Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Robinson Crusoe
 The farther adventures of Robinson...

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073574/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: xvi, 517 p., <12> leaves of plates : ill. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Lee, William
Griset, Ernest Henry, 1844-1907 ( Illustrator )
Frederick Warne (Firm) ( Publisher )
Ballantyne and Hanson ( Printer )
Publisher: Frederick Warne and Co.
Place of Publication: London ( Bedford Street Strand )
Manufacturer: Ballantyne and Hanson
Publication Date: 1869
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1869   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956,
General Note: Spine and cover title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: "Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe"--P. 273.
General Note: "I am able to affirm that the present is an exact reproduction from my own copy of the first edition."--Introd.
General Note: On cover: Unabridged edition.
General Note: "The ornamental head-pieces and initial letters are exact facsimiles of those used in the first edition."--P. <iv>
General Note: Includes publisher's advertisements (<8> p.) at end.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility: with an introduction by William Lee ; original illustrations by Ernest Griset.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073574
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05588545

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    Robinson Crusoe
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 22a
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 36a
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 84a
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 106a
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 146a
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 178a
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 216a
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 260a
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
    The farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 322a
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 390a
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
        Page 426
        Page 427
        Page 428
        Page 429
        Page 430
        Page 431
        Page 432
        Page 433
        Page 434
        Page 435
        Page 436
        Page 437
        Page 438
        Page 439
        Page 440
        Page 441
        Page 442
        Page 443
        Page 444
        Page 445
        Page 446
        Page 447
        Page 448
        Page 449
        Page 450
        Page 451
        Page 452
        Page 453
        Page 454
        Page 455
        Page 456
        Page 457
        Page 458
        Page 459
        Page 460
        Page 461
        Page 462
        Page 463
        Page 464
        Page 465
        Page 466
        Page 467
        Page 468
        Page 469
        Page 470
        Page 471
        Page 472
        Page 473
        Page 474
        Page 475
        Page 476
        Page 477
        Page 478
        Page 479
        Page 480
        Page 481
        Page 482
        Page 483
        Page 484
        Page 485
        Page 486
        Page 487
        Page 488
        Page 489
        Page 490
        Page 491
        Page 492
        Page 493
        Page 494
        Page 495
        Page 496
        Page 497
        Page 498
        Page 499
        Page 500
        Page 501
        Page 502
        Page 503
        Page 504
        Page 505
        Page 506
        Page 507
        Page 508
        Page 509
        Page 510
        Page 511
        Page 512
        Page 513
        Page 514
        Page 515
        Page 516
        Page 517
        Page 518
        Page 519
        Page 520
        Page 521
        Page 522
        Page 523
        Page 524
        Page 525
        Page 526
Full Text






Defoe and Selkirk
PLEASANT. indeed, it is to turn from
Events of the pilsenl to in iters of
tnloment that happened in our old city
long ao ,
In oti Issie of N,:\emltn:lr 23 an often
delbated pcinr in local hisi.:r, chopped up-
the meeting place of Alesxinder Selkirk
ana Daniel Defoe, the outcome of which
w, 'as the story of Robinson Crusoe.
Many years ago a letter appeared in our
paper from Miss Priscilla Fry, a member
of the notable Quaker family, which re-
ferred to documents she possessed, or had
seen-memory on this point is uncertain-
which proved that Defoe got Selkirk's
story when visiting a lady in St. James's

History, Not Tradition
Well, doubt on this point seems to have
been cleared up, and it would be wise for
those responsible for guide books, and
other more or less haphazard productions
to drop the public-house theory, whether
it is the Ccck and Bottle, or any other,
and stick to what is now history--not
The subject has been discussed in an
exceedingly interesting letter by Com-
mander C. E. Evans, R.N.V/R., of Nailsea
Court, who has been good enough to
enclose extracts from Wright's "Life of
Daniel Defoe."
"These,' he states, "prove pretty con-
clusively that Selkirk was brought to
.* CL. nlmaIrierd ladS,, who was
Coys rne, Mrs Beck. nd finally
ilrs Daniel, 9o tlat she m'.;. have been
a lady of considerable attraction
"This lady was born at Nailsea Court,
'rom which house I write-her father,
Major Nathaniel Wade, purchased the
house at 16, St. James's Square, in 1713,
and apparently Mrs Daniel had the use
of it.
"Villa Crusoe"
*Some yeals age 'Commander Evans
adds, "I took from 16, St. James's Square,
the chimney pieces which were being
continually spoiled by blow-pipes etc., and
one of them is in this old house, while
two others are at a little house I have
built in Devonshire, and the house is
called 'Villa Crusoe.'
"Wade met Daniel Defoe at Lyme Regis,
both of them joined the Duke of Mon-
mouth's Expedition, and Wade's subse-
quent adventures, particularly in Devon-
shire, make interesting reading, as out-
lIned in Lady Rosalind Northcote's book
on Devonshire.
Apparently the friendship which Wade
formed with Defoe was carried on by his
daughter Damaris, Coysgarne, Beck and



THE Publisher desires just one word with the readers of this edition of Robinson
Crusoe." After making a careful examination of every accessible reprint of im-
portance from 1719 down to the present time, great was his surprise to find that not one
of the hundreds of so-called "revised editions" had given the correct text of the Author,
but had-to all appearance-copied from each other, adding afew variations here and
there to give an air of originality. Occasionally these variations consist of such
trivialities as the change of one word for another, but the substitution of even homely
.or polite expressions assists in spoiling a narrative charmingfor its perfect simpli.
city ; thus home" has been changed to "residence;'" household goods," to furni-
ture," ec. Even the text of a late edition in the Globe Library must be received with
some suspicion when the Editor tells us that he printed from the edition of 17 19, but
collated it with earlier editions!" which is all nonsense, because there are no editions
earlier than 1719. By the kindness of Mr. Lee, a copy of the very valuable and rare
qrst edition, in two vols., 1719, has been deposited with the printers during the progress
Jf the work through the press, and there, in a glass case, every word and letter have
ieen examined in preparing the present edition, which is believed to represent tlh
oly perfect text of Defoe's narrative since the time of its Author.

~- -







Wit an ntratutrian




Salianiine retss



F ever the Story of any private Man's Adventures in the World
were worth making Public, and were acceptable when Publish'd,
the Editor of this Account thinks this will be so.
The Wonders of this Man's Life exceed all that (he thinks) is to be
found extant; the Life of one Man being scarce capable of a greater

The Story is told with Modesty, with Seriousness, and with a religious
Application of Events to the Uses to which wise Men always apply
them (viz.) to the Instruction of others by this Example, and to justify
and honour the Wisdom of Providence in all the Variety of our
Circumstances, let them happen how they will.

The Editor believes the thing to be a just History of Fact; neither is
there any Appearance of Fiction in tt: And however thinks, because all
such things are dispatched, that the Improvement of it, as well to the
Diversion, as to the Instruction of the Reader, will be the sa*. W"t
such, he thinks, without farther Compliment to the World, he does Mc
a great Service in the Publication.

[ The ornamental head-pieces and initial letters are exact facsimiles of those used
in the First Edition of Robinson Crusoe."]



To Girls and Boys,-- oung and Old,-Everywhere.
N this twenty-fifth day of April, in the year one thousand eight
hundred and sixty nine, which is exactly a century and a half
since his first appearance in the world, it does seem like an act of
presumptuous supererogation to say,-" Allow me to introduce to
you Mr. Robinson Crusoe, and his Strange Surprizing Adventures !"
Indeed I can almost hear a reply, in a million voices,-of many lan-
guages,-from all points of the compass,-" Why, we have known
him ever since we can remember !"
That may be; yet, without presumption, I think I shall be able to
tell some, at least, of my readers more than they already know.
This then must be my apology. Those who know "all about it,"
and need no Introduction," may turn over a few leaves, and take
their old acquaintance by the hand, without further ceremony.

The historic original of Robinson Crusoe was Alexander Selcraig,
the seventh son of John Selcraig and Euphan Mackie. He was born
at Largo in the county of Fife, in Scotland, A.D. 1676; and went to
sea in 1695, changing his name to Selkirk. He was not again heard
of until 1701, when he returned to his native place. On the 18th
May 1703, he sailed from the Downs in the Cinque Ports galley,
96 tons, 18 guns, and 63 men, 1harles Pickering, captain; Thomas
Stradling, lieutenant; and himself, Selkirk, sailing-master. On the
24th November, the same year, they anchored at La Granda, Brazil,
where Capt. Pickering died, and the command devolved upon
Stradling. They left on the 8th December, and on the loth February,
the following year, cast anchor at the Island of Juan Fernandez.
After taking in wood and water they sailed on the 29th February in
pursuit of a French ship, but returned in the month of September.
In consequence of frequent quarrels between himself and Stradling,
and a fear that the ship was not sea-worthy, Selkirk determined to
leave the vessel; and when she departed at the end of the month,

all his effects, with additional necessaries, were taken on shore, and
he remained alone on the island.
On the 2nd February 1709, the privateer ships Duke and Duchess,
commanded by Captain Woodes Rogers, anchored at Juan Fer-
nandez, and found Selkirk there. He engaged in the capacity of
Mate on board the Duke, and they sailed on the 12th of the same
month, arriving at Erith, on the Thames, the i4th October 1711.
In the following year, Capt. Woodes Rogers published an account
of his voyages, in which he relates the finding of Selkirk, and how he
had lived alone on the island "four years and four months."
Another officer of the same expedition, Capt. Edward Cooke, pub-
lished a similar volume during the same year, and states on the title-
page :-" Wherein an Account is given of Mr. Alexander Selkirk, his
" Manner of living and taming some wild Beasts during the four Years
" and four Months he liv'd upon the uninhabited Island of Juan
" Fernadcez." Sir Richard Steele appears to have had an interview
with Selkirk soon after the arrival of the latter in England, and made
his adventures the subject of No. 26 of The Englishman, published
in December, 1713.

These are all the historical resources known to have been available
for the production of Robinson Crusoe."

I may, however, add a few particulars as to the subsequent career
of Selkirk. His share of prize money, while on board the ship Duke,
amounted to 800; which, having received, he set out for his native
place, and arrived there early in 1712. After investing his money he
appears to have remained in Largo until 1717, when he again went
to sea, leaving his property in charge of his relations. He never re-
turned, though he was heard of at times from Bristol, Liverpool, and
London; but he became a Lieutenant in the Royal Navy, and died
in that capacity on board his Majesty's ship Weymouth, in the year 1723.

The first attempt to collect all the facts that could be ascertained
about Selkirk, was by Isaac James, of Bristol, who, in 800o, published
a small volume, entitled, Providence Displayed: or, The Remark-
able Adventures of Alexander Selkirk," &c. &c. A few additional
particulars are contained in The Life of Alexander Selkirk," by
John Howell, London, 1829. The most recent work, I believe, on
the subject, is entitled Crusoniana; or, Truth versus Fiction, eluci-
dated in a History of the Islands of Juan Fernandez, by a Retired
Governor of that Colony. Manchester. Published by the author.
i843." The author was Lieut.-Col. Thomas Sutcliffe, and his
account of Selkirk forms the second chapter of his work, pp. 14-52.
I have yet to state one interesting fact, on the authority of the

Panama Star and Herald of 6th October, 1868; namely, that a
monument had been executed by Messrs. J. Child & Son, Valparaiso,
for erection on the island of Juan Fernandez. Its inscription will
tell its own tale:-
A native of LARGO, in the County of FIFE, SCOTLAND,
Who lived on this Island, in complete Solitude,
For four years and four months.

He was landed from the Cinque Ports galley, 96 tons,
18 guns, A.D. 1704, and was taken off in the
Duke, privateer, 12th February, 1709.

He died Lieutenant of H.M.S. Weymouth,
A.D. 1723, aged 47 years.

This Tablet is erected near Selkirk's look-out,
of H.M.S. TOPAZE, A.D. 1868.
The above, erected in a desolate island on the opposite side of the
globe, after the lapse of a hundred and fifty years, is evidence of the
force of intellectual genius exerted by the writer who first made
Selkirk famous. This brings us back to the author of "Robinson
Crusoe," whose imperishable work will still exist, in all its freshness,
when the most endurable monument of marble shall have been re-
solved into its original dust.

The great reputation of Robinson Crusoe" has attached a degree
of interest to every fact connected with its history. As to the
authorship of the work. Nearly fifty years after its first publication
a rumour was alluded to, in the Biographia Britannica, that Dr.
Arbuthnot was the writer; but no reason was given, and the account
concludes with stating:-" it was the delectable Offspring of the
teeming Brain of Daniel Defoe, a Writer famous in his Generation
for Politics and Poetry."
A more circumstantial tissue of hearsay appeared about eight years
later, when Mr. T. Warton gravely stated that the Rev. Benjamin'
Holloway, of Middleton Stony, told him, that Lord Sunderland
assured him, that the first volume of Robinson Crusoe" was written

by the Earl of Oxford, while a Prisoner in the Tower, as an amuse-
ment under confinement,"-and was given to Defoe, who visited
him there; and, that Defoe printed it as his own, with his Lordship's
approbation, adding the second volume, the inferiority of which is
generally acknowledged." Now, ist, Lord Oxford was so pros-
trated by illness, during the greater part of his imprisonment, that it
was matter of speculation whether or not he would live to be tried.
He was incapable of preparing his defence, and on that account the
House of Lords, from time to time, granted his petitions for post-
ponement of his trial. He was therefore in no capacity to write a
romance as an amusement under confinement." 2nd,-He was
discharged from his impeachment, by the House of Lords, two years
before Robinson Crusoe" was heard of. 3rd,-Only the Earl of
Oxford and Defoe could have originally known if there had been any
foundation of truth in the matter, and there is not a tittle of evidence
that either ever uttered a word thereon. 4th,-Lord Sunderland
would have been one of the last to whom they would have communi-
cated the secret, because :-5th,-During the whole of the impeach-
ment against Lord Oxford, Lord Sunderland spoke and voted against
him. There could be no intercourse between the prisoner, and the
man who believed him a traitor, and sought to bring his head to the
block. 6th,-Defoe was in the service of the government, and under
Lord Sunderland's power, during Lord Oxford's imprisonment, and
he so continued when Robinson Crusoe" was published. Self in-
terest would make him reticent. 7th,-The smallest share of critical
.acumen is sufficient to decide not only that the second volume of
" Robinson Crusoe" is not inferior to the first, but that the two
volumes are equally the offspring of the same parent.

It seems the singular fate of human greatness to be misunderstood,
disparaged, and comparatively forgotten by the generations imme-
diately succeeding. Shakespeare, Milton, Queen Anne, the Duke of
Marlborough, Daniel Defoe, and many others might be mentioned as
instances of this neglect of posterity. Great men ultimately, however,
become incorporated with the history of their country; and some
later literary research brings to light much that had been obscured,
and enables after ages to form more accurate judgment of their
characters and genius. Defoe is now much better known than
he was a hundred years ago. Going back to the pamphlets and
newspapers of the period, it becomes obvious that no doubt whatever
existed, at the time, as to the authorship of Robinson Crusoe." In
the year of its first appearance, and even before the second volume
was published, a mutilated abridgment of the first was clandestinely
printed for T. Cox, of the Amsterdam Coffee-House, in London.
When remonstrated with and threatened, he only replied by an


Advertisement in "The Flying Post," in which he abused and in-
sulted Defoe; proving, that although the work was published anony-
mously, there was, even then, no doubt as to the authorship. In the
preface to the first edition of the second volume Defoe alludes to
this transaction. In the same year also, Charles Gildon published a
satirical pamphlet, entitled, "The Life and Strange Surprizing Ad-
"ventures of Mr. D- De F- of London, Hosier, who has
"lived above fifty Years by himself, in the Kingdoms of North and
"South Britain. The various Shapes he has appeared in, and the
"Discoveries he has made for the Benefit of his Country. In a
"Dialogue between Him, Robinson Crusoe, and his Man Friday.
"With Remarks Serious and Comical upon the Life of Crusoe." In
"An Epistle to D- D' F-e, the reputed Author of Robinson
Crusoe." The writer confesses that Crusoe" was already fam'd
"from Tuttle Street to Limehouse-hole. There is not an old
"Woman," says he, that can go to the price of it, but buys thy
"' Life and Adventures,' and leaves it as a Legacy, with the
" Pilgrim's Progress,' the Practice of Piety,' and 'God's Revenge
" against Murther,' to her Posterity."
Defoe does not seem to have replied to the above; but when, a
few years later, Bishop Benjamin Hoadley inserted some strictures in
the London Journal about Robinson Crusoe" filling his pockets with
biscuit, after having previously divested himself of his clothes, Defoe
replied very warmly in Applebees Journal. In like manner he was
highly incensed at one of the pirates, who then infested the coasts of
Carolina and Virginia, for having named his ship Robinson Crusoe,
and calls him "a most bloody-minded murdering Rogue." A col-
lateral and inferential bearing on the fact of Defoe's authorship may
be found in the chagrin of the booksellers against Mr. William
Taylor, for his having secured to himself the great profits arising from
the publication of Robinson Crusoe;" and, that seven or more of
them shortly afterward, entered into a confederacy for the joint pub-
lication of such works of fiction as Defoe might write.

Another unfounded rumour of the generation after Defoe's decease
was, that Selkirk had written some Memoir or Journal, which he
placed in Defoe's hands in order that he might digest it for publica-
tion, but that the latter used the documents for his own purpose to
the damage of their author,-and then returned the papers to Selkirk,
telling him his history would not sell. The answer is simple and
complete. I have stated that Selkirk returned to England in 17 I,-
that the volume of Capt. Woodes Rogers, and that of Capt. Edward
Cooke were both published in 1712; followed by Sir Richard Steele's
paper in 1713. These three accounts contained what Selkirk had to
say of himself, and being printed, they became public property. Yet

they remained otherwise entirely unappropriated until Defoe's work
appeared in 1719; and, in "Robinson Crusoe," nothing has been
discovered to be historic fact except what he gathered from those pre-
viously published works. I have mentioned the titles of subsequent
accounts of Selkirk, containing many additional particulars of his
adventures, but none of these are to be found in "Robinson Crusoe."
Mr. James and others, to whom we are indebted for investigating the
history of Selkirk, tell us that John Selkirk, a weaver at Largo, in
" 1794, was in possession of the Gun and Chest which his great-uncle
" brought from Juan Fernandez; and they also had a drinking Cup
" of Cocoa-nut shell, tipped with silver, which had been his property."
These treasures are known to be still in existence; but of those who
had carefully preserved such relics, Mr. James states (in 800o) "Even
" Selkirk's relations do not know that he left any Journals behind
" him." The conclusion is evident:-That Defoe fairly acquired,
from published accounts, some of the fundamental incidents of
" Robinson Crusoe's" Life; but the ever-varying events that fill up
the historic monotony,-the useful and improving moralities,-and
the fascinating style,-are all his own.

It mayadd to the interest of "Robinson Crusoe," with young readers,
to know something of the circumstances under which it was written.
There is every reason to believe that Defoe was then quite easy as to
his pecuniary circumstances ; yet there is perhaps no parallel in the
world's history to his marvellous literary industry. The following is
an epitome of his known labours, from the appearance of the first
volume of Robinson Crusoe," on the 25th of April, 1719 (pp. 366),
to the publication, on the 6th of August 1720, of the third volume
(now never reprinted,) entitled Serious Reflections during the Life
and Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. With his Vision of
the Angelick World," &c.
Besides holding a very responsible though objectionable office of
Censor of Public Journals," under the government of George I., he
edited, at the same time, a monthly publication called Mercurius
Politics, each number containing not less than 64 pages; a Weekly
Journal;-occasionally The Whitehall Evening Post, published thrice
weekly ;-and part of the time a paper called The Daily Post. In
addition to these, the first volume of Crusoe was immediately fol-
lowed by Some Account of the Life, &c., of Henry Baron Goertz,
(pp. 46.) A Letter to the Dissenters, (pp. 27.) The Anatomy of Ex-
change Alley, (pp. 64.) Then appeared the second volume of Robinson
Crusoe, published on the 2oth of August 1719, (pp. 380.) This was
succeeded by Dickory Cronke, (pp. 64.) Charity still a Christian
Virtue, (pp. 72.) The King of Pirates, Captain Avery, (pp. too.)
The Chimera, (pp. 76.) The Life and Adventures of Mr. Duncan

they remained otherwise entirely unappropriated until Defoe's work
appeared in 1719; and, in "Robinson Crusoe," nothing has been
discovered to be historic fact except what he gathered from those pre-
viously published works. I have mentioned the titles of subsequent
accounts of Selkirk, containing many additional particulars of his
adventures, but none of these are to be found in "Robinson Crusoe."
Mr. James and others, to whom we are indebted for investigating the
history of Selkirk, tell us that "John Selkirk, a weaver at Largo, in
" 1794, was in possession of the Gun and Chest which his great-uncle
" brought from Juan Fernandez; and they also had a drinking Cup
" of Cocoa-nut shell, tipped with silver, which had been his property."
These treasures are known to be still in existence; but of those who
had carefully preserved such relics, Mr. James states (in 1800) Even
" Selkirk's relations do not know that he left any Journals behind
"him." The conclusion is evident:-That Defoe fairly acquired,
from published accounts, some of the fundamental incidents of
" Robinson Crusoe's" Life; but the ever-varying events that fill up
the historic monotony,-the useful and improving moralities,-and
the fascinating style,-are all his own.

It mayadd to the interest of "Robinson Crusoe," with young readers,
to know something of the circumstances under which it was written.
There is every reason to believe that Defoe was then quite easy as to
his pecuniary circumstances; yet there is perhaps no parallel in the
world's history to his marvellous literary industry. The following is
an epitome of his known labours, from the appearance of the first
volume of Robinson Crusoe," on the 25th of April, I719 (pp. 366),
to the publication, on the 6th of August i72o, of the third volume
(now never reprinted,) entitled Serious Reflections during the Life
and Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. With his Vision of
the Angelick World," &c.
Besides holding a very responsible though objectionable office of
Censor of Public Journals," under the government Qf George I., he
edited, at the same time, a monthly publication called Mercurius
Politicus, each number containing not less than 64 pages; a Weekly
Journal;-occasionally The Whitehall Evening Post, published thrice
weekly;--and part of the time a paper called The Daily Post. In
addition to these, the first volume of Crusoe was immediately fol-
lowed by Some Account of the Life, &c., of Henry Baron Goertz,
(pp. 46.) A Letter to the Dissenters, (pp. 27.) The Anatomy of Ex-
change Alley, (pp. 64.) Then appeared the second volume of Robinson
Crusoe, published on the 2oth of August i~'i(pp. 380.) This was
succeeded by Dickory Cronke, (pp. 64.) Charity still a Christian
Virtue, (pp. 72.) The King of Pirates, Captain Avery, (pp. ioo.)
The Chimera, (pp. 76.) The Life and Adventures of Mr. Duncan


rilous dialogue already alluded to, in a field at Stoke Newington,
where Defoe would be close to his home. We now know, from more
recent researches, that he was in London, where his duties under
the Government imperatively required his presence,-that he was
under no necessity of concealment:-and, that Robinson Crusoe"
could only have been written in his own house at Stoke Newington.

