• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Half Title
 Prelude
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Chapter I: My birth and parentage...
 Chapter II: I go on board ship...
 Chapter III: Appearance of the...
 Chapter IV: Extracts from my journal:...
 Chapter V: Extracts from my journal...
 Chapter VI (Extracts from my journal,...
 Chapter VII: Make a second tour...
 Chapter VIII: I attempt to mould...
 Chapter IX: I succeed in getting...
 Chapter X: Description of my figure;...
 Chapter XI: My kingdom is invaded...
 Chapter XII: I am at great pains...
 Chapter XIII: How Friday and I...
 Advertising






Group Title: Shilling entertaining library / edited by J.S. Laurie
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe on the island of Juan Fernandez
CITATION PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073549/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe on the island of Juan Fernandez
Series Title: Shilling entertaining library edited by J.S. Laurie
Physical Description: xiv, <2>, 182, <4> p., <6> leaves of plates : ill. ; 14 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Laurie, James S ( James Stuart ), 1831-1904
Evans, Edmund, 1826-1905 ( Engraver )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, and Green ( Publisher )
Spottiswoode & Co ( Printer )
Publisher: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, & Green
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: Spottiswoode and Co.
Publication Date: 1863
 Subjects
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1863   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1863   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
 Notes
Citation/Reference: Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
Citation/Reference: NUC Pre-1956
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe ; <adapted by J.S. Laurie>
General Note: Cover and spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: "The Editor assumes the right of adapting the original texts ..."--Introd. to the series.
General Note: Some illustrations engraved by E. Evans.
General Note: Publisher's advertisements <4> p. at end.
General Note: Part I of Robinson Crusoe, adapted.
Funding: Shilling entertaining library.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073549
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 27020835

Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Half Title
    Prelude
        Page i
    Frontispiece
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Introduction
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    Table of Contents
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
    List of Illustrations
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    Chapter I: My birth and parentage - at nineteen years of age I determine to go to sea - dissuaded by my parents - run away with a schoolfellow, and go on board ship - a storm arises, during which I am dreadfully frightened - ship founders - myself and crew saved by a boat from another vessel, and landed near Yarmouth - meet my companion's father, who advises me never again to go to sea, but in vain - travel to London
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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        Page 13
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        Page 15
        Page 16
    Chapter II: I go on board ship bound for Africa - driven out of our course by a hurricane - find ourselves off the coast of South America - wrecked on a sandbank - all hands lost except myself
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
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        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Chapter III: Appearance of the wreck and country next day - swim on board of the ship, and by means of a contrivance get a quantity of stores on shore - shoot a bird, but it turns out perfect Carrion - moralise upon my situation - the ship blown off land, and totally lost - set out in search of a proper place for a habitation - see numbers of goats - melancholy reflections
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 28a
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        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Chapter IV: Extracts from my journal: Fall upon various schemes to make tools, baskets, & c. - my walks in the woods - at a great loss for an evening candle, but fall upon an expedient to supply the want - strange discovery of corn - a terrible earthquake and storm
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Chapter V: Extracts from my journal (continuted): Observe the ship driven farther aground by the late storm - procure a vast quantity of necessaries from the wreck - catch a large turtle - I fall ill of a fever and ague - terrible dream, and serious reflections thereupon - find a Bible in one of the seamen's chests thrown ashore, the reading whereof gives me great comfort
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Chapter VI (Extracts from my journal, continuted): I begin to take a survey of my island - discover plenty of tobacco, grapes, lemons, and sugar-canes, wild, but no human inhabitants - resolve to lay up a store of these articles, to furnish myself with against the wet season - my cat, which I supposed lost, returns with kittens - I regulate my diet, and shut myself up for the wet season - sow my grain, which comes to nothing; but I discover and remedy my error - take account of the course of the weather
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 80a
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Chapter VII: Make a second tour through the island - catch a young parrot, which I afterwards teach to speak - my mode of sleeping at night - find the other side of the island much more pleasant than mine, and covered with turtle and sea-fowl - catch a young kid, which I tame - return to my old habitation - great plague with my harvest
        Page 87
        Page 88
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        Page 98
        Page 99
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    Chapter VIII: I attempt to mould earthenware, and succeed - description of my mode of baking - begin to make a boat - after it is finished am unable to get it down to the water - serious reflections - my ink and biscuits exhausted, and clothes in a bad state - contrive to make a dress of skins
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
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        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Chapter IX: I succeed in getting a canoe afloat, and set out on a voyage in the sixth year of my reign or captivity - blown out to sea - reach the shore with great difficulty - fall asleep, and am awakened by a voice calling my name - devise various schemes to tame goats, and at last succeed
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
    Chapter X: Description of my figure; also of my dwelling and enclosures - dreadful alarm on seeing the print of a man's foot on the shore - take every possible measure of precaution
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
    Chapter XI: My kingdom is invaded by savages - second invasion - they chase a savage to devour him - I rescue him, and kill his pursuers - terror of my savage friend - my behaviour allays his fears - christen him Friday
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 140a
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 144a
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
    Chapter XII: I am at great pains to instruct Friday respecting my abhorrence of the cannibal practices of the savages - he is amazed at the effects of the gun, and considers it an intelligent being - begins to talk English tolerably- a dialogue - he describes to me some white men who had come to his country, and still lived there
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Chapter XIII: How Friday and I fall in with white savages - they prepare to murder their captain and officers - Friday and I come to the rescue - we seize the mutinied ship - my deliverance and return to England
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 160a
        Page 161
        Page 162
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    Advertising
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
Full Text










THE


SHILLING ENTERTAINING LIBRARY.


EDITED BY J. S. LAURIE.



ROBINSON CRUSOE.



















It will stand in need of a commentary to make it
ntelligible.
Not at all,' replied Sampson; 'for it is so plain, that
there is no difficulty in it: children thimb it, boys read it,
men understand it, and old folks commend it.'
DON QuzaOTr.


















































































THE FOOTPRINT ON THE SANDS
-------~---j*i


=_


''


,,




~f`b~~---9
-ri __


-s-







THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES


OF


ROBINSON CRUSOE


ON THE


ISLAND OF JUAN FERNANDEZ.




BY

DANIEL DEFOE.







LONDON:
LONGMAN, GREEN, LONGMAN, ROBERTS, & GREEN.
1863.







































LONDON

IPRINTZD BY GPOTTISWOODZ AND Co.

1q3W-STREET SQ1U&I











INTRODUCTION TO THE SERIES.


THn object of the ErTrBTAUI'G LrIBany' is to provide the
young and, generally speaking, the less educated' portion of the
community with books which they will find readable.

Many similar projects have been started, and have failed.
The Proprietors of the present 'LIBiaun believe that those
failures are to be ascribed to a fundamental deficiency which,
with proper attention and care, may be fully supplied.

In undertakings of this kind too little allowance has been
made for what may almost be termed the repulsiveness of a
book to the untutored mind. Children freed from irksome
tasks, and working men wearied with a hard day's toil, cannot
possibly be induced to read until they find out what a wealth
of entertainment is concealed under the hard, ungraceful forms
of typography. Nothing appears more certain than that they
will not read at all, unless materials are placed before them





vi INTRODUCTION.

which are calculated to arouse their interest and enchain their
attention.

The practical problem, therefore, to be solved is, to furnish
a selection of works which will appeal to that dominant prin-
ciple in the human breast, the love of pleasure. The aim of the
Editor of the ENTERTAINING LIBnARY' is to provide an ample
and varied repast for the gratification of this instinct. The
concentration of his efforts upon this single point will give the
present series of books its distinctive character.

A glance at the sources upon which he has already dawn
will, it is believed, convince those who are acquainted with
English literature, that such volumes as the 'ENTEB TAINMG
LIBxaR promises to contain will necessarily tend to enlarge
the intellectual views, and to direct and strengthen the moral
sentiments of every reader. But the prime end kept in view
will be to afford, in a wide and liberal sense, pleasure and
amusement; and to this end whatever bears more directly
upon the practical utilities of life will invariably be held
subordinate.

It is proper to state that the Editor assumes the right of
adapting the original texts so as to suit his purpose. Gram-
matical constructions which are too involved and difficult will
be simplified; modern words and idioms will be substituted




INTRODUCTION. ii

for such as have become obsolete or nearly obsolete; and in all
cases passages which are unsuitable to the young will be
expunged.

Each of the volumes will be embellished with a series of full-
page illustrations drawn by Mr. Sandercock, Mr. Shields, and
other artists of acknowledged merit.

Special attention will be paid to the binding of the volumes.
They will be prepared for being well thumbed. The type, also,
in which they will be printed will be of the clearest and dis-
tinctest kind that can be procured.













1~














ROBINSON CRUSOE.















CONTENTS.




CHAPTER L
My Birth and Parentage At Nineteen Years of Age I deter-
mine to go to Sea Dissuaded by my Parents ---un away
with a Schoolfellow, and go on board Ship -A Storm arises,
during which I am dreadfully frightened -Ship founders-
Myself and Crew saved by a Boat from another Vessel, and
landed near Yarmouth Meet my Companion's Father, who
advises me never again to go to Sea, but in vain Travel to
London Page 1

CHAPTER II.
I go on board Ship bound for Africa Driven out of our Course
by a Hurricane -Find ourselves off the coast of South
America- Wrecked on a Sandbank All Hands lost except
myself .17

CHAPTER IILL
Appearance of the Wreck and Country next Day Swim on
Board of the Ship, and by means of a Contrivance get a
Quantity of Stores on Shore Shoot a Bird, but it turns out





CONTENTS.


perfect Carrion- Moralise upon my Situation The Ship
blown off Land, and totally lost Set out in Search of a
proper Place for a Habitation See Numbers of Goats -
Melancholy Reflections. Page 27

CHAPTER IV.
EXTRACTS FROX MY JOURNAL.
Fall upon various Schemes to make Tools, Baskets, &c. --My
Walks in the Woods At a great Loss for an Evening Candle,
but fall upon an Expedient to supply the Want Strange
Discovery of Corn A terrible Earthquake and Storm 65

CHAPTER V.
EXTRACTS FROM MY JOURNAL (CONTINUED).

Observe the Ship driven farther aground by the late Storm-
Procure a vast quantity of Necessaries from the Wreck--
Catch a large Turtle I fall ill of a Fever and Ague Ter-
rible Dream, and serious Reflections thereupon--Find a
Bible in one of the Seamen's Chests thrown ashore, the Read-
ing whereof gives me great Comfort .65

CHAPTER VI.
EXTRACTS FROM MY JOURNAL CONTINUEDD).

I begin to take a Survey of my Island Discover plenty of To-
bacco, Grapes, Lemons, and Sugar-canes, wild, but no human
Inhabitants -Resolve to lay up a Store of these Articles, to
furnish Myself with against the wet Season My Cat, which
I supposed lost, returns with Kittens I regulate my Diet,





CONTENTS. Xiii

and shut Myself up for the wet Season-Sow my Grain,
which comes to nothing; but I discover and remedy my
Error Take Account of the Course of the Weather. Page 75

CHAPTER VII.
Make a second Tour through the Island-Catch a young Parrot,
which I afterwards teach to speak My mode of Sleeping at
Night Find the other side of the Island much more pleasant
than mine, and covered with Turtle and Sea-fowl Catch a
young Kid, which I tame Return to my old Habitation -
Great Plague with my Harvest 87

CHAPTER VIII.
I attempt to mould Earthenware, and succeed Description of
my Mode of Baking Begin to make a Boat After it is
finished am unable to get it down to the Water Serious
Reflections- My Ink and Biscuits exhausted, and Clothes
in a bad State Contrive to make a Dress of Skins. 101

CHAPTER IX.
I succeed in getting a Canoe afloat, and set out on a Voyage in
the sixth Year of my Reign or Captivity Blown out to Sea
Reach the Shore with great Difficulty Fall Asleep, and
am awakened by a Voice calling my Name Devise various
Schemes to tame Goats, and at last succeed 117

CHAPTER X.
Description of my Figure; also of my Dwelling and Enclosures-
Dreadful Alarm on seeing the Print of a Man's Foot on the
Shore Take every possible Measure of Precaution 128





CONTENTS.


CHAPTER XI.

