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 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Memoir of De Foe
 Robinson Crusoe
 The further adventures of Robinson...






Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073579/00001
 Material Information
Title: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 630 p., 8 leaves of plates : ill. ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Porter & Coates ( Publisher )
Sherman & Co. (Philadelphia, Pa.) ( Printer )
Caxton Press (Philadelphia, Pa.) ( Printer )
Publisher: Porter & Coates
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Manufacturer: Caxton Press of Sherman & Co.
Publication Date: 1870
 Subjects
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
 Notes
General Note: Spine title: Robinson Crusoe; caption title, p. 339: Further adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel De Foe <sic> ; including a memoir of the author, and an essay on his writings.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073579
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 16161231

Table of Contents
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Memoir of De Foe
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Robinson Crusoe
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
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    The further adventures of Robinson Crusoe
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Full Text












ROBINSON CRUSOE.


BY

DANIEL DE FOE.

INCLUDING

A MEMOIR OF THE AUTHOR, AND AN ESSAY ON HIS WRITINGS.


PHILADELPHIA:
PORTER & COATES.
1870.


j`~ePb




























































































CAXTON PRESS OP

NBHuRKN & CO., PUILiDBLPEIA
















MEMOIR OF DE FOE.





DANIEL FOE, or, as he subsequently styled himself (though at
what time and on what occasion is not known), De Foe, was born
in the parish of St. Giles's, Cripplegate, London, in the year 1661.
The earliest of his ancestors of whom there is any account, was
Daniel Foe, a yeoman, who farmed his own estate at Elton, in
Northamptonshire. He maintained a pack of hounds; from whence
it may be reasonably inferred that his means were above compe-
tency. A custom of the times in bestowing party names on brutes is
thus mentioned by our *author: "I remember," he says, "my
grandfather had a huntsman that used the same familiarity with his
dogs ; and he had his Roundhead, and his Cavalier, and his Goring,
an& his Waller, and all the generals of both armies were hounds in
his pack; till the times turning, the old gentleman was fain to
scatter his pack, and make them up of more dog-like surnames." It
is from his grandfather that De Foe is supposed to have inherited
landed property: for in his "Review," a work Te shall often have
occasion to consult, he says, "I have both a native and an acquired
right of election." Our author's father, James Foe, followed the
trade of butcher, in St. Giles's, Cripplegate; and these few barren
facts are all that is to be gathered of the ancestors of Daniel De Foe.
"He had," says Mr. Wilson, in his excellent work, "The Life and
Times of Daniel De Foe," a work abounding with the most curious
and minute information on the period of which it treats He had
some collateral relatives, to whom he alludes occasionally in his
writings, but with too much brevity to ascertain the degree of
kindred."
At an early age, De Foe is said to have shown that vivacity of
humor, and that indomitable spirit of independence, that remained
with him through after life, making a sunshine in the shady place "
of a prison, and arming him as the champion of truth in humanity in
(3)




~,A-










MEMOIR OF DE FOE.


the most perilous times. An anecdote related by our author is illus-
trative of the discipline that governed the home of his boyhood.
During that part of the reign of Charles II. when the nation feared
the ascendency of Popery, and it was expected that printed Bibles
would become rare, many honest people employed themselves in
copying the Bible into short-hand. To this task young I)e Foe
applied himself; and lie tells us that "lie worked like a horse till lie
had written out the whole of the Pentateuch, when he grew so tired
that he was willing to risk the rest." The parents of De Foe were
Non-conformists, and his education was consonant to the practice
of that faith. Family religion formed an essential part of its disci-
pline; and it was made matter of conscience to instruct the chil-
dren of a family and its dependants in their social, moral, and reli-
gious duties.
Although the enemies of De Foe vainly endeavored to sink his
reputation by representing him as having been bred a tradesman,
there is ample evidence to prove that he was originally intended for
one of the learned professions.* When lie had, therefore, suf-
ficiently qualified under inferior tutors, he was, at about fourteen
years of age. placed in an academy at Newington Green, under the
direction of "that polite and profound scholar," the Reverend
Charles Morton. who was subsequently defended by his pupil, some
aspersions having been cast upon the character of the master by an
ungrateful scholar who had deserted to the Church. De Foe writes,
" I must do that learned gentleman's memory the justice to affirm,
that neither in his system of politics, government, and discipline,
nor in any other of the exercises of that school, was there anything
taught or encouraged that was antimonarchical or destructive to the
constitution of England."
Of De Foe's progress under Mr. Morton, it is impossible now to
speak with any certainty. lie tells us in one of his "Reviews" that
lie had been master of five languages, and that he had studied the
mathematics, natural philosophy, logic, geography, and history; he
was one of the few who, in those days, studied politics as a science.
lie went through a complete course of theology, and his knowledge
of ecclesiatical history was also considerable. IIe was, however,
attacked by party malice as an illiterate person, without education."

* It is not often," says De Foe, in his Review, vi. 341, "that I trouble you with any
of my divinity; the pulpit is none of my office. It was my disaster first tW be set apart
for, and then to be set apart from, the honor of that sacred employ."









MEMOIR OF DE FOE.


To this he calmly makes answer: Those gentlemen who reproach
my learning to applaud their own, shall have it proved that I have
more learning than either of them-because I have more manners."
He adds, "I think I owe this justice to my excellent father, still
living (1705), and in whose behalf I fully testify,.that if I am a
blockhead, it is nobody's fault but my own." He proceeds to chal-
lenge his slanderer "to translate with me any Latin, French, and
Italian author, and after that to retranslate them crossways, for
twenty pounds each book; and by this he shall have an opportunity
to show the world how much De Foe, the hosier, is inferior in
learning to Mr. Tutchin, the gentleman."
At one-and-twenty, De Foe commenced the perilous trade most
perilous in his day-of author; at the which he labored through
good and through evil report, with lasting honor to himself, and
enduring benefit to mankind, for half a century. It is now ascer-
tained that De Foe's first publication was a lampooning answer to
" L'Estrange's Guide to the Inferior Clergy," and bore the following
quaint title: Speculum Crape-Gownorum; or, a Looking-Glass
for the Young Academicks new Foyl'd; with Reflections on some of
the late High Flown Sermons: to which is added, an Essay towards
a Sermon of the Newest Fashion. By a Guide to the Inferiour
Clergie. Ridentem dicere Verum Quis Vetat. London: printed
for E. Rydal. 1682." This title De Foe borrowed from the crape
gowns then usually worn by the inferior clergy; and in the book, he
fights the fight of the Dissenters against what he terms the libels of
the established clergy. "The fertility of the subject," says Mr.
Wilson, "soon produced a second part of the 'Speculum;' in
which the author deals more seriously with the government, and by
a practical view of the effect of persecution, exposed its absurdity."
We have entered more at length into the nature and purpose of
De Foe's first book, than will be permitted to us by our limits to do
with each of the works that now followed, in rapid profusion, from
the pen of our author. All that we purpose to ourselves is, to give
the strongest outlines of his character, the principal events of his
career.; and, avoiding on one hand a jejune brevity, that confines
itself to mere dates, attempt not, on the other side, a minute descrip-
tion of events incompatible with our present object.
When the Duke of Monmouth landed at Lyme, De Foe was among
those who joined the standard of the hapless nobleman. "A roman-
tia kind of invasion," says Welwood, "and scarcely paralleled in









fMEMOIE OF DE FOE.


history." At the age of four-and-twenty, we see De Foe, the author
of Robinson Crusoe," a soldier; as ready with his sword as prompt
with his pen, in the cause of rational liberty. Of Monmouth, De
Foe seems to have had some previous knowledge, having often seen
him at Aylesbury races, where the duke rode his own horses-a cir-
cumstance alluded to by our author in his "Tour." De Foe had
the good fortune to escape the vengeance visited upon so many of
the duke's supporters, and returned in safety to London; where,
leaving the stormy region of politics, he now directed his attention
to trade. The nature of his business has been variously represented.
In several publications of the time, he is styled a hosierr; but, if
we may believe his own account, he was a hose-factor, or the mid-
dle-man between the manufacturer and the retail dealer. This
agency concern he carried on for some years, in Freeman's Court,
Cornhill; Mr. Chalmers says, from 1685 to 1695. On the 26th of
January, 1687-8, having claimed his freedom by birth, he was
admitted a liveryman of London. In the Chamberlain's book, his
name was written Daniel Foe."
When the Revolution took place, De Foe was a resident in Toot-
ing, in Surrey, where he was the first person who attempted to form
the Dissenters in the neighborhood into a regular congregation. De
Foe was for many years a resident in this part of Surrey; it is likely
that he had a country-house there during the time that he carried on
his hose agency in Cornhill. De Foe was one of the most ardent
worshippers of the Revolution: he annually commemorated the 4th
of November as a day of deliverance. A day," says he, "famous
on various accounts, and every one of them dear to Britons who
love their country, value the Protestant interest, or have an aversion
to tyranny and oppression. On this day, he (King William) was
born; on this day, he married the daughter of England; and on
this day, he rescued the nation from a bondage worse than that of
Egypt; a bondage of soul, as well as bodily servitude; a slavery to
the ambition and raging lust of a generation set on fire by pride,
avarice, cruelty, and blood." In order to do honor to the king, and
add to the splendor of the procession, on the royal visit to Guildhall,
many of the citizens volunteered to attend William as a guard of
honor on the occasion. Among these was Daniel De Foe.
The commercial speculations of our author, though at the first
prosperous, were ultimately unsuccessful. That they were of a
various character, is evident from the fact of his having engaged









MFMOIR OF DE FOE.


with partners in the Spanish and Portuguese trade. It is very clear,
from a passage in his "Review," that he had been a merchant-
adventurer. In the number for January 27, 1711, he alludes to an
old Spanish proverb, "which," says he, "I learnt when I was in
that country." It further appears, that while residing there, he
made himself a master of the language. De Foe's losses by ship-
wreck appear to have been Very considerable. The occupations of
trade, however, according to De Foe's own confession, assort ill
with literary feelings. "A wit turned tradesman he exclaims;
no apron-strings will hold him: 'tis in vain to lock him in behind the
counter; he's gone in a moment." He concludes, "A statute of
bankrupt is his Exeunt Omnes, and he generally speaks the epilogue
in the Fleet Prison or Mint."
In allusion to the misfortunes of our author, Mr. Chalmers
observes, "With the usual imprudence of genius, he was carried
into companies who were gratified by his wit. He spent those hours
with a small society for the cultivation of polite learning, which he
ought to have employed in the calculations of the counting-house;
and, being obliged to abscond from his creditors in 1692, he naturally
attributed those misfortunes to the war, which were probably owing
to his own misconduct. An angry creditor took out a commission
of bankruptcy, which was soon superseded, on the petition of those
to whom he was most indebted, who accepted a composition on his
single bond. This he. punctually paid by the efforts of unwearied
diligence; but some of these creditors, who had been thus satisfied,
falling afterwards into distress themselves, De Foe voluntarily paid
them their whole claim, being then in rising circumstances, in con-
sequence of King William's favor." De Foe, being subsequently
reproached by Lord Haversham for mercenary conduct, he tells
him, in 1705, that "with a numerous family, and no help but his
own industry, he had forced his way, with undiscouraged diligence,
through a set of misfortunes, and reduced his debts, exclusive of
composition, from seventeen thousand to less than five thousand
pounds."
It deserves to be remembered that, in the time of De Foe, our
laws against bankrupts were as inhuman as they were foolish.
" The cruelty of our laws against debtors," says De Foe, "without
distinction of honest or dishonest, is the shame of our nation. I am
persuaded, the honestest man in England, when by necessity he is
compelled to break, will early fly out of the kingdom rather than









MEMOIR OF DE FOE.


submit. To stay here, this is the consequence: as soon as he
breaks, he is proscribed as a criminal, and has thirty to sixty days
to surrender both himself and all that he has to his creditors. If he
fails to do it, he has nothing before him but the gallows, without
benefit of clergy; if he surrenders, he is not sure but he shall be
thrown into jail for life by the commissioners, only on pretence
that they doubt his oath What must the man do?" We have
reformed a great deal of this in our days, yet something remains
undone, for the bankrupt is still too much left at the mercy of the
malevolent or ignorant creditor.
It is certain that De Foe, whilst under apprehension from his
creditors, resided some time at Bristol. A friend of mine in that
city," says Mr. Wilson, "informs me that one of his ancestors
remembered De Foe, and sometimes saw him walking in the streets
of Bristol, accoutred in the fashion of the times, with a fine flowing
wig, lace ruffles, and a sword by his side; also, that he there
obtained the name of 'the Sunday gentleman,' because, through
fear of the bailiffs, he did not dare to appear in public upon any
other day." De Foe was wont to visit The Red Lion," kept by
one Mark Watkins, who, in after times, used to entertain his com-
pany with an account of a singular personage, who made his appear-
ance in Bristol, clothed in goat-skins, in which dress he was in the
habit of walking the streets, and went by the name of Alexander
Selkirk, or Robinson Crusoe I It was during this retreat from Lon-
don that De Foe wrote his celebrated Essay upon Projects,"
though he did not publish it until nearly five years afterwards.
It appears that at this time De Foe was invited, by some mer-
chants of his acquaintance residing in Cadiz, to settle in Spain, with
the offer of a good commission: "but," says our author, Provi-
dence, which had other work for me to do, placed a secret aversion
in my mind to quitting England upon any account, and made me
refuse the best offer of that kind, to be concerned with some emi-
nent persons at home, in proposing ways and means to the govern-
ment for raising money to supply the occasion of the war, then
newly begun." De Foe suggested a general assessment of personal
property, the amount to be settled by composition, under the inspec-
tion of commissioners appointed by the king. It was, doubtless,
owing to these services, that De Foe was appointed to the office of
accountant to the commissioners of the glass duty, in 1695: the com-
mission ceased in 1699. It was probably about this time that De









MEMOIR OF DE FOE.