But I must now acquaint such readers of Robinson Crusoe" as
are not already aware of the fact, that besides having Alexander
Selkirk as an historical Original," there is enclosed, in an occult
manner, throughout its pages, an Emblematic Original," namely,
that Crusoe contains the principal events of Defoe's own Life.
The first and second volumes contain all the narrative and romantic
part of Robinson Crusoe ;" but I have stated that there is a third
volume, now never reprinted, and little known, entitled Serilos Rie-
iectio;ns, &c. It is filled with metaphysical disquisitions on morals
and religion, divided into chapters and sections :-On S,/itude,-On
]Hon~estv,--On, Iinora/,i' of C.'i,'rsafion,-On t/up"resent Stat' of Rc-
liioll in the1 11ldr/,-On J)i:'zine P'rov'idence,-On the proportion bc-
it7c'en the /nuI/In'ers (f C/ ris/ians and :Pa ans,-and a vision of the
Ang will be obvious that, however interesting these digressive 'Reections
may be to the Christian philosopher, this third volume is not adapted
to the same class of readers as the two narrative volumes. It wants
that simple naturalness, the charm of reality,-which, in them, is
spread over the commonest incidents ; and yet,-all concentrating in
one solitary man,-combine to perfect the fascination of the story.
The above may be sufficient to serve two purposes :-first, why
the -volume of Serious Re/h-ctions has rarely been reprinted with the
narrative, and is also omitted in the present edition ,-and secondly,
why I have thus mentioned it in this Introduction, namely, that the
Preface to the third volume discloses the fact, that the vicissitudes of
Defoe's own Life are ; i ..-.ii. -l!I related in the narrative volumes of
the work.
In this Preface he affirms that the story, though Allegorical, is
also Historical. Farther, that there is a Man alive, and well known
too, the Actions of whose Life are the just subject of these Volumes,
and to whom all or most Part of the Story most directly alludes;
this may be depended upon for Truth. Without letting the Reader
into a nearer Explication of tie Matter, I proceed to let him know,
that the happy deductions I have employed myself to make from
all the Circumstances of my Story, will abundantly make him amends
for his not having the Emblem explained by the Original. In a
Word, there's not a Circumstance in the imaginary Story, but has
its just allusion to a real Story, and Chimes Part for Part, and Step

for Step, with the inimitable Life of Robinson Crusoe." With re-
spect to the fictitious representation of Crusoe's forced confinement
in an island, he says, 'tis as reasonable to represent one kind of
"Imprisonment by another, as it is to represent any Thing that really
exists by that which exists not. Had the common way of writing
a Man's private History been taken, and I had given you the con-
"duct or Life of a Man you knew, and whose Misfortunes and In-
firmities perhaps you had sometimes unjustly triumphed over; all
"I could have said would have yielded no Diversion, and perhaps
"scarce have obtained a reading, or at best no attention. The
"Teacher, like a greater, having no Honour in his own country."
From this it is quite clear that Defoe had seriously considered the
propriety, or otherwise, of writing his autobiography; but having in
his surprising adventures, as he goes on to say, "suffered all manner
of Violences and Oppressions, injurious Reproaches, contempt of
Men, attacks of Devils, corrections from Heaven, and Oppositions
on Earth; and had innumerable ups and downs in matters of For-
S" tune," he was convinced that the clearing up of his own character
and conduct, in plain words, would be an indictment against the age
in which he had lived. That his contemporaries would either refuse
to read, or would resent it. He therefore gave to the world the
eventful story of his own Life, and the lessons contained therein,
under the "Emblem" of Robinson Crusoe, "without letting the
"Reader into a nearer Explication of the matter."
If we could now lay open The Life and Strange Surprizing
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, side by side with Memoirs of the
Life of Daniel Dejoe, and trace throughout the parallels between
what he calls the "Emblem" and the "Original," the results
would be as valuable as interesting; but the attempt would, we
fear, be comparatively in vain. What the author intended to be
only veiled, time has rendered obscure, if not consigned to entire

Having already given the exact dates when the first editions of the
respective volumes of Crusoe were published, I must add a few words
as to the success of the work. The first volume was so immediately
sold off that a second edition was published on the 12th May, only
seventeen days after the first;-a third, on the 6th June ;-a spurious
edition on the 7th August ;-and, on the following day, the fourth
edition appeared. Meanwhile, the author had been busy on the
second volume; and there is reason to believe that its first edition,
on the 20th August, was a very large issue. During the same year
the two volumes were translated into German and French. From
the 7th October, 1719, to the 19th October, 1720, the first and
second volumes were reprinted, in weekly portions, in a newspaper


called the Original London Post, or Heathcote's Intdllhgencer. The
fifth edition was an abridgment, in one volume, on the 19th Nov.
1720 ;-the sixth, in two volumes, 28th October, 1721 ;-the seventh,
on the 28th February, 1722 ; and the eighth, in two volumes, with 14
copper-plates, (called the 6th Edition,) on the 5th of June, in the
same year. Since then, it has been translated and printed in Italian,
Spanish, Russian, Arabic, and almost every living language that has
become subjected to grammar and the press. Even Latin and Greek
are not without their translations of this immortal work. In English,
the editions have been, and continue to be innumerable ;-from the
elegantly illustrated, gilt-leaved and morocco-bound, costly edition,
for the aristocratic drawing-room,-down, down, through all sizes,
abridgments, and prices, suited to every grade of society and every
class of readers, to the penny, and even farthing books, vended only
from the basket of the itinerant village hawker.
It has been truly said that Defoe took no more of "Robinson
Crusoe" from the accounts of Selkirk than Shakespeare did of Mac-
beth and Hamlet from the old Scotch and Danish Chronicles; yet
we have seen that all the materials, available to Defoe, had been pub-
lished, and were therefore at the service of any other writer, from
six to seven years, though none had made use of them, before the
genius of our author gave to the world his celebrated romance. No
sooner however had the work appeared than its popularity called
forth many imitations, some of them short-lived, but several still
known and read.
Mr. Wilson is mistaken in saying that the first rival of Crusoe was
"Philip Quarll." The following work was published on the 3rd
October, 1719, and it will be at once seen that the name "Vend-
church" is a travestied synonym of Selkirk: The Adventures and
Surprizing Deliverances of James Dubourdieu and his Wife, from
the uninhabited Part of the Island of Paradise, &c. Also the
Adventures of Alexander Vendchurch, set on Shore on an Island
in the South Sea," &c. The next was, "The Life and Strange
Surprizing Adventures of Major Alexander Ramkins," &c., pub-
lished the 3rd Dec. 1719. Two days afterwards appeared, "The
Voyages, Travels, and dangerous Adventures of Captain Richard
Falconer," &c. Defoe himself further contributed to the love of
maritime adventure by writing,-" The King of Pirates: Being an
Account of the Famous Enterprizes of Captain Avery, the Mock
King of Madagascar," &c., published on the ioth Dec. i719. And
again, on the 4th of June, in the following year, appeared his Life,
Adventures and Piracies of the Famous Captain Singleton," &c.
Many of the imitations of Crusoe are now almost forgotten; but I
may mention "The Voyages and Adventures of Miles Phillips, a
West Country Sailor, &c. Written by Himself," &c.. published the 26th


Feb. 1724. The colonies of North America must also have their
Crusoe, and in Dec. 1725, a book was published at Boston, New
England, entitled, The Strange Adventures and Signal Deliverances
" of Mr. Philip Ashton, Jun., &c. who lived alone upon a Desolate
" Island in the Gulph of Honduras for about Sixteen Months." I
may also notice, in order of date, while passing, that on the 2oth of
January, 1726, was published A Voyage Round the World by Way
of the Great South Sea, &c. By Captain George Shelvocke."
From this book it appears that Shelvocke's ship was cast away, the
25th of May, 1720, on the island of Juan Ferandez, and that he and
his crew remained there until the 6th of October in the same year.
He fully describes the island, but mentions no relics of Selkirk, or of
any previous human inhabitant; and he appears to have been, by
long absence from England, ignorant of the existence of "Robinson
Crusoe." On the ioth of March, 1726, appeared, "The Voyages
and Adventures of Captain Robert Boyle," &c. And in October
of the same year, Dean Swift's celebrated Travels into several
Remote Nations of the World, by Lemuel Gulliver," &c. The
longest-lived, among the strict imitations of Crusoe, was published on
the isth of April, 1727, and is entitled "The Hermit: or, the Un-
" paralleled Sufferings and Surprizing Adventures of Mr. Philip
" Quarll, an Englishman. Who was discovered by Mr. Dorrington, a
" Bristol Merchant, upon an uninhabited Island in the South Sea;
" where he has lived above Fifty Years, without any human Assist-
"ance, still continues to reside, and will not come away," &c. This,
though very inferior to Crusoe, is still reprinted in abridged form,
and in numerous editions. I might go on to mention, "A Voyage
to Cacklogallinia, by Captain S. Brunt," published the isth of July,
1727. And "The Pleasant and Surprizing Adventures of Mr.
" Robert Drury, during his Fifteen Years' Captivity on the Island of
" Madagascar," &c. which first appeared on the 24th of May, 1729 ;
and, in which, the hero is almost as perfectly isolated inland, among
the barbarous natives, as Crusoe was on his desolate island. I
might enumerate others that appeared between 1730 and 1750, when
" The Life and Adventures of Peter Wilkins, a Cornish Man. Taken
" from his own Mouth in his Passage to England from off Cape
" Horn in America, in the Ship Hector," was published. These
however will suffice to show how large a fleet of smaller craft followed
in the wake of that which, in 1719, began its course along the stream
of time, having on board Robinson Crusoe, of York, Mariner."

Thus, to recapitulate, I have given a brief account of the His-
torical original" of this celebrated work,-of its authorship,-the cir-
cumstances under which it was composed,-the place where it was
written,-its Emblematic Original," as enclosing an autobiography


of Defoe, the author,-how it was received by the world, its imme-
diate and lasting popularity,-the numerous rivals and imitations that
followed it.

Shall I still keep my readers from the rich intellectual repast before
them, by lengthening out this grace before meat" with any feeble
observations and encomiums of my own ? As to the naturalness,-
the truth and simplicity,-the fine sentiments, the delicate wit,-the
pure morality,-the instructive vindication of the ways of Provi-
dence,-to be found everywhere in the following pages; all of which,
and other unmentioned beauties, make it greatly superior to any
other work of its kind ? I am convinced that I should not deserve
thanks for so doing; nor even if I were to greatly extend this Intro-
duction by quoting the criticism and eloquent things said of it by a
host of writers and men of genius ; among whom are the names of
Dr. Blair, Dr. Johnson, M. Rousseau, M. Marmontel, Chalmers, Dr.
Beattie, Dr. Towers, Sir Walter Scott, Charles Lamb, Judge Tal-
fourd, S. T. Coleridge, Wilson, Hazlitt, and Archbishop Whately.
The day has long since gone by when "Robinson Crusoe" required
any testimonial as to character.

I have aimed only at adding something to what is popularly known
respecting the history of the book, and hope I have to some extent

Probably few of the present generation, especially of the young,
have ever seen the first and unabridged edition of Robinson
Crusoe," except perhaps the one locked up, as a rarity, in a glass
show-case in the British Museum. Scarcely any work has been more
mutilated by printers; and there is reason to doubt whether, in
modern times, the original has ever been reprinted verbatim. I am
able to affirm that the present is an exact reproduction from my own
copy of the first edition. The illustrations by an eminent French
artist have been designed expressly for this edition.




WAS born in the Year 1632, in the City of York,
of a good Family, though not of that Country, my
Father being a Foreigner of Bremen, who settled
first at Hull: He got a good Estate by Merchan-
dise, and leaving off his Trade, lived afterwards at
York, from whence he had married my Mother,
hose Relations were named Robinson, a very good Family in that
curntry, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but by
he usual Corruption of Words in England, we are now called, nay
%'c call ourselves, and write our Name Crusoe, and so my Com-
parn.:ni always called me.
I had two elder Brothers, one of which was Lieutenant Colonel to
an E'. lish Regiment of Foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by
i I':rijous Col. Lockhart, and was killed at the Battle near Dunkirk
i: i,--t the Spaniards: What became of my second Brother I never
n..' many more than my Father or Mother did know what was
w':.:.ri: of me.
Seing the third Son of the Family, and not bred to any Trade, my
d ead began to be filled very early with rambling Thoughts: My Father,
iho was very ancient, had given me a competent Share of Learning,
s far as House-Education and a Country Free-School generally goes,


and designed me for the Law; but I would be satisfied with nothing
but going to Sea, and my Inclination to this led me so strongly against
the Will, nay the Commands of my Father, and against all the En-
treaties and Persuasions of my Mother and other Friends, that there
seemed to be something fatal in that Propension of Nature tending
directly to the Life of Misery which was to befall me.
My Father, a wise and grave Man, gave me serious and excellent
Counsel against what he foresaw was my Design. He called me one
Morning into his Chamber, where he was confined by the Gout, and
expostulated very warmly with me upon this Subject: He asked me
what Reasons more than a mere wandering Inclination I had for
leaving my Father's House and my native Country, where I might be
well introduced, and had a Prospect of raising my Fortunes by Appli-
cation and Industry, with a Life of Ease and Pleasure. He told me
it was for Men of desperate Fortunes on one Hand, or of aspiring,
superior Fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon Adventures, to
rise by Enterprize, and make themselves famous in Undertakings of a
Nature out of the common Road; that these things were all either too
far above me, or too far below me; that mine was the middle State,
or what might be called the upper Station of Low Life, which he had
found by long Experience was the best State in the World, the most
suited to human Happiness, not exposed to the Miseries and Hard-
ships, the Labour and Sufferings of the mechanic Part of Mankind,
and not embarrassed with the Pride, Luxury, Ambition and Envy of
the upper Part of Mankind. He told me, I might judge of the Hap-
piness of this State, by this one thing, viz. That this was the State of
Life which all other People envied, that Kings have frequently la-
nented the miserable Consequences of being born to great things, and
wished they had been placed in the Middle of the two Extremes,
between the Mean and the Great; that the wise Man gave his Testi-
mony to this as the just Standard of true Felicity, when he prayed to
have neither Poverty or Riches.
He bid me observe it, and I should always find, that the Calami-
ties of Life were shared among the upper and lower Part of Mankind;
but that the middle Station had the fewest Disasters, and was not
expos'd to so many Vicissitudes as the higher or lower Part of Man-
kind; nay, they were not subjected to so many Distempers and
Uneasinesses either of Body or Mind, as those were who, by vicious
Living, Luxury and Extravagances on one Hand, or by hard Labour,

Want of Necessaries, and mean or insufficient Diet on the other
Hand, bring Distempers upon themselves by the natural Conse-
quences of their Way of Living; That the middle Station of Life was
calculated for all kinds of Virtues and all kinds of Enjoyments ; that
Peace and Plenty were the Handmaids of a middle Fortune; that
Temperance, Moderation, Quietness, Health, Society, all agreeable
Diversions, and all desirable Pleasures, were the Blessings attending
the middle Station of Life; that this Way Men went silently and
smoothly through the World, and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed
with the Labours of the Hands or of the Head, not sold to the Life
of Slavery for daily Bread, or harass'd with perplex'd Circumstances,
which rob the Soul of Peace, and the Body of Rest; not enrag'd with
the Passion of Envy, or secret burning Lust of Ambition for great
things; but in easy Circumstances sliding gently through the World, and
sensibly tasting the Sweets of living, without the bitter, feeling that
they are happy, and learning by every Day's Experience to know it
more sensibly.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young Man, not to precipitate myself into
Miseries which Nature and the Station of Life I was born in, seemed
to have provided against; that I was under no Necessity of seeking
my Bread; that he would do well for me, and endeavour to enter me
fairly into the Station of Life which he had been just recommending
to me; and that if I was not very easy and happy in the World, it
must be my mere Fate or Fault that must hinder it, and that he
should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his Duty in
warning me against Measures which he knew would be to my Hurt:
In a word, that as he would do very kind things for me if I would
stay and settle at Home as he directed, so he would not have so
much Hand in my Misfortunes, as to give me any Encouragement to
go away: And to close all, he told me I had my elder Brother for an
Example, to whom he had used the same earnest Persuasions to keep
him from going into the Low Country Wars, but could not prevail,
his young Desires prompting him to run into the Army where he
was killed; and though he said he would not cease to pray for me, yet
he would venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish Step,
God would not bless me, and I would have Leisure hereafter to re-
flect upon having neglected his Counsel when there might be none to
assist in my Recovery.

I observed in this last Part of his Discourse, which was truly
Prophetic, though I suppose my Father did not know it to be so
himself; I say, I observed the Tears run down his Face very
plentifully, and especially when he spoke of my Brother who
was killed and that when he spoke of my having Leisure to repent,
and none to assist me, he was so moved, that he broke off the Dis-
course, and told me, his Heart was so full he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this Discourse, as indeed who could
be otherwise; and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more,
but to settle at home according to my Father's Desire. But alas I a
few Days wore it all off; and in short, to prevent any of my Father's
farther Importunities, in a few Weeks after, I resolved to run quite
away from him. However, I did not act so hastily neither as my
first Heat of Resolution prompted, but I took my Mother, at a time
when I thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and told her,
that my Thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the World, that
I should never settle to anything with Resolution enough to go
through with it, and my Father had better give me his Consent than
force me to go without it; that I was now Eighteen Years old, which
was too late to go Apprentice to a Trade, or Clerk to an Attorney;
that I was sure if I did, I should never serve out my time, and I
should certainly run away from my Master before my Time was out,
and go to Sea; and if she would speak to my Father to let me go
but one Voyage abroad, if I came home again and did not like it,
I would go no more, and I would promise by a double Dili-
gence to recover that Time I had lost.
This put my Mother into a great Passion: She told me, she knew
it would be to no Purpose to speak to my Father upon any such
Subject; that he knew too well what was my Interest to give his
Consent to anything so much for my Hurt, and that she wondered
how I could think of any such thing after such a Discourse as I had
had with my Father, and such kind and tender Expressions as she
knew my Father had used to me; and that in short, if I would ruin
myself there was no Help for me; but I might depend I should
never have their Consent to it: That for her Part she would not have
so much Hand in my Destruction; and I should never have it to say,
that my Mother was willing when my Father was not.
Though my Mother refused to move it to my Father, yet as I have
heard afterwards, she reported all the Discourse to him, and that my

Father, after showing a great Concern at it, said to her with a Sigh,
That Boy might be happy if he would stay at home, but if he goes
abroad he will be the miserablest Wretch that was ever born: I can
give no Consent to it.
It was not till almost a Year after this that I broke loose, though in
the mean time I continued obstinately deaf to all Proposals of
settling to Business, and frequently expostulating with my Father and
Mother, about their being so positively determined against what they

(sI Il

Knew my Inclinations prompted me to. But being one Day atHiul4
where I went casually, and without any Purpose of making an Elope-
ment that time; but I say, being there, and one of my Companions
being going by Sea to London, in his Father's Ship, and prompting
me to go with them, with the common Allurement of Seafaring Men,
viz. That it should cost me nothing for my Passage, I consulted
neither Father or Mother any more, nor so much as sent them Word
of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, without asking
God's Blessing, or my Father's, without any Consideration of Circum-


stances or Consequences, and in an ill Hour, God kk_ as. On the
first of September 1651, I went on Board a Ship bound for London:
never any young Adventurer's Misfortunes, I believe, began sooner,
or continued longer than mine. The Ship was no sooner gotten out
of the Humber, but the Wind began to blow, and the Waves to rise
in a most frightful manner; and as I had never been at Sea before, I
was most inexpressibly sick in Body, and terrified in my Mind: I
began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly
I was overtaken by the Judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving
my Father's House, and abandoning my Duty; all the good Counsel
of my Parents, my Father's Tears and my Mother's Entreaties came
now fresh into my Mind, and my Conscience, which was not yet
come to the Pitch of Hardness to which it has been since, reproach'd
me with the Contempt of Advice, and the Breach of my Duty to God
and my Father.
All this while the Storm increased, and the Sea, which I had never
been upon before, went very high, though nothing like what I have seer.
many times since; no, nor like what I saw a few Days after: But it
was enough to affect me then, who was but a young Sailor, and had
never known anything of the matter. I expected every Wave would
have swallowed us up, and that every time the Ship fell down, as 1
thought, in the Trough or Hollow of the Sea, we should never rise
more; and in this Agony of Mind, I made many Vows and Resolu-
tions, that if it would please God here to spare my Life this one
Voyage, if ever I got once my Foot upon dry Land again, I would
go directly home to my Father, and never set it into a Ship again
while I lived; that I would take his Advice, and never run myself
into such Miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly'the Good-
ness of his Observations about the middle Station of Life, how easy,
how comfortably he had lived all his Days, and never had been ex-
pos'd to Tempests at Sea, or Troubles on Shore; and I resolved that
I would, like a true repenting Prodigal, go home to my Father.
These wise and sober Thoughts continued all the while the Storm
continued, and indeed some time after; but the next Day the Wind
was abated and the Sea calmer, and I began to be a little inur'd tc
it: However I was very grave for all that Day, being also a little Sea
sick still; but towards Night the Weather cleared up, the Wind was
quite over, and a charming fine Evening followed; the Sun went down
perfectly c'ear and rose so the next Morning; and having little or no