My Kingdom is invaded by Savages Second Invasion They
chase a Savage to devour him--I rescue him, and kill his
Pursuers Terror of my Savage Friend My Behaviour
allays his Fears Christen him Friday Page 139

CHAPTER XII.

I am at great Pains to instruct Friday respecting my Abhor-
rence of the cannibal Practices of the Savages-He is amazed
at the Effects of the Gun, and considers it an intelligent
Being -Begins to talk English tolerably- A Dialogue -He
describes to me some white Men who had come to his
Country, and still lived there 149

CHAPTER XIII

How Friday and I fall in with white Savages They prepare
to murder their Captain and Officers Friday and I come to
the Rescue- We seize the mutinied Ship -My Deliverance
and Return to England 157















LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


1. Txn FooT-nrMT ON nHMSAM
2. SwixxUN TO THE WmRcX
3. RoBnMsoiX CEVsoE DmS CATS
4. THR CxmnL FBAST
5. CAPTUmI Or FUIDAT .
6. TH DEIV mrmNcz 0


PAGE
* Frontispiece 133
.. 28
. 80
S 141
S 144
S 161



















'I am monarch of all I survey,
My right there is none to dispute;
From the centre all round to the sea,
1 am lord of the fowl and the brute.
O Solitude! where are the charms
That sages have seen in thy face?
Better dwell in the midst of alarms
Than reign in this horrible place.'











ROBINSON CRUSOE.




CHAPTER I.

My Birth and Parentage At Nineteen Years of Age I determine to go to
Sea-- Dissuaded by my Parents- Bun away with a Schoolfellow, and go
on Board Ship-A Storm arises, during which I am dreadfully fright-
ened-Ship founders-Myself and Crew saved by a Boat from another
Vessel, and landed near Yarmouth- Meet my Companion's Father, who
advises me never again to go to Sea, but in vain-Travel to London.

I was born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good
family, though bn one side not native, my father being a
foreigner from Bremen, who had settled at Hull. Having
made his fortune by trading, he retired to York: from that
town he had married my mother, whose relations were
named Robinson, after whom I was christened Robinson.
Kreutznaer was my father's name; but, by the usual cor-
ruption of words in England, we are now' called, nay, we
call ourselves and write our name, Crusoe; and so my com-
panions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-
colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly
commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, but he was
killed at the battle fought near Dunkirk against the
B





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


Spaniards. What became of my second brother I never
knew, any more than iny father or mother knew what
afterwards became of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any
trade, my head began to be filled very early with rambling
thoughts. My father, who was of the old school, had
given me a competent share of learning, as far as house-
education and a country free-school generally go. iHe
designed me for the law, but I would be satisfied with
nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to this led
me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands of my
father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my
mother and other friends, that there seemed to be something
fatal in the perversity with which my nature tended
directly to that life of misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and
excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design.
He called me one morning into his chamber, where he was
confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with
me upon this subject. He asked me what reasons, more
than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving my
father's house and my native country, where I might be
well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune
by application and industry, so as to enjoy a life of ease
and pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate fortunes
on the one hand, or of restless ambition on the other, who
went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and
make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of
the common road; that these things were all either too far





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


above me, or too far below me; that mine was the middle
state, or what might be called the upper station of the
lower class, which he had found, by long experience, was
the best state in the world--the most suited to human
happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships, the
toil and sufferings, of the handicraft part of mankind, and
not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy
of the upper section of society. He told me I might judge
of the happiness of this state by this one thing, namely, that
this was the state of life which all other people envied;
that kings have frequently lamented the miserable conse-
quences of being born to great things, and wished they had
been placed in the middle of the two extremes, between the
mean and the great; that the Wise Man gave his testimony
to this, as the just standard of true happiness, when he
prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most
affectionate manner, not to play the young man, nor to
precipitate myself into miseries, which nature, and the
station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided
against; that I was under no necessity of earning my
bread; that he would do well for me, and endeavour to
enter me fairly into the station of life which he had just
been recommending; that if ease and happiness were not
in store for me, I should have none but myself to blame;
and that he should have nothing whatever to answer for,
having thus discharged his duty in warning me against
measures which he knew would be to my hurt.
I observed in this last part of his warning, which was
B2





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know
it to be so himself I say, I observed the tears run down
his face very plentifully, and when he alluded to my probable
misfortunes, with none to assist me, he was so moved that
he broke off the conversation, and told me his heart was
so full he could say no more.
I was sincerely affected by what my father had said;
and, indeed, who could be otherwise ? so I resolved not
to think any more of going abroad, but to settle at home,
according to my father's desire. But, alas! a few days
wore off the impression; and, in short, to prevent any of
my father's further importunities, in a few weeks after I
resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did not
act so hastily as the first heat of my resolution prompted,
for I took my mother at a time when I thought her a little
pleasanter than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts
were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I should
never settle to anything with resolution enough to go
through with it, and my father had better give me his
consent, than force me to go without it; that I was now
eighteen years old, which was too late to go apprentice to
a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure, if I did,
I should never serve out my time, but I should certainly
run away from my master before my time was out, and go
to sea. I begged she would ask my father to let me go
one voyage abroad, promising that, if I did not like it, I
would go no more, but, by a double diligence, recover the
time lost.
This put my mother into a great passion. She told me





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father
upon such a subject; that he knew my interest too well to
give his consent to anything so much to my disadvantage.
For her own part, she wondered how I could think of any
such thing, after the conversation I had had with my
father, and in the face of such kind and tender expressions
as she knew he had used to me, and that, in short, if I
would ruin myself, there was no help for it; but I might
depend upon it I should never have their consent to do so.
Though my mother refused to broach the subject to my
father, yet I afterwards heard that she reported everything
to him, and that my father, after showing great concern at
it, said to her, with a sigh -' That boy might be happy if
he would stay at home, but if he goes abroad he will be the
most miserable wretch that ever was born: I can give no
consent to it.'
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,
though, in the mean time, I continued obstinately deaf to
all proposals of settling to business, frequently expostulat-
ing with my father and mother about their being so posi-
tively determined against that to which they knew my
inclination prompted me. But being one day at Hull,
whither I had gone by mere chance, without any purpose of
running away at that time, -I say, being there, one of
my companions, who was going by sea to London in his
father's ship, pressed me to go with him, using the common
allurement of a seafaring man, that it should cost me
nothing for my passage. I consulted neither father nor
mother any more, nor so much as sent them word of my




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


intentions, but leaving them to hear of it as they might -
without asking God's blessing or my father's, without any
consideration of circumstances or consequences, and in an
evil hour--on September 1, 1651, I went on board a ship
bound for London. Never, I believe, did any young ad-
venturer's misfortunes begin sooner, or continue longer, than
mine. The ship had no sooner got out of the Humber than
the wind began to blow, and the sea to rise, in a most
frightful manner; and, as I had never been at sea before, I
was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind.
I now began seriously to reflect how justly I was overtaken
by the judgment of Heaven for wickedly leaving my
father's house and abandoning my duty. All the good
counsel of my parents, my father's tears and my mother's
entreaties, now came fresh into my mind; and my conscience,
which had not yet reached that pitch of hardness in which
it has since been, reproached me with my contempt of
advice, and my breach of duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea ran very
high, though nothing like what I have often seen since-no,
nor like what I saw a few days after; but at that time it
was enough to affect me, being but a young sailor, who had
never known anything of the matter. I expected every
wave would have swallowed us up, and that every time the
ship plunged down into the trough or hollow of the sea, we
should never rise again. In this agony of mind, I made
many vows and resolutions, that, if it pleased God to spare
my life in this one voyage, if ever I got my foot upon
dry land again, I would never set it in a ship while I





ROBINSON CRUSOF.


lived; that I would take my father's advice, and never run
myself into such miseries as these any more. Now I saw
plainly the goodness of my father's observations about the
middle station of life, how easy, how comfortable he had
lived all his days, without having been exposed to tempests
at sea, or troubles on shore; and, in short, I resolved that
I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my
father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while
the storm continued, and, indeed, some time after; but the
next day the wind abated and the sea became calmer, so I
began to be a little inured to it. However, I was very
grave all that day, being still a little sea-sick; but towards
night the weather cleared up, the wind lulled, and a
charming evening followed; the sun went down perfectly
clear, and rose brilliant the next morning, so that the
smoothness of the sea, with the sun shining upon it,
appeared to me the most delightful sight I had ever seen.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no longer
sea-sick, but very cheerful; looking with wonder upon the
sea, that was so rough and terrible the day before, and
could be so calm and pleasant so shortly after. And now,
lest my good resolutions should continue, my companion,
who had indeed enticed me away, comes to me:-
SWell, Bob,' said he, clapping me upon the shoulder,
'how do you do after it ? I warrant you were frightened,
weren't you, last night, when it blew but a capful of wind ?'
'A capful, d' you call it,' said I, 't was a terrible storm.'
'A storm, you fool,' replies he, 'do you call that a





8 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

storm P Why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good
ship and sea room, and we think nothing of such a squall of
wind as that; but you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob.
Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all
that. Do you see what charming weather 'tis now '
To make short this sad part of my story, we went the way
of all sailors; the punch was made, and I was made half
drunk with it, and in that one night's wickedness I drowned
all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct, 4
and all my resolutions for the future. In a word, just as
the sea had returned to its smoothness of surface and
settled calmness, by the abatement of that storm, so my
troubled thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions
of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the
current of my former desires having returned, I entirely
forgot the vows and promises that I had made in my
distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection; and
my serious thoughts sometimes did, as it were, endeavour
to return again; but I shook them off, and roused myself
from them, as if from a distemper; and, applying myself
to drinking and company, soon mastered the return of those
fits (for so I called them). Thus I had, in five or six days,
got as complete a victory over conscience as any young
fellow resolved not to be troubled with it could desire.
But I was to have still another chance, and Providence
resolved to leave me entirely without excuse; for if I would
not take the first trial fur a deliverance, the next was to be
one respecting which the worst and most hardened wretch
among us would confess both the danger and the mercy.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


The sixth day of our being at sea, we came into the Yar-
mouth roads; the wind having been contrary, and the
weather calm, we had made but little way since the storm.
Here we were obliged to come to anchor, and here we lay,
the wind continuing contrary -namely, south-west--for
seven or eight days, during which time a great many ships
from Newcastle came into the same roads, as the common
harbour, where the ships might wait for a wind for the
river.*
After we had lain here four or five days, the wind con-
tinued to blow very hard. However, the roads being
reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage safe, and
our ground-tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned,
and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the
time in rest and mirth, after the manner of seamen. But
the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased, and we
had all hands at work to strike t our topmasts, and make
everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy
as possible. By noon the sea ran very high indeed; and
our vessel shipped several seas, and we thought once or
twice our anchor had parted; upon which our master
ordered out the sheet anchor, so that we rode with two
anchors ahead.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed, and now I
began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the
seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant in the
business of preserving the ship, yet, as he went in and out


* River, that is, the Thames.


t Strike, that is, lower.




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


of his cabin by me, 1 could hear him say softly to himself,
several times, Lrd, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost,
we shall be undone,' and the like. During all this confu-
sion I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, in a frame of
mind I cannot describe. I could ill resume the first peni-
tence, which I had so obstinately trampled upon and hard-
ened myself against. I thought the bitterness of death had
been past, and that this, too, would be nothing like the
first. But when the master himself came by me, as I said
just now, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully
frightened. I got up and looked out; but such a dismal
sight I never saw: the sea rose mountains high, and broke
upon us every three or four minutes. When I could look
about, I could see nothing but distress around us. Two
ships that rode near us, we found had cut their masts by
the board, and our men cried out that a ship, which rode
about a mile ahead of us, had foundered. Two more ships,
being driven from their anchors, had run out of the roads
to sea, and that with not a mast standing. The light ships
fared the best, as not laboring so much in the sea; but
two or three of them drove close by us, running away, with
only their sprit-sail out, before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the
master of our ship to let them cut away the fore-mast,
which he was very unwilling to do; but the boatswain
protesting to him, that if he did not, the ship would
founder, he consented; and when they had cut away the
fore-mast, the main-mast stood so loose, and shook the ship
so much, they were obliged to cut it away also, and make
a clear deck.




