, for they all faced about upon the dog; and he
knew his danger too well, for he would not come
near them.
Jan. 3. I began my fence, or wall, which, being








94 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
still jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I re-
solved to make very thick and strong.
N.B. This wall being described before, I purposely
omit what was said in the Journal; it is sufficient to
observe, that I was no less time than from the 3d of
January to the 14th of April, working, finishing, and
perfecting this wall, though it was no more than
about 25 yards in length, being a half-circle, from
one place in the rock to another place, about twelve
yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre,
behind it.



CHAPTER X.
ALL this time I worked very hard, the rains hinder-
ing me many days, nay, sometimes weeks together;
but I thought I should never be perfectly secure till
this wall was finished; and it is scarce credible what
inexpressible labour everything was done with, espe-
cially the bringing piles out of the woods, and driving
them into the ground, for I made them much bigger
than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double
fenced, with a turf-wall raised up close to it, I per-
suaded myself that if any people were to come on
shore there, they would not perceive anything like a
habitation; and it was very well I did so, as may be
observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.
And now, in the managing my household affairs, I







INGENIOUS EXPEDIENTS.


found myself wanting in many things, which I thought
at first it was impossible for me to make, as, indeed,
as to some of them, it was; for instance, I could never
make a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet or
two, as I observed before, but I could never arrive to
the capacity of making one by them, though I spent
many weeks about it; I could neither put in the
heads, nor join the staves so true to one another as
to make them hold water, so I gave that also over.
In the next place, I was at a great loss for candle,
so that as soon as it was dark, which was generally
by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I re-
membered the lump of bees'-wax with which I made
candles in my African adventure, but I had none of
that now; the only remedy I had was, that when I
had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little
dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which
I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp;
and this gave me light, though not a clear steady
light, like a candle. In the middle of all my labours,
it happened that in rummaging my things I found a
little bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled
with corn for feeding of poultry; not for this voyage,
but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from
Lisbon. What little remainder of corn had been in
the bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw no-
thing in the bag but husks and dust; and being will-
ing to have the bag for some other use (I think it
was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of
the lightning, or some such use), I shook the husks








96 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.
of corn out of it, on one side of my fortification, under
the rock.
It was a little before the great rain, just now men-
tioned, that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice
of anything, and not so much as remembering that I
had thrown anything there, when about a month
after I saw some few stalks of something green shoot-
ing out of the ground, which I fancied might be some
plant I had not seen; but I was surprised and per-
fectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I
saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which were
perfect green barley, of the same kind as our Euro-
pean, nay, as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and
confusion of my thoughts on this occasion; I had
hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all; in-
deed, I had very few notions of religion in my head,
nor had entertained any sense of anything that had
befallen me otherwise than as a chance, or, as we
lightly say, what pleases God; without so much as
inquiring into the end of Providence in these things,
or his order in governing events in the world. But
after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which I
knew was not proper for corn, and especially as I
knew not how it came there, it startled me strangely;
and I began to suggest that God had miraculously
caused this grain to grow without any help of seed
sown, and that it was so directed purely for my sus-
tenance on that wild miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears







THE WORK OF PROVIDENCE. 97
out of my eyes, and I began to bless myself that such
a prodigy of nature should happen upon my account;
and this was the more strange to me, because I saw
near it still, all along by the side of the rock, some
other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of
rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow
in Africa, when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of
Providence for my support, but, not doubting that
there was more in the place, I went over all that part
of the island where I had been before, searching in
every corner, and under every rock, for more of it;
but I could not find any. At last it occurred to my
thoughts that I had shook out a bag of chickens'
meat in that place, and then the wonder began to
cease; and I must confess my religious thankfulness
to God's providence began to abate too, upon the dis-
covering that all this was nothing but what was com-
mon, though I ought to have been as thankful for so
strange and unforeseen a providence as if it had been
miraculous; for it was really the work of Providence
as to me, that should order or appoint that ten or
twelve grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when
the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been
dropt from heaven; as also that I should throw it out
in that particular place, where, it being in the shade
of a high rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas,
if I had thrown it anywhere else at that time, it
would have been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be