Wind, and a smooth Sea, the Sun shining upon it, the Sight was, as I
thought, the'most delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the Night, and was now no more Sea sick but
very cheerful, looking with Wonder upon the Sea that was so rough
and terrible the Day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in
so little time after. And now lest my good Resolutions should con-
tinue, my Companion, who had indeed entic'd me away, comes to me,
Well Bob, says he, clapping me on the Shoulder, How do you do after
it I warrant you were frighted, wasn't you, last Night, when it blew
but a Capfull of Wind? A Capfull do you callit? said I, 'twas a
terrible Storm : A Storm, you Fool you, replies he, do you call that a
Storm ? why it was nothing at all; give us but a good Ship and Sea
Room, and we think nothing of such a Squall of Wind as that; but you're
but a fresh-water Sailor, Bob; come let us make a Bowl of Punch and
we'll forget all that, d'ye see what charming Weather 'tis now. To
make short this sad Part of my Story, we went the old way of all
Sailors, the Punch was made, and I was made drunk with it, and in
that one Night's Wickedness I drowned all my Repentance, all my
Reflections upon my past Conduct, and all my Resolutions for my
future. In a word, as the Sea was returned to its Smoothness of
Surface and settled Calmness by the Abatement of that Storm, so the
Hurry of my Thoughts being over, my Fears and Apprehensions of
being swallow'd up by the Sea being forgotten, and the Current of
my former Desires returned, I entirely forgot the Vows and Promises
that I made in my Distress. I found indeed some Intervals of Re-
flection, and the serious Thoughts did, as it were endeavour to return
again sometimes, but I shook them off, and roused myself from them
as it were from a Distemper, and applying myself to Drink and
Company, soon mastered the Return of those Fits, for so I called
them, and I had in five or six Days got as complete a Victory over
Conscience as any young Fellow that resolved not to be troubled with
it, could desire: But I was to have another Trial for it still; and
Providence, as in such Cases generally it does, resolved to leave me
entirely without Excuse. For if I would not take this for a Delive-
rance, the next was to be such a one as the worst and most harden'd
Wretch among us would confess both the Danger and the Mercy.
The sixth Day of our being at Sea we came into Yarmouth Roads;
the Wind having been contrary, and the Weather calm, we had made
but little Way since the Storm. Here we were obliged to come to an

Anchor, and here we lay, the Wind continuing contrary, viz. at South-
west, for seven or eight Days, during which time a great many Ships
from Newcastle came into the same Roads, as the common Harbour
where the Ships might wait for a Wind for the River.
We had not however rid here so long, but should have Tided it up
the River, but that the Wind blew too fresh; and after we had lain
four or five Days, blew very hard. However, the Roads being
reckoned as good as a Harbour, the Anchorage good, and our Ground-
Tackle very strong, our Men were unconcerned, and not in the least
apprehensive of Danger, but spent the Time in Rest and Mirth, after
the manner of the Sea; but the eighth Day in the Morning, the Wind
increased, and we had all Hands at Work to strike our Topmasts,
and make everything snug and close, that the Ship might ride as easy
as possible. By Noon the Sea went very high indeed, and our Ship
rid Forecastle in, shipped several Seas, and we thought once or twice
our Anchor had come home; upon which our Master ordered out the
Sheet Anchor; so that we rode with two Anchors a-Head, and the
Cables veered out to the better End.
By this Time it blew a terrible Storm indeed, and now I began to
see Terror and Amazement in the Faces even of the Seamen them-
selves. The Master, though vigilant to the Business of preserving the
Ship, yet as he went in and out of his Cabin by me, I could hear
him softly to himself say several times, Lord be merciful to us, we shall
be all lost, we shall be all undone; and the like. During these first
Hurries, I was stupid, lying still in my Cabin, which was in the
Steerage, and cannot describe my Temper: I could ill re-assume the
first Penitence, which I had so apparently trampled upon, and harden'd
myself against: I thought the Bitterness of Death had been past,
and that this would be nothing too like the first. But when the
Master himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we should
be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted : I got up out of my Cabin,
and looked out; but such a dismal Sight I never saw: The Sea went
Mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four Minutes:
When I could look about, I could see nothing but Distress round
us: Two Ships that rid near us we found had cut their Masts by the
Board, being deep laden; and our Men cried out, that a Ship which
rid about a Mile a-Head of us was foundered. Two more Ships
being driven from their Anchors, were run out of the Roads to Sea
at all Adventures, and that with not a Mast standing. The light

Ships fared the best, as not so much labouring in the Sea; but two
or three of them drove, and came close by us, running away with only
their Sprit-sail out before the Wind.
Towards Evening the Mate and Boatswain begged the Master of
our Ship to let them cut away the Foremast, which he was very
unwilling to: But the Boatswain protesting to him, that if he did
not, the Ship would founder, he consented; and when they had cut
away the Foremast, the Mainmast stood so loose, and shook the
Ship so much, they were obliged to cut her away also, and make a
clear Deck.
Any one may judge what a Condition I must be in at all this, who
was but a young Sailor, and who had been in such a Fright before at
but a little. But if I can express at this Distance the Thoughts I
had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more Horror of Mind
upon Account of my former Convictions, and the having returned
from them to the Resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I
was at Death itself; and these added to the Terror of the Storm,
put me into such a Condition, that I can by no Words describe it.
But the worst was not come yet, the Storm continued with such
Fury, that the Seamen themselves acknowledged they had never
known a worse. We had a good Ship, but she was deep laden, and
wallowed in the Sea, that the Seamen every now and then cried out,
she would founder. It was my Advantage in one respect, that I did
not know what they meant by Founder, till I inquir'd. However,
the Storm was so violent, that I saw what is not often seen, the
Master, the Boatswain, and some others more sensible than the rest,
at their Prayers, and expecting every Moment when the Ship would
go to the Bottom. In the Middle of the Night, and under all the
rest of our Distresses, one of the Men that had been down on
Purpose to see, cried out we had sprung a Leak; another said there
was four Foot Water in the Hold. Then all Hands were called to the
Pump. At that very Word my Heart, as I thought, died within me,
and I fell backwards upon the Side of my Bed where I sat, into the
Cabin. However, the Men roused me, and told me, that I that was
able to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as another; at which
I stirred up, and went to the Pump and worked very heartily. While
this was doing, the Master seeing some light Colliers, who not able to
ride out the 4torm, were oblig'd to slip and run away to Sea, and would
come near us, ordered to fire a Gun as a Signal of Distress. I who

knew nothing what that meant, was so surprised, that I thought the Ship
had broke, or some dreadful thing had happened. In a word, I was
so surprised, that I fell down in a Swoon. As this was a time when
everybody had his own Life to think of, nobody minded me, or
what was become of me; but another Man stepped up to the Pump,
and thrusting me aside with his Foot, let me lie, thinking I had been
dead; and it was a great while before I came to myself.
We worked on, but the Water increasing in the Hold, it was appa-
rent that the Ship would founder, and though the Storm began to abate
a little, yet as it was not possible she could swim till we might run
into a Port, so the Master continued firing Guns for Help; and a
light Ship, who had rid it out just a-Head of us ventured a Boat out
to help us. It was with the utmost Hazard the Boat came near us,
but it was impossible for us to get on Board, or for the Boat to lie
near the Ship Side, till at last the Men rowing very heartily, and ven-
turing their Lives to save ours, our Men cast them a Rope over the
Stern with a Buoy to it, and then veered it out a great Length, which
they after great Labour and Hazard took hold of and we hauled them
close under our Stern, and got all into their Boat. It was to no
Purpose for them or us after we were in the Boat to think of reaching
to their own Ship, so all agreed to let her drive and only to pull her in
towards Shore as much as we could, and our Master promised them,
That if the Boat was staved upon Shore he would make it good to
their Master, so partly rowing and partly driving, our Boat went away
to the Norward sloping towards the Shore almost as far as Winter-
/to Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an Hour out of our Ship
but we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time what
was meant by a Ship foundering in the Sea; I must acknowledge I
had hardly Eyes to look up when the Seamen told me she was sink-
ing; for from that Moment they rather put me into the Boat than
that I might be said to go in, my Heart was as it were dead within
me, partly with Fright, partly with Horror of Mind and the Thoughts
of what was yet before me.
While we were in this Condition, the Men yet labouring at the Oar to
bring the Boat near the Shore, we could see, when our Boat mounting
the Waves, we were able to see the Shore, a great many People run-
ning along the Shore to assist us when we should come near, but we
made but slow way towards the Shore, nor were we able to reach the

Shore, till being past the Lighthouse at Winterton, the Shore #lls off
to the Westward towards Cromer, and so the Land broke off a little
the Violence of the Wind: Here we got in, and though not without
much Difficulty got all safe on Shore and walked afterwards on Foot
to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate Men, we were used with great
Humanity as well by the Magistrates of the Town, who assigned us
good Quarters, as by particular Merchants and Owners of Ships, and
had Money given us sufficient to carry us either to London or back to
Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the Sense to have gone back to Hull, and have
gone home, I had been happy, and my Father, an Emblem of our
Blessed Saviour's Parable, had even killed the fatted Calf for me; for
hearing the Ship I went away in was cast away in Yarmouth Road, it
was a great while before he had any Assurance that I was not drowned.
But my ill Fate pushed me on now with an Obstinacy that nothing
could resist; and though I had several times loud Calls from my Reason
and my more composed Judgment to go home, yet I had no Power to
do it. I know not what to call this, nor will I urge, that it is a secret
over-ruling Decree that hurries us on to be the Instruments of our
own Destruction, even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it
with our Eyes open. Certainly nothing but some such decreed una-
voidable Misery attending, and which it was impossible for me to
escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm Reasonings
and Persuasions of my most retired Thoughts, and against two such
visible Instructions as I had met with in my first Attempt.
My Comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was
the Master's Son, was now less forward than I; the first time he
spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or
three Days, for we were separated in the Town to several Quarters;
I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his Tone was alter'd,
and looking very melancholy and shaking his Head, asked me how I
did, and telling his Father who I was, and how I had come this
Voyage only for a Trial in order to go farther abroad; his Father
turning to me with a very grave and concerned Tone, Young Man,
says he, you ought never to go to Sea any more, you ought to take this
for a plain and visible Token that you are not to be a Seafaring Man,
why Sir, said I, will you go to Sea no more ? That is another Case,
said he; it is my Calling, and therefore my Duty; but as you made
this Voyage for a Trial, you see what a Taste Heaven has given

you of what you are to expect ifyou persist; perhaps this is all befallen
us on your Account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray, continues
he, what are you ? and on what Account did you go to Sea ? Upon
that I told him some of my Story; at the End of which he burst out
with a strange kind of Passion, What had I done, says he, that such
an unhappy Wretch should come into my Ship ? I would not set my
Foot in the same Ship with thee again for a Thousand Pounds.
This indeed was, as I said, an Excursion of his Spirits which were
yet agitated by the Sense of his Loss, and was farther than he could
have Authority to go. However he afterwards talked very gravely to
me, exhorted me to go back to my Father, and not tempt Provi-
dence to my Ruin; told me I might see a visible Hand of Heaven
against me, And young Alan, said he, depend upon it, if you do not go
back, wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but Disasters and
Disappointments, till your Father's Words are fulfilled upon you.
We parted soon after; for I made him little Answer, and I saw
him no more; which way he went, I know not. As for me, having
some Money in my Pocket, I travelled to London by Land; and
there, as well as on the Road, had many Struggles with myself, what
Course of Life I should take, and whether I should go Home, or go
to Sea.
As to going Home, Shame opposed the best Motions that offered
to my Thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be
laughed at among the Neighbours, and should be asham'd to see, not
my Father and Mother only, but even everybody else; from whence
I have since often observed, how incongruous and irrational the com-
mon Temper of Mankind is, especially of Youth, to that Reason
which ought to guide them in such Cases, viz. That they are not
asham'd to sin, and yet are asham'd to repent; not asham'd of the
Action for which they ought justly to be esteemed Fools, but are
asham'd of the returning, which only can make them be esteem'd
wise Men.
In this State of Life however I remained some time, uncertain
what Measures to take, and what Course of Life to lead. An irresis-
tible Reluctance continued to going Home; and as I stayed a while,
the Remembrance of the Distress I had been in wore off; and as
that abated, the little Motion I had in my Desires to a Return wore
off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the Thoughts of it, and looked
out for a Voyage.


That evil Influence which carried me first away from my Father's
House, that hurried me into the wild and indigested Notion of raising
my Fortune; and that impressed those Conceits so forcibly upon me,
as to make me deaf to all good Advice, and to the Entreaties and
even Command of my Father: I say the same Influence, whatever
it was, presented the most unfortunate of all Enterprises to my View;
and I went on board a Vessel bound to the Coast of Africa; or, as
our Sailors vulgarly call it, a Voyage to Guinea.
It was my great Misfortune that in all these Adventures I did not
ship myself as a Sailor; whereby, though I might indeed have worked a
little harder than ordinary, yet at the same time I had learned the
Duty and Office of a Foremast Man; and in time might have
qualified myself for a Mate or Lieutenant, if not for a Master: But
as it was always my Fate to choose for the worst, so I did here; for
having Money in my Pocket, and good Clothes upon my Back, I
would always go on board in the Habit of a Gentleman; and so I
neither had any Business in the Ship, or learned to do any.
It was my Lot first of all to fall into pretty good Company in
London, which does not always happen to such loose and unguided
young Fellows as I then was; the Devil generally not omitting to lay
some Snare for them very early: But it was not so with me, I first
fell acquainted with the Master of a Ship who had been on the Coast
of Guinea; and who having had very good Success there, was re-
solved to go again; and who taking a Fancy to my Conversation,
which was not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I had
a mind to see the World, told me if I would go the Voyage with him
I should be at no Expense; I should be his Messmate and his Com-
panion, and if I could carry anything with me, I should have all the
Advantage of it that the Trade would admit; and perhaps I might
meet with some Encouragement.
I embrac'd the Offer, and entering into a strict Friendship with
this Captain, who was an honest and plain-dealing Man, I went the
Voyage with him, and carried a small Adventure with me, which by
the disinterested Honesty of my Friend the Captain, I increased very
considerably; for I carried about 40o. in such Toys and Trifles as
the Captain directed me to buy. This 40o. I had mustered together
by the Assistance of some of my Relations whom I corresponded
with, and who, I believe, got my Father, or at least my Mother, to
contribute so much as that to my first Adventure.

This was the only Voyage, which I may say was successful in all
my Adventures, and which I owe to the Integrity and Honesty of my
Friend the Captain, under whom also I got a competent Knowledge
of the Mathematics and the Rules of Navigation, learned how to keep
an Account of the Ship's Course, take an Observation; and in short,
to understand some things that were needful to be understood by a
Sailor: For, as he took Delight to introduce me, I took Delight to
learn; and, in a word, this Voyage made me both a Sailor and a
Merchant: for I brought home 5 Pounds 9 Ounces of Gold Dust for my
Adventure, which yielded me in London at my Return, almost 300o.
and this filled me with those aspiring Thoughts which have since so
completed my Ruin.
Yet even in this Voyage I had my Misfortunes too; particularly,
that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent Calenture by the
excessive Heat of the Climate; our principal Trading being upon the
Coast, from the Latitude of 15 Degrees North even to the Line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea Trader; and my Friend, to my
great Misfortune, dying soon after his Arrival, I resolved to go the
same Voyage again, and I embark'd in the same Vessel with one who
was his Mate in the former Voyage, and had now got the Command
of the Ship. This was the unhappiest Voyage that ever Man made;
for though I did not carry quite i oo. of my new gained Wealth, so that
I had 200 left, and which I lodged with my Friend's Widow, who was
very just to me, yet I fell into terrible Misfortunes in this Voyage;
and the first was this, viz. Our Ship making her Course towards the
Canary Islands, or rather between those Islands and the African
Shore, was surprised in the Grey of the Morning, by a Turkish Rover
of Sallee, who gave Chase to us with all the Sail she could make. We
crowded also as much Canvas as our Yards would spread, or our
Masts carry, to have got clear; but finding the Pirate gained upon us,
and would certainly come up with us in a few Hours, we prepared to
fight; our Ship having 12 Guns, and the Rogue 18. About three in
the Afternoon he came up with us, and bringing to by Mistake, just
athwart our Quarter, instead of athwart our Ster, as he intended, we
brought 8 of our Guns ta bei on that Side, and poured in a Broadside
upon him, which made him sheer off again, after returning our Fire,
and pouring in also his small Shot from near 200 Men which he had
on Board. However, we had not a Man touched, all our Men keeping
close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves;

but laying us on Board the next time upon our other Quarter, he
entered 60 Men upon our Decks, who immediately fell to cutting and
hacking the Decks and Rigging. We plied them with Small-shot,
Half-Pikes, Powder-Chests, and such like, and cleared our Deck of
them twice. However, to cut short this melancholy Part of our
Story, our Ship being disabled, and three of our Men killed, and eight
wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were carried all Prisoners
into Sallee, a Port belonging to the Moors.
The Usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended,
nor was I carried up the Country to the Emperor's Court, as the rest
of our Men were, but was kept by the Captain of the Rover, as his
proper Prize, and made his Slave, being young and nimble, and fit for
his Business. At this surprising Change of my Circumstances from a
Merchant to a miserable Slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and
now I looked back upon my Father's prophetic Discourse to me, that
I should be miserable, and have none to relieve me, which I thought
was now so effectually brought to pass, that it could not be worse;
that now the Hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone
without Redemption. But alas this was but a Taste of the Misery
I was to go through, as will appear in the Sequel of this Story.
As my new Patron or Master had taken me Home to his House, so
I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went to Sea
again, believing that it would some time or other be his Fate to be
taken by a Spanish or Portugal Man of War; and that then I should
be set at Liberty. But this Hope of mine was soon taken away; for
when he went to Sea, he left me on Shore to look after his little Gar-
den, and do the common Drudgery of Slaves about his House; and
when he came home again from his Cruise, he ordered me to lie in the
Cabin to look after the Ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my Escape; and what Method I
might take to effect it, but found no Way that had the least Probabi-
lity in it: Nothing presented to make the Supposition of it rational;
for I had nobody to communicate it to, that would embark with me;
no Fellow-Slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotsman there but my-
self; so that for two Years, though I often pleased myself with the Im-
agination, yet I never had the least encouraging Prospect of putting
it in Practice.
After about two Years an odd Circumstance presented itself, which
put the old Thought of making some Attempt for my Liberty, again

in my Head: My Patron lying at Home longer than usual, without
fitting out his Ship, which, as I heard, was for want of Money; he
used constantly, once or twice a Week, sometimes oftener, if the
Weather was fair, to take the Ship's Pinnace, and go out into the
Road a fishing; and as he always took me and a young Maresco
with him to row the Boat, we made him very merry, and I proved very
dexterous in catching Fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send
me with a Moor, one of his Kinsmen, and the Youth the Maresco, as
they called him, to catch a Dish of Fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a fishing in a stark calm Morn-
ing, a Fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a League from the
Shore we lost Sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither or which
way, we labour'd all Day and all the next Night, and when the Morn-
ing came we found we had pulled off to Sea instead of pulling in for
the Shore; and that we were at least two Leagues from the Shore :
However we got well in again, though with a great deal of Labour, and
some Danger; for the Wind began to blow pretty fresh in the Morn-
ing; but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our Patron warned by this Disaster, resolved to take more
Care of himself for the future; and having lying by him the Long-
boat of our English Ship we had taken, he resolved he would not
go a fishing any more without a Compass and some Provision; so
he ordered the Carpenter of his Ship, who also was an English Slave,
to build a little State-room or Cabin in the middle of the Long Boat,
like that of a Barge, with a Place to stand behind it to steer and
hale home the Main-sheet; and Room before for a hand or two to
stand and work the Sails; she sailed with that we call a Shoulder of
Mutton Sail; and the Boom gibbed over the Top of the Cabin, which
lay very snug and low, and had in it Room for him to lie, with a
Slave or two, and a Table to eat on, with some small Lockers to put
in some Bottles of such Liquor as he thought fit to drink in; particu-
larly his Bread, Rice and Coffee.
We went frequently out with this Boat a fishing, and as I was
most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me : It
happened that he had appointed to go out in this Boat, either for
Pleasure or for Fish, with two or three Moors of some Distinction in 4
that Place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily; and had
therefore sent on board the Boat over Night, a larger Store of Provi-
sions than ordinary; and had ordered me to get ready three Fuzees


with Powder and Shot, which were on board his Ship; for that they
designed some Sport of Fowling as well as Fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next
Morning with the Boat, washed clean, her Ancient and Pendants
out, and everything to accommodate his Guests; when by and by my
Patron came on board alone, and told me his Guests had put off
going, upon some Business that fell out, and ordered me with the
Man and Boy, as usual, to go out with the Boat and catch them some
Fish, for that his Friends were to sup at his House ; and commanded
that as soon as I had got some Fish I should bring it home to his
House; all which I prepared to do.
This Moment my former Notions of Deliverance darted into my
Thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little Ship at my
Command; and my Master being gone, I prepared to furnish my-
self, not for a fishing Business, but for a Voyage; though I knew not,
neither did I so much as consider whither I should steer; for any-
where to get out of that Place was my Way.
My first Contrivance was to make a Pretence to speak to this
Moor, to get something for our Subsistence on board ; for I told him
we must not presume to eat of our Patron's Bread, he said, that
was true; so he brought a large Basket of Rusk or Biscuit of their
kind, and three Jars with fresh Water into the Boat; I knew where
my Patron's Case of Bottles stood, which it was evident by the
make were taken out of some English Prize; and I conveyed them
into the Boat while the Moor was on Shore, as if they had been there
before, for our Master: I convey'd also a great Lump of Bees-Wax
into the Boat, which weighed above half a Hundred Weight, with a
Parcel of Twine or Thread, a Hatchet, a Saw and a Hammer, all
which were of great Use to us afterwards; especially the Wax to
make Candles. Another Trick I tried upon him, which he inno-
cently came into also; his Name was Ismael, who they call Muly, or
Mocly, so I called to him, Moely said I, our Patron's Guns are on
board the Boat, can you not get a little Powder and Shot, it may be
we may kill some Alcamies (a Fowl like our Curlews) for ourselves,
for I know he keeps the Gunner's Stores in the Ship ? Yes, says Ae,
I'll bring some, and accordingly he brought a great Leather Pouch
which held about a Pound and half of Powder, or rather more;
and another with Shot, that had five or six Pound, with some Bullets ;
and put all into the Boat: At the same time I had found some