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


Anyone may judge what a condition I must have been in
on seeing all this -I, who was so young a sailor, and who
had been in such a fright before at but little. But, if I can
express at this distance the thoughts I had at that time, I
was in tenfold more horror of mind on account of my
former convictions, that is, for having returned from them to
the resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at
death itself; and these, added to the terrors of the storm,
put me into such a condition, that I can by no words
describe it. But the worst had not yet come; the storm
continued with such fury, that the seamen themselves
acknowledged they had never seen a worse. We had a
good ship, but she was deeply laden, and she so wallowed
in the sea, that the seamen every now and then cried out
she would founder. It was my advantage, in one respect,
that I did not know what they meant by founder,' till I
inquired. However, the storm was so violent, that I saw
what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some
others, more sensible than the rest, at their prayers -
expecting every moment that the ship would go to the
bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the
rest of our distresses, one of the men that had been down on
purpose to see, cried out we had sprung a leak; another said
there were four feet of water in the hold. Then all hands
were called to the pump. At that very word my heart,
as I thought, died within me, and I fell backwards upon
the side of the bed where I sat, into the cabin. However,
the men roused me, and told me, that I, who was able to
do nothing before, was as well able to pump as another, at




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


which I stirred up, and went to the pump, and worked
very heartily. While this was being done, the master,
seeing some light colliers, who, unable to ride out the
storm, were obliged to slip their anchors and run away to
sea, ordered a gun to be fired as a signal of distress. I,
who knew not what that meant, was so surprised that I
thought the ship had foundered, or some dreadful thing
happened. In a word, I was so surprised, that I fell down
in a swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his
own life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was to
become of me; but another man stepped up to the pump,
and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking
I was dead; and it was a great while before I came to
myself.
We worked on, but, the water increasing in the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would go down, and though the
storm began to abate a little, yet, as it was not possible she
could float till we might run into port, so the master con.
tinued firing guns for help; and at last a light ship, just ahead
of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was at the utmost
risk that the boat came near us, but it was impossible for
us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship-side.
At length, the men rowing very heartily, and venturing their
lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the stern
with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length.
This they, after much labor and risk, took hold of, and we
hauled them close under our stern, and all got into their
boat. It was useless for them, after we were in the boat,
to think of reaching their own ship; so all agreed to let





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


her drive before the wind, and only to pull her in towards
the shore, as much as we could; and our master promised
the men, that if the boat was staved upon shore, he would
make it good to their master. So partly rowing and partly
driving, our boat went away to the northward, sloping
towards the shore, almost as far as Wintertonness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out
of our ship, before we saw her sink; and then I understood,
for the first time, what was meant by a ship foundering at
sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up,
when the seamen told me she was sinking; for my heart
was as it were dead within me, partly with fright, partly
with horror of mind, and the thought of what was yet
before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring at
the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when
our boat mounted the waves, we were able to see the shore) a
great many people running along the strand to assist us when
we should come near. But we made but slow way towards
the shore; nor were we able to reach it till beyond the
light-house at Winterton, where the shore falls off to the
westward towards Cromer, and therefore breaks off a little
the violence of the wind. Here we got in; and, though not
without much difficulty, got all safe on shore. We walked
afterwards to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we
were used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates
of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by particular
merchants and owners of ships. We also had money given
us to carry us either to London, or back to Hull, as we
thought fit.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
thence home, I would have been happy, and my father, an
emblem of our blessed Saviour's parable, would even have
killed the fatted calf for me : for although he had heard that
the ship I had gone away in had been cast away in Yarmouth
roads, he was still unfortunately without any assurance of
the fact that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate now pushed me on with an obstinacy
that nothing could resist; and though I had several times
loud calls from my reason and my more composed judgment
to go home, yet I had no power to comply.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and
who was the master's son, was now less forward than I.
The first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth,
which was not till two or three days, for we were separated
in the town to several quarters I say, the first time he
saw me,.it appeared his tone was altered. Looking very
melancholy and shaking his head, asked me how I did;
and telling his father who I was, and how I had come this
voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther abroad, his
father turned to me with a very grave and concerned tone:
'Young man,' says he, 'you ought never to go to sea
any more; you ought to take this for a plain and visible
token, that you are not to be a seafaring man.'
'Why, sir,' said I, will you go to sea no more ?'
'That is another case,' said he, 'it is my calling, and
therefore my duty; but, as you made this voyage for a
trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what
you are to expect, if you persist; perhaps all this has




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of
Tarshish. Pray,' continued he, what are you? and on
what account did you go to sea ?'
Upon that I told him some of my story; at the end of
which he burst out with a strange kind of passion, What
have I done,' says he, 'that such an unhappy wretch should
come into my ship ? I would not set my foot in the same
ship with thee again for a thousand pounds!'
This, indeed, was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits,
which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was
farther than he could have authority to go. However, he
afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorting me to go
back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin;
adding, I might see a visible hand of Heaven against me:
'and, young man,' said he, depend upon it, if you do not
go back, wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but
disasters and disappointments till your father's words are
fulfilled upon you.'
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and
I saw him no more: which way he went I know not. As
for me, having some money in my pocket, I travelled to
London by land, and there, as well as on the road, had
many struggles with myself what course of life I should
take, and whether I should go home, or go to sea. As to
going home, a sense of shame opposed the best inclinations
I had; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be
laughed at among the neighbours, and should be ashamed
to see, not my father and mother only, but even everybody
else.





16 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

In this condition, however, I remained some time, un-
certain what measures to take, and what course of life to
lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to going home;
and, as I delayed awhile, the remembrance of the distress I
had been in wore off; and as that abated, the little desire
I had to return lessened and at last quite disappeared. So
I looked out for a ship.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my
father's house, which hurried me into the wild and absurd
notion of making my fortune, and that impressed those
conceits so forcibly upon me as to make me deaf to all good
advice, and to the entreaties and even the commands of my
father;-I say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented
the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view, and I
went on board a vessel bound on a voyage to the coast of
Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
*





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


CHAPTER II.

I go on board Ship bound for Africa- Driven out of our Course by a Hur-
ricane- Find ourselves off the coast of South America- Wrecked on a
Sandbank -All hands lost except myself.

I WENT on board in an evil hour again, for, as it happened,
it was the first of September, being the same day on which
I deserted my father and mother, in order to act the
rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own interests.
Our ship was about 120 tons burden, carried six guns and
fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself. We
had on board no large cargo of goods except such toys as
were fit for our trade with the negroes ; such as beads, bits
of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-
glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away
to about 100 or 120 of northern latitude, which, it seems,
was the manner of their course in those days. We had very
good weather till we lost sight of land. We then steered
as if we were bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha,
holding our course NE. by N., leaving those isles on the
east. In this course we passed the Line in about twelve
days' time, and were, by our last observation, in 70 22'
northern latitude, when a violent tornado or hurricane took
us quite out of our reckoning. It began from the SE. came
about to the NW. and then settled into the NE., whence
C




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


it blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days
together we could do nothing but drive; and scudding away
before the wind, we let it carry us wherever fate and- the
fury of the winds directed. During these twelve days, I
need not say that I expected every day to be swallowed up,
nor did any in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm,
one of our men dead of sun-stroke, and one man and the
boy washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather
abating a little, the master made an observation as well as
he could, and found that he was in about 110 north latitude,
but that he was 220 of longitude difference west from Cape
St. Augustino, so that he found he was upon the coast
of Guyana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the
river Amazons, towards the river Orinoco, commonly called
the Great River; and now he began to consult with me
what course he should take, for the ship was leaky and
very much disabled, and he was for going directly home
again.
I was positively against that; and looking over the
charts of the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded
there was no inhabited country for us to have recourse to
till we came within the circle of the Caribbee Islands. We
therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes, which by
keeping off at sea, to avoid the indraught of the bay or
gulf of Mexico, we might easily reach, as we hoped, in
about fifteen days' sail; whereas we could not possibly
make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some
assistance both to our ship and to ourselves.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


With this design we changed our course, and steered
away NW. by W., in order to reach some of our English
islands, where we hoped for relief. But our voyage was
otherwise determined; for, when in the latitude of 12 18',
a second storm came upon us, which carried us away with
the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so far out of the
way of all human commerce, that even supposing our lives
to be saved from shipwreck, we had a better chance of being
devoured by savages than of returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of
our men, early one morning, cried out land! and we had no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship struck
upon a sandbank, and, in a moment, her motion being thus
stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner that we
expected we should all have perished. We were imme-
diately driven into our close quarters, to shelter ourselves
from the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in a similar
condition, to describe or conceive the consternation of men
in such circumstances. We knew not where we were, or
upon what land it was we had driven, whether an island or
the mainland, whether inhabited or not inhabited! and as the
rage of the wind was still great, though rather less than at
first, we could not so much as hope that the ship would hold
many minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the wind,
by a kind of miracle, should veer immediately about. In
a word, we sat looking upon one another, expecting death
every moment; every man acting as if in preparation
C2 -





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


for another world, for there was little or nothing more for
us to do in this. Our present comfort, and indeed all the
comfort we had, was, that contrary to our expectation, the
ship did not yet break up, and that the master said the wind
began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking
too fast for us to expect to get her off, we were in a
dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to
think of saving our lives as well as we could. We had a
boat at our stern just before the storm, but she was first
staved by dashing against the ship's rudder, and in the
next place she broke away, and either sank or was driven
off to sea-so there was no hope from her. We had another
boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a
doubtful thing. However, there was no room for debate,
for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute;
and some said she had broken up already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the
boat, and, with the help of the rest of the men, got her flung
over the ship's side. We then all leaped into her, let go,
and committed ourselves, eleven in number, to God's mercy,
and the wild sea. For though the storm had abated
considerably, yet the sea ran dreadfully high upon the
shore, and might well be called .Die wilde See, as the Dutch
call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed, for we all saw
plainly that the sea ran so high, that the boat could not
live, and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to




ROBINSON CRUSOE. 21

making sail, we had none; nor, if we had, could we have
done anything with it; so we worked at the oar towards
the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going to
execution; for we all knew that when the boat came near
the shore, she would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the
breach of the sea. However, we committed ourselves to
God in the most earnest manner, and the wind driving us
towards the shore, we hastened our destruction with our
own hands, pulling, as well as we could, towards land.
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether
steep or shoal, we knew not; the only hope that could
rationally give us the least shadow of expectation was, if
we might get into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some
river, where, by great chance, we might have run our boat
in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps made
smooth water. But nothing of this appeared; on the con-
trary, as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the land
looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and
a half, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of
us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de grdce.* In a word,
it overset the boat at once, and separating us as well from
Sthe boat as from one another, gave us hardly time to say,
S0 God!' for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which
I felt when I sank in the water; for though I swam
very well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves
so as to draw my breath, till one wave had carried me,
Coup de grdce (pron. coo deh grass), finishing stroke.




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent
itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost dry,
but half dead with the water I had taken in. I had so
much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that seeing
myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon my
feet, and endeavoured to go on towards the land, as fast as
I could, before another wave should return and take me up
again. But I soon found it was impossible to avoid it; for
I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as
furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength to
contend with. My business was to hold my breath, and
raise myself upon the water, if I could, and so by swimming
to preserve my breathing, and pilot myself towards the
shore, if possible; my greatest concern now being that the
wave, as it would, carry me a great way towards the shore
when it came on, might not carry me back again with it
when it recoiled towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel
myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards
the shore a very great way; but I held my breath, and
made an effort to swim still farther forward with all my
might. I was ready to burst with holding my breath, when,
as I felt myself rising up, to my immediate relief, I found
my head and hands shoot out above the surface of the
water; and though it was not two seconds of time that I
could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, giving me
breath and new courage. I was covered again with water
a good while, but not so long but I held out, and finding





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


the water had spent itself, and had begun to return, I
struck forward to escape the advance of the waves, and felt
ground again with my feet. I stood still a few moments to
recover breath, and till the water went from me, and then
took to my heels, and ran with what strength I had
farther towards the shore. But neither would this deliver
me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after
me again; and twice more was I lifted up by the waves,
and carried forward as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to
me, for the sea having hurried me along as before, landed
me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of rock, and that
with such force as left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as
to my own deliverance; for the blow taking my side and
breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my body,
and, had it returned again immediately, I must have been
strangled in the water. But I recovered a little before the
return of the waves, and seeing I should be covered again
with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of rock,
and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went
back. Now, as the waves were not so high as at first,
being near land, I kept my hold till the wave abated, and
then made another run, which brought me so near the shore,
that the next wave, though it went over me, did not so
swallow me up as to carry me away. The next run I took
I got to the mainland, where, to my great comfort, I
clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat down upon
the grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of
the water.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


I was now landed and safe on shore, and began to look up
and thank God that my life was saved from a fate wherein
there was, some minutes before, scarce any room to hope.
I believe it is impossible to express to the life what the
ecstasies and transports of the soul are when thus, saved,
as I may say, out of the very grave; and I do not wonder
now at that custom namely, when a malefactor, who has
the halter about his neck, is tied up, and just going to be
turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him I say, I do
not wonder that they bring a surgeon with him, to bleed him
the very moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may
not drive the animal spirits from the heart, and overwhelm
him -
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.'