Foe became secretary to the tile-kiln and brick-kiln works at Til-
bury, in Essex. Pantiles had been hitherto a Dutch manufacture,
and were brought in large quantities to England. To supersede the
necessity of their importation, these works were erected. The
speculation proved unsuccessful, De Foe himself losing by its failure
no less than three thousand pounds. He continued the works, it is
believed, until the year 1703, when, being deprived of his liberty for
a libel, the undertaking came to an end.
Towards the close of the war in 1696-7, De Foe gave to the world
his Essay upon Projects;" a work alike admirable for the novelty
of the subject, and the clearness and ingenuity with which it is treated.
The projects of our author may be classed under the heads of poli-
tics, commerce, and benevolence; all having some reference to the
public improvement. The first relates to banks in general, and to
the royal or national bank in particular, which he wishes to be ren-
dered subservient to the relief of the merchant, and the interests of
commerce, as well as to the purposes of the state; his next project
relates to highways ; a third, to the improvement of the bankrupt
laws; a fourth, to the plan of friendly societies, formed by mutual
assurance, for the relief of the members in seasons of distress; a
fifth, for the establishment of an asylum for fools," or, more prop-
erly, "naturals," whom he describes as "a particular rent-charge
on the great family of mankind;" he next suggests the formation of
academies, to supply some neglected branches of education; one of
these was for the improvement of the English tongue, "to polish
and refine it;" and this project combined a reformation of that
"foolish vice," swearing: the next project of our author was an
academy for military studies; and, under the head of "' Academies,"
he suggested an Institution for the education of females: "We
reproach the sex every day," says he, "with folly and impertinence,
while, I am confident, had they the advantages of education equal
to us, they would be guilty of less than ourselves."
In January, 1700-1, appeared De Foe's celebrated poem of The
True-Born Englishman." It was composed in answer to "a vile,
abhorred pamphlet, in very ill verse, written by one Mr. Tutchin,
and called 'The Foreigners,' in which the author who he then was
I knew not," says De Foe fell personally upon the king and the
Dutch nation." How many thousands familiar with the following
now proverbial lines, know not that with them opens "The True-
Born Englishman "-
1*










MEMOIR OF DE FOE.


"Wherever God erects a house of prayer,
The devil always builds a chapel there;
And 'twill be found, upon examination,
The latter has the largest congregation I"

De Foe traces the rise of our ancient families to the Norman
invader, who cantoned out the country to his followers, and "every
soldier was a denizen." The folly of indulging this pride of ancestry
is finely painted in the following lines : -

These are the heroes who despise the Dutch,
And rail at new-come foreigners so much;
Forgetting that themselves are all derived
From the most scoundrel race that ever lived.
A horrid crowd of rambling thieves and drones,
Who ransacked kingdoms and dispeopled towns;
The Pict and painted Briton, treaeh'rous Scot,
By hunger, theft, and rapine hither brought;
Norwegian pirates, buccaneering Danes,
Whose. red-haired offspring everywhere remains;
'Who, joined with Norman-French, compound the breed
From whence your True-Born Englishmen proceed.
And lest by length of time it be pretended
The climate may the modern race have mended,
Wise Providence, to keep us where we are,
Mixes us daily with exceeding care."

De Foe concludes with the following striking lines :-

Could but our ancestors retrieve their fate,
And see their offspring thus degenerate:
How we contend for birth and names unknown;
And build on their past actions, not our own;
They'd cancel records, and their tombs deface,
And then disown the vile degenerate race;
For fame of families is all a cheat;
'TIS PERSONAL VIRTUE ONLY MAKES US GREAT."

"When I see the town full of lampoons and invectives against
Dutchmen," says De Foe, in his "Explanatory Preface," "only
because they are foreigners, and the king reproached and insulted
by insolent pedants and ballad-making poets for employing foreign-
ers, and being a foreigner himself, I confess myself moved by it to
remind our nation of their own original, thereby to let them see what
a banter they put upon themselves; since, speaking of Englishmen
ab origine, we are really all foreigners ourselves."
It is to this poem that De Toe was indebted for a personal intro-








MEMOIR OF DE TOE.


duction to King William. He was sent for to the palace by his
Majesty, conversed with him, and had repeated interviews with hirt
afterwards. The manners and sentiments of De Foe appeared to
have made such a favorable impression on the king, that he ever
after regarded him with kindness; and conceiving that his talents
might be turned to a beneficial account, he employed him in many
secret services, to which he alludes occasionally in his writings.
The effect produced upon the country by the satire was most bene-
ficial. De Foe himself, nearly thirty years afterwards, writes,
"National mistakes, vulgar errors, and even a general practice,
have been reformed by a just satire. None of our countrymen have
been known to boast of being True-Born Englishmen, or so much as
use the word as a title or appellation, ever since a late satire upon
that national folly was published, though almost thirty years
before."
In 1700-1, on the meeting of the fifth parliament of King William,
we find De Foe strenuously engaged advocating the necessity of set-
tling the succession in the Protestant line; an important object with
William, as the only means of perpetuating the benefits which the
nation had reaped from the Revolution. To this great end De Foe
devoted all his energies, laboring with unwearied zeal in the cause.
His conduct on the imprisonment of the Kentish gentlemen, whose
names are historically associated with the presentation of the famous
Kentish petition, was marked with all the intrepidity of his character.
The Commons had imprisoned the petitioners, who prayed the house
for the settlement of the Protestant succession, for having presented
a petition "scandalous, insolent, and seditious." On this, De Foe
drew up his celebrated "Legion Paper." In what manner it was
communicated to the house does not appear upon the journals. It
was reported at the time that De Foe, disguised as a woman, pre-
sented it to the Speaker as he entered the House of Commons. The
" Legion petition rang like a tocsin throughout the kingdom. As,
however, the author remained concealed, the Commons did not
think fit to pass any particular censure upon it. The Kentish peti-
tioners were discharged by the prorogation of parliament on the 24th
of June: they were subsequently feasted at Mercers' Hall, where De
Foe attended. "Next the Worthis," says a pamphlet of the time,
"was placed their secretary of state, the author of the 'Legion
Paper;' and one might have read the downfal of parliaments in his
very countenance."









MEMOIM OF DE FOE.


By the death of King William, "more mortally wounded," says
De Foe, with the pointed rage of parties, and an ungrateful people,
than by the fall from his horse," our author lost a kind friend and
powerful protector. Towards the latter part of this reign, De Foe
took up his abode At Hackney, and resided there many years. Here
some of his children were born and buried. In the parish register is
the following entry: Sophia, daughter to Daniel De Foe, by Mary
his wife, was baptized, December 24, 1701."
The next important work of De Foe- a work that exercised the
greatest influence on his fortunes was the Shortest Way with the
Dissenters; or, Proposals for the Establishment of the Church;
1702." In this work, the author, assuming the character of an Ultra
High Churchman, advocates the adoption of the severest measures
against the Dissenters. "'Tis vain," writes De Foe, "to trifle in
this matter. The light, foolish handling of them by fines, is their
glory and advantage. If the gallows instead of the computer, and the
galleys instead of the fines, were the reward of going to a conven-
ticle, there would not be so many sufferers." These arguments
found high favor with both the Universities. The High Church Party
never suspected the sincerity of their partisan, and charmed and won
by the fierce doctrines of their champion, were unsuspicious of the
satire of their extravagance. It was, however, De Foe's hard fate
to be misunderstood by both parties. Whilst the High Churchmen
congratulated themselves on the addition of another advocate, the
Dissenters treated him as a real enemy. The Church party, how-
ever, fell into the trap laid for them by De Foe; for, by expressing
their delight at the fiery sentiments of the author, they avowed them
as their own true feelings on the question. De Foe subsequently
taunts the party thus: "We have innumerable testimonies," he
says, with which that party embraced the proposal of sending all
the Dissenting ministers to the gallows and the galleys; of having all
their meeting-houses demolished; and being let loose upon the peo-
ple to plunder and destroy them." In another place, De Foe charac-
teristically portrays the common fate of the subtlety of wit, when
judged by the multitude. He says, "All the fault I can find with
myself as to these people (the Dissenters) is, that when I had drawn
the picture, I did not, like the Dutchman with his man and bear,
write under them, This is the man,' and This is the bear,' lest the
people should mistake me; and having in a compliment to their
judgment shunned so sharp a reflection upon- their senses, I have









MEMOIR OF DE FOE.


left them at liberty to treat me like one that put a value upon their
penetration at the expense of my own." The first detection of our
author is said to have been owing to the industry of the Earl of Not-
tingham, one of the secretaries of state. When the author's name
was known, people were at no loss to decipher his object; and those
who had committed themselves by launching forth in his praises
were stung with madness at their own folly. It was at once resolved
by the party in power to crush De Foe by a state prosecution. In
the height of the storm, our author sought concealment; when a
proclamation was issued by the government, offering 50 for the
discovery of his retreat, and advertised in "The London Gazette,"
for January 10, 1702-3. It was as follows: -

Whereas, Daniel De Foe, alias De Fooe, is charged with writing
a scandalous and seditious pamphlet, entitled, The Shortest Way
with the Dissenters.' He is a middle-sized, spare man, about forty
years old; of a brown complexion, and dark brown colored hair, but
wears a wig; a hook nose, a sharp chin, gray eyes, and a large mole
near his mouth: was born in London, and for many years was a
hose-factor in Freeman's Yard, Cornhill: and now is owner of the
brick and pantile works, near Tilbury Fort, in Essex: whoever shall
discover the said Daniel De Foe to one of her Majesty's principal
secretaries of state, or any of her Majesty's justices of peace, so he
may be apprehended, shall have a reward of 50, which her Majesty
has ordered immediately to be paid upon such discovery."

In the House of Commons, it was resolved that the book "be
burnt by the hands of the common hangman in Palace Yard." The
printer of the work and the bookseller being taken into custody, De
Foe issued forth from his retirement, to brave the storm, resolving,
as he expresses it, "to throw himself upon the favor of government,
rather than that others should be ruined by his mistake." De Foe
was indicted at the Old Bailey sessions, the 24th of February, 1703,
and proceeded to trial in the following July. It may be gathered
from his own account of the prosecution, that when his enemies had
him in their power, they were at a loss to know what to do with him.
He was therefore advised to throw himself on the mercy of the
queen, with a promise of protection; which induced him to quit his
defence, and acknowledge himself as the author of the offensive
work. On this, De Foe was sentenced to pay a fine of 200 marks to









MEMOIR OF DE FOE.


the queen; to stand three times in the pillory; to be imprisoned dur.
ing the queen's pleasure, and to find sureties for his good behavior
for seven years.
The people, however, were with De Foe. Hence, he was guarded
to the pillory by the populace; and descended from it with the tri-
umphant acclamations of the surrounding multitude. De Foe has
himself related, that the people, who were expected to treat him
very ill, on the contrary pitied him, and wished those who set him
there were placed in his room, and expressed their affections by loud
shouts and acclamations when he was taken down." Tradition
reports that the pillory was adorned with garlands, it being in the
middle of summer. The odium intended for De Foe fell upon his
persecutors, and the pillory became to him a place of honor.
A triumphant evidence of the high spirit of De Foe a spirit ele-
vated and strengthened by its unconquerable love of truth- is mani-
fested by the fact, that on the very day of his exhibition to the peo-
ple, he published A Hymn to the Pillory!" This poem, which
successively passed through several editions, being eagerly bought
up by the people, opens nobly as follows :--

IIail! hieroglyphick state machine,
(ontrived to ip nisll fancy ill;
Mlen that are men in thee can feel no pain,
And all thy iniinig ticants, disdain.
(Contempttt, that false new word for shame,
Is. without crime, ani empty name;
A shadow to amuse mankind,
But lever fri-ihts tie wise or well-fixed mind;
Virtue despises hunian scorn,
And scandals innocence adorn."


De Foe is now presented to us, stripped of his fortunes, and a
prisoner. In consequence of his imprisonment, he could no longer
attend to his pantile works, which produced the chief source of his
revenue, and they were consequently given up. By this affair he
lost, as lie himself informs us, 3.500; and lie had now a wife and
six children dependent upon him, with no other resource for their
support than the product of his pen. Hence the leisure of De Foe,
whilst in Newgate, was not that of idleness or dissipation. Some of
his subsequent writhigs leave no doubt that he now stored his mind
with those facts relative to the habits and pursuits of the prisoners,
which he has detailed with so much nature as well as interest. A









MEMOIR OF DE FOE. 15

great part of his time was devoted to the composition of political
works which our limits will not permit us to dwell upon, It was
likewise whilst in Newgate that he projected his "Review," a peri-
odical work of four quarto pages, which was published for nine suc-
cessive years without intermission; during the greater part of the
time, three times a week, and without having received any assist-
ance whatever in its production. Throughout this work, he carried
on an unsparing warfare against folly and vice in all their disguises:
it pointed the way to the Tatlers," "Spectators," and "Guar-
dians," and may be referred to as containing a vast body of matter
on subjects of high interest, written with all the author's character-
istic spirit and vigor.
The Tories vainly endeavored to buy up De Foe: but Newgate
had no terrors of him, and he continued at once their prisoner and
their assailant. Upon the accession of Mr. Harley to office, his own
politics not being dissimilar to those of De Foe, the minister made a
private communication to our author, with the view of obtaining his
support. No immediate arrangement, however, took place between
them, as De Foe remained a prisoner some months afterwards. Not-
withstanding, it is most likely that the queen became acquainted with
De Foe's real merits through the medium of the minister, and was
made conscious of the injustice of our author's sufferings, which she
now appeared desirous to mitigate. For this purpose, she sent
money to his wife and family, at the same time transmitting to him a
sufficient sum for the payment of his fine, and the expenses attend-
ing his discharge from prison.
On his release from prison, De Foe retired to Bury St. Edmunds.
Party clamor, and party malice, however, pursued him there. On
the miserable libels issued at this time against him, he says, "I tried
retirement, and banished myself from the town. I thought, as the
boys used to say, 'twas but fair they should let me alone, while I did
not meddle with them. But neither a country recess, any more than
a stone doublet, can secure a man from the clamor of the pen." In
his elegy on the author of The True-Born Englishman," he alludes
to the report that the Tories had exerted themselves in his favor.
He says, in answer, -

So 1, by Whigs abandoned, bear
The Satyr's unjust lash;
Die with the scandal of their help,
But never saw their cash."


-j~3r~ -- --r~~--~ccrrep









MEMOIR OF DE FOE.


It appears that in 1705 De Foe was employed by Harley to execute
some mission of a secret nature, which required his presence upon
the continent. The mission, whatever it was, appears to have been
attended with some danger, and to have required his absence for
about two months. Harley seems to have been so well satisfied,
that upon De Foe's return, he was rewarded with an appointment at
home. In 1706, De Foe wrote voluminously on the subject of the
union with Scotland, which measure he advocated with all the
strength of his powers. This advocacy obtained for him a confiden-
tial mission to Scotland, where he was received with great consider-
ation. While in Edinburgh, he published his "Caledonia," &c., a poem
in honor of Scotland and the Scots nation. Of the union, he says in
his "Review," "I have told Scotland of improvement in trade,
wealth, and shipping, that shall accrue to them on the happy conclu-
sion of this affair; and I am pleased doubly with this, that I am
likely to be one of the first men that shall give them the pleasure of
the experiment." In 1708, De Foe was rewarded with an appoint-
ment and a fixed salary. When the union was completed, he pub-
lished "The Union of Great Britain." In 1710, De Foe resided at
Stoke-Newington, and appears to have been comfortable in his cir-
cumstances. In 1712 was closed the last volume of the "Review."
In a long preface to this volume, De Foe has a most eloquent
defence of this work, and of the mode in which he had conducted it.
Nothing can be finer, more manly, or more conclusive. In allusion
to his sufferings during the progress of the work, he says, "I have
gone through a life of wonders, and am the subject of a vast variety
of providence ; I have been fed more by miracle than Elijah when
the ravens were his purveyors. I have some time ago summed up
my life in this distich: -
No man has tasted differing fortunes more,
And thirteen times I have been rich and poor.

In the school of affliction I have learnt more than at the academy,
and more divinity than from the pulpit; in prison, I have learnt to
know that liberty does not consist in open doors, and the free egress and
regress of locomotion. I have seen the rough side of the world as
well as the smooth, and have, in less than half a year, tasted the dif-
ference between the closet of a king and the dungeon of Newgate."
This preface may be considered as a review, a summing up of the
events of De Foe's political life, and as such is of the highest value










MEMOIR OF DE FOE.


for the noble spirit of conscious truth breathing in and animating
every line of it. As a piece of English, it is exquisite for its innate
strength -the beauty of its simplicity. De Foe, however, was again
doomed to taste the dungeon sweets of Newgate, being committed
there upon the foolish charge of writing libels in favor of the Pre-
tender.
After the death of Queen Anne, De Foe, who had been a political
writer for thirty years, retired from the thorny field to the more
pleasant paths of instructive fiction. Whilst writing An Appeal
to Honor and Justice," he was struck with apoplexy; he however
recovered, and in the early part of 1715, committed to the press one
of his most valuable treatises, "The Family Instructor." In 1719
appeared the immortal "Robinson Crusoe." Nearly the whole cir-
cle of booksellers had in vain been canvassed for a publisher. Wil-
liam Taylor, the fortunate speculator, is said to have cleared a
thousand pounds by the work, which rose into immediate popularity,
despite of the rancorous assaults of the petty, vulgar minds abound-
ing amongst De Foe's political enemies. There can be no doubt
that the idea of the work was first suggested to De Foe by the story
of Alexander Selkirk, which had been given to the public seven
years before. The enemies of De Foe charged him with having
obtained this man's journal, and from its contents producing "Rob-
inson Crusoe." The truth is, De Foe was as much indebted to
Selkirk for the materials used in his immortal work, as was Vandyke
for his portraits to the colorman who furnished him with pigments.
In a number of The Englishman," Sir Richard Steele gave the
true and particular history of Selkirk. The place in which "Robin-
son Crusoe was composed has been variously contested. It seems
most probable (says Mr. Wilson), that De Foe wrote it in his retire-
ment in Stoke-Newington, where he resided, during the principal
part of Queen Anne's reign, in a large white house, rebuilt by him-
self, and still standing in Church Street. The work has been printed
in almost every written language, has been the delight of men of
all creeds and all distinctions from the London apprentice in his
garret to the Arab in his tent.
Robinson Crusoe" was speedily followed by the '"Account of
Dickory Crooke," the "Life and Piracies of Captain Singleton," the
"History of Duncan Campbell," the "Fortunes and Misfortunes of
Moll Flanders," the Life of Colonel Jacque," the "Memoirs of a
Cavalier," and that extraordinary work, the Accountof the Plague."









MEMOIR OF DE FOE.


We might possibly have laid before the reader a correct list of the
multifarious productions of our author, many of them, until of late,
most difficult to be obtained, had not the spirit of the times called for
complete editions of De Foe's works, most welcome and valuable
offerings to the reading part of the nation.
The latter years of De Foe's life must have been those of compe-
tence, a most honorable competence, insured to him by his works,
and the rapidity with which editions followed editions. There is,
however, a too miserable proof of his sufferings, inflicted upon him
by the cruelty and undutifulness of his son, who, to quote a letter of
De Foe, written in his anguish, "has both ruined my family and
broken my heart." De Foe adds, "I depended upon him, I trusted
him, I gave up my two dear unprovided children into his hands; but
he has no compassion, and suffers them and their poor dying mother
to beg their bread at his door, and to crave, as if it were an alms,
what he is bound under hand and seal, besides the most sacred
promises, to supply them with; himself, at the same time, living in
a profusion of plenty. It is too much for me."
For some years before his death, De Foe was tormented with
those dreadful maladies, the gout and the stone, occasioned, in part,
most probably, by his close application to study, whilst making pos-
terity the heirs of undying wisdom. De Foe expired on the 24th of
April, 1731, when he was about seventy years of age, having been
born in the year 1661. The parish of St. Giles's, Cripplegate, in
which he drew his first breath, was also destined to receive his last.
He was buried from thence, on the 26th of April, in Tindall's burial-
ground, now most known by the name of Bunhill Fields. His wife
died at the latter end of the following year. De Foe left six chil-
dren, two sons and four daughters, whose descendants are living at
the present time.
The character of De Foe was but the practical example of his
noblest writings. As a citizen of the world, his love of truth, and
the patience, the cheerfulness, with which he endured the obloquy
and persecution of his enemies, endear him to us as a great working
benefactor to his race. His memory is enshrined with the memories
of those who make steadfast our faith in the nobility and goodness of
human nature. As a writer, De Foe has bequeathed to us imperish-
able stores of the highest and the most useful wisdom. If he paint
vice, it is to show its hideousness ; whilst virtue itself receives a new
attraction at his hands. His poetry is chiefly distinguished for its









MEMOIR OF DE FOE. 19

fine common sense; it has no flights--it never wraps us by its
imagination, but convinces us by its terseness; by the irresistible
eloquence of its truth. De Foe's prose, though occasionally care-
less, is remarkable for its simplicity and strength. What he has to
say, he says in the shortest manner, and in the simplest style. He
does not- the vice of our day -hide his thoughts under a glittering
mass of words, but uses words as the pictures of things. It is owing
to this happy faculty, this unforced power, that De Foe occasionally
rises, as in many instances in the golden volume now offered to the
reader, almost to the sublime. In his picture of the despair of
Crusoe, we have, in words intelligible even to infancy, a wondrous
delineation of the soul of man in a most trying and most terrible
hour. De Foe is, in the most emphatic sense of the word, an Eng-
lish writer. Cobbett has been compared to him; and in many of
the minor parts of authorship there is, certainly, a similitude; but
Cobbett was singularly deficient of imagination, the power which
gave a color and a beauty to all that De Foe touched, even though
of the homeliest and most unpromising materials.














LIFE AND ADVENTURES


OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.



I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of,a
good family, though not of that country, my father being
a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull: he got a
good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived
afterwards at York; from whence he had married my
mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very
good family in that country, and from whom I was called
Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of
words in England, we are now called nay, we call our-
selves, and write our name- Crusoe; and so my companions
always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-
colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly
commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was
killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards.
What became of my second brother I never knew, any
more than my father or mother did know what was become
of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any
trade, my head began to be filled very early with rambling
thoughts; my father, who was very ancient, had given me
a competent share of learning, as house-education
and a country free-school generate gned me for
"go' (21)








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to
sea; and my inclination to this led me so strongly against
the will, nay, the commands of my father, and against all
the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other
friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that
propensity of nature, tending directly to the life of misery
which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and
excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design.
He called me one morning into his chamber, where he was
confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with
me upon this subject: he asked me what reasons, more
than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving my
father's house and my native country, where I might be
well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune
by application and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure.
He told me it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand,
or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the other, who went
abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make
themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the
common road; and these things were all either too far
above me, or too far below me; that mine was the middle
state, or what might be called the upper station of low life,
which he had found, by long experience, was the best state
in the world, the most suited to human happiness, not ex-
posed to the miseries and hardships, the labor and suffer-
ings of the mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed
with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper
part of mankind. He told me I might judge of the hap-
piness of this state by this one thing, viz., that this was the
state of life which all other people envied; that kings have
freqeoly v lamented the miserable consequence of being
born to great things, and wished they had been placed in
the middle of the two extremes, between the mean and
the great; that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


the standard of felicity, when he prayed to have neither
poverty nor riches.
He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower
part of mankind; but that the middle station had the fewest
disasters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as
the higher or lower part of mankind; nay, they were not
subjected to so many distempers, and uneasiness, either of
body or mind, as those were who, by vicious living, luxury,
and extravagances on one hand, or by hard labor, want of
necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet on the other hand,
bring distempers upon themselves by the natural conse-
quences of their way of living; that the middle station of
life was calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind of
enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the handmaids of
a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness,
health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all desirable
pleasures, were the blessings attending the middle station
of life; that this way men went silently and smoothly
through the world, and comfortably but of it, not em-
barrassed with the labors of the hands or of the head, not
sold to a life of slavery for daily bread, nor harassed with
perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace, and
the body of rest; nor enraged with the passion of envy, or
the secret burning lust of ambition for great things; but,
in easy circumstances, sliding gently through the world,
and sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without the bit-
ter; feeling that they are happy, and learning by every
day's experience to know it more sensibly.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most
affectionate manner, not to play the young man, nor to pre-
cipitate myself into miseries which nature, and the station
of life I was born in, seemed to have provided against;
that I was under no necessity of seeking my bread; that
he would do well for me, and endeavor to enter me fairly








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


into the station of life which he had just been recommend-
ing to me; and that if I was not very easy and happy in
the world, it must be my mere fate or fault that must
hinder it ; and that he should have nothing to answer for,
having thus discharged his duty in warning me against
measures which he knew would be to my hurt; in a word,
that as he would do very kind things for me if I would stay
and settle at home as he directed, so lie would not have so
much hand in my misfortunes, as to give me any encourage-
ment to go away; and to close all, he told me I had my
elder brother for an example, to whom he had used the
same earnest persuasions to keep him from going into the
Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young desires
prompting him to run into the army, where he was killed;
and though he said he would not cease to pray for me, yet
he would venture to say to me, that if I did take this fool-
ish step God would not bless me, and I should have leisure
hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when
there might be none to assist in my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was
truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know
it to be so himself; I say, I observed the tears run down
his face very plentifully, especially when lie spoke of my
brother who was killed; and that when lie spoke of my
having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so
moved that hle broke off the discourse, and told me his
heart was so full he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed
who could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of
going abroad vuy more, but to settle at home according to
my father's desire. But alas a few days wore it all off;
and, in short, to prevent any of my father's further impor-
tunities, in a few weeks after, I resolved to run quite away
from him. However, I did not act quite so hastily as the
first heat of my resolution prompted, but I took my mother








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


at a time when I thought her a little more pleasant than
ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely
bent upon seeing the world, that I should never settle to
anything with resolution enough to go through with it, and
my father had better give me his consent than force me to
go without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which
was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an
attorney; that I was sure if I did I should never serve out
my time, but I should certainly run away from my master
before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she would
speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I
came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more;
and I would promise, by a double diligence, to recover the
time that I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion; she told me
she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father
upon any such subject; that he knew too well what was
my interest to give his consent to anything so much for my
hurt; and that she wondered how I could think of any
such thing after the discourse I had had with my father,
and such kind and tender expressions as she knew my
father had used to me; and that, in short, if I would ruin
myself, there was no help for me; but I might depend I
should never have their consent to it; that for her part,
she would not have so much hand in my destruction; and I
should/never have it to say that my mother was willing
when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to name it to my-father, yet
I heard afterwards that she reported all the discourse to
him, and that my father, after showing a great concern at it,
said to her, with a sigh, That boy might be happy if he
would stay at home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the
most miserable wretch that ever was born: I can give no
consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


though, in the mean time, I continued obstinately deaf to
all proposals of settling to business, and frequently expos-
tulated with my father and mother about their being so
positively determined against what they knew my inclina-
tions prompted me to. But being one day at Hull, whither
I went casually, and without any purpose of making an
elopement at that time; but, I say, being there, and one
of my companions being going by sea to London in his
father's ship, and prompting me to go with them, with the
common allurement of a seafaring man, that it should cost
me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father nor
mother any more, nor so much as sent them word of it;
but leaving them to hear of it as they might, without ask-
ing God's blessing or my father's, without any consideration
of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God
knows, on the 1st of September, 1651, I went on board a
ship bound for London. Never any young adventurer's
misfortunes, I believe, began sooner or continued longer
than mine. The ship was no sooner got out of the Hum-
ber, than the wind began to blow and the sea to rise in a
most frightful manner; and, as I had never been at sea be-
fore, I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in
mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon what I had
done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of
Heaven for my wicked leaving my father's house, and aban-
doning my duty. All the good counsels of my parents, my
father's tears and my mother's entreaties, came now fresh
into my mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come
to the pitch of hardness to which it has come since, re-
proached me with the contempt of advice, and the breach
of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very
high, though nothing like what I have seen many times
since; no, nor what I saw a few days after; but it was
enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor, and








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


had never known anything of the matter. I expected every
wave would have swallowed us up, and that every time the
ship fell down, as I thought it did, in the trough or hollow
of the sea, we should never rise more: in this agony of
mind, I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would
please God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I
got once my foot upon dry land again, I would go directly
home to my father, and never set it into a ship again while
I lived; that I would take his advice, and never run myself
into such miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly
the goodness of his observations about the middle station
of life, how easy, how comfortably he had lived all his
days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea, or
troubles on shore; and, in short, I resolved that I would,
like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while
the storm lasted, and indeed some time after; but the next
day the wind was abated, and the sea calmer, and I began
to be a little inured to it; however, I was very grave for
all that day, being also a little sea-sick still; but towards
night the weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and
a charming fine evening followed; the sun went down per-
fectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and having
little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it,
the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever I
saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-
sick, but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the
sea that was so rough and terrible the day before, and could
be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time after. And
now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my com-
panion, who had enticed me away, comes to me: "Well,
Bob," says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, how do
you do after it? I warrant you were frighted, wer'n't you,
last night, when it blew but a capful of wind?" "A capful








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


d'you call it?" said I; 'twas a terrible storm." "A
storm, you fool you," replies he; do you call that a
storm? why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship
and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall of
wind as that; but you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob.
Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all
that ; d'ye see what charming weather 'tis now? To
make short this sad part of my story, we went the way of
all sailors; the punch was made, and I was made half
drunk with it; and in that one night's wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past
conduct, all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as
the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface and settled
calnuess by the abatement of that storm, so the hurry of
my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of
being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the cur-
rent of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the
vows and promises that I made in my distress. I found,
indeed, some intervals of reflection; and the serious
thoughts did, as it were, endeavor to return again some-
times ; but I shook them off, and roused myself from them
as it were fronm a distemper, and .il.., ;_ myself to drink-
ing and company, soon mastered the return of those fits-
for so 1 called them ; and I had in live or six days got as
complete a victory over my conscience as any young fellow
that resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. But I
was to have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in
such cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely
without excuse ; for if I would not take this for a deliver-
ance, the next was to be such a one as the worst and most
halrened wretch among us would confess both the danger
and the Iimcarc of.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yar-
mouth Roads; the wind having been contrary, and the
weather calm, we had made but little way since the storm.








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay,
the wind continuing contrary, viz., at south-west, for seven
or eight days, during which time a great many ships from
Newcastle came into the same roads, as the common harbor
where the ships might wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should
have tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh,
and after we had lain four or five days, blew very hard.
However, the roads being reckoned as good as a harbor,
the anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our
men were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive
of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the
manner of the sea ; but the eighth day, in the morning, the
wind increased, and we had all hands at work to strike opr
top-masts, and make everything snug and close, that the
ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon the sea went
very high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped
several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor had
come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-
anchor, so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the
cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I
began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the
seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant in the
business of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out
of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say,
several times, Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all
lost; we shall be all undone!" and the like. During
these first hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin,
which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper:
I could ill resume the first penitence which I had so ap-
parently trampled upon, and hardened myself against: I
thought the bitterness of death had been past, and that this
would be nothing like the first; but when the master himself
came by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my cabin,
and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw: the
sea ran mountains high, and broke upon us every three or
four minutes; when I could look about, I could see nothing
but distress round us; two ships that rode near us, we found,
had cut their masts by the board, being deep laden ; and our
men cried out, that a ship which rode about a mile ahead of
us was foundered. Two more ships, being driven from their
anchors, were run out of the roads to sea, at all adventures,
and that not with a mast standing. The light ships fared
the best, as not so much laboring in the sea; but two or
three of them drove, and came close by us, running away
with only their spritsail out before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the mas-
ter of our ship to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he
was very unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to
him, that if he did not, the ship would founder, he consented;
and when they had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast
stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged
to cut that away also, and make a clear deck.
And one must judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such
a fright before at but a little. But if I can express at this
distance the thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in
tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former con-
victions, and the having returned from them to the resolu-
tions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death it-
self! and these, added to the terror of the storm, put me into
such a condition, that I can by no words describe it. But
the worst was not come yet; the. storm continued with such
fury, that the seamen themselves acknowledged they had
never seen a worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep
laden, and wallowed in the sea, so that the seamen every
now and then cried out she would founder. It was my ad-
vantage in one respect that I did not know what they meant








ROBINSON CRUSOE. 31

by founder, till I inquired. However the storm was so vi-
olent, that I saw, what is not often seen, the master, the
boatswain, and some others more sensible than the rest, at
their prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship
would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and
under all the rest of our distresses, one of the men that had
been down to see, cried out we had sprung a leak; another
said, there was four feet water in the hold. Then all
hands were called to the pump. At that word, my heart, as
I thought, died within me; and I fell backwards upon the
side of my bed where I sat, into the cabin. However, the
men roused me, and told me, that I, that was able to do
nothing before, was as well able to pump as another; at
which I stirred up, and went to the pump, and worked very
heartily. While this was doing, the master, seeing some
light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were
obliged to slip, and run away to the sea, and would come
near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I,
who knew nothing what they meant, thought the ship had
broken, or some dreadful thing happened. In a word, I
was so surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As this was
a time when everybody had his own life to think of, nobody
minded me, or what was become of me; but another man
stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his
S foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead ; and it was a great
while before I came to myself.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder; and though .the
storm began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she
could swim till we might run into any port, so the master
continued firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had
rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us.
It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near us; but
it was impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to
lie near the ship's side, till at last the men rowing very








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men
cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and then
veered it out a great length, which they, after much labor
and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under
our stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose
for them or us, after we were in the boat, to think of reach-
ing to their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and
only to pull her in towards shore as much as we could; and
our master promised them, that if the boat was staved upon
shore, he would make it good to their master; so partly
rowing, and partly driving, our boat went away to the
northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far as Win-
terton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out
of our ship till we saw her sink, and then I understood for
the first time what was meant by a ship foundering in the
sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up
when the seamen told me she was sinking; for from the
moment that they rather put me into the boat, than that I
might be said to go in, my heart was, as it were, dead with-
in me, partly with fright, partly with horror of mind, and
the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring
at the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see
(when, our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see
the shore) a great many people running along the strand, to
assist us when we should come near; but we made but slow
way towards the shore ; nor were we able to reach the shore,
till, being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls
off to the westward towards Cromer, and so the land broke
off a little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and,
though not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore,
and walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as un-
fortunate men, we were used with great humanity, as well
by the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good quar-








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


ters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships, and
had money given us sufficient to carry us either to London
or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, I had been happy, and my father, as in our
blessed Saviour's parable, had even killed the fatted calf for
me; for hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in
Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any
assurances that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud
calls from my reason, and my more composed judgment, to
go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know not what to
call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree,
that hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruc-
tion, even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it
with our eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such de-
creed unavoidable misery, which it was impossible for me to
escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm rea-
sonings and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and
against two such visible instructions as I had met with in my
first attempt.
3My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and
who w~a the master's son, was now less forward than I.
SThe first time lie spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth,
which was not till two or three days, for we were separated
in the town to several quarters; I say, the first time he saw
me, it appeared his tone was altered; and looking very mel-
ancholy, and shaking his head, he asked me how I did, and
tAlling his father who I was, and how I had come this
voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther abroad: his
father, turning to me with a very grave and concerned tone,
i Young man," says he, you ought never to g, t, nuy
more; you ought to take this for a plain and \ijAllk>n-u
tt you are not to be a seafaring man." ) aaid
2* C









ROBINSON CRUSOE.


I, will you go to sea no more! That is another case,"
said he ; it is my calling, and therefore my duty ; but as
you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste
Heaven has given you of what you are to expect if you
persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your account,
like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray," continues he,
"' what are you? and on what account did you go to sea?"
Upon that I told him some of my story ; at the end of which
he burst out into a strange kind of passion: What had I
done," says he, that such an unhappy wretch should come
into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same ship
with thee again for a thousand pounds." This indeed was,
as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agi-
tated by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could
have authority to go. However, he afterwards talked very
gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and
not tempt Providence to my ruin, telling me I might see a
visible hand of Heaven against me. "And, young man,"
said he, depend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever
you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and disap-
pointments, till your father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and
I saw him no more; which way he went I knew not. As
for me, having some money in my pocket, I travelled to
London by land; and there, as well as on the road, had
many struggles with myself, what course of life I should
take, and whether I should go home or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that
offered to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me
how I should be laughed at among the neighbors, and
should be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only,
but even everybody else; from whence I have since often
observed, how incongruous and irrational the common tem-
per of mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason which
ought to guide them in such cases, viz., that they are not









ROBINSON CRUSOE.


ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not ashamed
of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed
fools, but are ashamed of the returning, which only can
make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remaineA-ome time, un-
certain what measures to take, and what course of life to
lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to going home;
and as I staid a while, the remembrance of the distress I
had been in wore off; and as that abated, the little motion
I had in my desires to return wore off with it, till at last I
quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a
voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my
father's house, which hurried me into the wild and indi-
gested notion of raising my fortune, and that- impressed
those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to
all good advice, and to the entreaties and even the com-
mands of my father, I say, the same influence, whatever
it was, presented the most unfortunate of all enterprises to
my view; and I went on board a vessel bound to the
coast of Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly called it, a voyage
to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures
I did not ship myself as a sailor; when, though I might
indeed have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at the
same time I should have learned the duty and office of a fore-
mast man, and in time might have qualified myself for a
mate or lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it was
always my fate to choose for the worse, so I did here; for
having money in my pocket, and good clothes upon my back,
I would always go on board in the habit of a gentleman;
and so I neither had any business in the ship, nor learned to
do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company
in London, which does not always happen to such loose and









ROBINSON CRUSOE.


misguided young fellows as I then was; the devil generally
not omitting to lay some snare for them very early; but it
was not so with me. I first got acquainted with the master
of a ship who had been on the coast of Guinea, and who,
having had very good success there, was resolved to go again.
This captain, taking a fancy to my conversation, which was
not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I had a
mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage with
him I should be at no expense; I should be his messmate
and his companion; and if I could carry anything with me,
I should have all the advantage of it that the trade would
admit; and perhaps I might meet with some encouragement.
I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship
with this captain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I
went the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure
with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend
the captain, I increased very considerably; for I carried
about 40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed
me to buy. These 40 I had mustered together by the as-
sistance of some of my relations whom I corresponded with;
and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to
contribute so much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful
in all my adventures, which I owe to the integrity and hon-
esty of my friend the captain; under whom also I got a
competent knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of
navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship's
course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand
some things that were needful to be understood by a sailor;
for, as he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn;
and, in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a
merchant; for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of
gold-dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London, at
my return, almost 300; and this filled me with those as-
piring thoughts which have since so completed my ruin.








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; par-
ticularly, that I was continually sick, being thrown into a
violent calenture by the excessive heat of the climate; our
principal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of
fifteen degrees north even to the line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to
my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved
to go the same voyage again, and I embarked in the same
vessel with one who was his mate in the former voyage, and
had now got the. command of the ship. This was the un-
happiest voyage that ever man made; for though I did not
carry quite 100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I had
200 left, which I had lodged with my friend's widow, who
was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes: the
first was this -our ship, making her course towards the
Canary Islands, or rather between those Islands and the
African shore, was surprised in the gray of the morning by
a Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the
sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvas as
our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to get clear;
but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly
come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight; our
ship having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About
three in the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing to,
by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our
stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear
on that side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which
made him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and
pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred men
which he had on board. However, we had not a man
touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared to at-
tack us again, and we to defend ourselves; but laying us
on board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered
sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting
and hacking the sails and rigging. We plied them with








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and
cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short
this melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled,
and three of our men killed, and eight wounded, we were
obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee,
a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I
apprehended; nor was I carried up the country to the
emperor's court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept
by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made
his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business.
At this surprising change of my circumstances, from a
merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly over-
whelmed; and now I looked back upon my father's pro-
phetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have
none to relieve me, which I thought was now so effectually
brought to pass, that I could not be worse; for now the
hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone
without redemption ; but, alas this was but a taste of the
misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of
this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes that he would take me with him
when he went to sea again, believing that it would some
time or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Por-
tugal man-of-war, and that then I should be set at liberty.
But this hope of mine was soon taken away; for when he
went to sea, lie left me on shore to look after his little
garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves about his
house; and when he came home again from his cruise, he
ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what
method I might take to effect it, but found no way that had
the least probability in it; nothing presented to make the
supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to communicate








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


it to that would embark with me-no fellow-slave, no
Englishman, Irishman, or Scotsman, there but myself; so
that for two years, though I often pleased myself with the
imagination, yet I never had the least encouraging prospect
of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented
itself, which put the old thought of making some attempt
for my liberty again in my head. My patron lying at home
longer than usual without fitting out his ship, which, as I
heard, was for want of money, he used, constantly, once or
twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair,
to take the ship's pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing;
and, as he always took me and young Maresco with him to
row the boat, we made him very merry, and I proved very
dexterous in catching fish; insomuch that sometimes he
would send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the
youth the Maresco, as they called him to catch a dish
of fish for him.
SIt happened one time, that going a-fishing in a calm
morning, a fog rose so thick that, though we were not half
a league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we
knew not whither or which way, we labored all day, and all
the next night; and when the morning came, we found we
had pulled off to sea instead of pulling in for the shore;
and that we were at least two leagues from the shore.
However, we got well in again, though with a great deal
of labor and some danger; for the wind began to blow
pretty fresh in the morning; but we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take
more care of himself for the future; and having lying by
him the long-boat of our English ship that le had taken, he
resolved he would not go a-fishinu aVay more without a
compass and some provision; so le 0%ertd the carpenter
of his ship, who also was an Engli-h sdve, to build a little
state-room, or cabin, in the middle of 1J long-boat, like








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer, and
haul home the main-sheet; and room before for a hand or two
to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what we call
a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom gibed over the top
of the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had in it
room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat
on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such
liquor as he thought fit to drink, and his bread, rice, and
colFee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and as
I was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went
without me. It happened that he had appointed to go out
in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three
M1oors of some distinction in that place, and for whom he
had provided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on
board the boat over-night a larger store of provisions than
ordinary; and had ordered me to get ready three fusees
with powder and shot, which were on board his ship,
for that they designed some sport of fowling as well as
fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited
the next morning with the boat washed clean, her ancient
and pendants out, and everything to accommodate his
guests; when by-and-by my patron came on board alone,
and told me his guests had put off going, from some busi-
ness that fell out, and ordered me, with the man and boy,
as usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some fish,
for that his friends were to sup at his house ; and command-
ed that as soon as I got some fish I should bring it home
to his house : all which I prepared to do.
This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted
into my thoughts, for now I found I was likely to have a
little ship at my command; and my master being gone, I
prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but for
a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so much as








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


consider, whither I should steer, anywhere to get out of
that place was my desire.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to
this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board;
for I told him we must not presume to eat of our patron's
bread. He said that was true; so he brought a large
basket of rusk or biscuit, and three jars of fresh water,
into the boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles
stood, which it was evident, by the make, were taken out
of some English prize, and I conveyed them into the boat
while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been there be-
fore for our master. I conveyed also a great lump of bees-
wax into the boat, which weighed above half a hundred
weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw,
and a hammer, all of which were of great use to us after-
wards, especially the wax to make candles. Another trick
I tried upon him, which he innocently came into also: his
name was Ismael, which they call Muley, or Moely; so I
called to him: Moely," said I, our patron's guns are on
board the boat; can you not get a little powder and shot?
It may be we may kill some alcamies (a fowl like our cur-
lews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner's stores
in the ship." "Yes," says he, I'll bring some;" and
accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held a
pound and a half of powder, or rather more; and another
with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some bullets,
and put all into the boat. At the same time, I had found
some powder of my master's in the great cabin, with which I
filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was almost
empty, pouring what was in it into another; and thus fur-
nished with everything needful, we sailed out of the port to
fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port,
knew who we were, and took no notice of us; and we were
not above a mile out of the port before we hauled in our
sail, and set us down to fish. The wind blew from the N. N.








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


E., which was contrary to my desire, for had it blown
southerly, I had been sure to have made the coast of Spain,
and at least reached to the Bay of Cadiz; but my resolu-
tions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from
that horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for
when I had fish on my hook I would not pull them up,
that he might not see them, I said to the Moor, This
will not do; our master will not be thus served; we must
stand farther off." He, thinking no harm, agreed, and
being in the head of the boat, set the sails; and, as I had
the helm, I run the boat out near a league farther, and then
brought her to as if I would fish; hen, giving the boy the
helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and
making as if I stooped for something behind him, I took
him by surprise with my arm under his -waist, and tossed
him clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately,
for he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be
taken in, told me he would go all over the world with me.
Hie swam so strong after the boat, that he would have
reached me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon
which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the
fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had
done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him
none. But," said I, you swim well enough to reach to the
shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your way to
shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you come near
the boat, I'll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved
to have my liberty:" so he turned himself about, and swam
for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with
ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with
me, and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing
to trust him. When he was gone, I turned to the boy,
whom they called Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


will be faithful to me, I'll make you a great man; but if
you will not stroke your face to be true to me," -that is,
swear by Mahomet and his father's beard, -" I must throw
you into the sea too." The boy smiled in my face,
and spoke so innocently, that I could not distrust him, and
swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the world
with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I
stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching
to windward, that they might think me gone towards the
strait's mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their
wits must have been supposed to do) : for who would have
supposed we were sailed on to the southward to the truly
Barbarian coast, where whole nations of Negroes were
sure to surround us with their canoes, and destroy us;
where we could not go on shore but we should be devoured
by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of human
kind?
But as soon it grew dusk in the evening, I changed
my course, a eipeered directly south and by cast, bending
my 4arse a towards the east, that I might keep in
with the shori and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and
a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe by the
next day at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I first
made the land, I could, not be less than one hundred and
fifty miles south of Sallee; quite beyond the Emperor of
Morocco's dominions, or indeed of any other king there-
abouts, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and
the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands,
that I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor;
the wind continuing fair till I had sailed in that manner
five days; and then the wind shifting to the southward, I
.concluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase of
me, they also would now give over; so I ventured to make








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


to the coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little
river, I knew not what, nor where; neither what latitude,
what country, what nation, or what river. I neither saw,
nor desired to see any people; the principal thing I wanted
was fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening,
resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and dis-
cover the country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we
heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and
howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that
the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me
not to go on shore till day. Well, Xury," said I, then I
won't; but it may be we may see men by day, who will be
as bad to us as those lions." Then we give them the shoot
gun," says Xury, laughing; make them run wey." Such
English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. How-
ever, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him
a dram (out of our patron's case of bottles) to cheer him
up. After all, Xury's advice was good, and I took it: we
dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night; I say
still, for we slept none; for in two or three hours we
saw vast great creatures (we knew not what to call them)
of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and run into
the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the
pleasure of cooling themselves; and they made such
hideous howlings and yelling, that I never indeed heard
the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too;
but we were both more frighted when we heard one of
these mighty creatures come swimming towards our boat;
we could not see him, but we might hear him by his blow-
ing to be a monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury said
it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know; but
poor Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away.
No," says I, Xury; we can slip our cable, with the
buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot follow us far."








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the creature (what-
ever it was) within two oars' length, which something sur-
prised me ; however, I immediately stepped to the cabin-door,
and taking up my gun, fired at-him; upon which he imme-
diately turned about, and swam towards the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and
hideous cries and howlings, that were raised, as well upon
the edge of the shore as higher within the country, upon
the noise or report of the gun a thing I have some reason
to believe those creatures had never heard before: this con-
vinced me that there was no going on shore for us in the
night on that coast, and how to venture on shore in the day
was another question too; for to have fallen into the
hands, of any of the savages had been as bad as'to have
fallen into the hands of the lions and tigers; at least we
wAre equrdty apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, w*e were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the
boat; when or where to get it was the point. Xury said,
if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he
would find if there was any water, and bring some to me.
I asked him why he would go; why I should not go, and
he stay in the boat. The boy answered with so much
affection, as made me love him ever after. Says he, "If
wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey." "Well,
Xury," said I, "we will both go, and if the wild mans
come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither of us." So
I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out
of our patron's case of bottles which I mentioned before;
and we hauled the boat in as near the shore as we thought
was proper, and so waded on shore, carrying nothing but
our arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the
boy, seeing a low place about a mile up the eoaotry, ram-








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


bled to it, and by-and-by I saw him come running towards
me. I thought he was pursued by some savage, or frighted
with some wild beast, and I ran forwards towards him to
help him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw some-
thing hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature
that he had shot, like a hare, but different in color, and
longer legs: however, we were very glad of it, and it was
very good meat; but the great joy that poor Xury came
with, was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no
wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such
pains for water, for a little higher up the creek where we
were, we found the water fresh when the tide was out, which
flowed but a little way up ; so we filled our jars, and feasted
on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on our way,
having seen no footsteps of any human creature in that part
of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd
Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as I had
no instruments to take an observation to know what latitude
we were in, and not exactly knowing, or at least remember-
ing, what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look
for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them; other-
wise I might now easily have found some of these islands.
But my hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I came
to that part where the English traded, I should find some of
their vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would
relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now
was must be that country which, lying between the Emperor
of Morocco's dominions and the Negroes, lies waste and un-
inhabited, except by wild beasts; the Negroes having aban-
Sdoned it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors; and
the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


barrenness; and, indeed, both forsaking it because of the
prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other fu-
rious creatures which harbor there; so that the Moors use
it for their hunting only, where they go like an army, two
or three thousand men at a time: and, indeed, for near a
hundred miles together upon this coast, we saw nothing but
a waste, uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but
howlings and roaring of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice in the daytime, I thought I saw the Pico
of Teneriffe, being the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in
the Canaries; and had a great mind to venture out, in
hopes of reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was
forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too
high for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first
design and keep along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after
we had left this place, and once in particular, being early in
the morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of
land, which was pretty high ; and the tide beginning to flow
we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more
about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and
tells me that we had best go farther off the shore; "for,"
says he, look, yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of
that hillock, fast asleep." I looked where he pointed, and
saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great
lion that lay on the side of the shore, under the shade of a
piece of the hill that hung as it were a little over him.
"Xury," says I, "you shall go on shore and kill him."
Xury looked frighted, and said, Me ki~ft1 he eat me at one
mouth;" one mouthful he meant. However, I said no
more to the boy, but bade him lie still, and I took our big-
gest gun, which was almost musket bore, and loaded it with
a good charge of powder, and with two slugs, and laid it
down; then I loaded another gun with two bullets; and the
third (for we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


bullets. I took the best aim I could with the first piece to
have shot him in the head, but he lay so with his leg raised
a little above his nose that the slugs hit his leg about the
knee, and broke the bone. He started up, growling at first,
but finding his leg broken, fell down again; and then got up
upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I
heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit him on the
head; however, I took up the second piece immediately, and
though he began to move off, fired again, and shot him in
the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop and make
but little noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury took
heart, and would have me let him go on shore. "Well,
go," said I: so the boy jumped into the water, and tak-
ing a little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other
hand, and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of
the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head again, which
despatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I
was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot
upon a creature that was good for nothing to us. However,
Xury said he would have some of him; so he comes on
board, and asked me to give him the hatchet. For what,
Xury ?" said I. "Me cut off his head," said he. How-
ever, Xury could not cut off his head, but he cut off a
foot, and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous
great one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him
might, one way or other, be of some value to us; and I re-
solved to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went
to work with him; but Xury was much the better workman
at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us
both up the whole day, but at last we got off the hide, and
spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually
dried it in two days' time, and it afterwards served me to
lie upon.









ROBINSON CRUSOE.


After this we made on to the southward continually for
ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions,
which began to abate very much, and going no oftener to
the shore than we were obliged for fresh water. My design
in this was to make the River Gambia or Senegal, that is to
say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes
to meet with some European ship; and if I did not, I knew
not what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or
perish there among the Negroes. I knew that all the ships
from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or
to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this cape, or those
islands; and, in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon
this single point, either that I must meet with some ship, or
must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
as I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited;
and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people
stand upon the shore to look at us; we could also perceive
they were quite black and naked. I was once inclined to
have gone on shore to them; but Xury was my better coun-
sellor, and said to me, No go, no go." However, I hauled
in nearer the shore that I might talk to them, and I found
they ran along the shore by me a good way: I observed they
had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they
could throw them a great way with good aim; so I kept at
a distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I could;
and particularly made signs for sometig to eat: they
beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me
some meat. Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail, and
lay by, and two of them ran up into the country, and in less
tfan half an hour came back, and brought with them two
pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of
their country; but we neither knew what the one or the
other was: however, we were willing to accept it; but








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


how to come at it was our next dispute, for I would not ven-
ture on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us:
but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the
shore and laid it down, and went and stood a great way off
till we fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends; but an opportunity offered that very
instant to oblige them wonderfully: for while we were lying
by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the
other (as we took it) with great fury from the mountains
towards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the fe-
male, or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not
tell, any more than we could tell whether it was usual or
strange, but I believe it was the latter; because, in the first
place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the
night; and, in the second place, we found the people ter-
ribly frighted, especially the women. The man that had the
lance or dart did not fly from them, but the rest did; how-
ever, as the two creatures ran directly into the water, they
did not offer to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged
themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had
come for their diversion: at last one of them began to come
nearer our boat than at first I expected; but I lay ready for
him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition,
and bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he came
fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the
head: immediately he sank down into the water, but rose
instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he was struggling
for life, and so indeed he was: he immediately made to the
shore; but between the wound, which was his mortal hurt,
and the strangling of the water, he died just before he
reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them
were even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


the very terror; but when they saw the creature dead, and
sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them to come to
the shore, they took heart and came, and began to search
for the creature. I found him by his blood staining the
water; and by the help of a rope, which I slung round him,
and gave the Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore,
and found that it was a most-curious leopard, spotted, and
fine to an admirable degree; and the Negroes held up their
hands with admiration, to think what it was I had killed
him with.
The other creature, frighted with the ftash of fire and the
noise of the gun, swam on the shore, and ran up directly to
the mountains from whence they came; nor could I, at that
distance, know what it was. I found quickly the Negroes
wished to eat the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to
have them take it as a favor from me; which, when I made
signs to them that they might take him, they were very
thankful for. Immediately they fell to work with him; and
though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of
wood, they took off his skin as readily, and much moro
readily, than we could have done with a knife. They of-
fered me some of the flesh, which I declined, pointing out
that I would give it them; but made signs for the skin,
which they gave me very freely, and brought me a great deal
more of their provisions, which, though I did not under-
stand, yet I accepted. I then made signs to them for some
water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning it bot-
tom upward, to show that it was empty, Ad that I wanted
to have it filled. They called immediately to some of their
friends, and there came two women, and brought a great
vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I supposed, in the sun;
this they set down to me, as before, and I sent Xury
on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The
women were as naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was,









ROBINSON CRUSOE.


and water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made for-
ward for about eleven days more, without offering to go near
the shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into
the sea, at about the distance of four or five leagues before
me; and the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing to
make this point. At length, doubling the point, at about
two leagues from the land, I saw plainly land on the other
side, to seaward: then I concluded, as it was most certain
indeed, that this was the Cape deVerd, and those the islands
called, from thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they
were at a great distance, and I could not well tell what I had
best to do; for if I should be taken with a fresh of wind,
I might neither reach one or other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin, and sat down, Xury having the helm; when, on a
sudden, the boy cried out, Master, master, a ship with a
sail!" and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits,
thinking it must needs be some of his master's ships sent to
pursue us, but I knew we were far enough out of their reach.
I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only
the ship, but that it was a Portuguese ship; and as I
thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea, for Negroes.
But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon
convinced they were bound some other way, and did not
design to come any nearer to the shore: upon which I
stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak
with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be
able to come in their way, but that they would be gone by
before I could make any signal to them: but after I had
crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems,
saw, by the help of their glasses, that it was some European
boat, which they supposed must belong to some ship that
was lost; so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was
encouraged with this, and as I had my patron's ancient on








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


board, I made a waft of it to them, for a signal of distress,
and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told me they.
saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon
these signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me;
and in about three hours' time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish,
and in French, but I understood none of them; but at last,
a Scotch sailor, who was on board, called to me: and I
answered him, and told him I was an Englishman, that I
had made my escape out of slavery from the Moors, at
Sallee; they then bade me come on board, and very kindly
took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will
believe, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from
such a miserable and almost hopeless condition as I was in;
and I immediately offered all I had to the captain of the
ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he generously told
me, he would take nothing from me, but that all I had
should be delivered safe to me when I came to the Brazils.
" For," says he, I have saved your life on no other terms
than I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one
time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same con-
dition. Besides," said he, "when I carry you to the
Brazils, so great a way from your own country, if I should
take from you what you have, you will be starved there, and
then I only take away that life I have given, No, no,"
says he; Seignor Inglese" (Mr. Englishman), "I will
carry you thither in charity, and those things will help to
buy your subsistence there, and your passage home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in
the performance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen, that
none should touch anything that I had: then he took every-
thing into his own possession, and gave me back an exact
inventory of them, that I might have them, even to my three
earthen jars.








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw.
and told me he would buy it of me for his ship's use; and
asked me what I would have for it. I told him he had been
so generous to me in everything, that I could not offer to
make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him : upon
which he told me he would give me a note of hand to pay
me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came
there, if any one offered to give more, he would make it up.
lie offered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy
Xury, which I was loath to take; not that I was unwilling
to let the captain have him, but I was very loath to sell the
poor boy's liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in pro-
curing my own. However, when I let him know my reason,
he owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that he
would give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years,
if he turned Christian: upon this, and Xury saying he was
willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived
in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in
about twenty-two days after. And now I was once more
delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of life;
and what to do next with myself I was to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me I can never
enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my
passage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and
forty for the lion's skin, which I had in my boat, and
caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually delivered
to me; and what I was willing to sell, he bought of me;
such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of
the lump of beeswax, -for I had made candles of the
rest: in a word, I made about two hundred and twenty
pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock, I went
on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, before I was recommended to
the house of a good, honest man, like himself, who had an








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


ingenio, as they call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-
house). I lived with him some time, and acquainted
myself, by that means, with the manner of planting and
making of sugar; and seeing how well the planters lived,
and how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get
a license to settle there, I would turn planter among them;
resolving, in the mean time, to find out some way to get
my money, which I had left in London, remitted to me.
To this purpose, getting a kind of letter of naturalization,
I purchased as much land that was uncured as my money
would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and set-
tlement; such a one as might be suitable to the stock
which I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbor, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of
English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. I call him my neighbor, because
his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very
sociably together. My stock was but low, as well as his;
and we rather planted for food than anything else, for about
two years. However, we began to increase, and our land
began to come into order; so that the third year we planted
some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground
ready for planting canes in the year to come: but we both
wanted help; and now I found, more than before, I had
done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did right, was
no great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on: I had
got into an employment quite remote to my genius, and
directly contrary to the life I-delighted in, and for which I
forsook my father's house, and broke through all his good
advice; nay, I was coming into the very middle station, or
upper degree of low life, which my father advised me to
before, and which, if I resolved to go on with, I might as
well have staid at home, and never have fatigued myself in
the world, as I had done; and I used often to say to




,V.- "'








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


myself, I could have done this as well in England, among
my friends, as have gone five thousand miles off to do it
among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such
a distance as never to hear from any part of the world that
Lad the least knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition with
the utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now
and then this neighbor; no work to be done, but by the
labor of my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a
man cast away upon some desolate island, that had nobody
there but himself. But how just has it been; and how
should all men reflect, that when they compare their present
conditions with others that are worse, Heaven may oblige
them to make the exchange, and be convinced of their
former felicity by their experience: I say, how just has it
been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on, in an island
of mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so often
unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in
which, had I continued, I had, in all probability, been
exceeding prosperous and rich.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carry-
ing on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of
the ship that took me up at sea, went back; for the ship
remained there, in providing his lading, and preparing for
his voyage, nearly three months; when, telling him what
little stock I had left behind me in London, he gave me
this friendly and sincere advice: Seignor Inglese," says
he (for so he always called me), "if you will give me
letters, and a procuration in form to me, with orders to the
person who has your money in London, to send your effects
to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in such
goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you the
produce of them, God willing, at my return; but, since
human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I
would have you give orders but for one hundred pounds








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


sterling, which, you say, is half your stock, and let the
hazard be run for the first; so that, if it come safe, you
may order the rest the same way; and, if it miscarry, you
may have the other half to have recourse to for your
supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly,
that I could not but be convinced it was the best course I
could take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentle-
woman'with whom I had left my money, and a procuration
to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all
my adventures; my slavery, escape, and how I had met
with the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his
behavior, and what condition I was now in, with all other
necessary directions for my supply; and when this honest
captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the
English merchants there, to send over, not the order only,
but a full account of my story to a merchant at London,
who represented it effectually to her; whereupon she not
only delivered the money, but, out of her own pocket, sent
the Portugal captain a very handsome present for his
humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds
in English goods, such as the captain had written for, sent
them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all
safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without my direc-
tion (for I was too young in my business to think of them),
he had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and
utensils, necessary for my plantation, and which were of
great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes made,
for I was surprised with the joy of it; and my good
steward, the captain, had laid out the five pounds, which
my friend had sent him for a present for himself, to purchase
and bring me over a servant, under bond for six years'
3*








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


service, and would not accept of any consideration, except a
little tobacco, which I would have him accept, being of my
own produce.
Neither was this all; for my goods being all English
manufacture, such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things par-
ticularly valuable and desirable in the country, I found
means to sell them to a very great advantage; so that I
might say, I had more than four times the value of my first
cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor neighbor-
I mean in the advancement of my plantation; for the first
thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and a European
servant also-I mean another besides that which the captain
brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very
means of our greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went
on the next year with great success in my plantation: I
raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more
than I had disposed of for necessaries among my neigh-
bors; and these fifty rolls, being each of above a hundred
weight, were well cured, and laid by against the return of
the fleet from Lisbon: and now increasing in business and
* in wealth, my head began to be fill of projects and under-
takings beyond my reach; such as are, indeed, often the
ruin of the best heads in business. Had I continued in
the station I was now in, I had room for all the happy
things to have yet befallen me, for which my father so
earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life, and which he
had so sensibly described the middle station of life to be full
of; but other things attended me, and I was still to be the
wilful agent of all my own miseries; and particularly, to
increase my fault, and double the reflections upon myself,
which in my future sorrows I should have leisure to make,
all these miscarriages were procured by my apparent obsti-
nate adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering abroad,
and pursuing that inclination, in contradiction to the clearest








RORINSON CRUSOE.


views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of
those prospects, and those measures of life, which nature and
Providence concurred to present me with, and to make my
duty.
As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my
parents, so I could not be content now, but I must go and
leave the happy view I had of being a rich and thriving
man in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash and
immoderate desire of rising faster than the nature of the
thing admitted; and thus I cast myself down again into
the deepest gulf of human misery that ever man fell into, or
perhaps could be consistent with life and a state of health
in the world.
To come, then, by the just degrees, to the particulars
of this part of my story: You may suppose, that having
now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning
to thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had
not only learned the language, but had contracted acquaint-
ance and friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as
among the merchants at St. Salvador, which was our port;
and that, in my discourses among them, I had frequently
given them an account of my two voyages to the coast of
Guinea; the manner of trading with the Negroes there,
and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast for trifles -
such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of
glass, and the like not only gold dust, Guinea grains,
elephants' teeth, &c., but Negroes, for the service of the
Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to the
buying Negroes; which was a trade, at that time, not only
not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried
on by assientos, or permission of the kings of Spain and
Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock; so that few
Negroes were brought, and those excessively dear.








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things
very earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning,
and told me they had been musing very much upon what I
had discoursed with them of the last night, and they came
to make a secret proposal to me; and, after enjoining me
secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship
to go to Guinea; that they had all plantations as well as I,
and were straitened for nothing so much as servants;
that as it was a trade that could not be carried on, because
they could not publicly sell the Negroes when they came
home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the
Negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their
own plantations; and, in a word, the question was, whether
I would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the
trading part upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered
me that I should have my equal share of the Negroes, with-
out providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it
been made to any one that had not had a settlement and a
plantation of his own to look after, which was in a fair way
of coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock
upon it. But for me, that was thus entered and estab-
lished, and had nothing to do but to go on as I had begun,
for three or four years more, and to have sent for the other
hundred pounds from England; and who in that time, and
with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being
worth three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that
increasing too for me to think of such a voyage was the
most preposterous thing that ever man in such circumstances
could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no
more resist the offer, than I could restrain my first rambling
designs, when my father's good counsel was lost upon me.
In a word, I told them I would go with all my heart, if








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


they would undertake to look after my plantation in my
absence, and would dispose of it to such as I should direct,
if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and entered
into writings or covenants to do so; and I made a formal
will, disposing of my plantation and effects in case of my
death, making the captain of the ship that had saved my
life, as before, my universal heir, but obliging him to dispose
of my effects as I had directed in my will; one half of the
produce being to himself, and the other to be shipped in
England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my
effects, and to keep up my plantation: had I used half as
much prudence to have looked into my own interest, and
have made a judgment of what I ought to have done and
not to have done, I had certainly never gone away from so
prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the probable views
of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon a voyage to sea,
attended with all its common hazards, to say nothing of
the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of
my fancy rather than my reason; and, accordingly, the
ship being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all things
done, as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I
went on board in an evil hour, the 1st of September, 1659,
being the same day eight years that I went from my father
and mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their
authority, and the fool to my own interests.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden,
carried six guns, and fourteen men, besides the master, his
boy, and myself; we had on board no large cargo of goods,
except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the Ne-
groes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifles,
especially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and
the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


away to the northward upon our own coast, with design to
stretch over for the African coast, when we came about
ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems,
was the manner of course in those days. We had very
good weather, only excessively hot, all the way upon our
own coast, till we came to the height of Cape St. Augus-
tino; from whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight
of land, and steered as if we were bound for the Isle Fer-
nando de Noronha, holding our course N. E. by N., and
leaving those isles on the east. In this course we passed
the line in about twelve days' time, and were, by our last
observation, in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern
latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite
out of our knowledge. It began from the south-east, came
about to the north-west, and then settled in the north-east;
from whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that for
twelve days together we could do nothing but drive, and
scudding away before it, let it carry us whither ever fate
and the fury of the winds directed; and, during these twelve
days, I need not say that I expected every day to be swal-
lowed up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save
their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm,
one of our men die of the calenture, and one man and the
boy washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather
abating a little, the master made an observation as well as
he could, and found that he was in about eleven degrees
north latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of lon-
gitude difference west from Cape St. Augustino; so that
he found he was upon the coast of Guiana, or the north
part of Brazil, beyond the River Amazons, towards that of
the River Oroonoque, commonly called the Great River;
and began to consult with me what course he should take,
for the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and he was
going directly back to the coast of Brazil.








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


I was positively against that; and looking over the charts
of the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there
was no inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we
came within the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and there-
fore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes; which, by
keeping off at sea, to avoid the indraft of the Bay or Gulf
of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped, in about
fifteen days' sail; whereas we could not possibly make our
voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance both
to our ship and to ourselves.
With this design, we changed our course, and steered
away N. W. by W., in order to reach some of our English
islands, where I hoped for relief; but our voyage was
otherwise determined; for, being in the latitude of twelve
degrees eighteen minutes, a second storm came upon us,
which carried us away with the same impetuosity west-
ward, and drove us so out of the way of all human com-
merce, that had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we
were rather in danger of being devoured by savages, than
ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of
our men early in the morning cried out, Land and we
had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of
seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship
struck upon a sand, and in a moment, her motion being so
stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner, that we
expected that we should all have perished immediately;
and we were immediately driven into our close quarters, to
shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like
condition to describe or conceive the consternation of men
in such circumstances. We knew nothing where we were,
or upon what land it was we were driven; whether an
island or the main -whether inhabited or not inhabited;
as the rage of the wind was still great, though rather less








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


than at first, we could not so much as hope to have the
ship hold many minutes without breaking into pieces, un-
less the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn imme-
diately about. In a word, we sat looking upon one another,
and expecting death every moment, and every man, accord-
ingly, preparing for another world; for there was little or
nothing more for us to do in this; that which was our pres-
ent comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that, contrary
to our expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the
master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking
too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dread-
ful condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of
saving our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at
our stern just before the storm, but she was first staved by
dashing against the ship's rudder, and in the next place, she
broke away, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea; so
there was no hope from her. We had another boat on
board, but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful
thing; however, there was no time to debate, for we fancied
the ship would break in pieces every minute, and some told
us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the
boat, and with the help of the rest of the men, got her slung
over the ship's side ; and getting all into her, let go, and
committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's
mercy and the wild sea: for though the storm was abated
considerably, yet the sea ran dreadfully high upon the shore,
and might be well called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the
sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all
saw plainly, that the sea went so high, that the boat could
not live, and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to
making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could we have








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


done anything with it; so we worked at the oar towards the
land, though with heavy hearts, like men going to execution;
for we all knew that when the boat came nearer the shore,
she would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of
the sea. However, we committed our souls to God in the
most earnest manner; and the wind driving us towards the
shore, we hastened our destruction with our own hands,
pulling as well as we could towards land.
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep
or shoal, we knew not; the only hope that could rationally
give us the least shadow of expectation, was, if we might
find some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by
great chance we might have run our boat in, or got under
the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But
there was nothing like this appeared; but as we made
nearer and nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful
than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and
a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like,
came rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the
coup de grace. In a word, it took us with such a fury, that
it overset the boat at once ; and separating us, as well from
the boat as from one another, gave us not time to say, 0
God !" for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I
felt, when I sunk into the water: for though I swam very
well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to
draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather
carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having
spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost
dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I. had so much
presence of mind, as well as breath left, that seeing myself
nearer the main land than I expected, I got upon my feet,
and endeavored to make on towards the land as fast as I
could, before another wave should return and take me up
E








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


again; but I soon found it was impossible to avoid it; for I
saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as
furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength to
contend with: my business was to hold my breath, and
raise myself upon the water, if I could; and so, by swim-
ming, to preserve my breathing and pilot myself towards the
shore, if possible, my greatest concern now being, that the
sea, as it would carry me a great way towards the shore
when it came on, might not carry me back again with it
when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel
myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards
the shore a very great way; but I held my breath, and as-
sisted myself to swim still forward with all my might. I
was ready to burst with holding my breath, when as I felt
myself raising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my
head and hands shoot out above the surface of the water; and
though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep my-
self so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new
courage. I was covered again with water a good while,
but not so long but I held it out; and finding the water had
spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward against
the return of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet.
I stood still a few moments, to recover breath, and till the
waters went from me, and then took to my heels and ran,
with what strength I had, farther towards the shore. But
neither would this deliver me from the fury of the sea,
which came pouring in after me again; and twice more I
was lifted up by the waves and carried forwards as before,
the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me;
for the sea having hurried me along, as before, landed me,
or rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that
with such force, as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless,







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


as to my own deliverance; for the blow taking my side and
breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my body;
and had it returned again immediately, I must have been
strangled in the water; but I recovered a little before the
return of the waves, and seeing I should be covered again
with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the
rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave
went back. Now, as the waves were not so high as at first,
being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and
then fetched another run, which brought me so near the
shore, that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did
not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and the next
run I took, I got to the main land; where, to my great
comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me
down upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of the
reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look
up and thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein
there was, some minutes before, scarce any room to hope.
I believe it is impossible to express, to the life, what the
ecstasies and transports of the soul are, when it is so saved,
as I may say, out of the very grave: and I do not wonder
now at the custom, when a malefactor, who has the halter
about his neck, is tied up, and just going to be turned off,
and has a reprieve brought to him; I say, I do not wonder
that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very
moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive
the animal spirits from the heart, and overwhelm him.
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first."

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands; and
my whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation
of my deliverance; making a thousand gestures and motions,
which I cannot describe; rejecting upon all my comrades
that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them after-
wards, or any sign of them, except three of their hats, one
cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach
and froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it
lay so far off; and considered, Lord how was it possible I
could get on shore?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part
of my condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind
of place I was in, and what was next to be done: and I
soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a
dreadful deliverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift
me, nor anything either to eat or drink, to comfort me;
neither did I see any prospect before me, but that of perish-
ing with hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts: and
that which was particularly afflicting to me was, that I had
no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature for my sus-
tenance, or to defend myself against any other creature that
might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had noth-
ing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco
in a box. This was all my provision; and this threw me
into terrible agonies of mind, that for a while, I ran about
like a madman. Night coming upon me, I began, with a
heavy heart, to consider what would be my lot if there were
any ravenous beasts in that country, as at night they always
come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time,
was to get up into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny,
which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night,
and consider the next day what death I should die, for as
yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong
from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to
drink, which I did to my great joy; and having drank, and
put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went
to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavored to place my-








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


self so that if I should sleep I might not fall. And having
cut me a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I
took up my lodging; and having been excessively fatigued,
I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few
could have done in my condition, and found myself more
refreshed with it than, I think, I ever was on such an
occasion.
When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and
the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as
before; but that which surprised me most was, that the ship
was lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay, by
the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as
the rock which I at first mentioned, where I had been so
bruised by the wave dashing me against it. This being
within about a mile from the shore where I was, and the
ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on
board, that at least I might save some necessary things for
my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I
looked about me again, and the first thing I found was the
boat, which lay, as the wind and sea had tossed her up upon
the land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked as
far as I could upon the shore to have got to her; but found
a neck, or inlet, of water between me and the boat which
was about half a mile broad; so I came back for the pres-
ent, being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I
hoped to find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the
tide ebbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter of
a mile of the ship. And here I found a fresh renewing of
my grief; for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board,
we had been all safe: that is to say, we had all got safe on
shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be left entirely
destitute of all comfort and company, as I now was. This
forced tears to my eyes again; but as there was little relief









ROBINSON CRUSOE.


in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship ; so I pulled
off my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and
took the water. But when I came to the ship, my difficulty
was still greater to know how to get on board; for, as she
lay aground, and high out of the water, there was nothing
within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice,
and the second time I spied a small piece of rope, which I
wondered I did not see at first, hung down by the fore-
chains so low, that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and
by the help of that rope I got up into the forecastle of the
ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged, and had a
great deal of water in her hold; but that she lay so on the
side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern
lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low, almost to the
water. By this means all her quarter was free, and all that
was in that part was dry: for you may be sure my first
work was to search, and to see what was spoiled and what
was free. And, first, I found that all the ship's provisions
were dry and untouched by the water, and being very well
disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room, and filled my
pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went about other things,
for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum in the
great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had,
indeed, need enough of to spirit me for what was before me.
Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with
many things which I foresaw would be very necessary
to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be
had; and this extremity roused my application. We had
several spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood,
and a spare top-mast or two in the ship: I resolved to fall
to work with these, and I flung as many of them overboard
as I could manage for their weight, tying every one with a
rope, that they might not drive away. When this was done,
I went down the ship's side, and pulling them to me, I tied








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


four of them together at both ends, as well as I could, in
the form of a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of
plank upon them, cross-ways, I found I could walk upon it
very well, but that it was not able to bear any great weight,
the pieces being too light. So I went to work, and with the
carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-mast into three lengths,
and added them to my raft, with a great deal of labor and
pains. But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries,
encouraged me to go beyond what I should have been able
to have done upon another occasion.
MIy raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how
to preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea:
but I was not long considering this. I first laid all the plank
or boards upon it that I could get, and having considered
well what I most wanted, I first got three of the seamen's
chests, which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered
them down upon my raft; the first of these I filled with
provisions, viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces
of dried goat's flesh (which we lived much upon), and a
little remainder of European corn, which had been laid by
for some fowls which we brought to sea with us, but the
fowls were killed. There had been some barley and wheat
together; but to my great disappointment, I found after-
wards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for
liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which were some cordial waters; and, in all,
about five.or six gallons of rack. These I stowed by them-
selves, there being no need to put them into the chest,
nor any room for them. While I was doing this, I found
the tide began to flow, though very calm; and I had the
mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I
had left on the shore, upon the sand, swim away. As for
my breeches, which were only linen, and open-kneed, I
swam on board in them and my stockings, However, this








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


set me on rummaging for clothes, of which I found enough,
but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had
other things which my eye was more upon; as, first, tools
to work with on shore. And it was after long searching
that I found out the carpenter's chest, which was, indeed, a
very useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship
lading of gold would have been at that time. I got it down
to my raft, whole as it was, without losing time to look into
it,, for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There
were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and
two pistols. These I secured first, with some powder-horns
and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew
there were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not
where our gunner had stowed them; but with much search
I found them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken
water. Those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And
now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to
think how I should get to shore with them, having neither
sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least capful of wind would
have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements; 1st, a smooth, calm sea;
2dly, the tide rising, and setting in to the shore; 3dly,
what little wind there was blew me towards the land. And
thus, having found two or three broken oars belonging to the
boat, and besides the tools which were in the chest, two saws,
an axe, and a hammer, with this cargo I put to sea. For
a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I
found it drive a little distant from the place where I had
landed before; by which I perceived that there was some
indraft of the water, and consequently, I hoped to find some
creek or river there, which I might make use of as a port
to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a
little opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


tide set into it; so I guided my raft, as well as I could, to
keep in the middle of the stream.
But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck,
which, if I had, I think, verily, would have broken my
heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground
at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at the
other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped
off towards the end that was afloat, and so fallen into the
water. I did my utmost, by setting my back against the
chests, to keep them in their places, but could not thrust off
the raft with all my strength; neither durst I stir from the
posture I was in; but holding up the chests with all my
might, I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which
time the rising of the water brought me a little more upon
a level; and, a little after, the water still rising, my raft
floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the
channel, and then driving up higher, I at length found my-
self in the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides,
and a strong current or tide running up. I looked on both
sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing
to be driven too high up the river: hoping, in time, to see
some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as
near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the
creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my
raft, and at last got so near, that reaching ground with my
oar, I could thrust her directly in. But here I had like to
have dipped all my cargo into the sea again; for that shore
lying pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no
place to land, but where one end of my float, if it ran on
shore, would lie so high, and the other sink lower, as before,
that it would endanger my cargo again. All that I could
do, was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the
raft with my oar like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast
to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I expected
4








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I
found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of water,
I thrust her on upon that flat piece of ground, and there
fastened or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into
the ground, -one on one side, near one end, and one on the
other side, near the other end ; and thus I lay till the water
ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to
secure them from whatever might happen. Where I was, I
yet knew not; whether on the continent or an island;
whether inhabited or not inhabited; whether in danger of
wild beasts or not. There was a hill not above a mile from
me, which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed
to overtop some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it,
northward. I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of
the pistols, and a horn of powder; and thus armed, I trav-
elled for discovery up to the top of that hill, where, after I
had with great labor and difficulty got to the top, I saw my
fite, to my great affliction, viz., that I was in an island
environed on every side by the sea: no land to be seen ex-
cept some iocks, which lay a great way off; and two small
islands less than this, which lay about three leagues to
the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as
I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited except by wild
beasts, of whom, however, I saw none. Yet I saw abun-
dance of fowls, but I knew not their kinds; neither, when I
killed them, could I tell what was fit for food, and what not.
At my coming back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw sit-
ting upon a tree, on the side of a great wood. I believe it
was the first gun that had been fired there since the creation
of the world. I had no sooner fired, than from all the parts of
the wood there arose an innumerable number of fowls, of
many sorts, making a confused screaming and crying, every








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


one according to his usual note, but not one of them of any
kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took it to
be a kind of a hawk, its color and beak resembling it, but
it had no talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was
carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft,
and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me
up the rest of that day: what to do with myself at night I
knew not, nor indeed where to rest, for I was afraid to lie
down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might
devour me, though, as I afterwards found, there was really
no need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round
with the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and
made a kind of hut for that night's lodging. As for food, I
yet saw not which way to supply myself, except that I had
seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out of the wood
where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and
particularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other
things as might come to land; and I resolved to make
another voyage on board the vessel, if possible. And as I
knew that the first storm that blew must necessarily break
her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart, till
I had got everything out of the ship that I could get. Then
I called a council that is to say, in my thoughts whether
I should take back the raft; but this appeared impracticable ;
so I resolved to go as before, when the tide was down; and
I did so, only that I stripped before I went from my hut,
having nothing on but a checkered shirt, a pair of linen
drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second
raft; and, having had experience of the first, I neither made
this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


away several things very useful to me; as, first, in the car-
penter's stores, I found two or three bags full of nails and
spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and,
above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone. All
these I secured, together with several things belonging to the
gunner, particularly two or three iron crows, and two bar-
rels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-
piece, with some small quantity of powder more; a large
bagful of small shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead; but this
last was so heavy I could not hoist it up to get it over the
ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I
could find, and a spare fore-top sail, a hammock, and some
bedding; and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought
them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehension, during my absence from
the land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on
shore: but when I came back, I found no sign of any visitor;
only there sat a creature like a wild cat, upon one of the
chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away a little dis-
tance, and then stood still. She sat very composed and
unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had' a
mind to be acquainted with me. I presented my gun to her,
but, as she did not understand it, she was perfectly uncon-
cerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon which I
tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not
very free of it, for my store was not great: however, I
spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and
ate it, and looked (as if pleased) for more; but I thanked
her, and could spare no more : so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore, -though I was
obliged to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by
parcels, for they were too heavy, being large casks, I went
to work to make me a little tent, with the sail, and some
poles which I cut for that purpose: and into this tent I








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


brought everything that I knew would spoil either with rain
or sun; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a
circle round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt,
either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent
with some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end
without; and spreading one of the beds upon the ground,
laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length
by me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly
all night, for I was very weary and heavy; for the night
before I had slept little, and had labored very hard all day,
to fetch all those things from the ship, and to get them on
shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was
laid up, I believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still,
for while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I
ought to get everything out of her that I could: so every
day, at low water, I went on board, and brought away some-
thing or other; but particularly the third time I went, I
brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all
the small ropes and rope twine I could get, with a piece
of spare canvas, which was to mend the sails upon occasion,
and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought
away all the sails first and last; only that I was obliged to
cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could,
for they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere canvas
only.
But that which comforted me more still, was, that last
of all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these,
and thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship
that was worth my meddling with ; I say, after all this, I
found a great hogshead of bread, three large runlets of rum,
or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour:
this was surprising to me, because I had given over expect-
ing any more provisions, except what was spoiled by the








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


water. I soon emptied the hogshead of the bread, and
wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which
I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now, having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand
out, I began with the cables : cutting the great cable into
pieces such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser
on shore, with all the iron work I could get; and having
cut down the spritsail-yard, and the mizzen-yard, and every-
thing I could, to make a large raft, I loaded it with all these
heavy goods, and came away; but my good luck began now
to leave me ; for this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen,
that after I was entered the little cove, where I had landed
the rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so handily
as I did the other, it overset, and threw me and all my cargo
into the water ; as for myself, it was no great harm, for I was
near the shore ; but as to my cargo, it was a great part of
it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have
been of great use to me: however, when the tide was out, I
got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron,
though with infinite labor; for I had to dip for it into the
water, a work which fatigued me very much. After this, I
went every day on board, and brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been
eleven times on board the ship, in which time I had brought
away all that one pair of hands could well be supposed ca-
pable to bring; though I believe verily, had the calm
weather held, I should have brought away the whole ship,
piece by piece; but preparing the twelfth time to go on
board, I found the wind began to rise; however, at low
water I went on board, and though I thought I had rum-
maged the cabin so effectually, that nothing more could be
found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of
which I found two or three razors, and one pair of large
scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks:








ROBLISON CRUSOE.


In another I found about thirty-six pounds value in money, -
some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some
gold, and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money : 0 drug!"
said I aloud, what art thou good for? Thou art not worth
to me, no, not the taking off the ground: one of those
knives is worth all this heap: I have no manner of use for
thee : e'en remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as
a creature whose life is not worth saving." However, upon
second thoughts, I took it away; and wrapping all in a piece
of canvas, I began to think of making another raft: but
while I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the
wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a
fresh gale from the shore. It presently occurred to me, that
it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off
shore; and that it was my business to be gone before the
tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach
the shore at all. Accordingly, I let myself down into the
water, and swam across the channel which lay between the
ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty enough,
partly with the weight of the things I had about me, and
partly from the roughness of the water; for the wind rose
very hastily, and before it was quite high water it blew a
storm.
But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay, with
all my wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all
that night, and in the morning, when I looked out, behold
no more ship was to be seen I was a little surprised, but
recovered myself with this satisfactory reflection, that I had
lost no time, nor abated any diligence, to get everything
out of her that could be useful to me; and that, indeed,
there was little left in her that I was able to bring away, if
I had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of
anything out of her, except what might drive on shore from









80 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

her wreck; as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did;
but those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing
myself against either savages, if any should appear, or wild
beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts
of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling
to make, whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or
a tent upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both;
the manner and description of which, it may not be im-
proper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settle-
ment, because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the
sea, and I believed it would not be wholesome, and more
particularly because there was no fresh water near it; so I
resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot
of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation, which I found
would be proper for me : 1st, health and fresh water, I just
now mentioned: 2dly, shelter from the heat of the sun:
3dly, security from ravenous creatures, whether men or
beasts: 4thly, a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship
in sight, I might not lose any advantage for my deliver-
ance, of which I was not willing to banish all my expecta-
tion yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain
on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little
plain was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come
down upon me from the top. On the side of the rock there
was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance
or door of a cave; but there was not really any cave, or
way into the rock, at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I
resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hun-
dred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a
green before my door; and, at the end of it, descended








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


irregularly every way down into the low ground by the
sea-side. It was on the N. N. W. side of the hill; so that
it was sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a
W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which, in those countries,
is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-
diameter, from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter,
from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into the ground till they stood very firm like
piles, the biggest end being out of the ground above five
feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two rows
did not stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the
ship, and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the
circle, between these rows of stakes, up to the top, placing
other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two
feet and a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence
was so strong, that neither man nor beast could get into it
or over it. This cost me a great deal of time and labor,
especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the
place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door,
but by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder,
when I was in, I lifted over after me; and so I was com-
pletely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the
world, and consequently slept secure in the night, which
otherwise I could not have done; though, as it appeared
afterwards, there was no need of all this caution from the
enemies that I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried
all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores,
of which you have the account above; and I made a large
tent, which, to preserve me from the rains, that in one part
4* F








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


of the year are -very violent there, I made double, one
smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it; and
covered the uppermost with a large tarpaulin, which I had
saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I
had brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed
a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every-
thing that would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed
all my goods, I made up the entrance, which till now I had
left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short
ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the
rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down
out through my tent, I laid them up within my fence, in
the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within
about a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just
behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labor and many days before all these
things were brought to perfection; and, therefore, I must
go back to some other things which took up some of my
thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid
my scheme for the setting up my tent, and making the cave,
that a storm of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sud-
den flash of lightning happened, and after that, a great clap
of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not so
much surprised with the lightning, as I was with a thought
which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning itself:
0 my powder! My very heart sank within me when I
thought that, at one blast, all my powder might be de-
stroyed; on which, not my defence only, but the pro-
viding me food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was
nothing near so anxious about my own danger, though, had
the powder took fire, I should never have known who had
hurt me.








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


Such impression did this make upon me, that after the
storm was over, I laid aside all my works, my building and
fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes, to
separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a
parcel, in hope that whatever might come, it might not all
take fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that it should
not be possible to make one part fire another. I finished
this work in about a fortnight; and I think my powder,
which in all was about two hundred and forty pounds
weight, was divided into not less than a hundred-parcels.
As to the barrel that had been 0, I did not apprehend
any danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave,
which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I
hid up and down in holes among the rocket, so that no wet
might come to it, marking very carefully where I laid it.
'In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out
once at least every day with my gun, as well to divert
myself, as to see if I could kill anything fit for food; and,
as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the island
produced. The first time I went out, I presently discovered
that there were goats in the island, which was a great
satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with this mis-
fortune to me, viz., that they were so shy, so subtle, and so
swift of foot, that it was the difficultest thing in the world
to come at them; but I was not discouraged at this, not
doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon
happened; for after I had found their haunts a little, I laid
wait in this manner for them: I observed if they saw me
in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would
run away, as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding
in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took no
notice of me ; from whence I concluded that, by the position
of their optics, their sight was so directed downward, that
they did not readily see objects that were above them; so
afterwards, I took this method, -I always climbed the









ROBINSON CRUSOE.


rocks first, to get above them, and then had frequently a
fair mark.
The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a
she-goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave
suck to, which grieved me heartily; for, when the old one
fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came and took
her up; and not only so, but when I carried the old one
with me, upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to
my enclosure; upon which, I laid down the dam, and took
the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes
to have bred it up taO but it would not eat; so I was
forced to kill it, and ate it myself. These two supplied me
with flesh a great while, for I ate sparingly, and saved my
provisions, my bread especially, as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to
burn; and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my
cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full
account of in its place; but I must now give some little
account of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which,
it may well be supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition, for as I was
not cast away upon that island without being driven, as is
said, by a violent storm, quite out of the course of our
intended voyage, and a great way, viz., some hundreds of
leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind,
I had great reason to consider it as a determination of
Heaven, that in this desolate place, and in this desolate
manner, I should end my life. The tears would run plen-
tifully down my face when I made these reflections; and
sometimes I would expostulate with myself why Providence
should thus completely ruin its creatures, and render them
so absolutely miserable; so without help, abandoned, so
entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational to be
thankful for such a life.








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


But something always returned swift upon me to check
these thoughts and to reprove me; and particularly, one
day, walking with my gun in my hand, by the sea-side, I
was very pensive upon the subject of my present condition,
when reason, as it were, expostulated with me the other
way, thus: "Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is
true; but, pray remember, where are the rest of you? Did
not you come eleven of you into the boat? Where are the
ten? Why were not they saved, and you lost? Why were
you singled out ? Is it better to be here or there? And
then I pointed to the sea. Al ls are to be considered
with the good that is in them, anC ith what worse attends
them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished
for my subsistence, and what would have been my case if
it had not happened (which was a hundred thousand to one)
that the ship floated from the place where she first struck,
and was driven so near to the shore, that I had time to get
all these things out of her; what would have been my case,
if I had been forced to have lived in the condition in
which I at first came on shore, without necessaries of life,
or necessaries to supply and procure them? Particu-
larly," said I, aloud (though to myself), "what should I
have done without a gun, without ammunition, without any
tools to make anything, or to work with, without clothes,
bedding, a tent, or any manner of covering?" and that
.now I had all these to sufficient quantity, and was in a fair
way to provide myself in such a manner as to live without
my gun, when my ammunition was spent: so that I had a
tolerable view of subsisting, without any want, as long as I
lived; for I considered, from the beginning, how I would
provide for the accidents that might happen and for the
time that was to come, even not only after my ammunition
should be spent, but even after my health and strength
should decay.








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my ammu-
nition being destroyed at one blast, I mean my powder
being blown up by lightning; and this made the thoughts
of it so surprising to me, when it lightened and thundered,
as I observed just now.
And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a
scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of
in the world before, I shall take. it from its beginning, and
continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th
of September, when, in the manner as above said, I first
set foot upon this horrin land; when the sun, being to us
in its autumnal eqlIuIn.l', was almost just over my head:
for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the latitude
of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of the line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came
into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time
for want of books, and pen and ink, and should even forget
the Sabbath days ; but to prevent this, I cut with my knife
upon a large post, in capital letters; and making it into a
great cross, I set up on the shore where I first landed, I
came on shore here on the 30th of September, 1659."
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every .day a
notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long
again as the rest, and every first day of the month, as long
again as that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or
weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place, we are to observe that among the
many things which I brought out of the ship, in the several
voyages which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got
several things of less value, but not at all less useful to me,
which I omitted setting down before ; as, in particular, pens,
ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain's, mate's,
gunner's, and carpenter's keeping ;.three or four compasses,
some mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts,
and books of navigation; all which I huddled together,







ROBINSON CRUSOE.


whether I might want them or no: also I found three very
good Bibles, which came to me in my cargo from England,
and which I had packed up among my things; some Por-
tuguese books also; and, among them, two or three Popish
prayer-books, and several other books, all which I carefully
secured. And I must not forget, that we had in the ship a
dog, and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have
occasion to say something in its place; for I carried both
the cats with me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the
ship of himself, and swam on shore to me the day after I
went on shore with my first cargo,,and was a trusty servant
to me many years; .I wanted nothing that he could fetch
me, nor any company that he could make up to me; I only
wanted to have him talk to me, but that would not do. As
I observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I
husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall show that while
my ink lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that was
gone I could not, for I could not make any ink by any
means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, not-
withstanding all that I had amassed together; and of these
ink was one; as also a spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to dig
or remove the earth ; needles, pins, and thread: as for linen,
I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily;
and it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished
my little pale, or surrounded my habitation. The piles or
stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a
long time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more,
by far, in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two
days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and
a third day in driving it into the ground; for which purpose,
I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought
myself of one of the iron crows; which, however, though
I found it, made driving those posts or piles very laborious








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


and tedious work. But what need I have been concerned at
the tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had time
enough to do it in ? nor had I any other employment, if
that had been over, at least that I could foresee, except the
ranging the island to seek for food, which I did more or less
every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the
circumstances I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of
my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that
were to come after me, for I was likely to have but few
heirs, as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon
them, and afflicting my mind : and as my reason began now
to master my despondency, I began to comfort myself as
well as I could, and to set the good against the evil, that I
might have something to distinguish my case from worse;
and I stated very impartially, like debtor and creditor,
the comforts I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered,
thus:-


EVIL.
I am cast upon a horrible,
desolate island, void of all
hope of recovery.
I am singled out and sepa-
rated, as it were, from all.
the world, to be miserable.




I am divided from man-
kind, a solitaire; one ban-
ished from human society.
I have not clothes to cover
me.


GOOD.
But I am alive; and not
drowned, as all my. ship's
company were.
But I am singled out, too,
from all the ship's crew, to
be spared from death; and
He that miraculously saved
me from death, can deliver
me from this condition.
But I am not starved, and
perishing on a barren place,
affording no sustenance.
But I am in a hot climate,
where, if I had clothes, I
could hardly wear them.








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


EVIL.
I am without any defence,
or means to resist any vio-
lence of man or beast.


I have no soul to speak
to or relieve me.


GOOD.
But I am cast on an island
where I.see no wild beasts to
hurt me, as I saw on the coast
of Africa : and what if I had
been shipwrecked there?
But God wonderfully sent
the ship in near enough to the
shore, that I have got out as
many necessary things as will
either supply my wants or
enable me to supply myself,
even as long as I live.


Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that
there was scarce any condition in the world so miserable,
but there was something negative, or something positive, to
be thankful for in it: and let this stand as a direction, from
the experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this
world: that we may always find in it something to comfort
ourselves from, and to set, in the description of good and
evil, on the credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my con-
dition, and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could
spy a ship,- I say, giving over these things, I began to
apply myself to arrange my way of living, and to make
things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of
posts and cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for
I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet
thick on the outside: and after some time (I think it was a
year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the
rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and
such things as I could get, to keep out the rain; which I
found at some times of the year very violent.








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


I have already observed how I brought all my goods into
this pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me.
But I must observe, too, that at first this was a confused
heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took
up all my place ; I had no room to turn myself: so I set
myself to enlarge my cave, and work farther into the earth;
for it was a loose sandy rock, which yielded easily to the
labor I bestowed on it: and so when I found I was pretty
safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right
hand into the rock; and then turning to the right again,
worked quite out, and made me a door to come out on the
outside of my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a
back way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me
room to store my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a
table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few
comforts I had in the world; I could not write, or eat, or
do several things with so much pleasure, without a table : so
I went to work. And here I must needs observe, that as
reason is the substance and origin of the mathematics, so by
stating and squaring everything by reason, and by makirig
the most rational judgment of things, every man may be, in
time, master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a
tool in my life; and yet, in time, by labor, application, and
contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I
could have made it, especially if I had had tools. However,
I made abundance of things, even without tools; and some
with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which per-
haps were never made that way before, and that with infi-
nite labor. For example, if I wanted a board, I had no
other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge before
me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I had
brought it to be thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


with my adze. It is true, by this method I could make but
one board out of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy for
but patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal of
time and labor which it took me up to make a plank or board:
but my time or labor was little worth, and so it was as well
employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place; and this I did out of the short
pieces of boards that I brought on my raft from the ship.
But when I had wrought out some boards as above, I made
large shelves, of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over
another all along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools,
nails, and iron-work on; and, in a word, to separate every-
thing at large into their places, that I might come easily at
them. I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang
my guns and all things that would hang up: so that had my
cave been to be seen, it looked like a general magazine of
all necessary things; and I had everything so ready at my
hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods
in such order, and especially to find my stock of all neces-
saries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every
day's employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much
hurry, and not only hurry as to labor, but in too much dis-
composure of mind; and my journal would have been full
of many dull things: for example, I must have said thus:
" Sept. 30th. -After I had got to shore, and had escaped
drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliver-
ance, having first vomited, with the great quantity of salt
water which had got into my stomach, and recovering my-
self a little, I-ran about the shore wringing my hands and
beating my head and face; exclaiming at my misery, and
crying out, I was undone, undone!' till, tired and faint, I
was forced to lie down on the ground to repose; but durst
not sleep, for fear of being devoured."








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


Some days after this, and after I had been on board the
ship, and got all that I could out of her, yet I could not for-
bear getting up to the top of a little mountain, and looking
out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy, at a vast
distance, I spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it,
and then after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose
it quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus in-
crease my misery by my folly.
But having gotten over these things in some measure, and
having settled my household stuff and habitation, made me
a table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I
could, I began to keep my journal; of which I shall here
give you the copy (though in it will be told all these par-
ticulars over again) as long as it lasted; for having no more
ink, I was forced to leave it off.

THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659.-I, poor, miserable Robinson Cru-
soe, being shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the
offing, came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island,
which I called "The Island of Despair;" all.the rest of
the ship's company being drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the
dismal circumstances I was brought to; viz., I had neither
food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to: and, in
despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me:
either that I should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered
by savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the
approach of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures;
but slept soundly, though it rained all night.
October 1.-In the morning I saw, to my great surprise,
the ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on
shore again much nearer the island; which as it was some
comfort, on one hand, for seeing her sit upright, and not








EOBINSON CRUSOE.


broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get
on board, and get some food and necessaries out of her for
my relief; so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the
loss of my comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all staid
on board, might have saved the ship, or, at least, that they
would not have been all drowned, as they were; and that,
had the men been saved, we might perhaps have built us a
boat out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us to some
other part of the world. I spent great part of this day in
perplexing myself on these things ; but, at length, seeing the
ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could,
and then swam on board. This day also it continued rain-
ing, though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days en-
tirely spent in many several voyages to get all I could out
of the ship, which I brought on shore, every tide of flood,
upon rafts. Much rain also, in the days, though with
some intervals of fair weather; but it seems this was the
rainy season.
Oct. 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got
upon it; but being in shoal water, and the things being
chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide
was out.
Oct. 25.- It rained all night and all day, with some
gusts of wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces,
the wind blowing a little harder thashbefore, and was no
more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at
low water. I spent this day in covering and securing the
goods which I had saved, that the rain might not spoil
them.
Oct. 26.- I walked about the shore almost all day, to
find out a place to fix my habitation, great, concerned to
secure myself from any attack in the night, either from wild
beasts or men. Towards night, I fixed upon a proper place,
under a rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encamp-



*'








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


ment; which I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or
fortification, made of double piles, lined within with cables,
and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carry-
ing all my goods to my new habitation, though some part
of the time it rained exceedingly hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island
with my gun, to see for some food, and discover the
country; when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed
me home, which I afterwards killed also because it would
not feed.
November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay
there for the first night; making it as large as I could, with
stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2.-I set up all my chests and boards, and the
pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with them
formed a fence round me, a little within the place I had
marked out for my fortification.
Nov. 3.-I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls
like ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon
went to work to make me a table.
Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times of
work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time
of diversion; viz., every morning I walked out with my
gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then em-
ployed myself to work till about eleven o'clock; then ate
what I had to live on; and from twelve till two I lay down
to sleep, the weather being excessively hot; and then, in
the evening, to work again. The working part of this day
and of the next was wholly employed in making my table,
for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though time and
necessity made me a complete natural mechanic soon after,
as I believe they would do any one else.
Nov. 5. -This day, went abroad with my gun and my
dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but hui








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


flesh good for nothing; every creature that I killed I took
off the skins and preserved them. Coming back by the
sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not
understand; but was surprised, and almost frightened, with
two or three seals, which, while I was gazing at, not well
knowing what they were, got into the sea, and escaped me
for that time.
Nov. 6. After my morning walk, I went to work with
my table again, and finished it, though not to my liking;
nor was it long before I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather. The
7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th
was Sunday), I took wholly up to make me a chair, and
with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to
please me; and even in the making I pulled it in pieces
several times.
Note. I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for,
omitting my mark for them on my post, I forgot which was
which.
Nov. 13. This day it rained, which refreshed me ex-
ceedingly, and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied
with terrible thunder and lightning, which frighted me
dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As soon as it was
over, I resolved to separate my stock of powder into as
many little parcels as possible, that it might not be in
danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in making
little square chests, or boxes, which might hold about a
pound, or two pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting
the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote
from one another as possible. On one of these three days,
I killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not
what to call it.
Nov. 17.--This day I began to dig behind my tent into
the rock, to make room for my further conveniency.








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


Note.- Three things I wanted exceedingly for this
work; viz., a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or
basket; so I desisted from my work, and began to consider
how to supply that want, and make me some tools. As for
the pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows, which were proper
enough, though heavy; but the next thing was a shovel, or
spade; this was so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I
could do nothing effectually without it; but what kind of
one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I found
a tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they
call the iron-tree, for its exceeding hardness; of this, with.
great labor, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and
brought it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was
exceeding heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood,
and my having no other way, made me a long while upon
this machine, for I worked it effectually by little and little
into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly
shaped like ours in England, only that the broad part having
no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me so
long; however, it served well enough for the uses'which I
had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe,
made after that fashion, or so long in making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheel-
barrow. A basket I could not make by any means, having
no such things as twigs that would bend to make wicker-
ware-at least, none yet found out; and as to a wheel-
barrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel; but that
I had no notion of; neither did I know how to go about it;
besides, I had no possible way to make the iron gudgeons
for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in; so I gave it
over, and so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out of
the cave, I made me a thing like a hod, which the laborers
carry mortar in, when they serve the bricklayers. This
was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel; and








ROBINSON CRUSOE.


yet this and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in
vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four
days--I mean always excepting my morning walk with my
gun, which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed also
bringing home something fit to eat.
Nov. 23.- My other work having now stood still, be-
cause of my making these tools, when they were finished I
-went on, and working every day, as my strength and time
allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deep-
ening my cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.
Note. During all this time, I worked to make this
room, or cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a
warehouse, or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a
cellar. As for my lodging, I kept to the tent; except that
sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it rained so hard,
that I could not keep myself dry, which caused me after-
wards to cover all my place within my pale with long poles,
in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and load
them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.
December 10. I began now to think my cave or vault
finished, when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too
large) a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and
one side; so much that, in short, it frighted me, and not
without reason, too; for if I had been under it, I had never
wanted a grave-digger. I had now a great deal of work to
do over again, for I had the loose earth to carry out; and,
which was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop
up, so that I might be sure no more would come down.
Dec. 11. -This day I went to work with it accordingly,
and got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top,
with two pieces of boards across over each post; this I
finished the next day; and setting more posts up with
boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured; and
the posts, standing in rows, served me for partitions to part
off the house.
5 G




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