Powder of my Master's in the Great Cabin, with which I filled one
of the large Bottles in the Case, which was almost empty; pouring
what was in it into another: and thus furnished with everything
needful, we sailed out of the Port to fish: The Castle which is at the
Entrance of the Port knew who we were, and took no Notice of us;
and we were not above a Mile out of the Port before we hauled in our
Sail, and set us down to fish: The Wind blew from the N.N.E.
which was contrary to my Desire ; for had it blown southerly I had been
sure to have made the Coast of Spain, and at least reached to the Bay of
Cadiz; but my Resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would
be gone from that horrid Place where I was, and leave the rest to Fate.
After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for when I had
Fish on my Hook, I would not pull them up, that he might not see
them; I said to the Moor, this will not do, our Master will not be
thus served, we must stand farther off: He thinking no harm, agreed;
and being in the head of the Boat set the Sails; and as I had the
Helm I run the Boat out near a League farther, and then brought her
to as if I would fish; when giving the Boy the Helm, I stepped
forward to where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for some-
thing behind him, I took him by Surprize with my Arm under his
Twist, and tossed him clear overboard into the Sea; he rose im-
mediately, for he swam like a Cork, and called to me, begged to be
taken in, told me he would go all over the World with me; he swam
so strong after the Boat that he would have reached me very quickly,
there being but little Wind ; upon which I stepped into the Cabin, and
fetching one of the Fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told
him, I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do
him none; but said I, you swim well enough to reach to the Shore, and
the Sea is calm, make the best of your Way to Shore and I will do
you no harm, but if you come near the Boat I'll shoot you through
the Head; for I am resolved to have my Liberty; so he turned
himself about and swam for the Shore, and I make no doubt but he
reached it with Ease, for he was an Excellent Swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and
have drowned the Boy, but there was no venturing to trust him:
When he was gone I turned to the Boy, who they called Xury, and
said to him, Xury, if you will be faithful to me I'll make you a great
Man, but if you will not stroke your Face to be true to me, that is,
wear by Mahomet and his Father's Beard, I must throw you into the


Sea; the Boy smiled in my Face, and spoke so innocently that I
could not mistrust him; and swore to be faithful to me, and go all
over the World with me.
While I was in View of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out
directly to Sea with the Boat, rather stretching to Windward, that
they might think me gone towards the Straits-mouth (as indeed
any one that had been in their Wits must have been supposed to do)
for who would have supposed we were sailed on to the southward to
the truly Barbarian Coast, where whole Nations of Negroes were
sure to surround us with their Canoes, and destroy us ; where we
could never once go on Shore but we should be devour'd by savage
Beasts, or more merciless Savages of human kind.
But as soon as it grew dusk in the Evening, I changed my Course,
and steered directly South and by East, bending my Course a little
toward the East, that I might keep in with the Shore; and having a
fair fresh Gale of Wind, and a smooth quiet Sea, I made such Sail
that I believe by the next Day at Three o'Clock in the Afternoon,
when I first made the Land, I could not be less than I5o Miles
South of Sallee; quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco's Dominions,
or indeed of any other King thereabouts, for we saw no People.
Yet such was the Fright I had taken at the Moors, and the dreadful
Apprehensions I had of falling into their Hands, that I would not
stop, or go on Shore, or come to an Anchor; the Wind continuing
fair, until I had sailed in that manner five Days: And then the Wind
shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if any of our Vessels
were in Chase of me, they also would now give over; so I ventur'd to
make to the Coast, and came to an Anchor in the Mouth of a little
River, I knew not what, or where; neither what Latitude, what
Country, what Nations, or what River: I neither saw, or desir'd to see
any People, the principal thing I wanted was fresh Water: We came
into this Creek in the Evening, resolving to swim on Shore as soon as
it was dark, and discover the Country; but as soon as it was quite
dark, we heard such dreadful Noises of the Barking, Roaring, and
Howling of Wild Creatures, of we knew not what Kinds, that the poor
Boy was ready to die with Fear, and begged of me not to go on Shore
till Day; well Xury, said I, then I wont, but it may be we may see
Men by Day, who will be as bad to us as those Lions; then we give
them the shoot Gun, says Xury, laughing, make them run wey; such
English Xury spoke by conversing among us Slaves, however I was

glad to see the Boy so cheerful, and I gave him a Dram (out of our
Patron's Case of Bottles) to cheer him up: After all, Xury's Advice
was good, and I took it, we dropped our little Anchor and lay still all
Night; I say still, for we slept none for in two or three Hours we
saw vast great Creatures (we knew not what to call them) of many
sorts, come down to the Sea-shore and run into the Water, wallowing
and washing themselves for the Pleasure of cooling themselves; and
they made such hideous Howlings and Yellings, that I never indeed
heard the like.
Xuy was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we
were both more frighted when we heard one of these mighty Creatures
come swimming towards our Boat, we could not see him, but we
might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous, huge and furious
Beast; Xury said it was a Lion, and it might be so for ought I know;
but poor Xwry cried to me to weigh the Anchor and row away; no,
says I, Xury, we can slip our Cable with the Buoy to it and go off to
Sea, they cannot follow us far; I had no sooner said so, but I per-
ceiv'd the Creature (whatever it was) within Two Oars' Length, which
something surprised me; however I immediately stepped to the Cabin-
door, and taking up my Gun fired at him, upon which he immediately
turned about and swam towards the Shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrible Noises, and hideous
Cries and Howlings, that were raised as well upon the Edge of the
Shore, as higher within the Country; upon the Noise or Report of the
Gun, a Thing I have some Reason to believe those Creatures had
never heard before : This Convinc'd me that there was no going on
Shore for us in the Night upon that Coast, and how to venture on
Shore in the Day was another Question too; for to have fallen into
the Hands of any of the Savages, had been as bad as to have fallen
into the Hands of Lions and Tigers; at least we were equally appre-
hensive of the Danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were oblig'd to go on Shore somewhere or
other for Water, for we had not a Pint left in the Boat; when or
where to get to it was the Point: Xwy said, if I would let him go on
Shore with one of the Jars, he would find if there was any Water and
bring some to me. I asked him why he would go ? Why I should not
go and he stay in the Boat ? The Boy answered with so much Affection
that made me love him ever after. Says he, If wild Mans come, they
rat me, you go wey. Well, Xury, said I, we will both go, and if the

wild Mans come, we will kill them, they shall Eat neither of us; so I
gave Xury a piece of Rusk-bread to Eat, and a Dram out of our
Patron's Case of Bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled
the Boat in as near the Shore as we thought was proper, and so
waded on Shore, carrying nothing but our Arms and two Jars for
I did not care to go out of Sight of the Boat, fearing the coming of
Canoes with Savages down the River; but the Boy seeing a low Place
about a Mile up the Country rambled to it; and by and by I saw
him come running towards me, I thought he was pursued by some
Savage, or frighted with some wild Beast, and I run forward to-
wards him to help him, but when I came nearer to him, I saw some-
thing hanging over his Shoulders which was a Creature that he had
shot, like a Hare but different in Colour, and longer Legs, however

we were very glad of it, and it was very good Meat; but the great
Joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good
Water and seen no wild Mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such Pains for
Water, for a little higher up the Creek where we were, we found the
Water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but a little way up;
so we filled our Jars and feasted on the Hare we had killed, and
prepared to go on our Way, having seen no Footsteps of any human
Creature in that part of the Country.
As I had been one Voyage to this Coast before, I knew very well
that the Islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd Islands also,
lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no Instruments to take
an Observation to know what Latitude we were in, and did not
exactly know, or at least remember what Latitude they were in; I

knew not where to look for them, or when to stand off to Sea to-
wards them; otherwise I might now easily have found some of these
Islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along this Coast till I
came to that Part where the English Traded, I should find some of
their Vessels upon their usual Design of Trade, that would relieve
and take us in.
By the best of my Calculation, that Place where I now was, must
be that Country, which lying between the Emperor of Morocco's Do-
minions and the Negrocs, lies waste and uninhabited, except by wild
Beasts; the Negrocs having abandoned it and gone farther South for
fear of the Aloors; and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting,
by reason of its Barrenness; and indeed both forsaking it because of
the prodigious Numbers of Tigers, Lions, Leopards and other
furious Creatures which harbour there; so that the Moors use it for
their Hunting only, where they go like an Army, two or three thousand
Men at a time; and indeed for near an hundred Miles together upon
this Coast, we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited Country, by Day;
and heard nothing but Howlings and Roaring of wild Beasts, by
Once or twice in the Daytime, I thought I saw the Pico of Tenc-
riffe, being the high top of the Mountain Tenerifi in the Canaries;
and had a great mind to venture out in hopes of reaching thither;
but having tried twice I was forced in again by contrary Winds, the
Sea also going too high for my little Vessel, so I resolved to pursue
my first Design and keep along the Shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh Water, after we had
left this Place; and once in particular, being early in the Morning,
we came to an Anchor under a little Point of Land which was pretty
high, and the Tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in;
Xury, whose Eyes were more about him than it seems mine were,
calls softly to me, and tells me that we had best go farther off the
Shore; for, says he, look yonder lies a dreadful Monster on the side
of that Hillock fast asleep : I looked where he pointed, and saw a
dreadful Monster indeed, for it was a terrible great Lion that lay on
the Side of the Shore, under the Shade of a Piece of the Hill that
hung as it were a little over him. Xury, says I, you shall go on
Shore and kill him; Xury looked frighted, and said, Me kill! he
eat me at one Mouth; one Mouthful he meant; however, I said no
more to the Boy, but bad him lie still, and I took our biggest Gun,



which was almost Musket-bore, and loaded it with a good Charge
of Powder, and with two Slugs, and laid it down ; then I loaded
another Gun with two Bullets, and the third, for we had three Pieces,
I loaded with five smaller Bullets. I took the best aim I could with
the first Piece to have shot him into the Head, but he lay so with his
I.eg raised a little above his Nose, that the Slugs hit his Leg about
the Knee, and broke the Bone. He started up growling at first, but
finding his Leg broke fell down again, and then got up upon thiee
Legs and gave the most hideous Roar that ever I heard; I was a
little surpriz'd that I had not hit him on the Head; however I took
up the second Piece immediately, and though he began to move off fired
again, and shot him into the Head, and had the Pleasure to see him
drop, and make but little Noise, but lay struggling for Life. Then
Xuin- took Heart, and would have me let him go on Shore: Well,
go said I, so the Boy jumped into the Water, and taking a little Gun
in one Hand, swam to Shore with the other Hand, and coming close
to the Creature, put the Muzzle of the Piece to his Ear, and shot
him into the head again, which despatch'd him quite.
This was Game indeed to us, but this was no Food, and I was very
sorry to lose three Charges of Powder and Shot upon a Creature that
was good for nothing to us. However Xury said he would have some
of him ; so he comes on board, and asked me to give him the Hat-
chet; for what, Xury, said I? Me cut off his Head, said he. How-
ever Xury could not cut off his Head, but he cut off a Foot and
brought it with him, and it was a monstrous great one.
I bethought myself however, that perhaps the Skin of him might
one way or other be of some Value to us; and I resolved to take off
his Skin if I could. So Xury and I went to work with him, but Xury
was much the better Workman at it, for I knew very ill how to
do it. Indeed it took us up both the whole Day, but at last we got
off the Hide of him, and spreading it on the top of our Cabin, the
Sun effectually dried it in two Days' time, and it afterwards served me
to lie upon.
After this Stop we made on to the Southward continually for ten
or twelve Days, living very sparing on our Provisions, which began to
abate very much, and going no oftener into the Shore than we were
oblig'd to for fresh Water; my Design in this was to make the River
Gambia or Senegall, that is to say, anywhere about the Cafe de Verd,
where I was in hopes to meet with some European Ship, and if I did

not, I knew not what Course I had to take, but to seek out for the
Islands, or perish there among the Negroes. I knew that all the Ships
from Europe, which sailed either to the Coast of Guinca, or to Brasil,
or to the East hIdies, made this Cape, or thosi Islands; and in a
word, I put the whole of my Fortune upon this single Point, either
that I must meet with some Ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this Resolution about ten Days longer, as I have
said, I began to see that the Land was inhabited, and in two or three
Places, as we sailed by, we saw People stand upon the Shore to look
at us, we could also perceive they were quite Black and Stark naked.
I was once inclined to have gone on Shore to them; but Xwy was my
better Counsellor, and said to me, no go, no go; however I hauled in
nearer the Shore, that I might talk to them, and I found they ran
along the Shore by me a good way; I observed they had no Weapons
in their Hands, except one who had a long slender Stick, which Xny;
said was a Lance, and that they would throw them a great way with
good aim ; so I kept at a distance, but talked with them by Signs as
well as I could ; and particularly made Signs for something to Eat,
they beckon'd to me to stop my Boat, and that they would fetch me
some Meat; upon this I lower'd the top of my Sail, and lay by, and
two of them run up into the Country, and in less than half an
Hour came back and brought with them two Pieces of dry Flesh and
some Corn, such as is the Produce of their Country, but wve neither
knew what the one or the other was; however we were willing to
accept it, but how to come at it was our next Dispute, for I was not
for venturing on Shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us;
but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the Shore
and laid it down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched
it on Board, and then came close to us again.
We made Signs of Thanks to them, for we had nothing to make
them amends; but an Opportunity offered that very Instant to oblige
them wonderfully, for while we were lying by the Shore, came two
mighty Creatures, one pursuing the other, (as we took it) with great
Fury, from the Mountains towards the Sea; whether it was the Male
pursuing the Female, or whether they were in Sport or in Rage, we
could not tell, any more than we could tell whether it was usual or
strange, but I believe it was the latter; because in the first Place,
those ravenous Creatures seldom appear but in the Night; and in
the second Place, we found the People terribly frighted, especially

the Women. The Man that had the Lance or Dart did not fly
from them, but the rest did; however as the two Creatures ran
directly into the Water, they did not seem to offer to fall upon any of
the Negroes, but plunged themselves into the Sea and swam about as
if they had come for their Diversion; at last one of them began to
come nearer our Boat than at first I expected, but I lay ready for him,
for I had loaded my Gun with all possible Expedition, and bad Xury
load both the other; as soon as he came fairly within my reach, I
fired, and shot him directly into the Head; immediately he sunk down
into the Water, but rose instantly and plunged up and down as if he
was struggling for Life; and so indeed he was, he immediately made
to the Shore, but between the Wound which was his mortal Hurt,
and the strangling of the Water, he died just before he reached the
It is impossible to express the Astonishment of these poor Creatures
at the Noise and the Fire of my Gun ; some of them were even ready
to die for Fear, and fell down as Dead with the very Terror. But
when they saw the Creature dead and sunk in the Water, and that I
made Signs to them to come to the Shore; they took Heart and came
to the Shore and began to search for the Creature, I found him by
his Blood staining the Water, and by the help of a Rope which I
slung round him and gave the Negroes to haul, they dragged him on
Shore, and found that it was a most curious Leopard, spotted and
fine to an admirable Degree, and the Vegroes held up their Hands
with Admiration to think what it was I had killed him with.
The other Creature frighted with the flash of Fire and the Noise of
the Gun swam on Shore, and ran up directly to the Mountains from
whence they came, nor could I at that Distance know what it was.
I found quickly the Negroes were for eating the Flesh of this Creature,
so I was willing to have them take it as a Favour from me, which
when I made Signs to them that they might take it, they were very
thankful for, immediately they fell to work with him, and though they
had no Knife, yet with a sharpen'd Piece of Wood they took off his
Skin as readily, and much more readily than we could have done with
a Knife; they offered me some of the Flesh, which I declined, making
as if I would give it them, but made Signs for the Skin, which they
gave me very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their Pro-
vision, which though I did not understand, yet I accepted; then I made
Signs to them for some Water, and held out one of my Jars to them,

turning it bottom upward, to show that it was empty, and that I wanted
to have it filled. They called immediately to some of their Friends,
and there came two Women and brought a great Vessel made of
varth, and burnt as I suppose in the Sun; this they set down for me,
as before, and I sent Xnry on Shore with my Jars, and filled them
all three. The Women were as stark Naked as the Men.
I was now furnished with Roots and Corn, such as it was, and
Water, and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for about
elvcn Days more without offering to go near the Shore, till I saw the
Land run out a great Length into the Sea, at about the Distance of
four or five Leagues before me, and the Sea being very calm I kept a
large offing to make this Point; at length, doubling the Point at about
two Leagues from the Land, I saw plainly Land on the other Side to
Seaward; then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that this
was the Cape de Verd, and those the Islands, called from thence Cape
de Verd Islands. However they were at a great Distance, and I could
not well tell what I had best to do, for if I should be taken with a
Fresh of Wind I might neither reach one or other.
In this Dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the Cabin and
sat me down, Xwy having the Helm, when on a sudden, the Boy cried
out, Alasicr, MAaster, a Ship with a Sail, and the foolish Boy was
frighted out of his Wits, thinking it must needs be some of his
Master's Ships sent to pursue us, when I knew we were gotten far
enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the Cabin, and imme-
diately saw not only the Ship, but what she was, (viz.) that it was a
Portuguese Ship, and as I thought was bound to the Coast of Guinea
for ANegroes. But when I observed the Course she steered, I was soon
convinced they were bound some other way, and did not design to
-ome any nearer to the Shore; upon which I stretched out to Sea as
much as I could, resolving to speak with them if possible.
With all the Sail I could make, I found I should not be able to
come in their Way, but that they would be gone by, before I could
make any Signal to them; but after I had crowded to the utmost
and began to despair, they it seems saw me by the help of their Per-
spective-Glasses, and that it was some European Boat, which as they
supposed must belong to some Ship that was lost, so they shortened
Sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with this, and as I had my
Patron's Ancient on Board, I made a Waft of it to them for a Signal
of Distress, and fired a Gun, both which they saw, for they told me

they saw the Smoke, though they did not hear the Gun; upon these
Signals they very kindly brought too, and lay by for me, and in about
three Hours' time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in
French, but I understood none of them; but at last a Scots Sailor
who was on board, called to me, and I answered him, and told him I
was an Englishman, that I had made my escape out of Slavery from
the Moors at Sallee; then they bade me come on board, and very
kindly took me in, and all my Goods.
It was an inexpressible Joy to me, that any one will believe, that I
was thus delivered, as I esteem'd it, from such a miserable and almost
hopeless Condition as I was in, and I immediately offered all I had
to the Captain of the Ship, as a Return for my Deliverance; but he
generously told me, he would take nothing from me, but that all I
had should be delivered safe to me when I came to the Brasils, for
says he, I have saved your Life on no other Terms than I would be glad
to be saved myself and it may one time or other be my Lot to be taken
up in the same Condition; besides, said he, when I carry you to the
Brasils, so great a way from your own Country, if I should take from
you what you have, you will be starved there, and then I only take away
that Life I have given. No, no, Seignor Inglese, says he, Mr. English-
man, I will carry you thither in Charity, and those things will help you to
buy your Subsistence there and your Passage home again.
As he was Charitable in his Proposal, so he was Just in the Perfor-
mance to a tittle, for he ordered the Seamen that none should offer to
touch anything I had; then he took everything into his own Posses-
sion, and gave me back an exact Inventory of them, that I might have
them, even so much as my three Earthen Jars.
As to my Boat it was a very good one, and that he saw, and told
me he would buy it of me for the Ship's Use, and asked me what I
would have for it ? I told him he had been so generous to me in
everything, that I could not offer to make any Price of the Boat, but
left it entirely to him, upon which he told me he would give me a
Note of his Hand to pay me 80 Pieces of Eight for it at Brasil, and
when it came there, if any one offered to give more he would make it
up; he offered me also 60 Pieces of Eight more for my Boy Xury,
which I was loth to take, not that I was not willing to let the Cap-
tain have him, but I very loth to sell the poor Boy's Liberty, who
had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. However when