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and
my whole being, as I may say, wrapt in the contempla-
tion of my deliverance, making a thousand gestures and
motions which I cannot describe, reflecting upon all my
comrades that were drowned, and that there should not be
one soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw
them afterwards, or any signs of them, except three of
their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes towards the stranded vessel, and seeing
that, the breach and froth of the sea being so big, I could
hardly discern it, it lay so far off- I considered, Lord!
how was it possible I could have got on shore.
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part
of my condition I began to look around me to see what





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


kind of place I was in, and what was next to be done, and
I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had
had a dreadful deliverance; for I was wet, had no clothes
for a change, nor anything either to eat or drink to comfort
me, neither did I see any prospect before me but that of
perishing of hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts.
But what was particularly afflicting to me was, that I had
no weapon either to hunt and kill any creature for my
sustenance, or to defend myself against the attacks of any
creature that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word,
I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a
little tobacco in a box; this was all my provision, and this
threw me into terrible agonies of mind, so that for a while I
ran about like a madman. Night coming upon me, I began
with a heavy heart to consider what would be my lot if
there were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at
night they always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that presented itself to my thoughts at
that time was, to get up into a thick bushy tree, like a fir,
but thorny, which grew near me: there I resolved to sit
all night, and consider the next day what death I should die,
for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a fur-
long from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to
drink, which I did to my great joy; and having drunk, and
put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went
to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place
myself so as that, if I should sleep, I might not fall.
Having cut a short stick, like a truncheon, for my





26 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

defence, I took up my lodging; and being excessively
fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as I
believe few could have done in my condition; and I found
myself more refreshed by it than I think I ever was on
such an occasion.




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


CHAPTER II.

Appearance of the Wreck and Country next Day Swim on Board of the
Ship, and by means of a Contrivance get a Quantity of Stores on Shore -
Shoot a Bird, but it turns out perfect Carrion- Moralise upon my Situ-
ation The Ship blown off Land, and totally lost- Set out in search of
a proper Place for a Habitation--See Numbers of Goats- Melancholy
Reflections.
WHEN I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and
the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as
before; but that which surprised me most was, that the
ship had been lifted off from the sand where she lay, by
the swelling of the tide, and driven up almost as far as the
rock which I mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the
sea dashing me against it. This being within about a mile
from the shore where I was, and the ship still seeming to
stand upright, I wished myself on board, that at least I
might save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I
looked about me again; and the first thing I found was
the boat, which lay as the wind and sea had tossed her
up upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I
walked as far as I could upon the shore to get to her, but
found a neck or inlet of water between me and the boat,
which was about half a mile broad; so I came back for the
present, being more intent upon getting at the ship, where
I hoped to find something for my present subsistence.




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


A little after noon I found the sea very calm; and the
tide ebbed so far out, that I could get within a quarter of
a mile of the ship; and here I found a fresh renewing of
my grief; for I saw that if we had kept on board we would
have all been safe, and I had not been so miserable as to
have been left entirely destitute of all comfort and company
as I now was. This forced tears from my eyes again, but
as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to
get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather
was intensely hot, and took the water. But when I came to
the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get
on board, for as she lay aground and high out of the water,
there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam
round her twice, and the second time I espied a small piece
of rope, which I wondered I did not see at first, hang down
by the fore chains, so low that without great difficulty I got
hold of it, and by that means got up into the forecastle of
the ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged, and had
a great deal of water in her hold, but that she lay so on the
side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern
was lifted up upon the bank, and her head low almost to the
water: thus all her quarter was free, and all that was in
that part was dry; for you may be sure my first work was
to search and to see what was spoiled and what was safe.
And first I found that all the ship's provisions were dry
and untouched by the water; and being very well disposed
to eat I went to the bread room, and filled my pockets with
biscuit, and ate it as I went about other things, for I had
no time to lose. I also found some rum in the great cabin,

















'7-,-


SWIMMING TO THE WRECK




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


of which I took a large dram, and which I had indeed need
enough of, to spirit me for what was before me. Now I
wanted nothing but a boat to furnish myself with many
things which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still, and wish for what was not to
be had; and this extremity roused my application. We
had several spare yards, and two or three large spars of
wood, and a spare top-mast or two in the ship; I resolved
to fall to work with these, and flung as many of them over-
board as I could, tying everyone with a rope that they
might not drive away. When this was done, I went down
the ship's side, and pulling them to me, I tied four of them
fast together at both ends as well as I could, in the form of a
raft; and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon
them crossways, I found that I could walk upon it very
well, but that it was not able to bear any great weight, the
pieces being too light. So I set to work, and with a
carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-mast into three lengths,
and added them to my raft; but the hope of furnishing
myself with necessaries encouraged me to do more than
I should have been able to have done upon an ordinary
occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how
to preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea;
but I was not long considering this: I first laid all the
planks or boards upon it that I could get, and having con-
sidered well what I most wanted, I first got three of the
seamen's chests which I had broken open and emptied, and




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


lowered them down upon my raft. The first of these I
tilled with provisions, namely, bread, rice, three Dutch
cheeses, pieces of dried goat's flesh, which we had lived
much upon, and a little remainder of European corn, which
had been laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea
with us, but which had been killed. There had been some
barley and wheat together, but, to my great disappointment,
I found afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all.
As for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging to
our skipper, in which were some cordial waters, and in all
about five or six gallons of spirits; these I stowed by them-
selves, there being no need to put them into the chest, nor
any room for them. While I was doing this, I found the
tide began to flow, though very gently, and I had the
mortification of seeing my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which
I had left on shore upon the sand, float away; as for my
breeches, which were only linen, and open-knee'd, I swam
on board in them and my stockings. However, this sug-
gested my rummaging for clothes, of which I found enough,
but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had
more important things to look after, for example, tools to
work with on shore ; and it was after long searching that I
found out the carpenter's chest, which was indeed a very
useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-
load of gold would have been at that time. I got it
down to my raft, even whole as it was, without losing time
to look into it, for I knew in general what it contained.
,My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There
Ware two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


two pistols: these I secured first, with some powder-horns,
a small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew
there were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew
not where our gunner had stowed them, but after a long
search I found them, two of them dry and good, the third
had got wet; those two I got to my raft, with the arms.
And now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and
began to think how I should get to shore with them,
having neither sail, oar, nor rudder, while the least capful
of wind would have capsized everything.
I had three encouragements: first, a smooth and calm
sea; second, the tide rising and setting in to the shore; third,
what little wind there was blew towards the land; and
thus, having found two or three broken oars belonging to
the boat, I put to sea with my cargo. For a mile or there-
abouts my raft went very well, only that I found it drive a
little distance from the place where I had landed before,
by which I perceived there was some current landwards,
and consequently I hoped to find some creek or river there,
which I might make use of as a port to get to land with
my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before me a
little opening of the land, and I found a strong current of
the tide setting into it, so I guided my raft as well as I
could, to keep in the middle of the stream. But here I
was on the point of suffering a second shipwreck, which, if
I had, I think verily would have broken my heart; for,
knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground, at one
end of it, upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other,




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


all my cargo was within a hair's breadth of slipping off
towards that end that was afloat, and so falling into the
water. I did my. utmost, by setting my back against the
chests, to keep them in their places, but with all my strength
I could not thrust off the raft; neither durst I stir from the
posture I was in, but, holding up the chests with all my
might, stood in that manner nearly half an hour, in which
time the rising of the water brought me a little upon a
level, and a little after, the water still rising, my raft
floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had, into
the channel, and then driving up higher, I at length found
myself at the mouth of a little river, with land on both
sides, and a strong current of tide running up. I looked
on both sides for a proper place to get ashore, for I was not
willing to be driven too high up the river, hoping in time
to see some ship at sea; and I therefore resolved to place
myself as near the shore as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the
creek, to which with great pain and difficulty I guided my
raft, and at last got so near as that, reaching ground with
my oar, I could thrust her directly in; but here I was very
nearly dipping all my cargo into the sea again, for the shore
lying pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no
place to land, but where one end of the raft, if it ran on
shore, would lie so high, and the other sink lower as before,
that it would endanger my cargo. All that I could do was
to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft
with my oar, like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to
the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I expected the





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


water would flow over, and so it did. As soon as I found
water enough (for my raft drew about a foot of water), I
thrust her upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened
or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into the
ground, one on one side near one end, and one on the other
side near the other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed,
and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods to
secure them from whatever might happen. Where I was, I
yet knew not, whether on the continent or on an island;
whether it was inhabited or not inhabited; whether in danger
of wild beasts or not. There was a hill not above a mile from
me, which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed
to overtop some other hills, which stretched in a ridge from
it northward. I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and
one of the pistols, and a horn of powder, and, thus armed,
I travelled on a tour of discovery up to the top of that hill,
where, after I had with great labor and difficulty got up, I
immediately saw my fate, to my great affliction, namely,
that I was on an island, environed every way by the sea, no
land to be seen, except some rocks which lay a great way
off, and two small islands less than this, which lay about
three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as
I saw good reasons to believe, uninhabited, except perhaps,
by wild beasts, of which, however, I saw none; yet I saw
abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds, nor, when
I killed them, could I tell what was fit for food, and what




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


not. On my return, I shot a large bird, which I saw
sitting upon a tree, on the side of a great wood. I believe
it was the first gun that had been fired there since the
creation of the world. I had no sooner fired, than from all
parts of the wood there arose an extraordinary number of
fowls, of many sorts, making a confused screaming and
crying, every one according to his usual note; but not one
of them of any kind that I knew. As for that creature I
killed, I took it to be a kind of hawk, its color and beak
resembling it, but it had no talons or claws more than
common; its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft,
and fell to work to bring the rest of my cargo on shore,
which took up the rest of the day. What to do with my-
self at night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest; for I
was afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but
some wild beast might devour me, though I afterwards
found there was really no need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round
with the chests and boards that I had brought on shore,
and made a kind of hut for that night's lodging. As for
food, I still had no means of supplying myself, except that
I had seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out of the
wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great
many things out of the ship which would be useful to me,
and particularly some of the rigging and sails, and such
other things as might be useful; so I resolved to make
another voyage on board the vessel, if possible. Knowing




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


that the first storm that blew must necessarily break her in
pieces, I resolved to set all other things aside till I got
everything out of the ship that I could get. Then I called
a council (that is to say, in my thoughts), whether I should
take back the raft, but this appeared impracticable; so I
resolved to go as before, when the tide was down, and I did
so, only that I stripped before I went from my hut, having
nothing on but a checkered shirt, a pair of linen drawers,
and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second
raft; and having had experience of the first, I neither made
this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard. Still I brought
away several things very useful to me : for example, in the
carpenter's store I found two or three bags full of nails
and spikes, a great screw jack, a dozen or two of hatchets,
and, above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone.
All these I secured, together with several things belonging
to the gunner, particularly three iron crows, and two
barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and another
fowling-piece, with a small quantity of powder, a large
bag full of small shot, and a great roll of sheet lead; but
this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it
over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that 1
could find, and a spare fore-topsail, hammock, and some
bedding, and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought
them also safe on shore, to my great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions, during my absence from
the land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


shore; but when I came back, I found no sign of any
visitor, only there sat a creature like a wild cat upon one
of the chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away to
a little distance, and then stood still. She sat very com-
posed and unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if
she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented my
gun at her, but, as she did not understand it, she was per-
fectly unconcerned, nor did she offer to stir away; upon
which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though I was not very
free of it, for my stock was not large. However, I gave
her a bit, I say; she smelled at it, ate it, and looked for
more; but I thanked her, and could spare no more, so she
arched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore (though I was
fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by
parcels, for they were too heavy, being large casks), I set
to work to make a little tent with the sail and some poles
which I cut for that purpose. Into this tent I brought
everything that I knew would spoil either with rain or
sun; and I piled all the empty chests and casksazp in a
circle round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt
either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent
with some boards within, and an empty chest, set on end
without. Then spreading one of the beds upon the ground,
and laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun
alongside of me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept
very quietly all night, for I was very weary and heavy, as
I had slept little the night before, and had labored hard all