I let him know my Reason, he owned it to be just, and offer'd me
this Medium, that he would give the Boy an Obligation to set him
free in ten Years, if he turned Christian; upon this, and Xury saying
he was willing to go to him, I let the Captain have him.
We had a very good Voyage to the Brasils, and arriv'd in the EBay
de Todos las Santos, or All-Saints Bay, in about Twenty-two Days
after. And now I was once more delivered from the most miserable
of all Conditions of Life, and what to do next with myself I was now
to consider.
The generous Treatment the Captain gave me, I can never enough
remember; he would take nothing of me for my Passage, gave me
twenty Ducats for the Leopard's Skin, and forty for the Lion's Skin
which I had in my Boat, and caused everything I had in my Ship
to be punctually delivered me, and what I was willing to sell he
bought, such as the Case of Bottles, two of my Guns, and a Piece of
the Lump of Bees-wax, for I had made Candles of the rest; in a
word, I made about 220 Pieces of Eight of all my Cargo, and with this
Stock I went on Shore in the Brasils.
I had not been long here, but being recommended to the House of
a good honest Man like himself, who had an Ingcin as they call it;
that is, a Plantation and a Sugar-House. I lived with him some time,
and acquainted myself by that means with the Manner of their
planting and making of Sugar; and seeing how well the Planters
lived, and how they grew rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get
Licence to settle there, I wound turn Planter among them, resolving
in the meantime to find out some Way to get my Money which I
had left in London remitted to me. To this Purpose getting a kind
of a Letter of Naturalization, I purchased as much Land that was
Uncur'd, as my Money would reach, and formed a Plan for my Plan-
tation and Settlement, and such a one as might be suitable to the
Stock which I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a Neighbour, a Portuguzese of Lisbon, but born of English
Parents, whose Name was Wells, and in much such Circumstances as
I was. I call him my Neighbour, because his Plantation lay next to
mine, and we went on very sociably together. My Stock was but low
as well as his; and we rather planted for Food, than anything else,
for about two Years. However, we began to increase, and our Land
began to come into Order;' so that the third Year we planted
some Tobacco, and made each of us a large Piece of Ground ready


for planting Canes in the Year to come; but we both wanted Help,
and now I found more than before, I had done wrong in parting
with my Boy Xury.
But alas for me to do wrong that never did right, was no great
Wonder: I had no Remedy but to go on; I was gotten into an em-
ployment quite remote to my Genius, and directly contrary to the
Life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my Father's House, and
broke through all his good Advice; nay, I was coming into the very
Middle Station, or upper Degree of low Life, which my Father ad-
vised me to before; and which if I resolved to go on with, I might
as well have stayed at Home, and never have fatigu'd myself in the
World as I had done; and I used often to say to myself, I could have
done this as well in England among my Friends, as have gone 5000
Miles off to do it among Strangers and Savages in a Wilderness,
and at such a Distance, as never to hear from any Part of the World
that had the least Knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my Condition with the utmost
Regret. I had nobody to converse with but now and then this
Neighbour; no Work to be done, but by the Labour of my Hands;
and I used to say, I lived just like a Man cast away upon some desolate
Island, that had nobody there but himself. But how just has it been,
and how should all Men reflect, that when they compare their present
Conditions with others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to
make the Exchange, and be convinced of their former Felicity by their
Experience : I say, how just has it been, that the truly solitary Life
I reflected on in an Island of mere Desolation should be my Lot, who
had so often unjustly compared it with the Life which I then led, in
which had I continued, I had in all Probability been exceeding pros-
perous and rich.
I was in some Degree settled in my Measures for carrying on the
Plantation, before my kind Friend the Captain of the Ship that took
me up at Sea, went back; fpr the Ship remained there in providing
his Loading, and preparing for his Voyage, near three Months, when
telling him what little Stock I had left behind me in London, he gave
me this friendly and sincere Advice, Seignior Inglese, says he; for so he
always called me, if you will give me Letters, and a Procuration here
in Form to me, with Orders to the Person who has your Money in
London, to send your Effects to Lisbon, to such Persons as I shall
direct, and in such Goods as are proper for this Country, I will bring

you the Produce of them, God willing, at my Return ; but since human
Affairs are all subject to Changes and Disasters, I would have you
give Orders but for One Hundred Pounds Sterl. which you say is Half
your Stock, and let the Hazard be run for the first; so that if it come
safe, you may order the rest the same Way; and if it miscarry, you
may have the other Half to have Recourse to for your Supply.
This was so wholesome Advice, and looked so friendly, that I could
not but be convinced it was the best Course I could take; so I ac-
cordingly prepared Letters to the Gentlewoman with whom I had
left my Money, and a Procuration to the Portuguese Captain, as he
I wrote the English Captain's Widow a full Account of all my Ad-
ventures, my Slavery, Escape, and how I had met with the Portugal
Captain at Sea, the Humanity of his Behaviour, and in what Condition
I was now in, with all other necessary Directions for my Supply; and
when this honest Captain came to Lisbon, he found means by some of
the Englis/ Merchants there, to send over not the Order only, but a
full Account of my Story to a Merchant at London, who represented
it effectually to her; whereupon, she not only delivered the Money,
but out of her own Pocket sent the Portugal Captain a very handsome
Present for his Humanity and Charity to me.
The Merchant in London vesting this Hundred Pounds in English
Goods, such as the Captain had writ for, sent them directly to him at
Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me to the Brasils, among
which, without my Direction (for I was too young in my Business to
think of them) he had taken Care to have all Sorts of Tools, Iron-
Work, and Utensils necessary for my Plantation, and which were of
great Use to me.
When this Cargo arrived, I thought my Fortunes made, for I was
surprised with Joy of it; and my good Steward the Captain had laid
out the Five Pounds which my Friend had sent him for a Present for
himself, to purchase, and bring me over a Servant under Bond for six
Years' Service, and would not accept of any Consideration, except a
little Tobacco, which I would have him accept, being of my own
Neither was this all; but my Goods being all English Manufactures,
such as Cloth, Stuffs, Bays, and things particularly valuable and de-
sirable in the Country, I found means to sell them to a very great
Advantage; so that I might say, I had more than four times the Value

of my first Cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor Neighbour,
I mean in the Advancement of my Plantation; for the first thing I
did, I bought me a Negro Slave, and an European Servant also; I
mean another besides that which the Captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abus'd Prosperity is oftentimes made the very Means of our
greatest Adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next Year with
great Success in my Plantation: I raised fifty great Rolls of Tobacco
on my own Ground, more than I had disposed of for Necessaries
among my Neighbours; and these fifty Rolls being each of above a
Soo Wt. were well cured and laid by against the Return of the Fleet
from Lisbon: and now increasing in Business and in Wealth, my
Head began to be full of Projects and Undertakings beyond my Reach;
such as are indeed often the Ruin of the best Heads in Business.
Had I continued in the Station I was now in, I had room for all
the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my Father so
earnestly recommended a quiet retired Life, and of which he had so
sensibly described the middle Station of Life to be full of; but other
things attended me, and I was still to be the wilful Agent of all my
own Miseries; and particularly to increase my Fault and double the
Reflections upon myself, which in my future Sorrows I should have
leisure to make; all these Miscarriages were procured by my appa-
rent obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering abroad
and pursuing that Inclination, in contradiction to the clearest Views
of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those Prospects
and those measures of Life, which Nature and Providence concurred
to present me with, and to make my Duty.
As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my Parents, so
I could not be content now, but I must go and leave the happy View
I had of being a rich and thriving Man in my new Plantation, only to
pursue a rash and immoderate Desire of rising faster than the Nature
of the Thing admitted; and thus I cast myself down again into the
deepest Gulf of human Misery that ever Man fell into, or perhaps
could be consistent with Life and a State of Health ini the World.
To come then by the just Degrees, to the Particulars of this Part
of my Story; you may suppose, that having now lived almost four
Years in the Brasilo, and beginning to thrive and prosper very well
upon my Plantation; I had not only learned the Language, but had
contracted Acquaintance and Friendship among my Fellow-Planters,
as well as among the Merchants at St. Salvadore, which was our Port;


and that in my Discourses among them, I had frequently given them
an Account of my two Voyages to the Coast of Guinca, the manner
of Trading with the Negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase
upon the Coast, for Trifles, such as Beads, Toys, Knives, Scissars,
Hatchets, bits of Glass, and the like; not only Gold Dust, Guinea
Grains, Elephants' Teeth, &c., but 2Vgroes for the Service of the
Brasils, in great Numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my Discourses on these
Heads, but especially to that Part which related to the buying
Negroes, which was a Trade at that time not only not far entered
into, but as far as it was, had been carried on by the Assientoe, or
Permission of the Kings of Spain and Portugal, and engross'd in
the Public, so that few Negroes were brought, and those excessive
It happened, being in Company with some Merchants and Planters
of my Acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly,
three of them came to me the next Morning, and told me they had
been musing very much upon what I had discoursed with them of,
the last Night, and they came to make a secret Proposal to me ; and
after enjoining me Secrecy, they told me, that they bad a mind to fit
out a Ship to go to Guinea, that they had all Plantations as well as I,
and were straiten'd for nothing so much as Servants; that as it was
a Trade that could not be carried on, because they could not pub-
licly sell the : when they came home, so they desired to
make but one Voyage, to bring the iVNgrocs on Shore privately, and
divide them among their own Plantations; and in a Word, the Ques-
tion was, whether I would go their Supercargo in the Ship to
manage the Trading Part upon the Coast of Guinea ? And they
offered me that I should have my equal Share of the Negroes without
providing any Part of the Stock.
This was a fair Proposal it must be confess'd, had it been made
to any one that had not had a Settlement and Plantation of his own
to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be very consider-
able, and with a good Stock upon it. But for me that was thus
entered and established, and had nothing to do but go on as I hari
begun for three or four Years more, and to have sent for the othei
hundred Pound from England, and who in that time, and with that
little Addition, could scarce have failed of being worth three or four
thousand Rounds Sterling, and that increasing too; for me to thiln

of such a Voyage, was the most preposterous Thing that ever Man in
such Circumstances could be guilty of.
But I that was born to be my own Destroyer, could no more resist
the Offer than I could restrain my first rambling Designs, when my
Father's good Counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them I
would go with all my Heart, if they would undertake to look after my
Plantation in my Absence, and would dispose of it to such as I should
direct if I miscarry'd. This they all engag'd to do, and entered into
Writings or Covenants to do so; and I made a formal Will, disposing
of my Plantation and Effects, in Case of my Death, making the Cap.
tain of the Ship that had saved my Life as before, my universal Heir,
but obliging him to dispose of my Effects as I had directed in my
Will, one half of the Produce being to himself, and the other to be
shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible Caution to preserve my Effects, ain
keep up my Plantation; had I used half as much Prudence to havt.
looked into my own Interest, and have made a Judgment of what I
ought to have done, and not to have done, I had certainly never
gone away from so prosperous an Undertaking, leaving all the probable
Views of a thriving Circumstance, and gone upon a Voyage to Sea,
attended with all its common Hazards; to say nothing of the Reasons
I had to expect particular Misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obey'd blindly the Dictates of my Fancy
rather than my Reason; and accordingly the Ship being fitted out,
and the Cargo furnished, and all things done as by Agreement, by
my Partners in the Voyage, I went on Board in an evil Hour, the
First of September 1659, being the same Day eight Year that I went
from my Father and Mother at Hull, in order to act the Rebel to
their Authority, and the Fool to my own Interest.
Our Ship was about 120 Ton Burthen, carried 6 Guns, and 14 Men,
besides the Master, his Boy, and myself; we had on board no large
Cargo of Goods, except of such Toys as were fit for our Trade
with the Negroes, such as Beads, bits of Glass, Shells, and odd Trifles,
especially little Looking-Glasses, Knives, Scissars, Hatchets, and the
The same Day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the
Northward upon our own Coast, with Design to stretch over for the
African Coast, when they came about o or 12 Degrees of Northern
Latitude, which it seems was the manner of their Course in those Days.

We had very good Weather, only excessive hot, all the way upon our
own Coast, till we came to the Height of Cape St. Augustino, from
whence keeping farther off at Sea we lost Sight of Land, and steered
as if we were bound for the Isle Fernand de Noronha, holding our
Course NE. by N. and leaving those Isles on the East; in this
Course we passed the Line in about 12 Days' time, and were by our last
Observation in 7 Degrees 22 Min. Northern Latitude, when a violent
Tornado or Hurricane took us quite out of our Knowledge ; it began
from the South-East, came about to the North-West, and then settled
into the North-East, from whence it blew in such a terrible manner,
that for j 2 Days together we could do nothing but drive, and scudding
away before it, let it carry us whither ever Fate and the Fury of the
Winds directed; and during these 12 Days, I need not say, that I
expected every Day to be swallowed up, nor indeed did any in the
Ship expect to save their Lives.
In this Distress, we had, besides the Terror of the Storm, one of
our Men died of the Calenture, and one Man and the Boy washed
overboard; about the 12th Day the Weather abating a little, the
Master made an Observation as well as he could, and found that he
was in about ji Degrees North Latitude, but that he was 22 Degrees
of Longitude difference West from Cafe St. Augistino ; so that he
found he was gotten upon the Coast of Guinca, or the North Part of
Brasil, beyond the River Amazones, toward that of the River Oronoque,
commonly called the Great River, and began to consult with me what
Course he should take, for the Ship was leaky and very much disabled,
and he was going directly back to the Coast of Brasil.
I was positively against that, and looking over Charts of the Sea-
Coast of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited
Country for us to have recourse to, till we came within the Circle of
the Carribbe-Islands, and therefore resolved to stand away for Barba-
does, which by keeping off at Sea, to avoid the Indraft of the Bay or
Gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fif-
teen Days' Sail; whereas we could not possibly make our Voyage to
the Coast of Africa without some Assistance, both to our Ship and
to ourselves.
With this Design we changed our Course and steered away N W.
by W. in order to reach some of our English Islands, where I hoped
for Relief; but our Voyage was otherwise determined, for being in
the Latitude of i1 Deg. i8 Min, a second Storm came upon us, which

carried us away with the same Impetuosity Westward, and drove us so
out of the very Way of all human Commerce, that had all our Lives
been saved, as to the Sea, we were rather in Danger of being de-
voured by Savages than ever returning to our own Country.
In this Distress, the Wind still blowing very hard, one of our Men
early in the Morning, cried out, Land; and we had no sooner run
out of the Cabin to look out in hopes of seeing whereabouts in
the World we were; but the Ship struck upon a Sand, and in a
moment her Motion being so stopped, the Sea broke over her in
such a manner, that we expected we should all have perish'd imme-
diately, and we were immediately driven into our close Quarters to
shelter us from the very Foam and Spray of the Sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the like Condition,
to describe or conceive the Consternation of Men in such Circum-
stances; we knew nothil g where we were, or upon what Land it was
we were driven, whether an Island or the Main, whether inhabited
or not inhabited; and as the Rage of the Wind was still great,
though rather less than at first, we could not so much as hope to have
the Ship hold many Minutes without breaking in Pieces, unless the
Winds by a kind of Miracle should turn immediately about. In a
word, we sat looking one upon another, and expecting Death every
Moment, and every Man acting accordingly, as preparing for another
World, for there was little or nothing more for us to do in this;
that which was our present Comfort, and all the Comfort we had,
was, that contrary to our Expectation the Ship did not break yet,
and that the Master said the Wind began to abate.
Now though we thought that the Wind did a little abate, yet the Ship
having thus struck upon the Sand, and sticking too fast for us to ex-
pect her getting off, we were in a dreadful Condition indeed, and
had nothing to do but to think of saving our Lives as well as we
could; we had a Boat at our Stem just before the Storm, but she
was first staved by dashing against the Ship's Rudder, and in the
next Place she broke away, and either sunk or was driven off to
Sea, so there was no hope from her; we had another Boat on board,
but how to get her off into the Sea, was a doubtful thing; however,
there was no room to debate, for we fancied the Ship would break
in Pieces every Minute, and some told us she was actually broken
In this Distress, the Mate Of our Vessel lays hold of the Boat, and

with the help of the rest of the Men, they got her slung over the
Ship's side, and getting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves
being Eleven in Number, to God's Mercy, and the wild Sea; for though
the Storm was abated considerably, yet the Sea went dreadful high
upon the Shore, and might well be called, Den wi/d Zee, as the Dutch/
call the Sea in a Storm.
And now our Case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw plainly
that the Sea went so high, that the Boat could not live, and that we
should be inevitably drowned. As to making Sail, we had none, nor,
if we had, could we have done anything with it ; so we worked at the
Oar towards the Land, though with heavy Iearts, like Men going to
Execution; for we all knew, that when the Boat came nearer the
Shore, she would be dashed in a Thousand Pieces by the Breach of
the Sea. However, we committed our Souis to God in the most
earnest Manner, and the Wind driving us towards the Shore, we
hasten'd our Destruction with our own I-ands, pulling as well as we
could towards Land.
What the Shore was, whether Rock or Sand, whether Steep or
Shoal, we knew not; the only Hope that could rationally give us the
least Shadow of Expectation, was, if we might happen into some Bay
or Gulf, or the Mouth of some River, where by great Chance we
might have run our Boat in, or got under the Lee of the Land, and
perhaps made smooth Water. But there was nothing of this appeared;
but as we made nearer and nearer the Shore, the Land looked more
frightful than the Sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven about a League and a Half,
as we reckon'd it, a raging Wave, Mountain-like, came rolling a-stern
of us, and plainly bade us expect the Coup-dc-Gracc. In a word, it
took us with such a Fury, that it overset the Boat at once; and sepa-
rating us as well from the Boat, as from one another, gave us not
time hardly to say, O God! for we were all swallowed up in a Mo-
Nothing can describe the Confusion of Thought which I felt when
I sunk into the Water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not
deliver myself from the Waves so as to draw Breath, till that Wavx
having driven me, or rather carried me a vast Way on towards the
Shore, and having spent itself, went back, and left me upon the
Land almost dry, but half dead with the Water I took in. I had so
much Presence of MIind as well as Breath left, that seeing myself


nearer the main Land than I expected, I got upon my Feet, and en-
deavoured to make on towards the Land as fast as I could, before
another Wave should return, and take me up again. But I soon
bound it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the Sea come after me
as high as a great Hill, and as furious as an Enemy which I had no
Means or Strength to contend with; my Business was to hold my
Breath, and raise myself upon the Water, if I could; and so by
swimming to preserve my Breathing, and Pilot myself towards the
Shore, if possible; my greatest Concern now being, that the Sea, as
it would carry me a great Way towards the Shore when it came on,
might not carry me back again with it when it gave back towards the
The Wave that came upon me again, buried me at once ao or 30

Foot deep in its own Body; and I could feel myself carried with a
mighty Force and Swiftness towards the Shore a very great Way; but
I held my Breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward with all
my Might. I was ready to burst with holding my Breath, when, as I
felt myself rising up, so to my immediate Relief, I found my Head
and Hands shoot out above the Surface of the Water; and though it
was not two Seconds of Time that I could keep myself so, yet it
reliev'd me greatly, gave me Breath and new Courage. I was covered
again with Water a good while, but not so long but I held it out; and
finding the Water had spent itself, and began to return, I struck for-
ward against the Return of the Waves, and felt Ground again with
my Feet. I stood still a few Moments to recover Breath, and till the
Water went fiom me, and then took to my Heels, and run with what

Strength I had farther towards the Shore. But neither would this
deliver me from the Fury of the Sea, which came pouring in after me
again, and twice more I was lifted up by the Waves, and carried for-
wards as before, the Shore being very flat.
The last Time of these two had well near been fatal to me; for the
Sea having hurried me along as before, landed me, or rather dashed
me against a Piece of a Rock, and that with such Force, as it left me
senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own Deliverance; for the
Blow taking my Side and Breast, beat the Breath as it were quite out
of my Body; and had it returned again immediately, I must have been
strangled in the Wacer; but I recovered a little before the return of
the Waves, and seeing I should be cover'd again with the Water, I
resolved to hold fast by a Piece of the Rock, and so to hold my
Breath, if possible, till the Wave went back now as the Waves were
not so high as at first,
being nearer Land, I
held my Hold till the
Wave abated, and
then fetched another
Run, which brought
me so near the Shore,
thhat tGhe next Wave,
though it went over
me, yet did not so
swallow me up as to
carry me away, and
the next run I took, I
got to the main Land,
vher-, to my grezt Comffort, I clamber'd up the Cliffs of the Shore,
md sat me aown upon the Grass, free from Danger, and quite out of
the Reach of the Water.
I was now landed, and safe on Shore, and began to look up and
thank God that my Life was saved in a Case wherein there was some
Minutes before scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible
to express to the Life what the Ecstasies and Transports of the Soul
are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very Grave; and 1
do not wonder now at that Custom, viz. That when a Malefactor, who
has the Halter about his Neck, is tied up, and just going to be turned
off, and has a Reprieve brought to him: I say, I do not wonder that"


they bring a Surgeon with it, to let him Blood that very Moment
they tell him of it, that the Surprise may not drive the Animal Spirits
from the Heart, and overwhelm him:
For sudden Joys, like Griefs, confound at first.
I walked about on the Shore, lifting up my Hands, and my whole
Being, as I may say, wrapt up in the Contemplation of my Deliverance,
making a Thousand Gestures and Motions which I cannot describe,
reflecting upon all my Comrades that were drowned, and that there
should not be one Soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I never
saw them afterwards, or any Sign of them, except three of their Hats,
one Cap, and two Shoes that were not Fellows.
I cast my Eyes to the stranded Vessel, when the Breach and Froth
of the Sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off, and
considered, Lord how was it possible I could get on Shore?
After I had solac'd my Mind with the comfortable Part of my Con-
dition, I began to look round me to see what kind of Place I was in,
and what was next to be done, and I soon found my Comforts abate,
and that in a word I had a dreadful Deliverance: For I was wet,
had no Clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat or drink to
comfort me, neither did I see any Prospect before me, but that of
perishing with Hunger, or being devour'd by wild Beasts; and that
which was particularly afflicting to me, was, that I had no Weapon
either to hunt and kill any Creature for my Sustenace, or to defend
myself against any other Creature that might desire to kill me for
theirs: In a Word, I had nothing about me but a Knife, a Tobacco-
pipe, and a little Tobacco in a Box, this was all my Provision, and
this threw me into terrible Agonies of Mind, that for a while I ran
about like a Madman; Night coming upon me, I began with a heavy
Heart to consider what would be my Lot if there were any ravenous
Beasts in that Country, seeing at Night they always come abroad for
their Prey.
All the Remedy that offered to my Thoughts at that Time, was, to
get up into a thick bushy Tree like a Fir, but thorny, which grew
near me, and where I resolved to sit all Night, and consider the next
Day what Death I should die, for as yet I saw no Prospect of Life;
I walked about a Furlong from the Shore, to see if I could find any
fresh Water to drink, which I did, to my great Joy; and having
drank and put a little Tobacco in my Mouth to prevent Hunger, I
went to the Tree, and getting up into it, endeavour'd to place myself

so, as that if I should sleep I might not fall; and having cut me a
short Stick, like a Truncheon, for my Defence, I took up my Lodging,
and having been excessively fatigu'd, I fell fast asleep, and slept as
comfortably as, I believe, few could have done in my Condition, and
found myself the most refresh'd with it, that I think I ever was on
such an Occasion.
When I waked it was broad Day, the Weather clear, and the Storm
abated, so that the Sea did not rage and swell as before : But that
which surprised me most, was, that the Ship was lifted off in the Night
from the Sand where she lay, by the Swelling of Tide, and was
driven up almost as far as the Rock which I first mentioned, where I
had been so bruised by the dashing me against it; this being within
about a Mile from the Shore
where I was, and the Ship seem-
ing to stand upright still, I wished
myself on board, that, at least,
I might have some necessary
things for my use.
When I came down from my
Apartment in the Tree, I looked
about me again, and the first
thing I found was the Boat,
which lay as the Wind and the
Sea had tossed her up upon the
Land, about two Miles on my
right Hand, I walked as far as
I could upon the Shore to have got to her, but found a Neck or
Inlet of Water between me and the Boat, which was about half a
Mile broad, so I came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the Ship, where I hoped to find something for my present
A little after Noon I found the Sea very calm, and the Tide ebbed
so far out, that I could come within a Quarter of a Mile of the Ship;
and here I found a fresh renewing of my Grief, for I saw evidently,
that if we had kept on board, we had all been safe, that is to say,
we had all got safe on Shore, and I had not been so miserable
as to be left entirely destitute of all Comfort and Company,. as I
now was; this forced Tears from my Eyes again, but as there
was little Relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the Ship, so


I pulled off my Clothes, for the Weather was hot to the Extremity,
and took the Water, but when I came to the Ship, my Difficulty was
still greater to know how to get on board, for as she lay a-ground,
and high out of the Water, there was nothing within my Reach to lay
.:old of, I swam round her twice, and the second Time I spied a
small Piece of a Rope, which I wondered I did not see at first, hang
down by the Fore-Chains so low, as that with great Difficulty I got
hold of it, and by the help of that Rope, got up into the Forecastle
of the Ship, here I found that the Ship was bulged, and had a great
deal of Water in her Hold, but that she lay so on the Side of a
Bank of hard Sand, or rather Earth, that her Stem lay lifted up upon
the Bank, and her Head low almost to the Water; by this Means all
her Quarter was free, and all that was in that Part was dry; for you
may be sure my first Work was to search and to see what was spoiled
and what was free; and first I found that all the Ship's Provisions
were dry and untouch'd by the Water, and beingverywell dispos'd to eat,
I went to the Bread-room and filled my Pockets with Biscuit, and eat
it as I went about other things, for I had no time to lose; I also
found some Rum in the great Cabin, of which I took a large
Dram, and which I had indeed need enough of to spirit me for
what was before me: Now I wanted nothing but a Boat to furnish
myself with many things which I foresaw would be very necessary
to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had, and
this Extremity roused my Application; we had several spare Yards,
and two or three large spars of Wood, and a spare Topmast or two
in the Ship; I resolved to fall to work with these, and flung as many
of them overboard as I could manage for their Weight, tying every
one with a Rope that they might not drive away; when this was
done I went down the Ship's Side, and pulling them to me, I tied
four of them fast together at both Ends as well as I could, in the
Form of a Raft, and laying two or three short Pieces of Plank upon
them crossways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it
was not able to bear any great Weight, the Pieces being too light; sc
I went to work, and with the Carpenter's Saw I cut a spare Topmast
into three Lengths, and added them to my Raft, with a great deal of
Labour and Pains, but hope of furnishing myself with Necessaries,
encouraged me to go beyond what I should have been able to have
done upon another Occasion.

My Raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable Weight;
my next Care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I
laid upon it from the Surf of the Sea; But I was not long considering
this, I first laid all the Plank or Boards upon it that I could get, and
having considered well what I most wanted, I first got three of the
Seamen's Chests, which I had broken open and empty'd, and lower'd
them down upon my Raft; the first of these I filled with Provisions,
viz. Bread, Rice, three Dutch Cheeses, five Pieces of dried Goat's
Flesh, which we lived much upon, and a little Remainder of European
Corn which had been laid by for some Fowls which we brought to

Sea with us, but the Fowls were killed, there had been some Barley
and Wheat together, but, to my great disappointment, I found after-
wards that the Rats had eaten or spoiled it all; as for Liquors, I
found several Cases of Bottles belonging to our Skipper, in which
were some Cordial Waters, and in all about five or six Gallons of
Rack, these I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put
them into the Chest, nor no room for them. While I was doing this,
I found the Tide began to flow, though very calm, and I had the Morti-
fication to see my Coat, Shirt, and Waistcoat, which I had left ot
Shore upon the Sand, swim away; as for my Breeches which werei

only Linen and open-kneed, I swam on board in them and my
Stockings: However this put me upon rummaging for Clothes, of
which I found enough, but took no more than I wanted for present
use, for I had other things which my Eye was more upon, as first
Tools to work with on Shore, and it was after long searching that I
found out the Carpenter's Chest, which was indeed a very useful
Prize to me, and much more valuable than a Ship Loading of Gold
would have been at that
time; I got it down to
my Raft, even whole as
it was, without losing / y
time to look into it, for S i
I knew in general what
it contained.
My next Care, was for
some Ammunition, and
Arms; there were two
very good Fowling-pieces
in the great Cabin, and
two Pistols, these I se-
cur'd first, with some
Powder-horns, and a
small Bag of Shot, and
two old rusty Swords: I
knew there were three
Barrels of Powder in the
Ship, but knew not where
our Gunner had stowed
them, but with much
search I found them,
two of them dry and
good, the third had taken Water, those two I got to my Raft, with
the Arms, and now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and began
to think how I should get to Shore with them, having neither Sail,
Oar, or Rudder, and the least Capfull of Wind would have overset
all my Navigation.
I had three Encouragements, i. A smooth calm Sea, 2. The Tide
rising and setting in to the Shore, 3. What little Wind there was
blew me towards the Land; and thus, having found *wo or three

broken Oars belonging to the Boat, and besides the Tools which were
in the Chest, I found two Saws, an Axe, and a Hammer, and
with this Cargo I put to Sea: For a Mile, or thereabouts, my Raft
went very well, only that I found it drive a little distant from the
Place where I had landed before, by which I perceiv'd that there was
some Indraft of the Water, and consequently I hoped to find some
Creek or River there, which I might make use of as a Port to get to
Land with my Cargo.
As I imagin'd, so it was, there appeared before me a little opening
of the Land, and I found a strong Current of the Tide set into it, so

I guided my Raft as well as I could to keep in the Middle of the
Stream: But here I had like to have suffered a second Shipwreck,
which, if I had, I think verily would have broke my Heart, for know.
ing nothing of the Coast, my Raft run a-ground at one end of it upon
a Shoal, and not being a-ground at the other End, it wanted but a
little that all my Cargo had slipped off towards that End that was
afloat, and so fallen into the Water: I did my utmost by setting my
Back against the Chests, to keep them in their Places, but could not'
thrust off the Raft with all my Strength, neither durst I stir from the

Posture I was in, but holding up the Chests with all my Might, stood
in that Manner near half an Hour, in which time the- rising of the
Water brought me a little more upon a Level, and a little after, the
Water still rising, my Raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the
Oar I had, into the Channel, and then driving up higher, I at length
found myself in the Mouth of a little River, with Land on both Sides,
and a strong Current or Tide running up, I looked on both Sides for
a proper Place to get to Shore, for I was not willing to be driven too
high up the River, hoping in time to see some Ship at Sea, and there-
fore resolved to place myself as near the Coast as I could.
At length I spied a little Cove on the right Shore of the Creek, to
which with great Pain and Difficulty I guided my Raft, and at last
got so near, as that, reaching Ground with my Oar, I could thrust her
directly in, but here I had like to have dipped all my Cargo in the Sea
again; for that Shore lying pretty steep, that is to say sloping, there
was no Place to land, but where one End of my Float, if it run on
Shore, would lie so high, and the other sink lower as before, that it
would endanger my Cargo again: All that I could do, was to wait till
the Tide was at highest, keeping the Raft with my Oar like an
Anchor to hold the Side of it fast to the Shore, near a flat Piece of
Ground, which I expected the Water would flow over; and so it did:
As soon as I found Water enough, for my Raft drew about a Foot of
Water, I thrust her on upon that flat Piece of Ground, and there
fast'n'd or moored her by sticking my two broken Oars into the Ground;
one on one Side near one End, and one on the other Side near the
other End; and thus I lay till the Water ebbed away, and left my
Raft and all my Cargo safe on Shore.
My next Work was to view the Country, and seek a proper Place
for my Habitation, and where to stow my Goods to secure them from
whatever might happen; where I was I yet knew not, whether on the
Continent or on an Island, whether inhabited or not inhabited, whe-
ther in Danger of wild Beasts or not: There was a Hill not above a
Mile from me, which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed
to over-top some other Hills which lay as in a Ridge from it north-
ward; I took out one of the fowling Pieces, and one of the Pistols,
and an Horn of Powder, and thus armed I travell'd for Discovery up
to the Top of that Hill, where after I had with great Labour and
Difficulty got to the Top, I saw my Fate to my great Affliction, (viz.)
that I was in an Island environ'd every Way with the Sea, no Land

to be seen, except some Rocks which lay a great Way of, and two small
Islands less than this, which lay about three Leagues to the West.
I found also that the Island I was in was barren, and, as I saw
good Reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild Beasts, of whom
however I saw none, yet I saw Abundance of Fowls, but knew not
their Kinds, neither when I killed
them could I tell what was fit for
Food, and what not; at my coming
S_ back, I shot at a great Bird which
I saw sitting upon a Tree on the
r- f Side of a great Wood, I believe it
g bt was the first Gun that had been
r t fired there since the Creation of the
World; I had no sooner fired, but
from all the Parts of the Wood
there arose an innumerable Number
of Fowls of many Sorts, making a
Sconfus'd Screaming, and crying
A every one according to his usual
Note; but not one of them of any
Kind that I knew: As for the
Creature I killed, I took it to be a
Kind of a Hawk, its Colour and
Beak resembling it, but had no
Talons or Claws more than com-
mon, its Flesh was Carrion, and fit
for nothing.
Contented with this Discovery,
I came back to my Raft, and fell
to Work to bring my Cargo on Shore, which took me up the rest of
that Day, and what to do with myself at Night I knew not, nor indeed
where to rest; for I was afraid to lie down on the Ground, not know-
ing but some wild Beast might devour me, though as I afterwards found,
there was really no Need for those Fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricado'd myself round with the
Chests and Boards that I had brought on Shore, and made a Kind of
-, Hut 'for that Night's Lodging; as for Food, I yet saw not which .
Way to supply myself, except I had seen two or three Creatures like
Hares run out of the Wood where I shot the YoW.l

I now began to consider, that I might yet get a great many Things
out of the Ship, which would be useful to me, and particularly some of
the Rigging, and Sails, and such other Things as might come to Land,
and I resolved to make another Voyag, on Board the Vessel, if pos-
sible; and as I knew that the first Storm that blew must necessarily
break her all in Pieces, I resolved to set all other Things apart, until I
got everything out of the Ship that I could get; then I called a
Council, that is to say, in my Thoughts, whether I should take back
the Raft, but this appeared impracticable ; so I resolved to go as before,
when the Tide was down, and I did so, only that I stripped before I
went from my Hut, having nothing on but a Chequer'd Shirt, and a
Pair of Linen Drawers, and a Pair of Pumps on my Feet.

I got on Board the Ship, as before, and prepared a second Raft, and
having had Experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy,
nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several Things very
useful to me; as first, in the Carpenter's Stores I found two or three
Bags full of Nails and Spikes, a great Screw-Jack, a Dozen or two of
Hatchets, and above all, that most useful Thing called a Grindstone;
all these I secured together, with several Things belonging to the
Gunner, particularly two or three Iron Crows, and two Barrels of
Musket-Bullets, seven Muskets, and another fowling Piece, with
some small Quantity of Powder more; a large Bag full of small
Shot, and a great Roll of Sheet Lead: But this last was so heavy, I
could not hoist it up to get it over the Ship's Side.
Besides these Things, I took all the Men's Clothes that I could

find, and a spare Fore-topsail, a Hammock, and some Bedding; and
with this I loaded my second Raft, and brought them all safe on
Shore to my very great Comfort.
I was under some Apprehensions during my Absence from the
Land, that at least my Provisions might be devour'd on Shore; but
when I came back, I found no Sign of any Visitor, only there sat a
Creature like a wild Cat upon one of the Chests, which when I came
towards it, ran away a little Distance, and then stood still; she sat
very compos'd, and unconcerned, and looked full in my Face, as if she
had a Mind to be acquainted with me, I presented my Gun at her,
but as she did not understand it, she was perfectly unconcern'd at it,
nor did she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a Bit of Biscuit,
though by the Way I was not very free of it, for my Store was not great:
However, I spared her a Bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled of it,
and ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more, but I thanked her, and
could spare no more; so she marched off.
Having got my second Cargo on Shore, though I was fain to open
the Barrels of Powder, and bring them by Parcels, for they were
too heavy, being large Casks, I went to work to make me a little
Tent with the Sail and some Poles which I cut for that Purpose, and
into this Tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil, either
with Rain or Sun, and I piled all the empty Chests and Casks up in
a Circle round the Tent, to fortify it from any sudden Attempt, either
from Man or Beast.
When I had done this I blocked up the Door of the Tent with some
Boards within, and an empty Chest set up on End without, and spread-
ing one of the Beds upon the Ground, laying my two Pistols just at
my Head, and my Gun at Length by me, I went to Bed for the first
Time, and slept very quietly all Night, for I was very weary and
heavy, for the Night before I had slept little, and had labour'd
very hard all Day, as well to fetch all those Things from the Ship, as
to get them on Shore.
I had the biggest Magazine of all Kinds now that ever were laid
up, I believe, for one Man, but I was not satisfy'd still; for while
the Ship sat upright in that Posture, I thought I ought to get every-
thing out of her that I could; so every Day at low Water I went on
Board, and brought away something or other: But particularly the
third Time I went, I brought away as much of the Rigging as I could,
as also all the small Ropes and Rope-twine I could get, with a Piece


of spare Canvas, which was to mend the Sails upon Occasion, the
Barrel of wet Gunpowder : In a Word, I brought away all the Sails
first and last, only that I was fain to cut them in Pieces, and bring as
much at a Time as I could; for they were no more useful to be Sails,
but as mere Canvas only.
But that which comforted me more still, was, that at last of all,
after I had made five or six such Voyages as these, and thought I hae
nothing more to expect from the Ship that was worth my meddling with,
I say, after all this, I found a great Hogshead of Bread, and three
large Runlets of Rum or Spirits, and a Box of Sugar, and a Barrel

of fine Flour; this was surprising to me, because I had given over
expecting any more Provisions, except what was spoiled by the Water :
I soon empty'd the Hogshead of that Bread, and wrapt it up Parcel
by Parcel in Pieces of the Sails, which I cut out; and in a Word, I
g'.t all this safe on Shore also.
The next Day I made another Voyage; and now having plunder'd
the Ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the
Cables; and cutting the great Cable into Pieces, such as I could
move, I got two Cables and a Hawser on Shore, with all the Iron-
work I could get; and having cut down the Spritsail-yard, and the
Miss~o-yard, and everything I could to make a large Raft, I loaded

it with all those heavy Goods, and came away: But my good Luck
pegan now to leave me; for this Raft was so unwieldy, and so over-
.aden, that after I was enter'd the little Cove, where I had landed the
rest of my Goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the
other, it overset, and threw me and all my Cargo into the Water;
as for myself it was no great Harm, for I was near the Shore;
but as to my Cargo, it was great Part of it lost, especially the Iron,
which I expected would have been of great Use to me: However,
when the Tide was out, I got most of the Pieces of Cable ashore, and
some of the Iron, though with infinite Labour; for I was fain to dip for
it into the Water, a Work which fatigu'd me very much: After this I
went every Day on Board, and brought away what I could get.
I had been now Thirteen Days on Shore, and had been eleven
Times on Board the Ship; in which Time I had brought away all
that one Pair of Hands could well be supposed capable to bring, though
I believe verily, had the calm Weather held, I should have brought
away the whole Ship Piece by Piece: But preparing the i2th Time
to go on Board, I found the Wind begin to rise; however at low
Water I went on Board, and though I thought I hadrummag'd the Cabin
so effectually, as that nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a
Locker with Drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three
Razors, and one Pair of large Scissars, with some ten or a dozen of
good Knives and Forks; in another I found about Thirty six-Pounds
value in Money, some European Coin, some Brasil, some Pieces of
Eight, some Gold, some Silver.
I smiled to myself at the Sight of this Money, O Drug said I
aloud, what art thou good for, Thou art not worth to me, no not the
taking off of the Ground, one of those Knives is worth all this Heap,
I have no Manner of use for thee, e'en remain where thou art, and
go to the Bottom as a Creature whose Life is not worth saving. How
ever upon Second Thoughts, I took it away, and wrapping all this in
a Piece of Canvas, I began to think of making another Raft, but while
I was preparing this, I found the Sky overcast, and the Wind began
to rise, and in a Quarter of an Hour it blew a fresh Gale from the
Shore ; it presently occur'd to me, that it was in vain to pretend to
make a Raft with the Wind off Shore, and that it was my Business k
be gone before the Tide of Flood began, otherwise I might not -be
able to reach the Shore at all: Accordingly I let myself down into
tUe Water, and swam cross the Channel, which lay between the Ship


and the Sands, and even that with Difficulty enough, partly with the
Weight of the Things I had about me, and partly the Roughness of.
the Water, for the Wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite high
Water, it blew a Storm.
But I was gotten home to my little Tent, where I lay with all my
Wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all that Night, and in
the Morning when I looked out, behold no more Ship was to be seen;
I was a little surpriz'd, but recovered myself with this satisfactory Re-
flection, viz. That I had lost no time, nor abated no Diligence to get
everything out of her that could be useful to me, and that indeed there
was little left in her that I was able to bring away if I had had more time.
I now gave over any more Thoughts of the Ship, or of anything
out of her, except what might drive on Shore from her Wreck, as
indeed divers Pieces of her afterwards did; but those things were of
small use to me.
My Thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself
against either Savages, if any should appear, or wild Beasts, if any
were in the Island; and I had many Thoughts of the Method how to
do this, and what kind of Dwelling to make, whether I should make
me a Cave in the Earth, or a Tent upon the Earth: And, in short,
I resolved upon both, the Manner and Description of which, it may
not be improper to give an Account of.
I soon found the Place I was in was not for my Settlement, parti-
cularly because it was upon a low moorish Ground near the Sea, and
I believed would not be wholesome, and more particularly because
there was no fresh Water near it, so I resolved to find a more healthy
and more convenient Spot of Ground.
I consulted several Things in my Situation which I found would
be proper for me. Ist, Health, and fresh Water I just now mentioned.
2dly, Shelter from the Heat of the Sun. 3dly, Security from ravenous
Creatures, whether Men or Beasts. 4thly, a View to the Sea, that if
SGod sent any Ship in Sight, I might not lose any Advantage for my
Deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish all my Expectation yet.
In search of a Place proper for this, I found a little Plain on the
side of a rising Hill, whose Front towards this little Plain, was steep
as a House-side, so that nothing could come down upon me from the
Top; on the Side of this Rock there was a hollow Place worn a little
way in like the Entrance or Door of a Cave, but there was not really
Sany Cave or Way into the Rock at all.


On the Flat of the Green, just before this hollow Place, I resolved
to pitch my Tent; This Plain was not above an Hundred Yards broad
and about twice as long, and lay like a Green before my Door, and at
the End of it descended irregularly every Way down into the Low-
grounds by the Sea-side. It was on the .NNzV W. Side of the Hill,
so that I was shelter'd from the Heat every Day, till it came to a W
and by S. Sun, or thereabouts, which in those Countries is near the
Before I set up my Tent, I drew a half Circle before the hollow
Place, which took in about Ten Yards in its Semi-diameter from the
Rock, and Twenty Yards in its Diameter, from its Beginning and
In this half Circle I pitched two Rows of strong Stakes, driving
them into the Ground till they stood very firm like Piles, the biggest
End being out of the Ground about Five Foot and a Half, and
sharpen'd on the Top: The two Rows did not stand above Six
Inches from one another.
Then I took the Pieces of Cable which I had cut in the Ship, and
I laid them in Rows one upon another, within the Circle, between
these two Rows of Stakes, up to the Top, placing other Stakes in the
Inside, leaning against them, about two Foot and a half high, like a
Spur to a Post, and this Fence was so strong, that neither Man or
Beast could get into it or over it : This cost me a great deal of Time
and Labour, especially to cut the Piles in the Woods, bring them to
the Place, and drive them into the Earth.
The Entrance into this Place I made to be not by a Door, but
by a short Ladder to go over the Top, which Ladder, when I was in,
I lifted over after me, and so I was completely fenced in, and forti-
,d, as I thought, from all the World, and consequently slept secure
in the Night, which otherwise I could not have done, though as it ap-
pear'd afterward, there was no need of all this Caution from the Ene-
mies that I apprehended Danger from.
Into this Fence or Fortress, with infinite Labour, I carried all my
Riches, all my Provisions, Ammunition and Stores, of which you
hive the Account above, and I made me a large Tent, which, to pre-
serve me from the Rains that in one Part of the Year are very vio-
lent there, I made double, viz. One smaller Tent within, and one
larger Tent above it, and cover'd the uppermost with a large Tarpau-
lin which I had saved among the Sails.

And now I lay no more for a while in the Bed which I had brought
on Shore, but in a Hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and
belong'd to the Mate of the Ship.
Into this Tent I brought all my Provisions, and everything that
would spoil by the Wet, and having thus enclos'd all my Goods, I
made up the Entrance, which till now I had left open, and so passed
and repass'd, as I said, by a short Ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my Way into the Rock,
and bringing all the Earth and Stones that I dug down out through my
Tent, I laid them up within my Fence in the Nature of a Terrace, tha.
so it raised the Ground within about a Foot and a Half; and thus I
made me a Cave just behind my Tent, which served me like a Cellar
to my House.
It cost me much Labour, and many Days, before all these Things
were brought to Perfection, and therefore I must go back to some
other things which took up some of my Thoughts. At the same
time it happened after I had laid my Scheme for the setting up my
Tent, and making the Cave, that a Storm of Rain falling from a thick
dark Cloud, a sudden Flash of Lightning happened, and after
that a great Clap of Thunder, as is naturally the Effect of it; I was
not so much surprised with the Lightning as I was with a Thought
which darted into my Mind as swift as the Lightning itself: O my
Powder! My very Heart sunk within me, when I thought, that at
one Blast all my Powder might be destroyed, on which, not my de-
fence only, but the providing me Food, as I thought, entirely
depended; I was nothing near so anxious about my own Danger,
though had the Powder took fire, I had never known who had hurt
Such Impression did this make upon me, that after the Storm was
over, I laid aside all my Works, my Building, and Fortifying, and
applied myself to make Bags and Boxes to separate the Powder, and
keep it a little and a little in a Parcel, in hope, that whatever might
come, it might not all take Fire at once, and to keep it so apart that
it should not be possible to make one part fire another: I finished
this Work in about a Fortnight, and I think my Powder, which in all
was about 240 lb. weight was divided in not less than a Hundred
Parcels; as to the Barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend any
Danger from that, so I placed it in my new Cave, which in my Fancy.
I called my Kitchen, and the rest I hid up and down in Holes among


the Rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully
where I laid it.
In the Interval of time while this was doing I went out once at
'east every Day with my Gun, as well to divert myself, as to see if I
could kill anything fit for Food, and as near as I could to acquaint
myself with what the Island produced. The first time I went out I
presently discovered that there were Goats in the Island, which was
a great Satisfaction to me ; but then it was attended with this
Misfortune to me, viz. That they were so shy, so subtile, and so
swift of Foot, that it was the difficultest thing in the World to
come at them: But I was not discouraged at this, not doubting
but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon happened, for
after I had found
their Haunts a little,
I laid wait in this
Manner for them: I
observed if they saw
me in the Valleys,
though they were upon
the Rocks, they would
run away as in a ter-
rible Fright; but if
they were feeding in
the Valleys, and I was
upon the Rocks, they
took no Notice of me,
from whence I concluded, that by the Position of their Optics, their
Sight was so directed downward, that they did not readily see Objects
thatwere above them; so afterward I took this Method, Ialways climbed
the Rocks first to get above them, and then had frequently a fair
Mark. The first shot I made among these Creatures, I killed a She-
Goat which had a little Kid by her which she gave Suck to, which
grieved me heartily ; but when the Old one fell, the Kid stood stock
still by her till I came and took her up, and not only so, but when
I carried the Old one with me upon my Shoulders, the Kid followed
me quite to my Enclosure, upon which I laid down the Dam, and
took the Kid in my Arms, and carried it over my Pale, in hopes to
have bred it up tame, but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill
it and eat it myself; these two supplied me with Flesh a great


while, for I eat sparingly; and saved my Provisions (my Bread
especially) as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my Habitation, I found it absolutely necessary
to provide a Place to make a Fire in, and Fuel to bum; and what
I did for that, as also how I enlarg'd my Cave, and what Con-
veniences I made, I shall give a full Account of in its Place: But I
must first give
some little Ac- -.. ,.,. --- -- ._. .
count of myself, .-
and of my
Thoughts about C
Living, which it a D
may well be sup-
pos'd were not
a few.
I had a dismal
Prospect of my
Condition, for as
I was not cast
away upon that
Island without
being driven, as -
is said, by a
violent Storm
quite out of the
Course of our --.
intendedVoyage, -
and a great Way,
viz. some Hun- -
dreds of Leagues
out of the ordinary Course of the Trade of Mankind, I had great
Reason to consider it as a Determination of Heaven, that in this deso-
late Place, and in this desolate Manner I should end my Life; the
Tears would run plentifully down my Face when I made these Re-
flections, and sometimes I would expostulate with myself, Why
Providence should thus completely ruin its Creatures, and render
them so absolutely miserable, so without Help abandoned, so entirely
depress'd, that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a

But something always returned swift upon me to check these
Thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly one Day walking
with my Gun in my Hand by the Sea-side, I was very pensive upon
the Subject of my present Condition, when Reason as it were expos-
tulated with me the other Way, thus: Well, you are in a desolate Con-
dition it is true, but pray remember, Where are the rest of you ? Did
not you come Eleven of you into the Boat, where are the Ten ? Why
were not they saved and you lost? Why were you singled out ? Is it
better to be here or there? and then I pointed to the Sea. All
Evils are to be considered with the Good that is in them, and with
what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my
Subsistence, and what would have been my Case if it had not hap-
pen'd, Which was an Hundr-ed Thousand to one, that the Ship floated
from the Place where she first struck and was driven so near the
Shore that I had time to get all these Things out of her : What would
have been my Case, if I had been to have lived in the Condition in
which I at first came on Shore, without Necessaries of Life, or Neces-
saries to supply and procure them ? Particularly said I aloud, (though
to myself) what should I have done without a Gun, without Ammuni-
tion, without any Tools to make anything, or to work with, without
Clothes, Bedding, a Tent, or any manner of Covering, and that now
I had all these to a Sufficient Quantity, and was in a fair way to pro-
vide myself in such a manner, as to live without my Gun when my
Ammunition was spent; so that I had a tolerable View of subsisting
without any Want as long as I lived; for I considered from the begin.
ning how I would provide for the Accidents that might happen, and
for the time that was to come, even not only after my Ammunition
should be spent, but even after my Health or Strength should
I confess I had not entertain'd any Notion of my Ammunition
being destroyed at one Blast, I mean my Powder being blown up by
Lightning, and this made the Thoughts of it so surprising to me when
it lighten'd and thunder'd, as I observed just now.
And now being to enter into a melancholy Relation of a Scene of
silent Life, such perhaps as was never heard of in the World before,
I shall take it from its Beginning, and continue it in its Order. It
was, by my Account, the 3oth of Sept. when, in the Manner as above-
said, I first set Foot upon this horrid Island, when the Sun being, to

us, in its Autumnal Equinox, was almost just over my Head, for I
reckon'd myself, by Observation, to be in the Latitude of 9 Degrees
22 Minutes North of the Line.
After I had been there about Ten or Twelve Days, it came into
my Thoughts, that I should lose my Reckoning of Time for want of
Books and Pen and Ink, and should even forget the Sabbath Days
from the working Days; but to prevent this I cut it with my Knife
upon a large Post, in Capital Letters, and making it into a great
Cross I set it up on the Shore where I first landed, viz. I came on
Shore here on the 3oth of Sept. 1659. Upon the Sides of this square
Post, I cut every Day a Notch with my Knife, and every seventh
Notch was as long again as the rest, and every first Day of the
Month as long again as that long one, and thus I kept my Kalendar,
or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of Time.
In the next place we are to observe, that among the many things
which I brought out of the Ship in the several Voyages, which, as
above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of less Value, but
not all less useful to me, which I omitted setting down before; as in
particular, Pens, Ink, and Paper, several Parcels in the Captain's,
Mate's, Gunner's, and Carpenter's keeping, three or four Com-
passes, some Mathematical Instruments, Dials, Perspectives,
Charts, and Books of Navigation, all which I huddled together,
whether I might want them or no; also I found three very good
Bibles which came to me in my Cargo from England, and which I
had packed up among my things; some Portuguese Books also, and
among them two or three Popish Prayer-Books, and several other
Books, all which I carefully secur'd. And I must not forget, that we had
in the Ship a Dog and two Cats, of whose eminent History I may
have occasion to say something in its Place; for I carried both the
Cats with me; and as for the Dog, he jumped out of the Ship ot
himself and swam on Shore to me the Day after I went on Shore
with my first Cargo, and was a trusty Servant to me many Years; I
wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any Company that he
could make up to me, I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that
would not do : As I observed before, I found Pen, Ink and Paper,
and I husbanded them to the utmost, and I shall show, that while
my Ink lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that was gone, I
could not, for I could not make any Ink by any Means that I colld,

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstanding
all that I had amassed together, and of these, this of Ink was one,
as also Spade, Pick-Axe and Shovel, to dig or remove the Earth,
Needles, Pins, and Thread; as for Linen, I soon learned to want that
without much Difficulty.
This want of Tools made every Work I did go on heavily, and it
was near a whole Year before I had entirely finished my little Pale or
surrounded Habitation: The Piles or Stakes, which were as heavy as
I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and preparing in the
Woods, and more by far in bringing home, so that I spent sometimes
two Days in cutting and bringing home one of those Posts, and a
third Day in driving it into the Ground; for which Purpose I got a
heavy Piece of Wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one of
the Iron Crows, which however, though I found it, yet it made driving
those Posts or Piles very laborious and tedious Work.
But what need I have been concerned at the Tediousness of any-
thing I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do it in, nor had I
any other Employment if that had been over, at least, that I could
foresee, except the ranging the Island to seek for Food, which I did
more or less every Day.
I now began to consider seriously my Condition, and the Circum-
stance I was reduc'd to, and I drew up the State of my Affairs in
Writing, not so much to leave them to any that were to come after me,
for I was like to have but few Heirs, as to deliver my Thoughts from
daily poring upon them, and afflicting my Mind; and as my Reason
began now to master my Despondency, I began to comfort myself as
well as I could, and to set the good against the Evil, that I might
have something to distinguish my Case from worse, and I stated it
very impartially, like Debtor and Creditor, the Comforts I enjoy'd,
against the Miseries I suffered, Thus,

Evil. Good.
Iam cast upon a horrible desolate But lam alive, and not drowned
Island, void of all hope of Recovery. as all my Ship's Company was.
I ant singld out and separated, But I am sing'd out too from
as it were, from all the World to all the Ship's Crew to be spared
be miserable, from Death; and he that miracu-
lously saved me from Death, can
deliver me from this Condition.


Iam divided from Mankind, a
Solitaire, one banish'd from human
I have not Clothes to cover me.

I am without any Defence or
Means to resist any Violence of
Man or Beast.

I have no Soul to speak to, or
relieve me.

Upon the whole, here was an

But I am not starved and per-
ishing on a barren Place, affording
no Sustenance.
But I am in a hot Climate,
where if I had Clothes I could
hardly wear them.
But I am cast on an Island,
where I see no wild Beasts to hurt
me, as I saw on the Coast of
Africa: And what if I had been
Shipwreck'd there 7
But God wonderfully sent the
Ship in near enough to the Shore,
that I have gotten out so many
necessary things as will either sup-
ply my Wants, or enable me to
supply myself even as long as I
undoubted Testimony, that there

was scarce any Condition in the World so miserable, but there was
something Negative or something Positive to be thankful for in it; and
let this stand as a Direction from the Experience of the most mise-
rable of all Conditions in this World, that we may always find in it
something to comfort ourselves from, and to set in the Description of
Good and Evil, on the Credit Side of the Account.
Having now brought my Mind a little to relish my Condition, and
given over looking out to Sea to see if I could spy a Ship, I say,
giving over these things, I began to apply myself to accommodate my
way of.Living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my Habitation, which was a Tent under
the Side of a Rock, surrounded with a strong Pale of Posts and
Cables, but I might now rather call it a Wall, for I raised a kind of
Wall up against it of Turfs, about two Foot thick on the Outside,
and after some time, I think it was a Year and Half, I raised Rafters
from it leaning to the Rock, and thatched or cover'd it with Boughs
of Trees, and such things as I could get to keep out the Rain, which
I found at some times of the Year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my Goods into this

Pale, and into the Cave which I had made behind me : But I must
observe too, that at first this was a confused Heap of Goods, which as
they lay in no Order, so they took up all my Place, I had no room
to turn myself; so I set myself to enlarge my Cave and Works far-
ther into the Earth, for it was a loose sandy Rock, which yielded
easily to the Labour I bestow'd on it: And so when I found I was
pretty safe as to Beasts of Prey, I worked sideways to the Right
Hand into the Rock, and then turning to the Right again, worked
quite out and made me a Door to come out, on the Outside of my
Pale or Fortification.
This gave me not only Egress and Regress, as it were a Back-way
to my Tent and to my Storehouse, but gave me room to stow my
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things
as I found I most wanted, as particularly a Chair and a Table, for
without these I was not able to enjoy the few Comforts I had in the
World, I could not write, or eat, or do several things with so much
Pleasure without a Table.
So I went to work ; and here I must needs observe, that as Reason
is the Substance and Original of the Mathematics, so by stating
and squaring everything by Reason, and by making the most rational
Judgment of things, every Man may be in time Master of every me-
chanic Art. I had never handled a Tool in my Life, and yet in
time by Labour, Application, and Contrivance, I found at last that I
wanted nothing but I could have made it, especially if I had had
Tools; however I made abundance of things, even without Tools,
and some with no more Tools than an Adze and a Hatchet, which
perhaps were never made that way before, and that with infinite
Labour: For Example, If I wanted a Board, I had no other Way but
to cut down a Tree, set it on an Edge before me, and hew it flat on
either Side withmy Axe, till I had brought it to be thin as a Plank,
and then dubb it smooth with my Adze. It is true, by this Method
I could make but one Board out of a whole Tree, but this I had no
Remedy for but Patience, any more than I had for the prodigious
deal of Time and Labour which it took me up to make a Plank or
Board : But my Time or Labour was little worth, and so it was as
Well employed one way as another.
However, I made me a Table and a Chair, as I observed above, in
the first Place, and this I did out of the short Pieces of Boards that I

brought on my Raft from the Ship: But when I had wrought out
some Boards, as above, I made large Shelves of the Breadth of a
Foot and Half one over another, all along one Side of my Cave, to
lay all my Tools, Nails, and Ironwork, and in a Word, to separate
everything at large in their Places, that I might come easily at them;
I knocked Pieces into the Wall of the Rock to hang my Guns and all
things that would hang up.
So that had my Cave been to be seen, it looked like a general
Magazine of all Necessary things, and I had everything so ready at
my Hand, that it was a great Pleasure to me to see all my Goods in
such Order, and especially to find my Stock of all Necessaries so
And now it was when I began to keep a Journal of every Day's
Employment, for indeed at first I was in too much Hurry, and not
only Hurry as to Labour, but in too much Discomposure of Mind,
and my Journal would have been full of many dull things: For Example,
I must have said thus. Sept. the 30th. After I got to Shore and had
cscap'd drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my Delive-
rance, having first vomited with the great Quantity of salt Water
which was gotten into my Stomach, and recovering myself a little, I
ran about the Shore, wringing my Hands and beating my Head and
Face, exclaiming at my Misery, and crying out, I was undone, un-
done, till tired and faint I was forced to lie down on the Ground to
repose, but durst not sleep for fear of being devour'd.
Some Days after this, and after I had been on board the Ship, and
got all that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to
the Top of a little Mountain and looking out to Sea in hopes of
seeing a Ship, then fancy at a vast Distance I spied a Sail, please my-
self with the Hopes of it, and then after looking steadily till I was
almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep like a Child,
and thus increase my Misery by my Folly.
But having gotten over these things in some Measure, and having
settled my household Stuff and Habitation, made me a Table and a
Chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I began to keep
my Journal, of which I shall here give you the Copy (though in it will
be told all these Particulars over again) as long as it lasted, f
having no more Ink I was forced to leave it off.



September 30, 1659. I poor miserable Robinson Crusoe, being ship-
wreck'd, during a dreadful Storm, in the offing, came on Shore on this
dismal unfortunate Island, which I called the Island of Despair, all
the rest of the Ship's Company being drowned, and myself almost
All the rest of that
Day I spent in af-
S. flicting myself at the
Dismal Circumstan-
ces I was brought
S .i to, viz. I had neither
--J. Food, House,
Clothes, Weapon, or
Place to fly to, and
o in Despair of any
Relief, saw nothing
Sbut Death before me,
S either that I should
be devour'd by wild
Beasts, murdered by
S ---Savages, or starved to
--Death for Want of
Food. At the Ap-
proach of Night, I slept in a Tree for fear of wild Creatures, but
slept soundly though it rained all Night.
October r. In the Morning I saw to my great Surprise the Ship
had floated with the high Tide, and was driven on Shore again much
nearer the Island, which as it was some Comfort on one hand, for
seeing her sit upright, and not broken to Pieces, I hoped, if the Wind
abated, I might get on board, and get some Food and Necessaries
out of her for my Relief; so on the other hand, it renew'd my Grief
at the Loss of my Comrades, who I imagin'd if we had all stayed on
board might have saved the Ship, or at least that they would not have
been all drowned as they were; and that had the Men been saved, we
might perhaps have built us a Boat out of the Ruins of the Ship, to
have carried us to some other Part of the World. I spent great Part

of this Day in perplexing myself on these things; but at length
seeing the Ship almost dry, I went upon the Sand as near as I could,
and then swam on board; this Day also it continued raining, though
with no Wind at all.
From the ist of October to the 24th. All these Days entirely spent
in many several Voyages to get all I could out of the Ship, which I
brought on Shore, every Tide of Flood, upon Rafts. Much Rain
also in these Days, though with some Intervals of fair Weather : But,
it seems, this was the rainy Season.
Oct. 20. I overset my Raft, and all the Goods I had got upon it,
but being in shoal Water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I re-
cover'd many of them when the Tide was out.
Oct. 25. It rained all Night and all Day, with some Gusts of Wind,
during which time the Ship broke in Pieces, the Wind blowing a little
harder than before, and was no more to be seen, except the Wreck
of her, and that only at low Water. I spent this Day in covering
and securing the Goods which I had saved, that the Rain might
not spoil them.
Oct. 26. I walked about the Shore almost all Day to find out
a place to fix my Habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself
from an Attack in the Night, either from wild Beasts or Men. To-
wards Night I fixed upon a proper Place under a Rock, and marked
out a Semicircle for my Encampment, which I resolved to strengthen
with a Work, Wall, or Fortification made of double Piles, lined within
with Cables, and without with Turfs.
From the 26th to the 3oth I worked very hard in carrying all my
Goods to my new Habitation, though some part of the time it rained
exceeding hard.
The 3 st in the Morning I went out into the Island with my Gun
to see for some Food, and discover the Country, when I killed a She-
Goat, and her Kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed also,
because it would not feed.
November i. I set up my Tent under a Rock, and lay there for
the first Night, making it as large as I could with Stakes driven in to
swing my Hammock upon.
Nov. 2. I set up all my Chests and Boards, and the Pieces of
Timber which made my Rafts, and with them formed a Fence
round me, a little within the Place I had marked out for my

Nov. 3. I went out with my Gun, and killed two Fowls like
Ducks, which were very good Food. In the Afternoon went to
work to make me a Table.
Nov. 4. This Morning I began to order my times of Work, of
going out with my Gun, time of Sleep, and time of Diversion, viz.
Every Morning I walked out with my Gun for two or three Hours
if it did not rain, then employed myself to work till about Eleven
o'clock, then eat what I had to live on, and from Twelve to Two
I lay down to sleep, the Weather being excessive hot, and then in
the Evening to work again: The working Part of this Day and of
the next were wholly employed in making my Table, for I was yet
but a very sorry Workman, though Time and Necessity made me a
complete natural Mechanic soon after, as I believe it would do any
one else.
Nov. 5. This Day went abroad with my Gun and my Dog, and
killed a wild Cat, her Skin pretty soft, but her Flesh good for nothing:
Every Creature I killed, I took off the Skins and preserv'd them:
Coming back by the Sea-Shore, I saw many Sorts of Sea-Fowls, which
I did not understand; but was surpriz'd, and almost frighted with
two or three Seals, which, while I was gazing at, not well knowing
what they were, got into the Sea, and escap'd me for that time.
aov. 6. After my Morning Walk I went to work with my Table
again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long before
I learnt to mend it.
Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair Weather. The 7th, 8th,
9th, loth, and part of the i2th, (for the iith was Sunday) I took
wholly up to make me a Chair, and with much ado brought it to a
tolerable Shape, but never to please me, and even in the making I
pulled it in Pieces several times. Note, I soon neglected my keeping
Sunday, for omitting my Mark for them on my Post, I forgot which
was which.
Aov. 13. This Day it rained, which refresh'd me exceedingly, and
cooled the Earth, but it was accompany'd with terrible Thunder and
Lightning, which frighted me dreadfully for fear of my Powder; as
soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my Stock of Powder into
as many little Parcels as possible, that it might not be in Danger.
Nov. 14, i~, 16. These three Days I spent in making little square
Chests or Boxes, which might hold about a Pound, or two Pound, at
most, of Powder and so putting the Powder in, I stowed it il

Places as secure and remote from one another as possible. On one
of these three Days I killed a large Bird that was good to eat, but I
know not what to call it.
Nov. 17. This Day I began to dig behind my Tent into the
Rock to make room for my farther Conveniency: Note, Two
Things I wanted exceedingly for
this Work, viz. a Pick-axe, a
Shovel, and a Wheel-barrow or
Basket, so I desisted from my
Work, and began to consider how
to supply that Want and make
me some Tools ; as for a Pick'axe,
I made use of the Iron Crows,
which were proper enough, though
heavy; but the next thing was a
Shovel or Spade; this was so
absolutely necessary, that indeed
I could do nothing effectually
without it, but what kind of one
to make I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next Day in
searching the Woods I found a
Tree of that Wood, or like it, which, in the Brasils they call the Iron
Tree, for its exceeding Hardness, of this, with great Labour and
almost spoiling my Axe, I cut a Piece, and brought it home too with
Difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy.
The excessive Hardness of the Wood, and having no other Way,
made me a long while upon this Machine, for I worked it effectually
by little and little into the Form of a Shovel or Spade, the Handle
exactly shaped like ours in England, .only that the broad Part having
no Iron shod upon it at Bottom, it would not last me so long, how-
ever it served well enough for the uses wlich I had occasion to put it
to; but never was a Shovel, I believe, made after that Fashion, or so
long a making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a Basket or a Wheel-barrow, a
Basket I could not make by any Means, having no such things as
Twigs that would bend to make Wicker Ware, at least none yet found
out; and as to a Wheel-barrow, I fancy'd I could make all but the
Wheel, but that I had no Notion of, neither did I know how to go

about it; besides I had no possible Way to make the Iron Gudgeons
for the Spindle or Axis of the Wheel to run in, so I gave it over, and
so for carrying away the Earth which I dug out of the Cave, I made
me a Thing like a Hod, which the Labourers carry Mortar in, when
they serve the Bricklayers.
This was not so difficult to me as the making the Shovel; and yet
this, and the Shovel, and the Attempt which I made in vain, to make
a Wheel-barrow, took me up no less than four Days, I mean always,
excepting my Morning Walk with my Gun, which I seldom failed, and
very seldom failed also bringing Home something fit to eat.
Nov. 23. My other Work having now stood still, because of my
making these Tools; when they were finished, I went on, and work-
ing every Day, as my Strength and Time allowed, I spent eighteen
Days entirely in widening and deepening my Cave, that it might
hold my Goods commodiously.
Note, During all this Time, I worked to make this Room or Cave
spacious enough to accommodate me as a Warehouse or Magazine, a
Kitchen, a Dining-room, and a Cellar; as for my Lodging, I kept to
the Tent, except that Sometimes in the wet Season of the Year, it
rained so hard, that I could not keep myself dry, which caused me
afterwards to cover all my Place within my Pale with long Poles in
the Form of Rafters leaning against the Rock, and load them with
Flags and large Leaves of Trees like a Thatch.
December o1. I began now to think my Cave or Vault finished, when
on a Sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great Quantity of
Earth fell down from the Top and one Side, so much, that in short it
frighted me, and not without Reason too; for if I had been under
it I had never wanted a Grave-digger: Upon this Disaster I had
a great deal of Work to do over again ; for I had the loose
Earth to carry out; and which was of more Importance, I had the
Ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come down.
Dec. I1. This Day I went to Work with it accordingly, and got
two Shores or Posts pitched upright to the Top, with two Pieces of
Boards across over each Post, this I finished the next Day; and
setting more Posts up with Boards, in about a WeeK more I had the
Roof secur'd; and the Posts standing in Rows, served me for Parti-
tions to part off my House.
Dec. 17. From this Day to the Twentieth I placed Shelves, and
knocked up Nails on the Posts to hang everything up that could be
hln'j ip. and now I began to be in some Order within Doors.


Dec. 20. Now I carry'd everything into the Cave, and began to
furnish my House, and set up some Pieces of Boards, like a Dresser,
to order my Victuals upon, but Boards began to be very scarce with
me; also I made me another Table.
Dec. 24. Much Rain all Night and all Day, no stirring out.
Dec. 25. Rain all Day.
Dec. 26. No Rain, and the Earth much cooler than before, and
Dec. 27. Killed a young Goat, and lamed another so that I caught
it and led it Home in a String; when I had it Home, I bound and
splinter'd up its Leg which was broke. N.B. I took such Care of it,
that it lived, and the Leg grew well and as strong as ever; but by my
nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed upon the little Green at my
Door, and would not go away: This was the first Time that I enter-
tain'd a Thought of breeding up some tame Creatures, that I might
have Food when my Powder and Shot was all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30. Great Heats and no Breeze; so that there was
no Stirring abroad, except in the Evening for Food; this Time I spent
in putting all my Things in Order within Doors.
January I. Very hot still, but I went abroad early and late with
my Gun, and lay still in the Middle of the Day; this Evening going
farther into the Valleys which lay towards the Centre of the Island,
I found there was plenty of Goats, though exceeding shy and hard to
come at, however I resolved to try if I could not bring my Dog to
hunt them down.
Jan. 2. Accordingly, the next Day, I went out with my Dog, and
set him upon the Goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about
upon the Dog, and he knew his Danger too well, for he would not
come near them.
Jan. 3. I began my Fence or Wall; which being still jealous of my
being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.
N.B. This Wall being described before, I purposely omit what
was said in the Journal; it is sufficient to observe, that I was
no less Time than from the 3rd of January to the i4th of
April, working, finishing andperfecting this Wall, though it
was no more than about 24 Yards in Length, being a half-
Circle from one Place in the Rock to another Place about eight
Yards from it, the Door of the Cave being in the Centre be.
hind it.