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


day, as well in fetching those things from the ship, as in
getting them on shore.
I had now the largest store of all kinds that ever was
laid up, I believe, for one man; but I was not yet satisfied,
for, while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I
ought to get everything out of her that I could; so every
day at low water, I went on board, and brought away some-
thing or other. But particularly the third time I went, I
brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as also
all the small ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece
of spare canvas, which was to mend the sails upon occasion,
and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought
away all the sails first and last, only that I was fain to cut
them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could, for
they were no longer useful to me as sails, but merely
as canvas.
But what comforted me more than anything was, that
last of all, after I had made five or six such voyages as
these, and thought I had nothing more to expect from the
ship worth my meddling with; I say, after all this, I found
a great hogshead of bread, three large runlets of rum or
spirits, a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour: this was
surprising to me, because I had given up expecting any
more provisions, except what was spoiled by the water. I
soon emptied the hogshead of that bread, and wrapt it up
parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails which I cut out;
and, in a word, I got this safe on shore also, though at
different times.
The next day I made another voyage; and now having





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand
out, I began with the cables: and cutting the great cable
into pieces such as I could move, I got two cables and a
hawser on shore with all the iron-work I could get; and
having cut down the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard,
and everything suited to make a large raft, I loaded it
with all those heavy goods, and came away. But my good
luck began now to leave me, for this raft was so unwieldy
and so overloaded, that after I had entered the little cove
where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being able to
guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw
me and all my cargo into the water. As for myself, it
was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my
cargo, it was in great part lost, especially the iron, which I
expected would have been of great use to me. However,
when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable
ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite labor,
for I was obliged to dip for it into the water, a work which
fatigued me very much. After this I went every day, and
brought away what I could.
I had now been thirteen days on shore, and had been
eleven times on board the ship, in which times I had
brought away all that one pair of hands could well be
supposed capable of bringing, though I verily believe, had
the calm weather held, I should have brought away the
whole ship piece by piece. But on preparing the twelfth
time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise.
Notwithstanding this I went on board at low water; and
though I thought I had runmaged the cabin so effec-





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


tually as that nothing more could be found, yet I discovered
a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or
three razors and one pair of large scissors, with ten or a dozen
good knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six
pounds value in money, some European coin, some Brazil,
some pieces of eight, some gold, some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. '0 drug,'
said I aloud, 'what art thou good for? Thou art not
worth to me, no, not the taking off of the ground; one of
those knives is worth all this heap; I have no manner of
use for thee; even remain where thou art, and go to the
bottom as a creature whose life is not worth saving!'
However, upon second thoughts I took it away, and
wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I began to think of
making another raft; but while I was preparing this, I
found the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in
a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore.
It presently occurred to me that it was in vain to pretend to
make a raft with the wind off shore, and that it was my
business to be gone before the flood-tide began, otherwise
I might not be able to reach the shore at all: accordingly, I
let myself down into the water, and swam across the
channel which lay between the ship and the sand, and even
that with difficulty enough, partly through the weight of
the things I had about me, and partly the roughness of the
water; for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was
quite high water it blew a storm.
Now, however, I was safe in my little tent, where I lay
with all my wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


all that night, and in the morning, when I looked out,
behold no more of the ship was to be seen. I was a little
surprised, but recovered myself with this satisfactory reflec-
tion, namely, that I had lost no time, nor abated diligence,
in getting everything out of her that could be useful to me;
and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was able
to bring away, if I had had more time. I now gave over all
thoughts of the ship, or of anything out of her, except what
might drive on shore from her wreck, as, indeed, various
pieces of her afterwards did; but those things were of little
use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed on securing my-
self against either savages, if any should appear, or wild
beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts
of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to
make, whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a
tent upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both,
the manner and description of which it may not be improper
to describe.
I soon found the place I was in was not fit for a settlement,
particularly because it was upon a low marshy ground near
the sea, which I thought would not be wholesome, and more
particularly because there was no fresh water near it; so I
resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
ground.
I considered several things in my situation, which I found
would be proper for me: first, health, and fresh water, as I
just now mentioned; secondly, shelter from the heat of the
sun; thirdly, security from ravenous creatures, either man.




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


or ben;st; fourthly, a view of the sea, that if God sent any
ship in sight, I might not lose any chance of deliverance, of
which I was not willing to banish all hopes.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain
on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little
plain was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could'come
down upon me from the top. On the side of this rock
there was a hollow place worn a little way in, like the
entrance or door of a cave, but there was no cave, or way
into the rock.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I
resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a
hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like
a green before my door, and at the end it descended
irregularly to the low grounds by the sea-side. It was on
the NNW. side of the hill, so that I was sheltered from the
heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or
thereabouts, which in those countries is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in semi-diameter
from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter from its
beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into the ground till they stood very firm like
piles, the biggest end being out of the ground about five
feet and a half, and sharpened at the top; the two rows stood
about six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the
ship, and laid them in rows upon one another, within the





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


circle between these rows of stakes, up to the top, placing
other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two
feet and a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence
was so strong that neither man nor beast could get into it
or over it: this cost me a great deal of time and labor,
especially to cut the piles in the wood, bring them to the
place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance to this place I made to be, not by a door,
but by a ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I
was in, I lifted over after me, and so I was completely
fenced in, and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and
consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I
could not have done, though, as it afterwards appeared,
there was no need of all this caution.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried
all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores;
and I made a large tent also, which, to preserve me from
the rains, that in one part of the year are very violent there,
I made double, namely, one smaller tent within, and one
large tent above it, and covered the uppermost with a large
tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails.
And now I lay no longer in the bed that I had brought
on shore, but in a hammock, which was a very good one,
and which belonged to the mate.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything
that would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all
my goods, I built up the entrance, which till now was left
open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


rock, and bringing all the earth and stones out through my
tent, I laid them up within the fence in the nature of a
terrace, so that it raised the ground within about a foot and
a half, and thus I made me a cave just behind my tent,
which served as a cellar to my house.
It cost me ifuch labor, and many days, before all these
things were brought to perfection; and, therefore, I must
go back to some other things which took up some of my
thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid
my scheme for setting up my tent and making the cave,
that a storm of rain falling from a thick dark cloud, a
sudden flash of lightning occurred, and then a clap of
thunder, which is naturally the effect of it. I was not so
much surprised at the lightning as with the thought which
darted into my mind:- 0 my powder! My heart sank
within me, to think that at one blast all my powder might
be destroyed; on which, not my defence only, but the
providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended: I was
not nearly so anxious about my own danger.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the
storm was over, I gave up all my work, my building and
fortifying, and applied myself to making bags and boxes to
separate my powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a
parcel in the hope that, whatever might happen, it might
not all take fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that it
should not be possible to make one part fire another. I
finished this work in about a fortnight, and my powder,
which in all was about 2401bs. weight, was divided into
not less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that, so I
placed it in my new cave, which in my fancy I called my
kitchen, and the rest I hid in holes among the rocks, that
no wet might get to it, carefully marking where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was being done, I went
out once every day with my gun, as well to divert myself
as to see if I could kill anything fit for food, and as nearly
as I could, to acquaintmyself with what the island produced.
The first time I went out, I discovered that there were
goats on the island, which was a great satisfaction to me;
but then the circumstance was attended with this misfor-
tune, namely, that they were so shy, so cunning, and so
swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the
world to get at them. But I was not discouraged at this,
not doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as soon
happened; for after I had found their haunts a little, I lay
wait for them in this manner: I observed, if they saw me
in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they
would run away in a terrible fright; but if they were
feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took
no notice of me; whence I concluded, that by the position
of their optics, their sight was so directed downward, that
they did not readily see objects that were above them; so
I always climbed the rocks first to get above them, and
then had frequently a fair mark. The first shot I made
among these creatures I killed a she-goat, which had a
little kid by her, which she was giving suck to. This
grieved me heartily; but when the old one fell, the kid
stood stock still by her till I came and took her up, and not





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


only so, but when I carried the old one with me upon my
shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure; upon
which I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms,
and carried it over my paling, in the hope of having it bred
up tame; but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it,
and eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a
great while; for I ate sparingly, and saved my provisions,
my bread especially, as much as I possibly could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to
burn; and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my
cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full
account of in its place; but I must first give some little
account of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which
were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect before me; for as I was not cast
away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a
violent storm quite out of the course of our intended
voyage, and a great way, namely, some hundreds of leagues,
out of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had
great reason to consider it as a determination of Heaven,
that in this desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I
should end my life. The tears would run plentifully down
my face when I made these reflections; and sometimes I
would expostulate with myself, why Providence should
thus completely ruin His creatures, and render them so
absolutely miserable, without help, abandoned, and so
entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational to be
thankful for such a life.




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


But something always returned swift upon me to check
these thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly one
day, walking with my gun in my hand by the sea-side, I
was very pensive upon the subject of my present condition,
when Reason, as it were, put in, expostulating with me the
other way, thus: --Well, you are in a desperate condition,
it is true, but pray remember where are the rest of you ?
Did not you come eleven of you into the boat ? where are
the ten ? why were they not saved, and you lost ? why
were you singled out? is it better to be here or there?
And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be con-
sidered with the good that is in them, and with what worse
attended them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was provided
with the means of subsistence, and what would have been
my case if it had not happened, which was a hundred
thousand to one, that the ship floated from the place where
she first struck, and was driven so near to the shore, that I
had time to get all these things out of her. What would
have been my case if I had been forced to have lived in the
condition in which I at first came on shore, without the
necessaries of life, or any means to supply and procure
them ? Particularly, said I (aloud, though to myself),
what would I have done without a gun, without ammuni-
tion, without any tools to make anything, or to work with?
without clothes, bedding, .a tent, or any manner of cover-
ings ? And now I had all these in sufficient quantity, and
was in a fair way to provide myself in such a manner as
to live without my gun when my ammunition was spent;




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


so that I had a tolerable prospect of subsisting without any
want, as long as I lived, for I considered from the beginning
how I should provide for the accidents that might happen,
and for the time that was to come,.even not only after my
ammunition should be spent, but even after my health or
strength should decay.
I confess I had not then entertained any notion of my
ammunition being destroyed at one blast, I mean my powder
being blown up by lightning; and this made the thoughts
of it so surprising to me, when it lightened and thundered,
as I observed just now.
And now, being about to enter into a melancholy relation
of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard
of ih the world before, I shall take it from its beginning,
and continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the
30th of September, when, in the manner above said, I first
set foot upon this horrid island, when the sun being to us
in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head ;
for I reckoned myself by observation to be in the latitude
of 90 22' N. of the Line.
After I had been here about ten or twelve days, it came
into my head that I should lose my reckoning of time for
want of books, and pen and ink, and should even forget to
distinguish my Sabbath days from working days; but to pre-
vent this, I cut the reckoning with my knife upon a large post,
in capital letters, and making the post into a great cross, I
set it up on the shore where I first landed, headed, 'I came
on shore here the 30th of Sept., 1659.' Upon the sides of
this square post I cut every day a notch with my knife, and




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and
every first day of the month as long again as the long one;
and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and
yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place, among many things which I brought
off the ship in the several voyages, which, as above
mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of less value,
but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted setting
down before: as in particular, pens, ink, and paper, several
parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's
keeping, three or four compasses, some mathematical in-
struments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navi-
gation, all which I huddled together, careless whether I
might want them or not. Also I found three very good
Bibles, which came to me in my cargo from England, and
which I had packed up among my things, some Portuguese
books also, and among them two or three Popish prayer-
books, and several other books, all which I carefully secured.
And I must not forget that we had in the ship a dog and
two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to
say something in its place, for I carried both the cats with
me, and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship himself,
and swam on shore to me the day after I went there
with my first cargo, and he was a trusty servant to me for
many years. I wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor
any company that he could make up to me, I only wanted
to have him talk to me, but that he could not do. As I
observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I hus-
banded them to the utmost: and I shall show, that while




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


my ink lasted, I kept things very exact; but after that was
gone, I could not; for I could not make any ink by any
means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things; and
of these, this of ink was one, as also a spade, pick-axe,
and shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and
thread: as for linen, I soon learned to want that without
much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily,
and it was nearly a whole year before I had entirely finished
my little paling, or surrounded habitation; the piles, or
stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long
time in being prepared in the woods, and more by far in
bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cut-
ting and bringing home one of these posts, and a third day
in driving it into the ground. For which purpose I got a
heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought myself
of one of the iron crows, which, however, though I found
it, yet made driving those posts or palings very laborious and
tedious work.
But what need had I to be concerned at the tedious-
ness of anything I had to do, having time enough to do it
in ? Nor had I any other employment, that I could foresee,
except ranging the island to seek for food, which I did more
or less every day.
I now began to consider my condition seriously, and the
circumstances I was reduced to, and I drew up the state of
my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any
that were to come after me (for I was likely to have but




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


few heirs), as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring
upon them, and afflicting my mind; and as my reason
began now to master my despondency, I began to comfort
myself as well as I could, and to set the good against the
evil, that I might have something to distinguish my case
from worse; and I stated it very impartially, like debtor
and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed, against the miseries I
suffered, thus :-


EVIL.
I am cast upon a horrible deso-
late island, void of all hope of de-
liverance.
I am singled out and separated,
as it were, from all the world to
be miserable.


I am divided from mankind, a
solitary one, banished from hu-
man society.
1 have no clothes to cover me.


I am without any defence or
means to resist any violence of
man or beast.
I have not a soul to speak to,
or relieve me.


GOOD.
ButI am alive,and notdrowned,
as all my ship's company was.

But I am singled out, too, from
all the ship's crew, to be spared
from death; and He that miracu-
lously saved me from death, can
deliver me from this condition.
But I am not starved and
perishing on a barren place,
affording no sustenance.
But I am in a hot climate,
where, if I had clothes, I could
hardly wear them.
But I am cast on an island
where I see no wild beasts to hurt
me.
But God wonderfully sent the
ship near enough to the shore,
that I have gotten out so many
necessary things as will either
supply my wants, or enable me to
supply myself, even as long as I
live.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


SUpon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that
there was scarce a condition in the world so miserable but
there was something negative, or something positive, to be
thankful for in it; and let this stand as a direction from
the experience of the most miserable of all conditions in
this world, that we may always find in it something to
derive comfort from, and to set, under the head of good and
evil, on the credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my
condition, and given over looking out to sea, to see if I
could spy a ship; I say, having given over these things, I
began to apply myself to arrange my way of living, and to
make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong fence of
posts and cables, but I might rather call it a wall, for I
raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet
thick, on the outside. After some time (I think it was a
year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the
rock; and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and
such things as I could get to keep out the rain, which I
found at some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into
this enclosure, and into the cave which I had made behind;
but I must observe, too, that at first this was a confused
heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took
up all my space: I had no room to turn myself; so I set
myself to enlarge my cave, and work farther into the earth.
Thus, when I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey,
E 2





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


I worked sideways to the right hand into the rock, and then
turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made a
door to come out at on the outside of my fortification. This
gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back way to
my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to stow
away my goods. And now I began to apply myself to
make such necessary things as I found I most wanted, par-
ticularly a chair and a table, for without these I was not
able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world; I could
not write or eat, or do several things, with so much plea-
sure, without a table.
So I went to work; and here I must needs observe, that
as reason is the substance and original of the mathematics,
so by stating and squaring everything by reason, and
by making the most rational judgment of things, every
man may be in time master of every mechanic art. I had
never handled a tool in my life, and yet in time, by labor,
application, and contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted
nothing but I could have made it, especially if I had had
tools: however, I made abundance of things, even without
tools, and some with no more tools than an adze and a
hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made in that way
before, and that with infinite labor. For example, if I
wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree,
set it on end before me, and hew it flat on either side
with my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin as a plank,
and then pare it smooth with my adze. It is true that by
this method I could make but one board out of the whole
tree; but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


than I had for the prodigious deal of time and labor
which it took me to make a plank or board; but my time
or labor was little worth, and so it was as well employed
one way as another.
However, I made a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place; and this I did out of the short
pieces of board that I brought on my raft from the ship;
but when I had wrought out some boards, as above, I made
large shelves of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over
another, all along one side of my cave, to lay my tools,
nails, and ironwork on, and, in a word, to separate every-
thing at large in their places. Also, I knocked pegs into
the wall of the rock to hang my guns on, and all things that
would hang up: so that my cave looked like a general
magazine of all necessary things; and I had everything so
ready to hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see all
my goods in such order, and especially to find my stock of
all necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every
day's employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in so great
a hurry not only hurry as to work, but in so much
discomposure of mind, that my journal would have been
full of many dull things. For example, I must have said
thus:-
September 30, 1659.-After I got on shore, on this dismal
island, which I called the Island of Despair, and had escaped
drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliver-
ance,-having first vomited the great quantity of salt water
which had got into my stomach, and recovering myself a




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


little, -I ran about the shore, wringing my hands, and
beating my head and face, bewailing my misery, and
crying out, I was undone! undone! till, tired and faint, I
was forced to lie down on the ground to repose, but durst
not sleep for fear of being devoured.
'Some days after this, having been on board the ship, and
got all I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting
up to the top of a little mountain, and looking out to sea,
in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy, at a vast distance, I
spied a sail; please myself with the hopes of it, and then,
after looking steadily till I was almost blind, lose it quite,
and sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase my
misery by my folly.'
But having got over these things, in some measure, and
having settled my household stuff and habitation, and
made all as handsome about me as I could, I began to keep
my journal, of which I shall here give you some particulars
over again, as long as it lasted, for at last, having no more
ink, I was forced to leave it off.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


CHAPTER IV.

EXTRACTS FROM MY JOURNAL.

Fal upon various Schemes to make Tools, Baskets, &c. My Walks in the
Woods.- At a great Loss for an Evening Candle, but fall upon an
Expedient to supply the Want. Strange Discovery of Corn. A terrible
Earthquake and Storm.

Nov. 17.-I MUST not forget to mention, that when I
began to dig behind my tent into the rock, to make
more room, I wanted three things exceedingly for this
work, namely, a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow or
basket; so I desisted from my work, and began to consider
how to supply that want, and make some tools. As for
a pick-axe, I made use of the iron crows, which were
suitable enough, though heavy; but the next thing was a
shovel or spade: this was so absolutely necessary, that
indeed I could do nothing effectually without it,-but what
kind of one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18.-The next day, in searching the woods, I found
a tree of that wood, or like it, which in the Brazils they
call the iron-tree, for its exceeding hardness; of this with
great labor, and after almost spoiling my axe, I cut a
piece, and brought it home with difficulty, for it was ex-
ceedingly heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood
kept me a long while upon this machine, but I worked it




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


effectually by little and little into the form of a shovel or
spade, the handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only
that the broad part having no iron shod upon it at bottom,
would not last me so long; however, it served well enough
Sfor the uses which I had occasion to put it to.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheel-
barrow. A basket I could not make by any means, having
no such things as twigs that would bend to make wicker-
ware; and, as to a wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all
but the wheel, but that I had no notion of, neither did I
know how to set about it, so Igave it up; and so, for carry-
ing away the earth, which I dug out of the cave, I made
a thing like a hod, which the laborers carry mortar in to
serve the bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me as
the making of the shovel; and yet this, and the shovel, and
the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow,
took me no less than four days: I mean, always excepting
my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom omitted,
seldom failing also to bring home something fit to eat.
In these walks I made frequent discoveries of something
or other to my advantage; particularly I found a kind of
wild pigeon, which built not as wood-pigeons in a tree, but
rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks, and
taking some young ones I endeavoured to bring them up
tame, and did so. But when they grew older, they all flew
away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them,
for I had nothing to give them; however, I frequently
found their nests, and got their young ones, which were
very good meat.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


And now, in managing my household affairs, I found
myself wanting many things which I thought impossible
for me to make. For instance, I could never make a cask,
to be hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I observed
before, but I could never attain the capacity of making one
by them, though I spent many weeks about it. I could
neither put in the heads, nor join the staves so true to one
another, as to make them hold water; so I gave that
also over. In the next place, I was at a great loss for
candles, so that when it was dark, which was generally by
seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. The only remedy
I had was, that when I had killed a goat, I saved the
tallow, and, with a little dish made of clay, which I baked
in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I made
a lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear, steady
light like a candle.
In the middle of all my labors it happened that in
rummaging my things, I found a little bag, which had been
filled with corn for the feeding of poultry, not for this
voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from
Lisbon; what little remainder of corn had been in the
bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the
bag but husks and dust; and, being willing to have the
bag for some other use, I shook the husks of corn out of it,
on one side of the fortification under the rock. It was a
little before the great rains, just now mentioned, that I
threw this stuff away, taking no notice of anything, and
not so much as remembering that I had thrown any there;
when, about a month after, or thereabouts, I saw a few




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


stalks of something green shooting out of the ground,
which I fancied might be some plant I had not seen; but
I was surprised, and perfectly astonished, when, after a
little longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out,
which were perfect, green barley of the same kind as our
English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confu-
sion of my thoughts on this occasion: I had hithertoacted
upon no religious foundation at all; indeed, I had very few
notions of religion in my head, nor had entertained any
sense of anything that had befallen me, otherwise than as a
chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases God; without so
much as inquiring into the end of Providence in these
things, or His order in governing events in the world; but,
after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which I knew
was not proper for corn, and, above all, not knowing how it
came there, it startled me strangely. So I began to think
that God had miraculously caused this grain to grow, with-
out any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed
purely for my sustenance in that wild, miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of
my eyes, and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of
nature should happen on my account; and this was the
more strange to me, because I saw near it, all along by the
side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved
to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen
it grow elsewhere.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Provi-
dence for my support, but, not doubting but that there was





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


more in the place, I went all over that part of the island
where I had been before, peering in every corner and
under every rock to seek for more of it, but I could not
find any. At last it occurred to me that I had shaken
a bag of chickens' meat out in that place, and then the
wonder began to cease; and I must confess my religious
thankfulness to God's providence began to abate too, upon
my discovering that all this was nothing but what was
common, though I ought to have been as thankful for so
strange and unforeseen a providence as if it had been mi-
raculous. For it was really the work of Providence to me,
that should order that ten or twelve grains of corn should
remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest,
as if it had been dropped from heaven; as also that I
should throw it out in that particular place, where, being in
the shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas,
if I had thrown it anywhere else at that time, it would
have been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of corn, you may be sure,
in their season, which was about the end of June; and,
laying up every grain, I resolved to sow them all again,
hoping in time to have some quantity, sufficient to supply
me with bread. But it was not till the fourth year that I
could allow myself the least quantity of this corn to eat, and
even then but sparingly, as I shall say afterwards in its
order, for I lost all I sowed the first season by not observ-
ing the proper time, having sowed just before the dry sea-
son, so that it never came up at all at least, not as it
would otherwise have done.




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


Besides this barley, there were twenty or thirty stalks of
rice, which I preserved with the same care, and whose use
was of the same kind, or for the same purpose, namely, to
supply me with food; for I found ways to cook it without
baking, though I did that also, after some time. But to
return to my journal.
I worked excessively hard three or four months to get my
wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving
to get into it, not by a door, but over a wall by a ladder,
that there might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.
April 16.-I finished the ladder, so I went up with it to
the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down
on the inside. This was a complete enclosure to me; for
within I had room enough, and nothing could get at me
from without, unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had
almost had all my labor overthrown at once, and myself
killed. The case was thus : as I was busy in the inside, be-
hind my tent, just at the entrance into my cave, I was ter-
ribly frightened with a most surprising thing indeed, for on
a sudden I found the earth come tumbling down from the
roof of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my
head, and two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked
in a frightful manner. I was heartily scared, but thought
nothing of what really was the cause, only thinking that
the top of my cave was falling in, as some of it had done
before, and, for fear I should be buried in it, I ran forward
to my ladder; and, not thinking myself safe even there, I
got over my wall, for fear of the pieces of the hill, which I





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


expected might roll down upon me. I had no sooner stepped
down upon the firm ground, than I plainly saw it was a
terrible earthquake; for the ground I stood on shook three
times, at about eight minutes'distance, with three such shocks
as would have overturned the strongest buildingthat couldbe
supposed to have stood upon the earth; and a great piece of
the top of a rock, which stood about half a mile from me
next the sea, fell down with such a terrific noise as I never
heard in all my life. I perceived also the very sea was put
into violent motion by it, and I believe the shocks were
stronger under the water than on the island.
I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never
had a similar experience, or talked with anyone that had,
that I was like one dead or stupified; and the motion of
the earth made my stomach sick, like one that was tossed
at sea. Presently the noise of the falling of the rock awaked
me, as it were, and, rousing me from the stupified condition
I was in, filled me with such horror, that I thought of
nothing but the hill falling upon my tent and all my
household goods, and burying all at once; and this sank
my soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for
some time, I began to take courage, and yet I had not
heart enough to get over my wall again, for fear of being
buried alive, but sat still upon the ground, greatly cast
down and disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All this
while I had not the least seriously religious thought, nothing
but the common 'Lord, have mercf upon me !' and when
it was over, that went away too.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow
cloudy, as if it would rain; soon after that, the wind rose
by little and little, so that in less than an hour it blew a most
dreadful hurricane of wind; the sea was all on a sudden
covered with foam, the shore was covered with the breach
ef the water, the trees were torn up by the roots, and a ter-
rible storm it was. This lasted about three hours, and then
began to abate, and in two hours more it was quite calm,
and began to rain very hard.
All this while I sat upon the ground, very much terrified
and dejected; when, on a sudden, it came into my thoughts
that these winds and rain, being the consequence of the
earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and
I might venture into my cave again. With this thought,
my spirits began to revive, and the rain helping also to per-
suade me, I went in, and sat me down in my tent, but the
rain was so violent that my tent was on the point of being
beaten down by it: I was forced to go into my cave,
though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall
on my head. This violent rain forced me to a new work,
namely, to cut a hole through my new fortification like a
sink, to let the water go out, which would else have filled
my cave. After I had been in my cave some time, and
found no more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to
be more composed; and now, to support my spirits, which
indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store and
took a small cup of rum, very sparingly, knowing I could
have no more when tnat was gone. It continued raining
all that night, and a great part of the next day, so that I





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


could not stir abroad; but, my mind being more composed,
I began to think what I had best do, concluding that, if the
island was subject to these earthquakes, there would be no
possibility of living in a cave; that I must begin building a
little hut, in an open place, which I might surround with a
wall, as I had done here, and so make myself secure from
wild beasts or men : for I concluded, if I stayed where I was,
I should be buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to move my tent from
the place where it stood, which was just under the hanging
precipice of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken
again, would certainly fall upon my tent. And I spent the
two next days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in con-
triving where and how to remove my habitation.
The fear of being swallowed up alive kept me from sleep-
ing in quiet; but still, when I looked about and saw how
everything was put in order, how pleasantly concealed I
was, and how safe from danger, it made me very loath to
remove.
In the mean time, it occurred to me that it would require
a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I must be
contented to run the risk where I was, till I had formed a
camp for myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it.
So, with this resolution, I composed myself for a time, and
resolved that I would go to work, with all speed, to build
me a wall with piles and cables, &c., in a circle as before,
and set my tent up in it when it was finished; but that I
would venture to stay where I was till it was finished, and
fit to remove to. This was the 21st.




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


April 22. The next morning I began to consider the
means of putting this plan in execution; but I was at a great
loss about my tools. I had three large axes, and abund-
ance of hatchets (for we had taken hatchets for traffic with
the negroes), but, with much chopping and cutting knotty
wood, they were all full of notches and dull, and, though I
had a grindstone, I could not turn it, and grind my tools
too. This cost me as much thought as a statesman would
have bestowed upon a grand point of politics, or a judge
upon the life and death of a man. At length I contrived a
wheel, with a string to turn it with my foot, that I might
have both my hands at liberty. Note. I had never seen
any such thing in England, though I understand it is very
common there. Besides that, my grindstone was very large
and heavy. This machine cost me a full week's work to
bring it to perfection.
April 28, 29.-These two whole days I took up in grind-
ing tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing
very well.
April 30.- Having perceived my bread had been low
a great while, now I took a survey of it, and reduced my-
self to one biscuit-cake a day, which made my heart very
heavy.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


CHAPTER V.

EXTRACTS FROM MY JOURNAL (CONTINUED).
Observe the Ship driven farther aground by the late Storm -Procure a vast
quantity of Necessaries from the Wreck Catch a large Turtle I fall ill
of a Fever and Agne Terrible Dream, and serious Reflections thereupon
Find a Bible in one of the Seamen's Chests thrown ashore, the Reading
whereof gives me great Comfort.

May 1.-IN the morning, looking towards the sea-side,
the tide being low, I saw something lying on the shore,
bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a cask: when I
came to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three pieces
of the wreck of the ship, that had been driven on shore by
the late hurricane, and looking towards the wreck itself, I
thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water than it used
to do. I examined the barrel which was driven on shore,
and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had
let in water, and the powder was caked as hard at a stone.
However, I rolled it farther on shore for the present, and
went further upon the sands, as near as I could to the
wreck of the ship, to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely re-
moved: the forecastle, which lay before buried in the sand,
was heaved up at least six feet, and the stern, which was
broken to pieces, and parted from the rest by the force of
the sea, soon after I had left off rummaging her, was tossed




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


as it were up, and cast on one side; and the sand was thrown
so high on that side next her stern, that, whereas there was
a great place of water before, so that I could not reach the
wreck without swimming, I could now walk quite up to her
when the tide was out. I was surprised at this at first, but
soon concluded it must have been done by the earthquake,
and as by this violence the ship was more broken open
than formerly, so many things came daily on shore, which
the sea had loosened, and which the winds and water rolled
by degrees to.land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of re-
moving my habitation. I busied myself mightily, that day
especially, in searching whether I could make any way into
the ship; but I found nothing was to be expected of that
kind, for all the inside of the ship was choked up with sand.
However, as I had learned not to despair of anything, I
resolved to pull everything to pieces, concluding that every-
thing I could get from the ship would be of some use or
other to me.
May 3.-I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
though, which I thought held some of the upper part or
quarter-deck together, and when I had cut it through, I
cleared away the sand as well as I could, from the side
which lay highest; but the tide coming in, I was obliged to
give over.
May 24.-Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck,
and with hard labor I loosened some things so much with
the crow, that the first flowing tide several casks floated out
and two of the seamen's chests; but the wind blowing from
the shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


and a hogshead that had some Brazil pork in it, but the salt
water and the sand had spoiled it.
I continued this work every day to the 15th of June,
except the time necessary to get food, which I always ap-
pointed during this part of my employment to be when the
tide was up, that I might be ready when it had ebbed out;
and, by this time, I had got timber and plank and iron work
enough to build a good boat, if I had known how; and also
I got at several times and in several pieces, nearly one hun-
dredweight of the sheet lead.
June 16.- Going down to the sea-side, I found a large
tortoise or turtle: this was the first I had seen, which, it
seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect of the place,
or scarcity; for, had I happened to be on the other side of
the island, I might have had hundreds of them every day,
as I found afterwards.
June 17.-I spent the next day in cooking the turtle; I
found in her threescore eggs; and her flesh was to me at that
time the most savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted in my
life, having had no flesh but that of goats and fowls since 1
landed in this horrid place.
June 18.-Rained all day, and I stayed within. The rain
at this time felt cold, and I was somewhat chilly, which I
knew was not usual in that latitude.
June 19.-Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had
been cold.
June 20.-No rest all night; violent pains in my head and
feverish.
JZne 21.-Very ill; frightened almost to death with the




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


apprehensions of my sad condition-to be sick without help.
Prayed to God for the first time since the storm of Hull;
but scarce knew what I said, or why, my thoughts being all
confused.
June 22.-A little better; but under dreadful apprehen-
sions of sickness.
June 23.-Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then
a violent headache.
June 24.-Much better.
June 25.- An ague very violent; the fit held me seven
hours, cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26.-Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my
gun, but found myself very weak; however, I killed a she-goat,
and, with much difficulty, got it home, and broiled some and
ate it. I would fain have stewed it, and made some broth,
but had no pot.
June 27.-The ague again so violent that I lay in bed all
day, and neither ate nor drank. I was all but dying of thirst,
but so weak, I had not strength to stand up, or get myself
any water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was so igno-
rant that I knew not what to say: only I lay, and cried
'Lord, look upon me I Lord, pity me Lord, have mercy upon
me!' I suppose I did nothing else for two or three hours,
till the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till
far in the night. When I waked, I found myself much re-
freshed, but weak and exceedingly thirsty; however, as I had
no water in my whole habitation, I was forced to lie till
morning, and went to sleep again. In this second sleep I
had this terrible dream:-





ROBINSON CIUSOE.


I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the outside
of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the
earthquake, and that I saw a man descend from a great
black cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the
ground. He was all over as bright as a flame, so that I
could but just bear to look towards him; his countenance
was most inexpressibly dreadful--impossible for words to
describe; when he stepped upon the ground, I thought the
earth trembled just as it had done before in the earthquake,
and all the air looked to my apprehension as if filled with
flashes of fire.
He had no sooner touched the earth than he moved for-
wards to me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand, to
kill me; and when he came to a rising ground, at some
distance, he spoke to me, for I heard a voice so terrible, that
it is impossible to express the terror of it; all that I can
say I understood was this: 'Seeing all these things have
not brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die.' At
these words I thought he lifted up the spear that was in
his hand to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account will expect that
I should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this
terrible vision; nor is it possible to describe the impression
that remained upon my mind when I awaked and found it
was but a dream.
June 28.-Having been somewhat refreshed with the
sleep I had had, and the fit being entirely over, I got up,
The fright and terror of my disease were very great, yet I
considered that the fit of the ague would return the next
16





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


day, and now was my time to get something to refresh and
support myself when I should be ill. The first thing I did
was to fill a large square case-bottle with water, and set it
upon a table near my bed; and, to take off the chill or
aguish effect of the water, I put about a quarter of a pint
of rum into it, and mixed them together; then I got
a piece of the goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coals,
but could eat very little. I walked about, but was very
weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted, under a
sense of my miserable condition, and dreading the return
of my distemper the next day. At night I made my
supper of three of the turtle's eggs, which I roasted in the
ashes, and ate in the shell; and this was the first bit of
meat I ever asked God's blessing to.
After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so
weak that I could hardly carry the gun, so I went but a
little way, and sat down upon the ground, looking out upon
the sea, which was just before me, and very calm and
smooth. I sat there a long while, how long I know not.
At length I rose up, pensive and sad, and walked back to
my retreat, and went up over my wall, as if I had been
going to bed; but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I
had no inclination*to sleep, so I sat in my chair, and lighted
my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehen-
sions of the return of my distemper terrified me very much,
it occurred to my thoughts that the Brazilians take no
physic but their tobacco for almost all distempers, and I
had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests, which
was cured, and some also that was green, and not cured.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt, for in this chest I
found a cure for soul and body. I opened the chest,
and found what I looked for, namely, the tobacco; and as
the few books I had saved lay there too, I took out the
Bible, which I mentioned before, and which, up to this time,
I had not found leisure, or not so much as inclination, to look
into; I say I took it out, and brought both that and the
tobacco to the table.
What use to make of the tobacco, as to my distemper,
I knew not, or whether it was good for it or not; but I
tried several experiments with it, as if I was resolved it
should succeed one way or another. I first took a piece of
a leaf, and chewed it in my mouth, which, indeed, at first,
stupified my brains, the tobacco being green and strong,
and my not having been much used to it; then I took some
and steeped it an hour or two in rum, and resolved to take
a dose of it when I lay down; and lastly, I burnt some
upon a pan of coals, and held my nose close over the smoke
of it as long as I could bear it, as well for the heat as for
the virtue of it, and I held it almost to suffocation.
In the intervals of this operation I took up the.Bible, and
began to read; but my head was too much disturbed with
the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time; only
having opened the book casually, the first words that
occurred to me were these, 'Call upon Me in the day of
trouble; I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify Me.'
The words were very suitable to my case, and made some
impression on me at the time of reading them, though not
so much as they did afterwards; for, as for being delivered,




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


the word had no sound, as I may say, to me: the thing was
so remote, so impossible in my apprehension of things, that
I began to say as the children of Israel did, when they
were promised flesh to eat, Can God spread a table in the
wilderness ?' So I began to say, can God himself deliver
me from this place? But, however, the words made a
great impression upon me, and I mused upon them very
often. It now grew late, and the tobacco had, as I said,
dosed my head so much that I felt inclined to sleep.
When I got up Iwas stronger than I was the day before,
and my appetite better, for I was hungry, and, in short,
I had no fit the next day, but continued much altered for
the better. This was the 29th.
The 30th was my day of recovery, and, of course, I went
out with my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I
killed a sea-fowl or two, something like a wild goose, and
brought them home, but was not very eager to eat them, so
I ate some more of the turtle's eggs, which were very good.
This evening I renewed the medicine which I had supposed
did me good the day before, namely, the tobacco steeped in
rum, only I did not take so much as before, nor did I chew
any of the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke. How-
ever, I was not so well the next day, which was the 1st
of July.
July 2.-I renewed the medicine all the three ways, and
dosed myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity
which I drank.
July 3. I missed the fit for good and all, though I did
not recover my full strength for some weeks after. While




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


I was thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceed-
ingly upon this text of Scripture, I will deliver thee,' and
the apparent impossibility of my deliverance lay upon my
mind as a bar to my ever expecting it. But as I was dis-
couraging myself with such thoughts, it occurred to my
mind that I pored so much upon my hopes of deliverance
from the main affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance
I had received; and I was, as it were, made to ask myself
such questions as these, namely, Have I not been delivered,
and wonderfully too, from sickness from the most dis-
tressed condition that could be, and that was so frightful to
me ? And what notice had I taken of it ? Had I done
my part ? God had delivered me, but I had not glorified
Him; that is to say, I had not owned and been thankful
for that as a deliverance; and how could I expect greater
deliverance? This touched my heart very much, and im-
mediately I kneeled down and gave God thanks aloud for
my recovery from sickness.
This was the first time that I could say, in the true sense
of the word, that I prayed in all my life, for now I prayed
from a sense of my condition, and with a true Scripture
view of hope, founded on the encouragement of the Word
of God. From this time, I may say, I began to have hope
that God would hear me.
July 4.- My condition began to be, though not less
miserable as to my way of living, yet much easier to my
mind, and my thoughts being directed by constant reading
of the Scriptures, and praying to God, to things of a higher
nature, I had a great deal of comfort within, which till




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


Then I knew nothing of. Also, as my health and strength
returned, I began to furnish myself with everything that
I wanted, and make my way of living as regular as I
could.
From the 4th of July to the 14th I was chiefly employed
in walking about with my gun in my hand, a little at a
time, as a man that was gathering up his strength after a
fit of sickness; for it is hardly to be imagined how low I
was, and to what weakness I was reduced. The applica-
tion I made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps what
had never cured an ague before, neither can I recommend
the experiment; and though it did carry off the fit, yet it
rather contributed to weaken me, for I had frequent con-
vulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time.
I learned from it also, that being abroad in the rainy
season was most pernicious to my health, especially those
rains which came attended with hurricanes of wind; for as
the rain which came in a dry season was always accom-
panied with storms, so I found this rain was much more
dangerous than the rain which fell in September and
October.
I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months;
all possibility of deliverance from it seemed to be entirely
taken away from me, and I firmly believed that no human
shape had ever set foot upon the place. Having now se-
cured my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had
a desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and
see what other productions I might find, which I yet knew
not of.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


CHAPTER VI.

EXTRACTS FROM MY JOURNAL (CONTINUED).

I begin to take a Survey of my Island-Discover plenty of Tobacco, Grapes,
Lemons, and Sugar-canes, wild, but no human Inhabitants- Resolve to
lay up a Store of these Articles, to furnish Myself with against the wet
Season My Cat, which I supposed lost, returns with Kittens- I regulate
my Diet, and shut Myself up for the wet Season Sow my Grain, which
comes to Nothing; but I discover and remedy my Error Take Account
of the Course of the Weather.

IT was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more
particular survey of the island. I went up the creek first,
where I had brought my rafts on shore. I found, after
going about two miles up, that the tide did not flow any
higher, and that it was no more than a little brook of
running water, and very fresh and good; but this being
the dry season, there was scarcely any water in some parts
of it.
On the banks of this brook I found many pleasant savan-
nahs, or meadows plain, smooth, and covered with grass,
and on the rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds,
where the water, as it might be supposed, never overflowed,
I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to a
large and strong stalk. There were various other plants,
which I had no notion of, and which might, perhaps, have
had virtues of their own, which I could not find out.
I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians, in all





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


that climate, make their bread of, but I could find none. I
saw large plants of aloes, but did not then identify them; I
saw several sugar-canes, but they were wild, and, for want
of cultivation, imperfect. I contented myself with these
discoveries for this time, and came back, musing with my-
self what course I ought to take to know the virtue and
goodness of any of the fruits or plants which I should dis-
cover, but could come to no conclusion; for, in short, I had
made so little observation while I was young, that I knew
very little of the plants of the field.
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again;
and, after going something farther than I had done the day
before, I found the brook and the savannahs began to cease,
and the country became more woody than before. In this
part I found different fruits, and particularly melons upon
the ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees;
the vines had spread indeed over the trees, and the clusters
of grapes were now in their prime, very ripe and rich. This
was a surprising discovery, and I was exceedingly glad of
them; but I was warned, by my experience, to eat sparingly
of them, remembering that when I was ashore in Barbary,
the eating of grapes killed several of our Englishmen, who
were slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes and fevers.
But I found an excellent use for these grapes; and that
was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried
grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought would be, as
indeed they were, as wholesome, and as agreeable to eat,
when no grapes might be had.
I spent all that evening there, and did not go back to my




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


habitation, which was the first night, as I might say, I had
lain from home. In the night I got up into a tree, where I
slept well. and the next morning proceeded upon my dis-
covery, travelling nearly four miles, as I might judge by the
length of the valley, keeping still due north, with a ridge
of hills on the south and north side of me.
At the end of this march I came to an opening, where
the country seemed to descend to the west, and a little
spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the
hill by me, ran the other way, that is, due east. All the
country appeared so fresh, so green, and so flourishing, that
it looked like a garden.
I descended a little on the side of that delicious valley,
surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure (though mixed
with other conflicting thoughts), to think that this was all
my own, that I was king and lord of all this country, and,
if I could transmit it, I might have it in inheritance, as
completely as any lord of a manor in England. I saw here
abundance of cocoa-trees, orange, lemon, and citron trees,
but all wild, and few bearing fruit, at least then.. However,
the green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to
eat, but very wholesome; and I mixed their juice after-
wards with water, which made it very wholesome, and very
cool and refreshing. I resolved to lay up at home a store
of grapes, limes, and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet
season, which I knew was approaching.
In order to do this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in
one place, and a lesser heap in another, and a great parcel
of limes and lemons in another place; and, taking a few of




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


each with me, I travelled homeward, and resolved to come
again, and bring a bag or sack, to carry the rest home.
Accordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I
came home (so I must now call my tent and cave); but,
before I got thither, the grapes were spoiled the richness
of the fruit and the weight of the juice having broken and
bruised them, they were good for little or nothing; as to
the limes, I could bring but a few.
The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made
me two small bags to bring home my harvest; but I was
surprised when, coming to my heap of grapes, I found
them all spread abroad, trod to pieces, and dragged about,
some here, some there, and abundance eaten and devoured.
By this I concluded there were some wild creatures there-
abouts which had done this, but what they were I knew
not.
However, as I found there was no laying them up on
heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack, but that one
way they would be destroyed, and the other way they
would be crushed with their own weight, I took another
course; for I gathered a large quantity of grapes, and hung
them upon the outer branches of the trees, that they might
dry in the sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I carried
as many back as I could well bear.
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated
with great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley and the
pleasantness of the situation, the security from storms on
that side of the water, and the wood, and concluded that
I had pitched upon a place to fix my abode, which was' by




ROBINSON CRUSOE.


far the worst part of the country. Upon the whole, I
began to consider about removing my habitation, and to
Look out for a place equally safe, but, if possible, in that
pleasant fruitful part of the island.
This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceedingly
fond of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place
tempting me; but when I came to a nearer view of it, and
to consider that I was now by the seaside, where it was at
least possible that something might happen to my advan-
tage, and that the same ill fate that brought me hither
might bring some unhappy wretches to the same place;
and though it was scarcely probable that any such thing
should ever happen, yet, to enclose myself among the hills
and woods in the centre of the island, was to anticipate my
bondage, and to render such an affair not only improbable
but impossible, and which, therefore, I ought not by any
means to remove.
However, I was so enamored of this place, that I spent
much of my time there for the whole remaining part of
July; and though, upon second thoughts, I resolved not to
remove, yet I built me a little kind of bower, and sur-
rounded it with a strong fence, being a double hedge as
high as I could reach, well staked and filled between with
brushwood; and here I lay secure, sometimes two or three
nights together, always going over it with a ladder, as
before, so that I fancied now I had my country-house and
my sea-coast-house. This work took me up to the begin-
ning of August.
I had but newly finished my fence, and begun to enjoy




80 ROBINSON' CRUSO.

my labor, when the rains came on, and made me stick
close to my first habitation; for though I had made me a
tent, like the other, with a piece of a sail, and spread it
very well, yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep me
from storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat into, when
the rains were extraordinary.
About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished
my bower, and I began to enjoy myself. The 3rd of
August I found the grapes I had hung up were perfectly
dried, and indeed were excellent raisins; so I began to take
them down, and it was very lucky that I did so, for the
rains which followed would have spoiled them, and Iwould
have lost the larger part of my winter food; for I had
almost two hundred large bunches of them. No sooner had
I taken them all down, and carried them home to my
cave, than it began to rain; and henceforth, which was the
14th of August, it rained more or less every day till the
middle of October, and sometimes so violently that I could
not stir out of my cave for several days.
At this time I was much surprised with the increase of
my family. I had been concerned for the loss of one of
my cats, which ran away from me, or, as I thought, had
been dead; and I heard no more of her, till, to my astonish-
ment, she came home about the end of August, with three
kittens.
From the 14th of August to the N6th incessant rain, so
that I could not stir, and I was now very careful not to get
wet. In this confinement I began to be straitened for food;
but venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat; and the






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6id


ROBINSON CRUSOE AND HIS CATS


"~ E'-*





ROBINSON CRUSOE.


last day, which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise,
which was a treat to me, and my food was regulated
thus : I ate a bunch of raisins for my breakfast, a piece of
goat's flesh or turtle for my dinner, and two or three of the
turtle's eggs for supper.
During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I
worked daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and,
by degrees, worked it on towards one side, till I came to
the outside of the hill, and made a door, or way out, which
came beyond my fence or wall, and so I came in and out
that way. But I was not perfectly easy at lying so open;.
for, as I had managed before, I was in a perfect enclosure,
whereas now I thought I lay exposed; and yet I could not
perceive that there was any living thing to fear, the biggest
creature that I had seen upon the island being a goat.
September 30.-I had now come to the unhappy anni-
versary of my landing. I cast up the notches on my post,
and found I had been on shore three hundred and sixty-
five days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting it apart
for religious exercise.
I had all this time observed no Sabbath-day; for as, at
first, I had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had for
some time omitted to distinguish the weeks by making a
longer notch than ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did
not know what any of the days were; but now having cast
up the days as above, I found I had been there a year; so I
divided it into weeks, and set apart every seventh day for a
Sabbath, though -I found at the end of my account I had
los1a day or two in my reckoning.




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