All this Time I worked very hard, the Rains hindering me many
Days, nay sometimes Weeks together; but I thought I should never
be perfectly secure till this Wall was finished; and it is scarce cre-
dible what inexpressible Labour everything was done with, espe-
cially the bringing Piles out of the Woods, and driving them into the
Ground, for I made them much bigger than I need to have done.
When this Wall was finished, and the Outside double fenced with
a Turf-Wall raised up to close it, I persuaded myself that if any People
were to come on Shore there, they would not perceive anything like
a Habitation; and it was very well I did so, as may be observed
hereafter upon a very remarkable Occasion.
During this Time, I made my Rounds in the Woods for Game
every Day when the Rain admitted me, and made frequent Dis-
coveries in these Walks of something or other to my Advantage;
particularly I found a Kind of wild Pigeons, who built not as Wood
Pigeons in a Tree, but rather as House Pigeons, in the Holes of the
Rocks; and taking some young ones, I endeavoured to breed them
up tame, and did so; but when they grew older they flew all away,
which perhaps was at first for Want of feeding them, for I had
nothing to give them; however I frequently found their Nests, and
got their young ones, which were very good Meat.
And now, in the managing my household Affairs, I found myself
wanting in many Things, which I thought at first it was impossible
for me to make, as indeed as to some of them it was; for Instance, I
could never make a Cask to be hooped, I had a small Runlet or two,
as I observed before, but I could never arrive to the Capacity of making
one by them, though I spent many Weeks about it; I could neither
put in the Heads, or joint the Staves so true to one another, as to
make them hold Water, so I gave that also over.
In the next Place, I was at a great Loss for Candle; so that as
soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by Seven o'Clock,
I was oblig'd to go to Bed : I remembered the Lump of Beeswax
with which I made Candles in my African Adventure, but I
had none of that now; the only Remedy I had was, that when
I had killed a Goat, I saved the Tallow, and with a little Dish made
of Clay, which I baked in the Sun, to which I added a Wick of some
Oakum, I made me a Lamp; and this gave me Light, though not a
clear steady Light like a Candle; in the Middle of all my Labours
it happened, that rummaging my Things, I found a ];ttle Bag, which,


as I hinted before, had been filled with Corn for the feeding of Poultry,
not for this Voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the Ship came from
Lisbon, what little Remainder of Corn had been in the Bag, was all
devour'd with the Rats, and I saw nothing in the Bag but Husks and
Dust; and being willing to have the Bag for some other Use, I think
it was to put Powder in, when I divided it for Fear of the Lightning,
or some such Use, I shook the Husks of Corn out of it on one Side
of my Fortification under the Rock.
It was a little before the great Rains, just now mentioned, that I
threw this Stuff away, taking no Notice of anything, and not so much
as remembering that I had thrown anything there; when about a
Month after, or thereabout, I saw some few Stalks of something
green, shooting out of the Ground, which I fancied might be some
Plant I had not seen, but I was surprised and perfectly astonish'd,
when, after a little longer Time, I saw about ten or twelve Ears come
out, which were perfect green Barley of the same Kind as our
European, nay, as our English Barley.
It is impossible to express the Astonishment and Confusion of my
Thoughts on this Occasion; I had hitherto acted upon no religious
Foundation at all, indeed I had very few Notions of Religion in my
Head, or had entertain'd any Sense of anything that had befallen me,
otherwise than as a Chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases. God;
without so much as inquiring into the End of Providence in 'these
Things, or his Order in governing Events in the World: But after I
saw Barley grow there, in a Climate which I know was not proper for
Corn, and especially that I knew not how it came there, it startled
me strangely, and I began to suggest, that God had miraculously
caused this Grain to grow without any Help of Seed sown, and that it
was so directed purely for my Sustenance, on that wild miserable
This touched my Heart a little, and brought Tears out of my Eyes,
and I began to bless myself, that such a Prodigy of Nature should
happen upon my Account; and this was the more strange to me, be-
cause I saw near it still all along by the Side of the Rock, some other
straggling Stalks, which proved to be Stalks of Rice, and which I knew,
because I had seen it grow in Africa, when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure Productions of Providence for
my Support, but not doubting, but that there was more in the Place,
I went all over that Part of the Island, where I had been before, peer-

ing in every Corner, and under every Rock, to see for more of it, but
I could not find any; at last it occur'd to my Thoughts, that I had
shook a Bag of Chickens' Meat out in that Place, and then the
Wonder began to cease; and I must confess, my religious Thankful-
ness to God's Providence began to abate too upon the Discovering
that all this was nothing but what was common; though I ought to have
been as thankful for so strange and unforeseen Providence, as if it had
been miraculous ; for it was really the Work of Providence as to me,
that should order or appoint, that o1 or s1 Grains of Corn should
remain unspoil'd (when the Rats had destroyed all the rest,) as if it
had been dropped from Heaven; as also, that I should throw it out in
that particular Place, where it being in the Shade of a high Rock, it
sprang up immediately; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else, at
that Time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the Ears of this Corn you may be sure in their
Season, which was about the End of June; and laying up every Corn,
I resolved to sow them all again, hoping in Time to have some
Quantity sufficient to supply me with Bread; But it was not till the
4th Year that I could allow myself the least Grain of this Corn to
eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall say afterwards in its
Order; for I lost all that I sowed the first Season, by not observing
the proper Time ; for I sowed it just before the dry Season, so that it
never came up at all, at least, not as it would have done : Of which in
its Place.
Besides this Barley, there was, as above, 20 or 30 Stalks of Rice,
which I preserv'd with the same Care, and whose Use was of the
same Kind or to the same Purpose, (viz.) to make me Bread, or
rather Food; for I found Ways to cook it up without baking, though
I did that also after some Time. But to return to my Journal.
I worked excessive hard these three or four Months to get my Wall
done; and the i4th of April I closed it up, contriving to go into it,
Aot by a Door, but over the Wall by a Ladder, that there might be
no Sign in the Outside of my Habitation.
April 16. I finished the Ladder, so I went up with the Ladder to
the Top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the Inside:
This was a complete Enclosure to me; for within I had Room
enough, and nothing could come at me from without, unless it could
first mount my Wall.
The very next Day after this Wall was finished, I had almost had

all my Labour overthrown at once, and myself killed, the Case was
thus, As I was busy in the Inside of it, behind my Tent, just in the
Entrance into my Cave, I was terribly frighted with a most dread-
ful surprising Thing indeed; for all on a sudden I found the Earth
come crumbling down from the Roof of my Cave, and from the Edge
of the Hill over my Head, and two of the Posts I had set
up in the Cave cracked in a frightful Manner: I was heartily
scared, but thought nothing of what was really the Cause, only
thinking that the Top of my Cave was falling in, as some of
it had done before; and for Fear I should be buried in it, I
ran forward to my Ladder, and not thinking myself safe there
neither, I got over my Wall for Fear of the Pieces of the Hill which I
expected might roll down upon me: I was no sooner stept down
upon the firm Ground, but I plainly saw it was a terrible Earthquake,
for the Ground I stood on shook three Times at about eight Minutes'
Distance, with three such Shocks, as would have overturned the
strongest Building that could be supposed to have stood on the Earth,
and a great Piece of the Top of a Rock, which stood about half a
Mile from me next the Sea, fell down with such a terrible Noise, as I
never heard in all my Life, I perceiv'd also, the very Sea was put
into violent Motion by it; and I believe the Shocks were stronger
under the Water than on the Island.
I was so amazed with the Thing itself, having never felt the like, or
discours'd with any one that had, that I was like one dead or
stupify'd; and the Motion of the Earth made my Stomach sick like
one that was tossed at Sea; but the Noise of the falling of the Rock
awaked me as it were, and rousing me from the stupify'd Condition I
was in, filled me with Horror, and I thought of nothi.. then but the
Hill falling upon my Tent and all my household Goods, and burying
all at once; and this sunk my very Soul within me a second Time.
After the third Shock was over, and I felt no more for some Time,
I began to take Courage, and yet I had not Heart enough to go over
my Wall again, for Fear of being buried alive, but sat still upon the
Ground, greatly cast down and disconsolate, not knowing what to do:.
All this while I had not the least serious religious Thought, nothihg'
but the common, Lord have Mercy upon me; and when it was over,
that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the Air overcast, and grow cloudy, as if it
would Rain; soon after that the Wind rose, by little and little, so that, in

less than half an Hour, it blew a most dreadful Hurricane : The Sea
was all on a Sudden cover'd with Foam and Froth, the Shore was
cover'd with the Breach of the Water, the Trees were torn up by the
Roots, and a terrible Storm it was; and this held about three Hours,
and then began to abate, and in two Hours more it was stark calm,
and began to rain very hard.
All this while I sat upon the Ground very much terrify'd and de-
jected, when on a sudden it came into my thoughts, that these Winds
and Rain being the Consequences of the Earthquake, the Earthquake
itself was spent and over, and I might venture into my Cave again:
With this Thought my Spirits began to revive, and the Rain also
helping to persuade me, I went in and sat down in my Tent, but the
Rain was so violent, that my Tent was ready to be beaten down with
it, and I was forced to go into my Cave, though very much afraid
and uneasy for fear it should fall on my Head.
This violent Rain forced me to a new Work, viz. To cut a Hole
through my new Fortification like a Sink to let the Water go out, which
would else have drowned my Cave. After I had been in my Cave
some time, and found still no more Shocks of the Earthquake follow,
I began to be more compos'd; and now to support my Spirits, which
indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little Store and took a
small Sup of Rum, which however I did then and always very spa-
ringly, knowing I could have no more when that was gone.
It continued raining all that Night, and great Part of the next Day,
so that I could not stir abroad, but my Mind being more compos'd, I
began to think of what I had best do, concluding that if the Island
was subject to these Earthquakes, there would be no living for me in
a Cave, but I must consider of building me some little Hut in an
open Place which I might surround with a Wall as I had done here,
and so make myself secure from wild Beasts or Men; but concluded,
if I stayed where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be
bury'd alive.
With these Thoughts I resolved to remove my Tent from the Place
where it stood, which was just under the hanging Precipice of the Hill,
and which, if it should be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my
Tent: And I spent the two next Days, being the i9th and 2oth of
April, in contriving where and how to remove my Habitation.
The fear of being swallow'd up alive, made me that I never slept in
quiet, and yet the Apprehensions of lying abroad without any Fence

was almost equal to it; but still when I looked about and saw how
everything was put in order, how pleasantly conceal'd I was, and
how safe from Danger, it made me very loth to remove.
In the meantime it occurred to me that it would require a vast
deal of time for me to do this, and that I must be contented to run
the Venture where I was, till I had formed a Camp for myself, and had
secur'd it so as to remove to it: So with this Resolution I compos'd
myself for a time, and resolved that I would go to work with all
Speed to build me a Wall with Piles and Cables, 6-c, in a Circle as
before, and set my Tent up in it when it was finished, but that I
would venture to stay where I was till it was finished and fit to re-
move to. This wvas the.21st.
April 22. The next Morning I began to consider of Means to put
this Resolve in Execution, but I was at a great loss about my Tools;
I had three large Axes and abundance of Hatchets, (for we carried
'the Hatchets for Traffic with the Indians) but with much chopping
and cutting knotty hard Wood, they were all full of Notches and
dull, and though I had a Grindstone I could not turn it and grind my
Tools too, this cost me
as much Thought as a
Statesman would have
bestow'd upon a grand
Point of Politics, or
a Judge upon the Life
and Death of a Man.
At length I contriv'd
a Wheel with a String,
to turn it with my "
Foot, that I might
have both my Hands
at Liberty : Note, I
had never seen any
such thing in England,
or at least not to take Notice how it was done, though since I have
observed it is very common there; besides that, my Grindstone
was very large and heavy. This Machine cost me a full Week's
Work to bring it to Perfection.
April 28, 29. These two whole Days I took up in grinding my
Tools, my Machine for turning my Grindstone performing very well.


April 30. Having perceiv'd my Bread had been low a great while,
now I took a Survey of it, and reduc'd myself to one Biscuit-cake a
Day, which made my Heart very heavy.
May i. In, the Morning looking towards the Sea-side, the
Tide being low, I saw something lie on the Shore bigger than
ordinary, and it looked like a Cask, when I came to it, I found a
small Barrel, and two or three Pieces of the Wreck of the Ship, which
were driven on Shore by the late Hurricane, and looking towards
the Wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the Water
than it used to do; I examined the Barrel which was driven on Shore,
and soon found it was a Barrel of Gunpowder, but it had taken
Water, and the Powder was caked as hard as a stone, however
I rolled it farther on Shore for the present, and went on upon the
Sands as near as I could to the Wreck of the Ship to look for
When I came down to the Ship I found it strangely remov'd,
The Forecastle, which lay before bury'd in Sand was heaved up at
least Six Foot, and the Ster, which was broke to Pieces and parted
from the rest by the Force of the Sea soon after I had left rum-
maging her, was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one Side, and the
Sand was thrown so high on that Side next her Stern, that where-
as there was a great Place of Water before, so that I could not come
within a Quarter of a Mile of the Wreck without swimming, I could
now walk quite up to her when the Tide was out; I was surprised
with this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the Earth-
quake, and as by this Violence the Ship was more broken open than
formerly, so many Things came daily on Shore, which the Sea had
loosen'd, and which the Winds and Water rolled by Degrees to the
This wholly diverted my Thoughts from the Design of removing
my Habitation; and I busied myself mightily that Day especially, in
searching whether I could make any Way into the Ship, but I found
nothing was to be expected of that Kind, for that all the Inside of
the Ship was choked up with sand: However, as I had learned not
to despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything to Pieces that
I could of the Ship, concluding, that everything I got from her
would be of some Use or other to me.
May 3. I began with my Saw, and cut a Piece of a Beam through,
which I thought held some of the upper Part or Quarter-Deck together

and when I had cut it through, I cleared away the Sand as well.
as I could from the Side which lay highest; but the Tide coming
in, I was oblig'd to give over for that Time.
May 4. I went a fishing, but caught not one Fish that I durst eat
of, till I was weary of my Sport, when just going to leave off, I
caught a young Dolphin. I had made me a long Line of some Rope
Yarn, but I had no Hooks, yet I frequently caught Fish enough,
as much as I cared to eat; all which I dried in the Sun, and eat
them dry.
May 5. Worked on the Wreck, cut another Beam asunder, and
brought three great Fir Planks off from the Decks, which I tied to-
gether, and made swim on Shore when the Tide of Flood came on.
May 6. Worked on the Wreck, got several Iron Bolts out of her,
and other Pieces of Iron-Work, worked very hard, and came Home
very much tired, and had Thoughts of giving it over.
May 7. Went to the Wreck again, but with an Intent not to
work, but found the Weight of the Wreck had broke itself down, the
Beams being cut, that several Pieces of the Ship seemed to lie loose,
and the Inside of the Hold lay so open, that I could see into it, but
almost full of Water and Sand.
May 8. Went to the Wreck, and carry'd an Iron Crow to wrench
up the Deck, which lay now quite clear of the Water or Sand; I
wrenched open two Planks, and brought them on Shore also with
the Tide: I left the Iron Crow in the Wreck for next Day.
May 9. Went to the Wreck, and with the Crow made Way into
the Body of the Wreck, and felt several Casks, and loosen'd them
with the Crow, but could not break them up; I felt also the Roll of
English Lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to remove.
May ro, 1i, 12, 13, 14. Went every Day to the Wreck, and got
a great -deal of Pieces of Timber, and Boards, or Plank, arid z or
300 Weight of Iron.
May 15. I carry'd two Hatchets to try if I could not cut a Piece
off of the Roll of Lead, by placing the Edge of one Hatchet, and
driving it with the other; but as it lay about a Foot and a half in the
Water, I could not make any Blow to drive the Hatchet.
May 16. It had blowed hard in the Night, and the Wreck ap-
pear'd more broken by the Force of the Water; but I stayed so long
in the Woods to get Pigeons for Food, that the Tide prevented me
going to the Wreck that Day,

May 17. I saw some Pieces of the Wreck blown on Shore, at a
great Distance, near two Miles off me, but resolved to see what they
were, and found it was a Piece of the Head, but too heavy for me to
bring away.
May 24. Every Day to this Day I worked on the Wreck, and with
hard Labour I loosen'd some Things so much with the Crow, that the
first blowing Tide several Casks floated out, and two of the Seamen's
Chests; but the Wind blowing from the Shore, nothing came to
Land that Day, but Pieces of Timber, and a Hogshead which had
some Brazil Pork in it, but the Salt-water and the Sand had
spoiled it.
I continued this Work every Day to the i5th of June, except the
Time necessary to get Food, which I always appointed, during this
Part of my Employment, to be when the Tide was up, that I might
be ready when it was ebbed out, and by this Time I had gotten Tim-
ber, and Plank, and Iron-Work enough, to have builded a good Boat,
if I had known how; and also, I got at several Times, and in seve-
ral Pieces, near oo Weight of the Sheet-Lead.
__ _June 16. Going
down to the ea-si e,
SI found a large Tor-
S- toise or Turtle; this
was the first I had
seen, which it seems
was only my Misfor-
S tune, not any Defect
of the Place, or
Scarcity ; for had I
happened to be on
the other Side of the
Island, I might have
had Hundreds of them
every Day, as I found afterwards; but perhaps had paid dear
enough for them.
June I7. I spent in cooking the Turtle; I found in her threescore
Eggs; and her Flesh was to me at that Time the most savoury and
pleasant that ever I tasted in my Life, having had no Flesh, but of
Goats and Fowls, since I landed in this horrid Place.
June 18. Rained all Day, and I stayed within. I thought at this

Time the Rain felt Cold, and I was something chilly, which I knew
was not usual in that Latitude.
June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the Weather had been cold.
June 20. No Rest all Night, violent Pains in my Head, and
June 21. Very ill, frighted almost to Death with the Apprehen-
sions of my sad Condition, to be sick, and no Help: Prayed to GOD
for the first Time since the Storm off of Hull, but scarce knew what
I said, or why; my Thoughts being all confused.
June 22. A little better, but under dreadful Apprehensions of
June 23. Very bad again, cold and shivering, and then a violent
June 24. Much better.
June 25. An Ague very violent; the Fit held me seven Hours,
cold Fit and hot, with faint Sweats after it.
June 26. Better; and having no Victuals to eat, took my Gun,
but found myself very weak; however I killed a She-Goat, and with
much Difficulty got it Home, and broiled some of it, and eat; I would
fain have stewed it, and made some Broth, but had no Pot.
June 27. The Ague again so violent, that I lay a-Bed all Day, and
neither eat or drank. I was ready to perish for Thirst, but so weak,
I had not Strength to stand up, or to get myself any Water to drink:
Prayed to God again, but was light-headed, and when I was not, I was
so ignorant, that I knew not what to say; only I lay and cried, Lord
look upon me, Lord pity me, Lord have Mercy upon me: I suppose I
did nothing else for two or three Hours, till the Fit wearing off, I fell
asleep, and did not wake till far in the Night; when I waked, I found
myself much refresh'd, but weak, and exceeding thirsty: However,
as I had no Water in my whole Habitation, I was forced to lie till
Morning, and went to sleep again: In this second Sleep, I had
this terrible Dream.
I thought, that I was sitting on the Ground on the Outside of my
Wall, where I sat when the Storm blew after the Earthquake, and that
I saw a Man descend from a great black Cloud, in a bright Flame of
Fire, and light upon the Ground: He was all over as bright as a
Flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards him; his Counte-
nance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for Words to
describe; when he stepped upon the Ground with his Feet, I thought


the Earth trembled, just as it had done before in the Earthquake,
and all the Air looked, to my Apprehension, as if it had been filled
with Flashes of Fire.
He was no sooner landed upon the Earth, but he moved forward to-
wards me, with a long Spear or Weapon in his Hand, to kill me; and
when he came to a rising Ground, at some Distance, he spoke to me,
or I heard a Voice so terrible, that it is impossible to express the
Terror of it; all that I can say, I understood, was this, Seeing all
these Things have not brought thee to Repentance, now thou shalt die:
At which Words, I thought he lifted up the Spear that was in his
Hand, to kill me.
No one, that shall ever read this Account, will expect that I
should be able to describe the Horrors of my Soul at this terrible
Vision, I mean, that even while it was a Dream, I even dreamed of
those Horrors; nor is it any more possible to describe the Impres-
sion that remained upon my Mind when I awak'd and found it was
but a Dream.
I had alas! no divine Knowledge; what I had received by the
good Instruction of my Father was then worn out by an uninterrupted
Series, for 8 Years, of Seafaring Wickedness, and a constant Conversa-
tion with nothing but such as were like myself, wicked and profane
to the last Degree : I do not remember that I had in all that Time
one Thought that so much as tended either to looking upwards toward
God, or inwards towards a Reflection upon my own Ways: But a
certain Stupidity of Soul, without Desire of Good, or Conscience of
Evil, had entirely overwhelmed me, and I was all that the most
hardened, unthinking, wicked Creature among our common Sailors,
can be supposed to be, not having the least Sense, either of the Fear
of God in Danger, or of Thankfulness to God in Deliverances.
In the relating what is already past of my Story, this will be the
more easily believed, when I shall add, that through all the Variety of
Miseries that had to this Day befallen me, I never had so much as one
Thought of it being the Hand of God, or that it was a just Punish-
ment for my Sin; my rebellious Behaviour against my Father, or my
present Sins which were great; or so much as a Punishment for the
general Course of my wicked Life. When I was on the desperate
Expedition on the desert Shores of Africa, I never had so much as
one Thought of what would become of me; or one Wish to God to
direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from the Danger which

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs