• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Phonology
 Grammatical structure
 The noun classes
 Derivation of the Noun Stems
 The pronouns
 The qualificatives
 The varieties of the verb
 The conjugation of the verb
 The copulative
 The Adverb
 The ideophone
 Conjunctive and interjective
 Miscellaneousgrammatical pheno...
 Notes on syntax






Title: Outline grammar of Bantu
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073396/00001
 Material Information
Title: Outline grammar of Bantu
Physical Description: 65 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Doke, Clement Martyn, 1893-
Publisher: Dept. of Bantu Studies, University of the Witwatersrand
Place of Publication: Johannesburg
Publication Date: 1943
 Subjects
Subject: Bantu languages -- Grammar   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: prepared by C.M. Doke.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073396
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: African Studies Collections in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 04620662

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Phonology
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Grammatical structure
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    The noun classes
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Derivation of the Noun Stems
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    The pronouns
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    The qualificatives
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    The varieties of the verb
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    The conjugation of the verb
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    The copulative
        Page 51
        Page 52
    The Adverb
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    The ideophone
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Conjunctive and interjective
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Miscellaneousgrammatical phenomena
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Notes on syntax
        Page 64
        Page 65
Full Text















Reepawred by ProF. C. M. boke..










r^E





EX LIBRI5 c
<0-N
L--^ /






OUTL I NE


GRAMMAR


OF

BANTU


Prepared by
Professor C.M. Doke, M.A., D.Litt.
(Head: Department of Be.ntu Studies, University of the
SiitWersrnd9).






1943


Johannesburg,










i Thi oit-ine 'i./ d'igried for Ch gidai ce., in e -,
gators into hitherto--unrccorded -r little-recorded 3antu lang-
iages ar dialects, it is arranged n the principles followed
in grammatical recording by the Department of Dantu Studies,
universityy of the Witiwatersrand principles which will be fol-
liowed in the series of publications 3antu Grammatical Archives
t be commenced shortly by the department.

Users of this 'Outline" are exhorted not to treat it
tis final, but only as suggestive. Much vwila-.be discovered in
:lantu languages, which is not even referre.L here, both in
phonology and in grammar,. It is most 'inpJ taint to record all
*ou can discovered Some of v'hat you discover" may prove to be
at variance with the -uggesTiyon made heie. Do not fear to re-
c.rd such things and to poinr out the divergence in classifi-
cation or treatment,

The author ',-po:lo i ies for drawing especially upon the
Zulu and Lamba languages in ll]ub:-atisn; these are the two
which he has analysed-. ii detail:] they are sffficiently diverse
t. present varying pheihomn ii""de

The author w..11, be glad to receive criticisms of this
outline with a view to corrct.ng errors, elaborating points
that are not clear or adding to the information contained here-
in, It must be remembered, however, that it is intended to be
Lut an outline and not an exposition of Comparative Dantu gram-


The Department of Pant. Studies will be glad to ccn-
-'ider for publicati;ion in its :Archived, antu grammars modelled
,.n the principles herein set out:











C N T E NTS


INTRODUCTION: CLASSIFICATION, ETC.. .......... ....... .


CHAPTER:

I.


PHONOLOGY


GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE .......

THE NOUN CLASSES .........

DERIVATION OF NOUN STES ..

THE PRONOUNS ...............

THE QUALIFICATIVES ..........

THE VARIETIES OF THE VERB

THE CONJUGATION OF THE VERB

THE COPULATIVE ..............

THE ADVERB ..................

THE IDEOPHONE .............


XII. CONJUNCTIVE


... q


AND INTERJECTIVE


XIII. MISCELLANEOUS GRAMM.ATICAL PHENOMENA


........ 17.

........ 20 .

..... 27.

. ...... 30 .

......... 33 .

. . . 38.

. ........ .44.

.......... 51.

.......... 53 .

. ....... 56.

......... 58.

............ 60 .


XIV. NOTES ON SYNTAX ............................


II.

III.


IV.
V.

VI.

VII.

VIII.

IX.

X.

XI.


.. . . . . *. .. . . 1- 6 1


64.






1.

INTRODUCTION


(A) FILL IN THE BLANKS'

Reference Name of Language Lamba; oth1.........

Bantu Name of Language, i.e. with prefix
u*uLamba; seSotho) .............

Bantu Name of Tribe, i.e. person in sing. & plur.
umuLamba; moSothol .............
a aLainmba; baSothoj .............

BAntu Name of Country [iLaba;c leSotho] ...............

Geographical Position of Tribe; describe and mark on map
(see (0)) ........... ...... ........... ,,,.. ....
(see (0)) ..... ......... .... ..... ............... .. .

Population of Tribe: ........ .......... ... ... ... ..........
Populat ion of Tr ibe: . . . . . . .

List of Publications, (i) concerning the language, grammars,
dictionaries etc. (ii) using the language, Bible, hymns,
etc. ATTACH THE LIST,


(B) CLASSIFY THE LANGUAGE:
(a) Zone Central; South-castern,.. ..............

(b) Group [Bemba; Sotho] ........... .. ... ..

(c) Clusters emba, Aushi, Lamba, Bisa, Lala, ........
[ Namwemng, Fip; ......
N, Sotho, S. Sotho, Tswana, Kololo ........

(d). L st:of dialectal forms':
True Lamba, Wulima, Se-a-;. Sotho nil] ............






1 Lamba and Southern Sotho are entered here as examples for
guidance.








T'onttativc Clas:sif nation for .uidancel


(1) North-wes ern Zon-.


a)
b)

d)

(ff


Bub',
DuiCla, ':subu,' Nkoui,Baha,
Bengao
Mpongvjwe .Galiva, Omyene.'
Fang ,'t YYind, Bulu.
(di.),X.,e, Duma. Nduru.


Lundd.


(2). N. rthern 6 i_._


Girhi
Kch'jc ... :
N~y.ro (da.zlS.o Nkkole To re., Kerewe,
fi' a) )

Rund'i: Riana',' Ha.
G'ikul: '
Ka b ,., .. .


Karagwe, Ziba,


( )- m Zp e ., .- -o
(a) Ic.ngo 'CGup


( j* )
( I :L ;


' ki). Ko- ng Vioi)
ka.Kno. (dials. Yrmbe, Vili).


(b) (k .)Mbunou.

''('c)' 'Nc'th'-e'a'' n Gongo Group:

( ii) Sc,

* (d.) ,Middie (ongc. GCup;:


Lolo.o (dials, Mongo., *Nkundu),.
T'Tet ela',, Kela.
Tga'La (d ial, Mabale).
Bangi (dial. Dzing),


N.t;umba, jKuba,


(e) Teke (dials, Ifumu, Tic).
(f) Bira,

(g) Bua. *' '


1 It must be emphaesied that this classification is only ten-
tative, and any Infocmation from field workers correcting or
amplifying ic vwill be welcomed,


* (i)
( ii)
(iii))

(iv)
(v)


b'

().
e

. )









(4) Gentral Zone:
(a) Luba-Luunda Group:
(i) Luba, with dialectal varieties: Lulua, Sanga,
Kacnde, Hemba, Luna-Inkcngc, Songe,- etc.


(iij2


Luunda.
Kanycka.


(b) Bemba Group:


(iil
(iv)
(v)
(vi
(vii)


Bemba (dials, Tabwa, Maribwe, Lungu).
Aushi.
Lamba (dials. Wulina, Seta).
Bisa '
Lala.
Namwanga.
Fipa


(c) Tonga Group:
(1 Tonra (dials. Northern and Southern)..
( ii (dials. Lundwe, Mala).
(ill 'Mukurn'i (dial, TWa).


('d) Zamb'esi Gro'up: Subiya, Luyi, 'Leya.

(5) Eastern Zone:
(a) Nyamwezi (dials. Sukuma, Sumbwa, Nyaturu, Galaganza,
Konongo, eto.).


(b)
(c)


Lacustr.ne Group: Kuria, Kwaya.


(d) North-eastern Group:
(i Pkom. -
(ii Taita (dials,. Dabida, Sagala).
(iii Taveta,
S(iv) *"Nikaf (dials. Giryama, Duruma, Digo).
(e) Kilimanjaro Group;
C(i) -haga (dials.. Moshi, Siha,'Meru).
(ii) Pare (dials, Asu, Gweno).
(f) Shambala Group:
(i) Shambala (dial. Bondei).
(ii) Zigula.
(g) East-central Group:
.(i Zaramo' (dials, Kami, Ruguru).
S(i Sgara (dials. Kaguru, etc.)-.
(iii Go go
(iv Irangi,


(h)/. ..








(h) Rufiji Group: Hche, Pc grc, Sangc, Bena, Matumbi.
(i) Makonde (dital. Maviha), Mwcra, Nd nde.
(j) Sutu (dial. Matengo), Panwa.:
(k) Kinga'1 ;

(5a) North-eastern Zone:
(a) Swahili (dials. Lamu, Mvita, Unguja, NIwana).
(b) Tikulu.
(c) Korcir.- (dials. Ngazija, Tzwani). .


5b) East-central Zone:
(a) Nkonde.
(b) Nyasa Group:
(1) Tumbuka (dials. Henga, Kamanga).
( ii) Tonga.


(i Nyanja (dia.ls.;' C'he a, Mang,' ahnj'a, Peta.
(ii Nsenga. "
(iii Sena (diads. NyunFve, Chikunda, Barwe,
(d) Yao (dial, Nrindo).
(e) Makua (dials. Medc, Lomwe), Chwabc.


Tonga).


(6) ou'tlh-eastern: Zone: .
(a) INTuni Group:
(i) Zulu (diaIs.' Qwa6e 'Ftde61 1, "Noni).
(ii) Xhosa (dials. Mpondo, Thcmbu, Mpondomisi,
Bomvana).
(iii) Swazi (dials. Old Lcienu, 'Baa)


(b) Scthc Group?':


(


(i) Nor-hern -(.dials., ..Pedi, Ke.naU, Lyv.d,
S gctc,, MaEfseola).
(ii) Southern
iii) Tswana..(dialBs.-, ,K-atla, RClo.n!, larc,
N Kmatcl Tawaoai, Hurutdi K cna) .
(iv) Kololo.


TdeIbele-

Tiaping,


(c) Venda.


(d) TsonE
( iii)


.a Group:
Ronga.
Tonga (dials. Hlanganu, Jongja, Biia, dwamba).
Tswa (dials. Dzibi,I akwakwe, Hleh;. e, Dzcnga).


) c( We st ea'h -Grdup :


- 1 ,


r:1








(e) Inhambane Group:
(i) Ohopi.
(ii) Tonga,

(6a) o8uth-oentral Zonet
Shona Group:
(i) Western cluster: Nyai, Nambzya, Rozi, Kalanga,
Talahundra, Lilima, Peri.
(ii) Northern luster: Taaara, Shangwe, Gosa, Eudya, Kore-
kore (dials. Tande, Nyongwe, Pfungwe).
(iii) Zezuru luster: Shawasha Harava, Go,.a, Nohwe, Hera,
Njanja, Mbire, Nobvu, Olkwakwa, Zimba, Tsunga.
(iv) Karanga cluster: Duma, Jena, Mhatri Govlera, Ngo)a,
Nyubi.
(v) Eastern cluster: Hungwe, Teie, Manyika (dials.
.Unyama, Karombe funji, Nyamuka, Domba, Nyatwe, Guta,
\Bvumba, Here, Jindwi, Loooa).
(vi) Souh-astern cluster: Ndau, Tonga, Garwe, Danda,
Sha ga.


(7) Western Zone:
(a) (u)Mbundu,
(b) Eastern Group: Mbunda, Luohazi, Nkoya, Mbwela.
(o) Ambo Group: Ndonga, Kwanyanma, Humbe, Nyaneka,
(d) Herero.
(e) Yeye.


(7a) West-oentral Zone:
(a) Lwena (dial, Ohokwe).
(b) Soli.

(O)I....













(0) FILL IN THE, POSITION QOl THE UKGUAGE. ON THE OUT-
LINE MAP.


.1t0


30 '" '- 0


4b .. .. .....-
...... .. .. ............ . .. .... .. ..... .. :.. ....... .. ... ...- .........-j

10 20 30 0
0 23 I .

10o 20 30 40


_ __ __ _1_ I_____







(D) Outstanding Characteristics cf the Bantu Languaees.
(a) Morphological:


(ii


(iv)

(vii)
(vii) .


Inflexicail .with instances cf a lutinatiofn.
Grammat'ical cl'as's enler in place of sex gender.
Con'ofdial agcrr.es:nt, basically i allalliter.ative, in
senten-e structure.
Basic quina.y system of numeration,
High development in the conjugation of the .verb,
with a wealth of verbal derivative forme.,-
The -ideophone,-as a distinct part cf speech.
The .Univevrsal u'se -of the locative.
NTon-existence caf (a,) the ,article., (b) case, and
(c) prepositions.


-That the- Batui llngiag3econstitute :a language family
is revealed by the underlying.unity of :word-roots and
formative elements

(b) Phonetical:
(i) The word-building work of stress (.which is commonly
S.- on- the penultimnote syllable of each word, and
which demands a conjunctive method o f-*rd-
division as the ccrrect one for Bantu).
(ii) The employment of open syllables only.
(iii) A. balanced iiue'vowel-system with three basic vowels.
(iv) The use of intonation both characteristic and sig-
.hif icant, :.


(E) Bibliography of Reference.
Orthography:
"Practical Orthogra~phy cf African Languages",
(Memorandum I cf T i' international Institu'te of:--
African Langda~gs -and *i.utures; 2nd ed, 1950).

Phonetics and Phonologcy_ ...
D. Westermann and. L-,CG.: ard: "Practical Phonetics for
SStud'ents cf Afrtc;.n Lnanguage's" :(Oxford,:, 1.933).
0. Meinhof and No.J van W7armelo: "Inwroeduction to the
S Phncology cf tne 'Bantu Language s" (Setrlln, 1932).
C.M. Doke/...


1 Cf. 0.M. Doke,"Bantu T: (;mii It-, Tnrmiinnclou9X11 Pp. 6-24.


_ __II__ ____~








C.IM. Doke: "The Phonetics of the Zulu Language"
(W'itwatersrand Univ. Press, 1926),'
SC.1.., l4oke: ',, A Cprparative Study in Shona Phonetics"
( ittwatesrsxand Univ. Press, 1931).
4 ..-N-.IJ Qkor l- "The Comparative Phonetics of th.*:Suto-
Ohuana Group of Bantu Languages".

tT6 neti : ,

*K.E;'ILam'ant:'-'The Miusical Accent .T Intonation. -in
the Kong(o, -langdage" (Stcckholm,'1922).
L.E. Arrtds~rng;:' "The Ph-netic and Tonal Stricture of
Kikuyu" (Oxford, 1940).
S .A,. ur scns : "Tonclcgische Schets van het Tarhiluta"
GAntwerp, 1939)..

Grammar:

0.M. Doke: "Text-3ook of Zulu Gra.:.'.r" -(Lone-ans,
rd ed. 1939).
(C'.M. Doke: "Textbook of Lamba Grarimi(ar" ( itwatersrand
Univ. Press, 1938),

(DoQks using the- ethod to a certain extent)'

E.3. Haddon: "IJctes on Sw2ahili Grammar" (mimnegraphed,
Carbridge, 1935).
3.I.C. van Eeden: "Inleiding tot die Studie van Suid-
Sotho" (Stellenbosch, 1941).
J. LcLaren and G.H. Welsh:' "A Xhosa Graliadr. (Long-
mans, 1936).

General : ..
SA. Verner: "-The Language Families of Africa'.1! (Ke.ean
Paul, reprint 1925).
A. Werner: "Introductory Sketch of tbhe-.antu- Lang-
uages!' .(Kegan.Paul, 1919).
.i H.'I Jphnst n;: "A Gomparative Study -of the- 'antu and
,emni-3antu. Languages" (Oxford, 2 vols, ,1919 and 1922).
O,.M. Doke: '"Bantu Linguistic Terminoloy'" (Lngirans,
fi'9 5).


* *








CHAPTER I

.Phonolo y1


I. Vowels: '

(A) CHART-: THE VOWELS AND DESCRIBE THE PRONUNCIATION
OF EACH.,

S )



( ... \ % 3,







.J. .,-


(Examples given for Zulu)

GIVE EXAMPLES ILLUSTRATING EACH OF THE VOWELS.

.(I) How many varieties are'there.of i and u? (Commonly in
.Bahtu. only.one ech, but sore languages, e,g- Sotho,
S Duala, have lowered and raised. Varieties of-each, i.e.
L and u as well).

(2) How many varieties are there 6f"e and o? (Many Bantu
languagess have cl9se and open varieties of .each, ie. e,
and o, )..

(3) Are the varieties of e and 9 significant or are they
due to surrounding phonetic considerations? If the
latter STATE THE RULES FOR USE (e.g. general rule
in Zulu: e and o are close if the next syllable of the
same word contains i or u; but otherwise open, i.e. "
and '; hence no differentiation in writing is needed),


SReference should be made 'to Westermann &'ard: "Practical
Phonetics for Students of African Languages".







10.


(4) Describe whether has a .forward, or back pronunciation
(In Bantu generalTy ttnds "t6 be a back vowel).

(5) Does the language use long and short vowels signifi-
cantly? (In Zulu all penult. vowels are normally long,
therefore it is not necessary to mark the length; but
in Lamba and many other Bantu languages length of vowel
is semantic, determinative of meaning, e.g. arnla or
amaala (nails) and amala (intestines To indT-ate
vowel length either utse a bar over the v.wel or d uble
the vowel.

(6) Does nasalisation of vowels occur? (This is a vtry
rare cccurr(nce in Bantu: if needed use tilde over the
vowel, e.g. e).

(7) Do diphthongs occur? (This is rare in Bantu, but
juxtaposed vowels arc sometimes slurred int- dinhthrngs,
e. w mai in Shona; generally each juxtap s-e vowel is
pronounced separately).

( -) Are there any special vowels to record, e.7g. lax -r neu-
tral vowels, such as phon. *?


(B) Special Vowel Processes:

(1) Elision:

Does elision of vowels occur? State whether it
is final elision (i.e.. elisicn of-the last.vowel Af the
first word cr formative ) ;.r initial elision (.ie.
elisi6n of the.f.irst yowel of the second wvord or fcrma-
tive),

Examples from. Zulu:
Final Elisonh ngifun'imali.' ngifuna + imali (I
want money).
Initial Elision -- inta6azinduna ( inta6a + izinduna
(Captoin ':;hill), -
STATE ,OQOURRENOES -OF -ELISION.

(?) Ooalescence-;
Does coalescence .f vowels :ccur? The first of
a pair of vowels to coalesce is practically always a
primary vowel, i..e. _.,a.o-r.. .-.
The common formed are as follows:
(i)/. .





11i


(i) a + a = a, a + 1 e, a + u = o.
STATE THE RULES:
e.g. in Zulu, with possessive concords, conjunctive
fcrmative, etc., cf. wethu (= wa- + ithu), nomuntu
(- na- 4 umuntu); in Lamba, .wT-h flue-- speech, running
word together, of, twafono-muntu (- twa*ona + umuntu).
NOTE the potentiality of secondary a, e and o; these
are strong vowels and.in Zulu can never be eTided, e.g.
loc. < a6antu is ku6antu, but loo. of a6ethu, with secon-
dary a is kwa6ethu.

(ii) u + a -,wa, u + e = we, u + i wi, etc.
i a + e e = y, 1 + o etc.
STATE THE RULES:
e.g. in Lamba with concords u- and i- (a- generally
lapses) before vowel stems; cf. namwit7 (- na 4 mu
ita, I called him)

(3) Substitution:
Does substitution of vowels occur?
In some Bantu languages "substitution of e" takes the
place cf coalescence, as in Lamba with conjunctive na-,
e.g. newantu (= na- + atantu), cr in Manyika dialectof
Shona This process is rare.



II. Consonants-:

(A) MAKE OUT A CHART OF PLAIN CONSONANTS.
The following outline, with phonetic symbols only, marks the
more usual consonants found in Bantu languages :


1 For definitions of terms used, consult Doke, "Bantu Linguistic
Terminclogy" and Westermann & Ward, "Practical phonetios", pp.
46-48. .






'1 2.


L-voWrt-J. lu


Den-'l ..Iveo- i.Pala to- latal[ Velar. _lot-
la. .Aivcol l 01- tal

,i( .. ni, /k kh ? |
-.i i.
'_* -1-,.
.*, 'I' : 1


i .. .





_ 7__ 7 -. I____ ___
S. 1 i
'1
w ,-


; I z t ic.k k>x

'__1._ 1': I ___i _L~_c_ L -
] ^ "1 ) "^(Iv) "


1 IP.A. symbols ie ( nd /3 respectively.
() marks alternative ptvc rionsl


A DESORIPT.IO: OF' ECH SO 9Sn; :7 ITH EXA-M LES 0s ITS USE ::
WORDS SHOULD BE GIVE.

(1) Explosive coisoi,'nis y be plain unvoiced (p, t, k), as-
pirated (ph, th. k.; e1ec'ted (p, t', k') or voice. (b,
d, ). ie'cted cc;nsonants are seldom Tifferentiated in
writing from ch- plain -invoiced varieties, but should be
recorded in -ohonetiLc drcription. In some Bantu
languages it is es--en a1-. to distin-uish the aspirated
from the unapi:.':ted 'ao.:n.. (e.g. Zulu: tu6a, soften,
thu6a, become A:v.: k).
Re palatal '-X',xproives, where-there is no aspirat-ed
form the digr:Lph.. ch_ ;; soGonetimes used for '; Xho-ea
Utses and' t-h- p,":i'^ ,'vl 7, thoCgh -che: pronunciation
is more usu. Ljy ; L, S.. t i,t e i.e, cc, cCh. For ,
simple j cr r- 'it.: s :, is used,
(2 )/ ....


''I





13.


(2) Implosive consonants, where they: occur, should be indi-
cated by the symbols provided, viz, and (d. They are
often :semant-ically- distinct from b a~d d (.. g. Shona:
bara, write-.,-hara, give, birth; dura,. b expensive, dura,
co nfe ).: ; .

(3) Of the nasal consonants m is represented by m before f
and V; xr is -comrmnly reprc-sented by ny, though there are
languages-, e-.g. Lamba, where ny (phon. nj) must be dis-
tinguished frcm j), in which case ny is used (ct. inYa,
yes, and inya, eYcreting).._ Where- has to be disting-
uishted fro-m.I, the synbcl ,t should be used Ithis is
preferable to, n or ng' ubed, in some languages] ; but
when there is no sirnifTcant difference (as in Zulu), ng
maybe used for either or both pronunciations.

(4) Of the fricatives, J and i are ormmcnly used in Bantu in-
stead of the phnetTc symFols. and ; fh and vh are
sometimes substituted,,'and-O f r the voioe- form; b (as
in BembaY is sometimes used for the latter if it is not
significantly distinct from explosive b. For J and ,
sh and zh are sometimes used as in Shrna, y anff zy as
T' feasTible in Ila; for jr Lamba uses s,.before i and s4
elsewhere, while Xhosa useE ,f; so:ne orthQ graphics use s
and fr the pair. Local conditions must be taken into
account in deciding, For x various symbols are used:
in Xhosa, h in Zulu, g in N. Sctho, Xclsewhere. Of
fare occurrence is.e., and it is sometimes indicated by
For h .and its Voiced form r Zulu uses h and hh;
n Shonn, Wt only the:,voiQed form occurs, h is used to
indicate it,

(5) Lateral fricatives, occurring' in South-eattern Bantu
are indicated by hl (for ), tl (for t-), tlh (for t h)
and..dl (for. ). '
(6) Laterals may be of two types: clear 1, for which 1 is
used, and the flapped lateral, The latter (phon,Y-) is
usually a member of the 1-phoneme and is therefore-1epre-
sented by 1. When;, however, it belongs to the r-phoneme
(as in ShoEa), it is represented by r, But its occur-
rence should be recorded in a phonetTcF.urvey.

(7) Note that pf and by have bilabial commencement, and that
and d3 differ materially from c and j, The phonetic
S'is variously represented by c, ch tsh, t9, and d_ by
rand dt.- Here again- local circumstances must dec- e
the oroFEography used.

(') Note that 'the semi-vowel J iE generally represented in
Bantu Arthographies by .y.






14.


()" Specjial Con'enant,-:
Certain lanm-uace hav_' sp)ecial-rT- intricate
u sCunds' n.t ca.tLtred f:.r in the! above chart.. Such
should be carefully described arnd illu-trated. Here
are soume

(1) 011-cks, found .nly. in the South-eastern. Z ne,
Sand derived fro!. Bushmran and H., ttentot.
('2) Velar-stop impli c iv.cs, :s. .'ccurr-inn! in Ulc-be
and certain lan,'ua--?- .f: t-he north-v:.estern :Z ne,
e, k. p and .
(3) Velar-stop explosive, ;.f f:.und in S -uthrn-Sth> ,
written 1 but with a pronunciation approxim:atine
t .tha.t of d.
(4) Labialised fricatives, as occurring in Srhna and
certain lan.-iia;res ,f the Eastern and Sduth-eastern
zones written in Shonra j and t. and ?,
elsewhere-as btL.

(5) Retroflex c:.ns nantr, as :ccurrin._- in Venda anr
'Herer. t, _.,, ; present orth --raphy in Venda
usese a drhacFitTc to distiic-uish them, c .. t, d,

(6) Double .r loni- consonante, as occ'rrin., in Gnoa,
e,.' okusa. ( to- .rin d), okussa (to -ut down);
okluta Tto dismise) okutta (t? kill).
(7) Velaried cons ,nantr occur in the Shna~1 rour (f.,
Doke: "A Co mparative Study.-in. Sh.na Phonetice")
(8) Palatalised consnanrts, ic. cons nants followed
by palatal 'lide, e.g. py, t, myy', fy,-etc., -ccur
particularly in Central Bantu.


(0) Special. Consonantal Processee :
(1). Nasalisation; SET OUT T.HE 'RULIS FOR :.3nL
ASSIMILATION AND NASAL CHANGE EFFECTED SY
THE INFLUENCE O1F THE iHLORGANIO NASAL UPO
INITIAL PHONES, S These occur generally in 3antu
classes 9 and 10 (e.. ..Lamba,.--v 1:.>nd, indolo,
aperture < -Ilo; + t > rb, irLbej'a, mouse
< -Pea) ; o me times w Tth subjectiva and _,-
.jectTvaJ .concord.s .f the first persE,; singilar, as
in Lamba (e. e ,one, l.et. :-:e sc.e .%,ona, see);
also rarely witth the reflexive nrefix, as in
Sotho (e.-. Lo.na, see, ho-ipona, to see oneself).
(2)/ ....





15.

(2) Palatalisationl: found particularly in the South-
eastern Zone, where in certain circumstances (e.g.
in Zulu noun diminutive, passive and locative for-
mations) palatal ccnsnants replace others (e.g.
> I > .tsh, ph > sh, m > ny -. Z 'ulu) Pala-.
talisation also occurs in Tetela (Ccngo Zone). If
'-.this occurs, rules should be set (.ut and examples
,g-iven.

(3) Vocalisation2: found particularly in the Shona
Group, where in the formattin Cf Class 5 nouns,
voiokd cnononants -replace unvoiced (e.~g. 6aqga,
Sknift

:occurs.,- rules should be set ut and examples given.

(4) Velarisation3: fcunc' particularly in the Shona
Group; but sporadically. ccurring elsewhere; the
substitution of a velar sound in certain processes
S(cf. in Sothor where nrgoana, ph. t7yana, is derived
from mu 4 ana-. If this occurs,' rules should be
set out and examples ziven.


III. Stress.

SET OUT THE RULES FOR WORD-STRESS AND SENTENCE
STRESS. Generally word-stress is on the penultimate syllable,
as in Swahili, vwapagzi; in N-uni this is generally accom-
panied by a lon,- vowel, e.g. Zulu, a6af :na. In some areas
stress is retained o.n the root syllable, as in Ganda yagala
<' yga. Stress in relation to the addition of suffixes and
enclitics should be noted.

IV. Tone.
THIS SUBJECT NEEDS CAREFUL ATTENTION.
Many Bantu languages have a three-tone system, e.g. Shona,
Nyanja, Ila, Demba, in which the changes are run:' between mi-
level, high-level and low-level tones. Some, such as Ngombe,
Nkundu, Kele, have only two of those tones significant, and
in these they are very significant, particularly in disting-
uishing verb tenses. Some Bantu languages, such as Nguni
and Kongo have a much more complicated range of tones with
nine pitches and rising and falling types.
THE INCIDENCE OF TONE SHOULD DE CAREFULLY DES-
CRIBED BUT ONLY RECORDED WHERE IT IS SIGNIFICANT (e. .
Zulu 6na, see; 6n, they),


1 Of. Doke: "Text Bcok f Zulu Grammar", 3rd ed. p.21.
2 Cf. Doke: "Comparative Study in Shona Phonetics", pp. 125-131.
3 Of. Doke: idem. pn. 109-124.










V, ord-division.

C ONOJUNCTIVE~. 'ORD-DIVISIONI. APIES TO LL S ANTU
LANGUAGES. The full implications' cf this may he studied
in "Dantu Lingruistic Terminology"; meanwhile the foll:.-
Sing points' might ,lbe noted:

(1) All. prefixe- and conco.ras .iuEt he j-in'ed-t: their
r,,.pe-ctiy words: th-e posseeive cncords wva-, etc.
aren't prepositions and cannot -stand alone; the suc-
jectival concords, representin- 1s't, 2nd & 3rd peresne
and al- olassese, are not pr:noun-s, and eust he j ined
to. the predicative, whether verh .or- c-pulative.

S-(2) 'All verbal auxiliaries., whether prefixal -r infixal
form part o'f 'the verb, Def'icient verbs are, of
course, separate words .

(3) All suffixes to verbs or nouns and all enclitics r::uEt
be joined up,

(4) Compound nouns should be joined.

(5) .Opticnal elis.ions.. or coa.lcs.dcences-, inv.olvin-' the tele-
s'oopTin of. .two cr more penarate words, phcul not nor-
mally b' carried out in" WTit'in-, :ut left to the fluent
reader,





17.

CHAPTER II

Grarinat ical .Structure


(1) Three aspects to b(, tbrne in mind:


(i Correct vwrcrd-divisicn.
(ii The work which each word does in the sentence.
(iii The frrm assumed by the word.-

SGIVE EXAMPLES OF SENTEIIOES SHEW'I7~TG (1)". NORMAL
ORDER, AND (2) COTOCORDIAL AGREEMENT.


7WORD-


(2) There arc, tw'.typresof "anatical- forms:.D (i) Parts of
Speech, and('i"i) Formatives4. art-s of--peech constitute
coTiplete words, e.g. in Zulu -hle is ,nly. a root (of the ad-
jective for 'r.od" ;., Lut. zinhl.. with-.the ccncord attached,
in a word by itself and opnstitute-s a "part of speech". Care
imus't .be exercised in relucin word' grrups.

(3) The Parts of Sp eech: -The followingg should cover all Dantu
require e ts: s:

I. Substantive'~:


(a) Noun (divided into classes).
P(r), Pron'un (i 'Absolute-.
(. ii Demons-trative,
iii Quantitative.
(iv ual if icative.
(v Relative (found


in Venda).


II.


u al ifi c at i ve
a n adjective.
b Relative,


e) Invariablde:(found in S
umrtie


waihili).


ai Verb.
b Opulative. .

IV, De.crintive- -. *
(a) Adiverb.
(b) I(eophone.;, ;
V.V Conjunctive.
VI. Interjectlve,


(4)/...





I III. 'Predioatieve:-








(4) Formatives:

1. Roct.
2. Stem.
3. Prefix,
4. Concord.


(5) Definitions:
(a) The Main Parts of Speech:
according to the work done
defined as follows:--


Suffix..
Verbal Auxiliary.
Enclitic.
Proclitic.


These are six, classified
in the sentence. They are


1. Substantive -- a word signifying anything con-
crete- or abstract or .any concept.
2. ~alif icative --a word which qualifies a sub-
etantive.
3e Predicative --a word which 'sir.ifies an.action
connected withi a substantive or- the state in
which a substantive is.
4. Descriptive -- a word which describes a qualifi-
cative, predicative, or other descriptive.
S~' C. onjunctive -- a word which introduces '-r links
up sentences.
6. Interjective -- an isolated word which has no
grammatical or concordial bearin- upon the rest
of the sentence.

(b) The Ultimate parts of -Speech: Examination of the main
parts of speech adcord~in to. th; form in whiqh they
appear results in siub-division,' .ivine' twelveLultimate
parts of speech.

Note: Locatives of nouns and pronouns are adverts;
vocatives are interjectives, and "-enitives" are .pos-
sessive qualificatives. Dantu, -therefore, has no
"oase. ,

1. Noun -- a word which signifies the name -f any-
hing .cc(cqrete cr abstract.
2. Pronoun -- a word which signifies anything con-
crete or abstract without bein- its .name.
3. Adjective -- a word which qualifies a substantive,
and is brought into concordial *agreement there-
with by the adjectival oonord,
4. Relative -- a word which qualifies a substantive,
and is introduced by a relative concord.
5. Enumerative -- a word which qualifies a substan-
tive, and is brought into con'cordial agreement
therewith by the enumerative c nccrd,
Tb6.v hs bn d f.
I The "invariable" has been omitted from this,.








6. ossesslive a w-ord. which qualifies a substantive,
and is broui'ht into concordial agreement therewith
by the nposessiive concord,
7. Verb -- a word which-si nifics an action connected
with a substantive ,r the state in which a Eubstan-
t ive is, and is brought -into concordial agreement
therewith by the. subjectival concord (this defi-
nition excludes imperatives and infinitives-; -the
former are inttrjectives, the latter nouns),
$,. 0ipulative -- a word which doe(.s the work of a predi-
cative, n nd Which -is farmed L-d.irTtly r from some .oth-er
part of spee:dh by modification .of prefix or concord
or by Bome ,thor inflexion.
9. Adverb -- a word which c.scribes a qualificativei
prE rc'ative or other advert with respect to manner.,
place or timi-e.
10, Ideophnc.ne- ( word, often onomatopoeic, which- des-
crLbes a predicative, qualificative cr adverb in
respect t -'mnanner, colOur, sound, smell, action,
state or intensity,
11. Conjunctive (see under-.(1)),
12. Interijct ive ; (see under (1)) "

(c) Formatives:

1. Roots ar -ultimate f rr-s, generally speakin immu-
table, except in extreme cases of nhonetic mutation
as in palat-alisation; e,. thand-, -Intu, -thi (in
Zulu).
2. Stems are ths re nortionp of words,' hcrn of prefixes
or conccrds, e.:-. tharnda, -thandile. Stem i' bu.t a
relative term; e,,o, -thandana is the Reciprocal.
Stem when considering. the ful. word siyathandana.
3. Prefixes are. compounded with noun-stems to form
nouns, and vary witY the classes; th6y also form
copulatives and adverbs.
4. ConcordsF arc, .f seven"ftypes -- roncninal, adjecti-
val, relative, enumerative, possessive, subjectiVal
and objectival. (They murt be rigorously distin:-
uished from pronoun,).
5. Suffixes arc'used tr form diminutives, feminine and
au.mentatives .f nouns, adjectives and relatives;
the different derivatives of verbs; locatives from
nouns; and to express negative ideas, etc.
6, -Verbal Auxiliaries are' employed- in the inflexion.of
verbs tc formr'tenser, implications, &c., and are
usually infixes,
7. Enclitics are used tc modify'-erbal ideas, and to ex-
press TInter'rogatives,
g. Tht Con unctive Formative, a Prcclitic, is used in
1oininz words, and was once probably a separate word
itself.






20.


CHAPTER III

The Noun Classes

I.'' TABULATE THE' TOUN-PREFIXES OF YOUR LAT!GUAGE I TE7
/BLANK. LEFT" ON THE FOLLOWING -UR-BATU COLPARATIVE
TABLE, SEPARiTINIG SITGULARS AlTD PLURALS IRTO DIFFER-
ENT CLASSES, -


- UR-BANTU

1 miu-
la, -
2. -a-
2a. ya-
3. mu-
4. m i-
5. 11-
6, ma-
7. ki-
8. 1 1-
9, ni-
10. li-ni-
11. lu-
12. tu-
13. ka-
14.. tu-
15. ku-
15a, ku-
16.' pa-
17. ku-
18. mu-
19. pi-
20. u":u-
21. 'a-
22. \-,



II. SET.


GANDA:" LAMBA AH ILI


omu-

aba- .
ba-
o 'mu-
emi-
eri-
am .a-
eki-
ebi-
eN-
eN-(zi)
olu-
otu-
aka- .
,obu-
oku-
oku-
wa-
ku-
mu-


umu-
Unl --
awa-
ta-


ili-








utu-
iui- *.
11 .

ic i-.
ifi- f*
iN-
iN-(si)
u-lu.-




uku-


pa-
ku-
mu-


SHONA


TO BFILLE~ ::


-(u)mu-

wa- (a)i a-
wa- ;a-
(u) mu-
mi- (i)i-
ji- (i)ri-
ma- (a) na-
ki- (i)ci- .
vi- (i) ;i-

N-(zi) (i) ^i-(dzi)
u- (u)ru-
(u-)tu-
(a)ka-
(u) u-
ku- 1(u)ku-


(pa-)
(ku-)
(mu-)


pa-
ku-
Si)u-
( i)q.i


o gu-
aga-


zi-


OUT -A FULL CONCORD TABLE FOR ALL N:OUNT CLASSES


giving the concords. for each part of speech d-pendent upon
the noun, as follows:








Pronominalll


Rell


21.


Enum.


Pose.


Sub j
2


Obj.1


1. wo-, yd', 6m- o- mu- wa- u- m-
2. 60- a6a- :a6a- 6aL 6a-- 6a- 6a-
3. wo- om- o- ml- wa- u- wu-.
4. .yo.- emi- e- mi- ya- i- yi-
5. lo- eli- eli- li- ia- li- 11-

6. o- ama- a- ma- a- a- wa-
7. so- esi- esi- si- sa- si- si-
8. zo- ezi- ezi- zi- za- zi- zi-
9. yo- en- e- 1- ya-: i- yi-
10. o- ezin- -ezi- zi- za- zi- zi-
11. lo- olu- olu- lu- lwa- lu- lu-
12.
13.
14. 6o- o6u- 0o6d- J 6u- 6a- 6u- 6u-
15. ko- oku- -oku k{i- kwa- ku- ku-
16.
17.

19.
20.
21.
22.


Nb. (1) 0ls, la-& 2a have the same concords as 01s. 1
tively, and 01.15a has the' same concord as 01.15'
(2) Examples are- given froi Zulu for guidance.


& 2-respeo-


III. TABULATE THE. NOUN CLASSES (FOR- LOCAL USE). BRACKETING
SINGULAR AND PLURAL INTO A SINGLE .CLASS. -Mark these
class numbers with Roman figures, those of the previous indi-
vidual numbering with Arabic figures In Zulu the arrange-
ment, as aooepted for Nguni, is as follows; 01.1. urn a6a;

la./...

1 There are also concords for the 1st & 2nd persons for each of
these.
2 As used in plain predication or in an indicative present tense
positive.


Adj.







Ia, u o; C0 II. um iL.i; 01.III. ill ama; I1. IV.
isi -in-izi VI ulu izi Cn; C. VII.
u6u; Ol.VIII.: ku.
In Ganda the arrangement is approximately1 as follows:
01.1. omu aba; la.- ba; 01.II. omu erni; 1. III.
en en; 01.IV, eki ebi; 01r.V, eri a.a 01. V ol -
en; 01,VII. aka cbu2; Cl.VIII. '- ; 1.IX. a ku -
mu; 01CX. ogu aga,
In Sw-ahili the hitherto accepted order is as follo~e:
01.I. m wa; la -- wa; 1,. i; 01.1II. n n;
C1.IV. ki vi; 01.V, ji ma; 'C0VI. u n; 01.VII.
pa ku mu'; C1VIII. ku.

IV. GIVE A DETAILED TREATMENT OF.EACH CLASS IN TURN, statingo
variant forms.cf prefix, due to phonetic coneidcrati-ns,
such as the iiumber of syllables in the ster., initial con-
sonant (or V.owel) cf the stem, etc. GIVE PLENTIFUL EX-
AMPLES OF NOUNS FOR EACH CLASS.
CAREFULLY RECORD ANY EXCEPTIONaIL FORL.ATIONS CR
EXCEPTIONAL PLURALS e.g. in Sotho, Class I is Im--a
(motho, batho people) but a few words g~o mo--ma (m-:orena,
marena, chiefs) ; in Zulu Class V is in Tzin Tnduna,
izinduna, captains) but a few words go in a7:a 7ink i,
amakhosT, chief s),

CAREFUL NOTE SHOULD BE TAKEN OF THE FOR:. CF
NOUN PREFIX whether monosyllable (e.:. : u-) or disylla&ic
(e.g. umu-) and the circumstances under which an initial
vowel may be elided. Note that Shona, for instance, while
using monosyllabic prefixes, has a latent initial voel (e.
g. (u)mu-) which exerts a certain influence on preccdinZ
vowels (e, p6os, wa- muntu becomes wonuntu by coalee-
cence wii thte' latenT ini-ial-).
WATCH SHOULD BE KEPT FOR THE USE OF FREPRE-
FIXES. Lambaas, diFSllabic prefixes normally, "ut if a
definitive prefix is added to a word retaining its orefix,
both ultimatet prvfixesBare shorn of initial v-rele; for
instance the diminutive"of umutwi (head) is either akatri
(by substitution -f aka- for unu-) or kar.utwi (by super-
addition of nreprefix ka-), in-This way clear distinction
is made betwccn this and the diminutive of ukutwi (ear),
which might be either akatwi or kakutri,
S Here follow certain remarks on'the classes, which may
S*e'of guidance;.: the Ur-Bantu numbering is followed for
S"co6mparative purposes, Classes..

French & English 2 inoludi-pn words", aka--otu.
3 including words oku amra,





23.


Clar~es 1 and 2 practically -always -c.. toether as sing-
ular: and plural. rt spectively. Typically pcrro.nal;: though
-soume lan7uaEcs include in this :class all livih "animals, e. .
Ila-Tonga of th- C0ntral Zone, munyama (animal) banyama Pre-
fix ,of Class 1 varies: umu-, urn-, u-, -, m- and even un-
(th'e -last in scattered areas S.V OCmer-ens, west of. Lake
Tanganyika and Western Shona). S-PEIAL .PHONETIC FORCES SHOULD
BE ;'ATOHED, e.g.. in S rtho n;:.,ana mo + -ana. y velarisation
(p. lbana a ba + ana). Prefix cf laass 2.varies: a6a-, aba-,
ba -, aa, a,.wa-,-, ,, 4wth differn-t languages,. ,
0lass'es la and 2a ar, -.e~bltrdinate, in that, while their
ncun. prefikxe differ frcom- those of ClasOees.l 'and 2 respec-
tively, all the concords are precisely the sam- as those for
Cls. 1 and 2. Usuallynno prefix appears in 'C1ass la (e. .
Sctho -ntate Lamba tSta, Shona 6a6a, father), though in IT uni
the -prefix u- is usede. z7. -u6a6a), In'Class 2a the prefix
is always monosyllabic (e.g. Zulu e-, Sotho bo-, Lamba 9a,
Swahili w va).
Th6se -classes contain principally (a) Kinship ter):s,
() -Proner 1nam-s, (6) Ifhp:,.tr-d ter:.-s, (d) Names of animals and
other personifications, (e) the interroative noun meaning-
"who" (e. Zulu'ubani ..o6ani; LamSla nani, *anani cr- ani;
Soth, manr_ Lbomangy
Nb. Detail!s'regardih- these classes may be found in Doke,
"The Siinificancc of Class la of Bantu Nouns'" in Festschrift
MIchpof, 1927 .

Classes 3 and 4' netally t- tether ae-inrular and
plural respect tively-'.' Comnnmnly. ocntain numbers of names of
trees, in S.E. Bantu the'-narmes ,of :rivers, in certain areas a
number of names .f parts of the ody, 'abstract terms in Swa-
.hili, Duala, Her(ro, Personal names must be watched for as
som ,ettirm's a Olass 1 personal noun unsuppectedly has a plural
in Class 4 (e.. Zulu umhlo6o, friend, imihlo b', and many com-
pounds such as ur.jlindankosT, chief. s guard imilindankosi).
The prefix of. Class 3 is almost always the sase as that af
Class 1, but. it must: be noticed that tht concordss of the two
classes do not always tally (.of. Concord Table); for in-
stance, :An Zulu 01.1r. .bso.ute pronoun is yena, C1.3. wona,
01.1. objectival concord is mc--, 01.3 vu-; -n 'Laiba 01.1 ad-
jectival co-ncord is .umu-, COl.. u-, OC.l subjectival concord
,i a-, 01.3 3-, 0l,1.--objectival concord is mu-, 01.3. u, 01.
1. quarititatTve -'ka (he alone) corresnonde T 01.3. we. ka (it
alone )
0lass :4 -prefixes vary: imi-, mi-, e- .


Class 5/...






24.


Class 5 (plural in 6). This is a v ry i.::.iscilan u
-0olaas, bIit contains' rany amries. offruits ai-d-o.jectvc '-ich
inL in~pairs; it is &uU. tntativel.in Shna.; asic -D-.fix
is -i-L, whi6h..causes .intricate. chan.;:- in .:.any lan -aes.
- THE~ RULES- FOR THE -VARYIUG .-R.EFIX FOR. SHOULD E
CAREFULLY--RECORDEB...-FOR YOUR LANGUAGE-.. In Sha, .
instance, .there is tht .phcno-.cenn of-Vocaliratir n -y ,i.-.
an ufnvoiced initial' consonant of the ste.- hec;.uet.-vYiced
i iis'etaHd ,fo aenurnu:uiti a definite nrefix (,--. _'a. .attle-
k aal,: pl,'.rMatao:a;-' 6ofu, lind nerson,+pl. a3 ;. .: ,.
pl. iakore).' Swihil.l hEs.n. prefix ordinarily, -ut as-
sulmep j L.efcre v-.wels r-nd j i- htefcre moncrylla'ic rte.e
(e. kashla, t- pl- akasha; -la 1- 4 a ...7 c affair ,
Spl'. mamn b; -i e Bstone, p :_a,;,e'. "- Lat )ca has n -.-1-l re-
fix lonE i-, tut before vov-.ls and'-nasal c;..our.a.-- li-
('exB. TIsah, .eg W; ilins', ili- 4- >ins, eye, ?1, _____
ili pan wave), Xhos a.uss ili-' for.e m t.-.y1 ic
F7 r, ut: 'n, i- Lefoe 'allt*o thers (exs. -ilitye,'tston ;
izulu,- sky). --. *
Cl0ss 6 acts: (i).as ordinary plural for several
';tc c lasscs, particularly 5 9,-11, 14 and 15a; i as
lualia tanturi, indication liquids atnd so:,:e. sctr'actir-.E
uaaiI n i__,_ _t n-
,, ," vater 1 Zulu- ana-zi,. Sotho -ete i, La::-.a R:enCa, ?,-.-
....1-.- i mali-).; fili) as-quant-itative plural (e.:-.*St.hq nu,
shee, pl. linku, quant, )1. .anku, a herd of' hee; .
.. .1. saeb antelope, sin ., and pi., lut a:,.ac le::c 1 a
1t uper 'of .satle).
Classes 7 and 8: material oLjcts, *in-tru.-ents,-
There is. treat varTety of -orcfix forT iin each of these
cl 'l;sBees, duC to s;und-shiftin,- (e. -.-Z.uu ii ii, 3-th
Sne li, cla chi shi, Koni-o ki y,', Iyanja chi z,
T" .v-zi ki -- fT). OTE SHOULD BE"- :DE OF A.Y
OECOIAL GU.'GJFICAES OF THESE '-OLASS33 -.3. AS
.. ._i.: TATIVE, Ii'~TDIATIVE OF' LANGUAGE- OR RaCIL "-..--C-
TERISTIOS.-' '
S.'-, OlseS' 9and 10.1. These' are.. usually asrociated to-
,gether-, 10 be in the-com.-.mn plural of 9; t it i' al-: us-e
.; commonly 'as plural of 11.. .Tlhes classes .contain a lar,^
ntimber of names i:f animals; also -any.characteristic L-
...jects.,'.e,... house hunger, path, rain. They are tf r:.4-
.:. the nasal c-lase.st; THE LAr'S OF i SALISil.IO (SEE -E.
I) .IIU.ST, BE OAREFULLY- WORKED -OUT... In: Sotho .the nasal
,consonant itself .only appears before. ron.syllatic ster:e,
; othe.r.FSie rnasal. 'infl.-nce", only is see! n on 'the' -irtial of
the sten (en. pono <"v,. bona). In Zulu the prefixes of
the two classes differ (. ,-. C1.9- in-,- 1.l10 izirr-).
Similarly in Sotho (e.', 01.9', i-1, 01.10c. li:-. ...: y

hre "" repr nts nasal i.fluenc
...,herc "IT" represents nasal influence.






25.

in Bantu, however, the prefixes of the two classes are iden-
tical, but the concrds vastly different (e.g. Lamba inama
i-kulu bir ahirial inaina isikulu, b$i animal; Shona huku
yeu, our foWl, huku drzcdu, our fwls) .1 Xhosa contracts
i' zTn- toiin-. -. v

O'laes 11: This class has,developed; the qsicnifioca ce of
-lonr object,. -SEE HOw IY. hT'UUiS IN THIS CLASS -INDI-
CAT'ING LONG OBJECTS; YOU. CIAN : COLLECT., The normal plural
is .01.10, but .'somc.w(rds. .f Cl1,11 have no plural, others take
pltr.l.-1 -in -01.6. Southern Sothb haj. lost this class,.rperging
its members vrith 01.5' ( .. le.role dust :-T swanrr- and
Zulu uluthuli bcin_- still in C1.11). Swahili has merged
wcrdn of-. ~lase 11 and 14 nto. a single indistinguishable
clae; thHt "in tvhy Fomne words (li-k. u.devu, originally ludevu,
with plural .ndevu) have plural in Class 10, while- o others (1 iTc
ureTu, t rir-"in"lly 'urefu).':have no plural.
Clasnes 12 and .13 enenrally indicate the" diminutive in
C.entralJ, UNorthern, etc.. zones., 12 beings the plural f 13..
Class 14 is sometimes used instead cf 12 to indicate a di-nin-
utive plural; the dialects of Shona illustrate this -(e. t,
diminutivese in Zezuru, Manyika and s.mni Karanga dialects
ka tu,- ITdau ka hu, Korekore ka o'u; whi'e -the ^ihari
nale'o of I-.ran-a uses s1i C' u, e.. -l 19. &. 14) These
classes were not .originally :dlinutive (e.g. in Lamba akasuta,
sun; akat-emo, axe)
Class 14. Original words in this class i'n some Bantu
lan-rua.ges, t.e a plural in Clas.s,6 (e.,:. Lamba uuta, bow,
amata).' Later-develo ed sini'f.icanoes have been: -(i) ab-
stract (wi'thE-nc, plural), ( ii,) collective (when some lainuazes
have plural's in 0.1.6) and (-iii) diminutive plural '(see pre-
vidus...classpe 's12 & 13). Exaples of '(i). "rea'tneess :. Zulu
ubukhulu, ,So-thc;' tbbholo .L -~mba- utukulu, Swahili ukuu, Shona
jukuru. Exaprl'e-f .(ii) '"be.r -: Zula-utsht~alqT(i.e. u6u +
ala), Sth "oala. (i.e.. b + ala) Lata ubwalwa -Shona b b ga
Examples -,f ( 7 hari-,Talcct *of Shona,' Za, little child,
biana; gimbudzi, small' oat, .umb.udzi.

Class 15 consists of verb infinitives used as nouns,
Note that there may be negative forms and forms with objective
concord or attribute, also derivatives (e.g. Zulu ukuthanda,
love; neg. ukungathandi, dislike; recipe. ukuthandana,
mutual love).
alass 15a is a remnant class for "parts of the body",
occurring in several Dantu lan-,uages. Concords as for Class
15. Plural in Class 6, Found in Herero, Central and Northern
3antu. Lamba has only four wo-rds: ukutoko, -armn- arnaeoke;
ukulu, leK; ukutwi, car; -ukvapa, a-rm-pit. Some uperT-m-
OCse"' 01. prefix to form the plural (e.g, Nyanja kutu,* ear,
makutu),
L.S' laeses 16/....
l,+h,, o "- --,-' 1 (.






26C

". .lanes 1. 1,7 and 1u. T-es arr Licativ. CleseF
found in. central, Njrtl.r .n.a .sE:.:e EaEt rn vantu lan ar E.
Not.e .that the iprefixe ':-re- always itonisyllaIc .th~ are- pre-
prrfixce, i.e prefixed t stC.'s already lhavin nrixets <.
,-. Lsaut lansi, >elA;' pa 4 insi orf 01.9; 3ul '.
pa + iulu -f 01.5; natrti, on th ,heac tl- t f i-
head =pa + umutw i.,- 0 In :-any lantu la rua aE, -
addition to an an adv:rial uc., t-hcLE looat -ivcts av' a tr ut
nou-n u"e co-.nandin entenec.c conc Ird (E. in La::

arI-Ts. c v, -veryw:here in thb.i house it, is car().

ITOTE- OARE' FULLY .TH' D.IFFERETIAL II ''lIl- S 'O-
THE THREE PREFTXES. In- Fm.,c area pa- ini.cate r eEt at,
o n, und.r and nio tion t. a nd from near pace; u- inc-
cat.t r.st at, on, undcir and.-J tion to and .fro1 a r-latfvc-
ly distant place; Iu- indicate rett v'thin -r e"circ.in-,
:otion inwards or -utvardr, '"In ',thr arcas thc irnifi-
cancFes arc': Pi.briwh'at different; care rup.t te take i-n n-
vAn tin Uatirn ,

0- ssr '19- i' a rarr diminut-ive classp fund in -7orth-
wV'c t(ri *,.." .n:,-n :Zonel,- r.hrr it occurs- as f i in .To --
i- in .Duala, vi Ain (dii) lCe 4-i- iruE c ; trange-y Occu-r-
Fin-" in th Il har.i dial\:ct of S---'ho na. -e..-, Lan' -a _e-'
dialects which us, thick clarp do not u-t CnlFt I, as a
dim, inutive,

Olasses 20. 2,1 ,and 22: These' -C- au-..untative rr
--dero.'at:o'r clas (b' found in 7Trther.- Dntu, e.,. in-. ana,
S6urittu, hu ne pcrn', pl. alantu, : IinVeonda .1. 2C is i.'i
utivc, e-'. kuho.thi, little or. (of,. vothi/ dt .). Jasc
S22 J; regular forr:. In iGisu ,oukk, 'int- fl Jl.20.) sF.a as
+ .. plu-.ral ,;i:.iJok (l. 22) ,-Tic sEol:s virtually nay
r.- r-i-cd i- th 01,44, In. Shi ,na' au.- --ctative preFix .zi
01. 22) 'rn concord in ri- (0.5). '







k s ,*


1 I1 thi s, 01,17 nust, be ri idly distin:-ui.hed fr.: ?1, -5
&- l a. ".






27.


CHAPTER IV

Derivation of Noun Stems

I. GIVE A .LIST OF NOUNS WITH PRIMITIVE ROQTS. (e. .
-ntu of umuhtu)..

II. DESCRIBE AND ILLUSTRATE THE VARIOUS FORMS OF DERIVATIVE
NOUNS. These may be divided 'intc:

() Deverbative NouTnr (i.'e. noun-e derived from verbs).
(t) ~nnalina.DCivatives" (.ie. nrun' de'rived-fr-rn ether nouns,
principally y by suffix).
(c) Nuouns derived "from -Quali f icative's -
i) Dedeophonic NrUns ji.'e'. ni.uin derived from .ideophones).
Reduplicated stesi. '
f) Compound N .une.

The f:ll':win, details and examples may act as a euide:

(a) Deverbative.N1une: ,

(i) .erponal nouns, indicating the-agent' cf the action,
are crli.c.nly formed Ly changing the final vowel of the
:verb-stem to .-i and prefixin, requisite class prefixes
(.e ,.- Zulu: uohdambi, traveller < hamba, ise6i, thief
<. e6a; iimbonil royal praiser bong). Some lang-
uages- make -this formation. from the causative instead ,f
the CGiple ste.m .f ,the verb (e.,. Lamba: .umutasisi
carver < iasinya, cause. < asa; imbifi, sinner< Ifya,
cau0.< 1 pa' Swahili: tumishi, servant < cause, of
tuma, employ);.. \ Note .should be made of the classes in
which these w, rds -cccur and of any difference in signi-
ficance duetc thi. pre.fix chosen (e,, in Zulu 01,1 umoni
.ona, do~ wrong, indid.ates !'ne who does wronl tu,
i01.7 soni indicates 'habitual, wrong-doer i.e, 'sinner').

Note the formation some Central Bantu langnuages by use cf atrophied prefixes
preceding the simple stem f the verb with unchanged
final --a ( .,. in -Lamba. Kanyakula, The pusher e< nyakula,
honorific plural-' taKanyala, C1. 2a)'. Personal nouns
from paseives are often formed without change of final
vowel ( e:.. -Zulu, isithunywma, messenger passive of
.thuma, send .
RECORD ANY ADDITIONAL METHODS OF FORMIITG PER-
SONAL. NOUNS FROM VERDS; .


(ii)/,..-







(ii) I.perronal nouns, indication i ithtr th inr.ru-
ment th, action, the .-reult f th. ncti- .r T-e
abstract id(ea convey yed !-y the vert ari c Ly for:I.
Ty chan.:-in-: the fin41-.voel of the 6'VCe-r:--st(c -_ r
prt fixin< the rf quick ite clarEr or f ix F7 a F CSer 1
& 2, 14 anC .subseaucnt ar. n t urcd in tihl-e, fr:-
*'tion Exe.. fr.M Zulur uh'vi life a
travel; iZpial. fiure akate~m __ axt < t a, fell; ul:i:.T'. -r. < 1 P .

Special Psinifidanced are achieved -.hcn the for-
mation in from the annliiEd fr.m f th, ver', *..
LanmnLa: with 0.14 -refix .indicatin- ":.ithd. -f cti-.o"
( imiltmino, ;'.'ethod of cul.ivati n < i:.ina < li ;
imilpttelo, qneth'l; :f fTl.8lLn: 01l. prefix indication 'rLiility -r -r.-7 t -'
( inyendelo, .-str n:-th to .alk:L cnela E<- En ..i.
lil., cntronce .- -injilila < inJTl,

(b) INominal Derivativer:

(i) Und(r these note Phojuld te mr. ae _. the 'r:.ati:-
ef Proper ITamee in Ole. 1l & 7 a -y L. difi .sti.. n 7
prefix .f ordinaryy n- u e .. uSik_ t. <- iSi-- tt',
S. lon -:raE -Zulu;- Kant,'ni S L-amba); -al. e -f ratings in C lap T r:rir.. ol-
:' tract n un .-fr, -K thr r- n un ( ".. 1- ": Z1 ,
:: .untwana < u.mntana;; L;n.., ultana < a u.:T:aa) .

: '(ii) ,erivativet hy 'Fuffix: These are f vari.uE
*}- r ciFD u t e r

"'-(X) Dininutive Suffix for..ati n: Kany an. l:.-
UR iht i-c t-e' ni n di:.inutive "y 3han ~ .-- c
(uc iin r in-tnct CL '12 13 14), ut .a-
Sti'his by nuffix are a:i'inly fcun in the S.th-ea- rn
SDantu lan-niua.es. The Puffix is generallyy -ana r.- -.
Karanvia mludzi '->:.iudzana, little -at). :te that
the u'se of thio' s T'uffTxc ceu 'han-ci-r f-altali-
satir:n' in IT-uni and Sotho. "

X(,): Au nentt ive -Suffik form.iat i n:: Here -a'-ain
auTrchtat.ive *is -enerallv -exnreFed a Fch an- -
claEtP (C0 S,. -5, 7, 20, 21 & 22 !:cin.- ui.- r -.
Socuth-e'cr tern :3antu ,)"t -.Leuffix.-a -zi' (-hal i' iF
used on rare ccari-n n F an au.-enttive \e~. lu.
itshe, sturn: .> itchekazi,. ould.r).

() Femiinne Suffix for r:aticn- In r.o-ny r.ntu
lan aa -ce therc ii- '. ~-narely-ucd ufix to iricat


1 For the Siznificati n Sex enderer, e .X::I





?9.


the feninine, e .--, in Zulu, -kazi (imvukazi, sheen-
ewe), Sc th: -hall,. Sh.na -kadzi L~a -kasi (umwana-
kaRi, woman). Note that the use of this suffix is
confined t. a-limited number o-f wrrds.

Some lancua'ces. have a suffix. den tin, the male,
generally -lune ( e*,i. Lamba: urnwalalu'me, 'man).
OTHER NOUN SUFFIX FORMATIONS SHOULD DE RECORDED
IF THEY EXIST .(e.. the in-law suffix -fyala, -zala,
etc. ). .

(-c) NounB derived froim .ualificatives: '.* '

Theee 'are -enerally confined- tt the fcrmation of abstract
nouns in 01.14 fro ,m adjectives, relatives tc.: (0eg.
Zulu. u(ukhulu, greatness <-khulu, great. .

(d) Deideophonic Nouns: CA.FUI STUDY SHOULD DE ILADE
OF THE FOCI.,TION OF NOUNS FROM- IDEOPHONES. -Exam-
ples frtm Lamrba umwapu, loan < pu, of lending; ici-
folo, groove< fcjo, f trenching; imafuu,' hipp <~-7Tu,
o.f Tandin,. frloi waer; indukutu, quick pace < lukutu, of
patterin-; also rcduplicticTns- iciCtkutaku, 'arruloue-
ness action, icilyelyelyc., careless eatin"
(e) Reduplicat:d Stems Noun stems are redunlicated in some
lan a,.re t, indicate quantity _r frequent occurrence,
e.OV in Zulu izinqwa6anqwa6a, many heans heaps; izinta.bant1a6ia, many mountainse. -These'must be
distinu iushed frro, the reduplicatircns in scme ideophonic
derivatives, Rs noted under (d) ahnvej.

(f) Ocmtound NounF: 1M st 7antu laneua.esr have numbers of
the e. s-

.(i) THEi RULES OF FORMATION SHOULD 3E CAREFULLY
EXAMINED, e initial vowels of nouns are usually elided
(Zulu: umninimuzi, kraal-owner', ; umuzi, kraal; Lamba:
icilanika, tall Iernon, inika, river).

( ii) THE: VARIETIES .OF FORMATION' SHOULD DE TABULATED.
LambahaEs, for instance: verb "4 subject, verb + -bject,
ver* decript-ive noun 4 houn, noun + qualificative,
: noun 4 ide'ophone; ."Zulu has:.-:-: ng.un 4 substantive,, noun 4
qualifilca.tive, nc.u 4 predicative, noun 4 descriptive,
verb + substantive, .verb-+. *descriptive.
..(.i.i) CAREFUL NOTE, SHOULD E MADE OF THE METHOD OF
.PLURAL FORMATIONN OF. CC.1POUND,: .NOUNS.
III. Imported Nouns: NOUNS DERIVED FROM EUROP~EN1 LANGUAGES OR FROM
ADJACENT. DANTU OR OTHER AFRICAN LANGUAGES SHOULD 3E LISTED,
AND THE RULES OF TRANSLITERATION 03SERVED,






30.

C' E HAPTE V

The Pro'nouhs

Bantu reveals five types of pronoun, the Absolute, the
Demonstrativ6, the QQuantitativL, "the "Qualificative and the R..el-
astive.

Note that subjectival and objectival concords are not r.ro-
nouns; they are formative and not separable ord~p.

(1) The Absolute Pronoun .mere-ly irndiat-s the rubetantive to
which it refers, and in no way li-.its or qualifies it.
The absolute pronoun may be used' instead of or in. ano-
s* ition to a'noun-, -and is com.only 'uscd -for nurmosCe :f er-
phasis.
SET OUT A FULL LIST OF ABSOLUTE PRO::OL'T0:S
SiLL PERS'ONS- AND EFCH CLASS OF THE- TEIRD PERS.:.

'Here .follow selected examples

Zul) (Lamba) (Swahili) (Shona)
l.t .pert's, sing, -minia n c rAii. ini
------- pl. thina fveo .sisi o ieu
2nid pers.- sing.. wena .weto eVe ie
'------ pl. nina .mweo hy. -hiy i
3rd pcirs.. i01.1. yena ye : -ye'y c iy?
: 2. 6ona o -' o .
7. c na C chR) ( i
S. zona fy (vy) io7
S1- 9. yona yo (yo) .i..
10. zc na sy. (zo) idzo

GIVE SEITENTCE EXAPLES ILLUSTRATI:3 THE USE -F
ABSOLUTE PRONOUNS. L.-'

(2) Demonstrative Pronouns point :ut the relative ncsition :
the nouns to which they refer. The de:r.-nrtrative :..a7
stand-:instead of cr in anopseitiin._to the.noun, ana it r.-st
be obb.erved:-that when it:precedcs its. apn. itional n-un
thebvtwo become:-conjoined to form one word (e., Zulu:
..a66artu la6o,- those- people,.but la6o60ntu; Ila: ::asa:..
azo, those trve p,' but az-rmasaO') '- :

Though some Bantu langua-aes have a large variety -
forms fcr deionstratives, there are basically f-_ur


p .itinal/ ....






31.


positional types, Nos, 1 And 2 bein-gused as contrast'
pairs, and similarly iTro. .3 and 4.

Examples shewing agreement with Classes 1 and 2i

(Lamba) ..(Swab ili) (ulu) .-
1. this, these: uyu, awa huyu, haw lo la6a
2. that, those: uy:, a,0 huyc, haw.o 1 wo, la6o
3. this here: uno, wano ---- --
4. that yonder: ulya, ^talya yule, wale. lowayd, la6ay4

TABULATE EACH TYPE OF DEMiONSTRATIVE FOR ALL THE
CLASSES IN .YOUR LANGUAGE.
*STATE 'THE SIGNJFIcOIiCE'; a. iiD -USE OF .EACH POSITIONAL
TYPE -

(3) The Quantit.ative Pronouns' are limited to a few rotts, in Bantu,
such as th~e. neanin. (1)' all or the whole of, (ii) only or
alone, (iii)' tihe, di fin.it( nuerals, e g. both, the. three, the
fcur ,' etc. ,. and (iv) miscellaneous' ones.. Theseare used
wit- pronom'inal conco rds (of'. Ch. III) and may have forms for
ist and 2nd person, as well as all classes of the 3rd person.

(a) The -reot.: .for hal-l:"-. Zulu -nke, Lamba -nse, Swahili -te,
Shona -se, S-othe -hl~, Exs. 6onke, *bnse, wote,e 1ose or
v~ese, bohle-.

(b) The root for "only": Zulu -da;, Lamba -e-,ka, Shona -ga,
Ganda -ka, Nyoror -nk.a.

.c) The definite numerals: "bcth" in Zulu 6o6a6ili, Lamba
: ile,. Swah ili merely has wacte wawili; all the numerals are
of this type in Tonr-a. -.f the Central zone.

(d) Miscellaneous: Lamba -opele (same); Ila -ngeana (few);
.Swahili. -e.nye (po ssesB ing).

SET OUT .A -FULL LIST OF THE PROINOMINAL CO1OORDS
HERE:

Following are sundry examples for guidance:


(Zulu/...






32.


lIt pers. sing.
pis
2nd pers. sing.
-------pi.
3rd purs'. C,.1.
2.
7.,


9.
10.


(Zulu)
npe -


(La:.:ba)
nE-


we- we-
no- mw -
ye- wo E-, WC-
60- C- -
so-- c5'-


yo-
rIV _


(4) Qualificative Prnouns are pror~nuns form:.ed fro:m each type
of qualificative, i.e. adjectives, posseseives, etc. usee
substantially, as subject or object of a sentence or in
some ublique rclati -,n as -'.hen fr;r:in.. locative, in.Str.-
mental or conjunctive adverbs. There is, n change f
form with this change' o~- fuinctiorn, except '.-the case
-, poBssessivs in lan--uage' which use the initial! vowel with
Sthe noun prefix.. As. exipler in this f rr-tin', -Z;ul
Sprefixes a. secondary vov-el, LLamba a primary.':


(Zulu)
lami ,> elamni (r.ie)
wai -> owami -'
6a-i > a6a- l


(Lanibab)
lyanji. ilyanji
wanji u ianji
wanji awanji_


IF YOUR LANGUAGE EMPLOYS INI-TInL VC,7L-S ,ITH
THE NOUN PREFIXES, EXAMINE CAREFULLY THE FOR: CF
STHE. POSSSSSESSVE USD P-POITOQII:7LLY. 3 C:par for
instance the translations of "Ly do--ie Eick" and "Lire is
sick".


(5) Rela-ive Pronouns (as separate words) have only,EL -far,
been recorded in Venda.
-Nb. as Class-, -an4 in the sentence munna an6 a8o)a:.ba, the
man who will speak







T irregular, of. yeyote, whosoever; m.enye, he peseee-
ing.


ny'D
yO- ,j
wrc-


V y.i -
zo-
ZC


(Swah il1i)






33t


CHAPTER VI

Th ualificatives,

Qhalif icatives, words which qualify substantives, are differ-
entiated, according to the type o.f concords they employ into (1)
Adjectives, (2) Relatives, (3) Enumratives, (4) Possessives, and
(5) Invariables (employing no concord). Qualificatives accompany
and follow the substantives they qualify, If used apa-rt from-or
preceding such sEubstantives, they become functionally qualificative
pronouns., In. wbroj-order lpossesPive.e normally take precedence over
other, qualificatives,,

(1) Adjectiv.s:.
In Bantu pure adjectives are- extremely rare-r- In Lamba
and Zulu .they. &.r.e less than twenty;' Swahili. has co-nsiderably
mcae.re, They include some of..the poo:monest; words in use, e.g.
big, small, many, bad,. good. Itt is noticeable that the ad-
Sjectival, .,ot:c,rdds c.cntaix nasalse ih certain cased; "in Lamba
the nas&l -iE fun din Class 1 only.-- In Ztlu. the concord con-
tains the formative -a,'but this i's not fouhd in Lamba, Shona
or Swahili. In Shona it is diff.cult_.to differentiate ad-
jectives froa nbuns, but two tests may be'applied: (i) loc-
ative prefixes ppa-, ku-, mu- are applied directly to adjectival
steals (e,.g. pakuru) but only to c.ciplejten.ouns .(e.g. pamunhu,
where 'mu- is also a pref-ix); (ii) Class 22 prefix gi- may be
superad-ed to hounr (c.g. zi6ere, huge hyena), whereas the
adjective must assure Class 5 concord to agree (e.g. guru, by
vocalisation). It iR the -same with Swahili. Tests in other
languages may be' made with forms for Class 10: in Lamba, for
instance, nouns ih-this class will have prefix IN-, whereas the
adjective will assume concord isi- (e.g. nama Tikulu, big
animals)

(a) MAKE AN EXHAUSTIVE LIST OF ADJEOT-IVAL- STEMS FOR
YOUR LANGUAGE.
(b) SET OUT THE ADJECTIVAL CONCORDS FOR ALL CLASSES
OF NOUNS. Specimen:
(Lamba) ( Zulu) (Swahili)
01.1, umu- om- m-
2, a*4- a6a- wa-
7. ici- esi- i-
8. fi- ezi(N)- vi-
S9, i- eN- N-
10. isi- eziN- N-


Some/. a,








Some lan~uia,-' differe-ntiate adjectival n t:tc:s -hic. tal
disyllabic prefixes from thore-which tmke :;ns'yllacic -nes
(e.l. Larba: -kulu, big urukulu, ifikulu, n-rreas -ni.i,
small > munini, finini),


: AVOID ., REIERE~N TO CI0:.-.I3CISC'
THIS .IS' NOT A- .ATIL F-TURZ


(2) Relat ive s:

Bantu .hae u large qnuber fT j' qualifictive. .ic- ar
used with relative concords (as distinct fr;. adject'i~v?.
concords). These :ay be divided as f llo;e: (a) rimitiv7
stems (found mainly in Suth-castcrn Bantu, e.s,. 'Zul -zi -
naked, umuntu oze; S. Sjth. -thata, hard, .th: ea-tha ;
(b) Nominal stem-l (alsa, fund nainly in S-E E3ntu, e. Zulu
-imakhaza%,.. cl.d-< ama.khaza c ldnes ; S th -:i...: ,
.< mrleho odn ess);.. ) Predicative form s, whether ver-
bal cr ccpulative, in'cldini the usual "relative clause cn-
ttruction"; in icntral. antu it is ccmtmcn t find verb cer-
Sfect stems.so uE.d (e'.-. in tLaba:' uuntu ur--cms a --
person thing <_ perf. tuw7. tbwhite).


RELATIVE


I THEY ZXI3i.


(ii) SET-
that
as f,


OUT
there
Jr all


A .FULL LIST- -OF .
;are .formE for the
- classes of the 3rd


REL ATIV.
slt & 2ndm
DersT n,


pD'ersn aw "ell
SpTec im-en:


Ja. lS ) (Zulu) (h..:.a)
- en -ie ndi-


slt pers. sin ,
--------- pl.
2nd pers. sing.
--------- pl.
3rd pers. C01.1.


- .tu- esi-
-u- --
ru- eni-
u- + o-


2. aOa-
7. ici-
8. ifi-


10,


a6a-
eePi-
ezi-.
e-
e.zl-


isi-


Nb. Note the absence cf'nasal
person (except in 01;18).


ci-

'I-
dzi-


Coon nants*r- th .


(iii) For the subject of Relative Clause Con0tructi-n,
Chapter XIII.


(i)


LIST.


ti-
u-


4r


v- ~-~- 1-i---- -,II ,=
rJ t~ ,~nrT
r i.. _i


\i
1~





35.


(3) Enumcratives are somewhat miscellane-us in character, but
most have some numeral significance. Bantu numeration is
basically quinary and in the most primitive languages the
first five numLrals (e.,. Lamba: 1 -mo, 2 -wili, 3 -tatu,
4 -ne, 5 -sanu) all take enumerative concords, In ddre
lanTiua&es,-, uch as Zulu, which have .advanced towards 'a deci-
mal system of numeration, only the-:numeral 1 retains -enumera-
tive concords, Nos. 2, 3, 4 & 5 having become adjectives.
Other enumerative stems are "other"- (Lamlba -mbi, Zulu -ibe),
"which" (Lamba -isa? Zulu -phi?), "what" (Zulu-ni? $otho
ni?), etc.
(i) GIVE A FULL LIST OF ENUERATIVE STEMS,

(ii) SET OUT A FULL LIST OF ENUMERATIVE CONCORDS.
SSpecimen n:

(Laana)' (Zilu.) (Tswana)
01.C U- mu- mo-
2. a- 6a- ba-
7. ci- si- se-
fi- i- i- di-
9. i- e-
10, se-i zi- di-
Nb. All enumerative concorde are monosyllabic.

(iii) The subject of "the Numerals" is referred to in
Chapter XIII.

(4) Possessives:
There are three kinds of possessives:, (i) those with
pronominal stems, (ii) these formed from other parts of speech,
and (iii) possessive phras.ees and clauses. Of the two parts
of a possessive, the ccnc'd'i refers to the' possesses, while
the stem indicates the pose.essor,

(a) TABULATE THE POSSESSIVE CONCORDS FOR ALL PERSONS
AND CLASSES,

The following are specimens for guidance; (Ncte
that they are built. up -on the formative -a--):




1 This is often spoken cf as a preposition meaning "of". This
is incorrect; there are no prepositions in Bantu,







36.

.(Zulu) (Lama)
Oi. "- wa- wa-
2. 6a- a-
5. la- lya-
S 6.5 a- -
-7. sa- .
S' ,za- fya-
9. ya- ya-
10. za- sya.

Special note muet be taker .f special fDjrr..
which miiht te used vith noun s -of lEs 1i In
for instance these are: 01.1. ka-, 2..aka-, 5. [<-,
6. ka-, 7, pika-, 8. zika-, 9. ka-, 10. z--a-, e.
ihhashi lika6aba (my father's hcr-e) wherea'E irhash
lomuntu (= la + umuntu, th- Tnrsonr' horse).

(b) TABULATE THE PCSSESSIVE PRO:ITO.:I:'-L STZELI C? .iL' .
PERSONS AT CLASSES tSeci:lenF :

(Zulu). (L a.a) (Swa ili)
Ist pers. sin. -mi -nji -nu
------ p. -ithu -isu -itu
2nd pers. sing. -kho -ue -k
--------- -inu -inu -inu
3rd pere. 01.1. -khe -ke -k
"2. -.
5, -lo -lily -
6.: -wo -
I 7, -fo -cico
*. -zo -fify:
9. -yo: -Y-,
10. -zo -sisyo

Note that s',ne lan;~a:es (e.,. .:ahll) e nP_:
have special forms for all classes', : tc alF that
Southern S-thc uses- full pronouns in the plur-al 'st
pers, _-rna,. 2pnd peres, ona,. 1.2. .L na, etc., e. .
motho oa-ron_, our man).

GIVE EXAMPLES OF USE, e. Zulu. iso laIr.!
(my eye), inkosi ya6o (their kin:).


)/.. .






37.0


(o) Possessives from other Parts of Speech. Possessive con-
cords may be used with nouns (e.. Zulu: ihhashi lenkcsi
the chief -s .horse; Lamba: T-sati lyamfumu, the chief 's
fish). Note that coalescence of -a- of the conccrd with
the Innitial.vowel takes place in Zulu, whereas clision of
the initial vowel is the rule in Lamba. IF YOUR LANG-
UAGE EMPLOYS INITIAL VOWQELS STATE "ITH EXAMPLES
WHAT HAPPENS ',HEN THE POSSESSIVE COITCORD IS FREFIXED,
MA KE SPECIAL NOTE OF 'HOW POSSESSIVES ARE
FORCEDD FROM NOUNS OF:' CLASS ls. Fo:r instance in Zulu,
instead of -La"the basis then is ka- with'- such forms as
lika- 6uka- etc. (see under' (') 'rove); In Lamba def-
infte nouns of Class la assume the pronominal stem of
Cl.1 -,tkwc (e. g. isc lyakwoe tata, my father's eye). Other
rules tainn n in their lanMuaae,..-
Possessivesp may also be formed, from demonstrative
pronouns (e, Zulu: amandla alezi, the strength of
these' -'cxe"'); ,froC qualificative pronouns (e.g. Zulu:
u6ukhulu" 6ezethu, the.: i:ze' "f' curs:-- 6a, 4 eethu); and
fromm advrbs (e. Zulu:: -tunun-tu w lapha, a person from
here)'. In -Zulu, when po-sscs e ve:s are!l formed' from loc-
ative adverb's commencing .in- vwels, prelocative -s- is
Sine erted- (e. c uM ifntu wvjeLsezini,: a vil-lag- person,,wa +
emzini, lc,< u Luzi). Noter should.b e .made, of any such
special, case.....

*(d) Possessive Phrases and Possessive Clauses: Note should
be made of the occurrence ,f possessive phrases; such as
are ucd-il in Zulu, e.e-, indoda yckuse6enza ensimini, a man
S* for workin-- in the -field; these ar.e found with vert in-
fin-itives pre-ceeded by: the" poe'sessive, concord.
Pose'essive cla'uses 'ccur in Shona, instead of in-
direct' relative clauses, e, g. -6a'--a randakarasa, the
.knife whiqh -I Loat (,8it. i-ctf-I-lost).

(5) Invariabl-es. -
Thee ,''are qalif-ioatives f non-Bantu origin :which. are
--used in dnti. eonstruction_'without any.concordial a..ecment
with!the word they f.ollow. They -aret.-particularly comqrnn as
Ar abic importations .intd Swahili,. eJ<'., kitambaa eafi,. a clean
cloth; chakula tarm, delicious food, Included with them are
the -Swahill numera'ln' 6, 7 and 9 i,:'. :wattu Rita, six people;
the *rumeral 10 kumi is, however,-'a noun in position with the
plural makumi.









C.. CHAPTER VII

The Varieties of the Vert

There are four main varieties cf the ver in. Bantu:

1) Regular disyllabic ster-.B
2) Monosyllabic stems.
3) Vowel-verb stems.
4) Derived stemse, which' are sub-divided int, (a) Vercal
derivative-, (b) Neminal derivatives; and (c) Ide:-
phonic derivatives.


(1) Re lar disyllabic verLs: These, in Bantu, typically -ir.
in a ocnsonant, have two syllables and end in the v rcl -a,
e.j. Zulu fund read; Lamba penda.

In certain lan2iuaes, however, particularly of the
Cong-r zone, -the reu-mlar ditylla'bic Verbs are divided int-
different "aes imilation types" (Fometir.-s re-arded as con-
jugations), in which vowl harr-mny- plays a larce':oart, e.:,
in angi, kata (hold), ete (strike), no (se-- T hi
vowel harmony *is ex-tended to derivative- frE,- e --. "na
betene, bononc.
LIST AND DESCRIBE TYPICAL DISYLLABIC VER S I
YOUR LAUGUAG,- :

-i2-)' ,d:ceylrTabi b- Verbe: Every Bantu lan-uae'e has a certain
humb r of hese, mostly indication;: ccnticn a.dtiFns, e .
"give"', "fall", "fichVt", "die", "eat" "t -o". (e'. "eat" :
Zulu dla, Lamba lya. Swahili la, S-thc ja, Shona dya)
Mcn syllabic verbs in pso.me lanruaReKs m.ay tc suL-div-
ided, e.g. in Zulu (i) regular, e.-.. dla, eat; (ii) -ith
latent initial i-, e.c. ma stand earlierlr ima); (ii)
defective, e.g. -thi, say another com m.on defective: : nb-
syllabic verb in Bantu is-li, be). LPaIa sub-diviseon is
as follows:, (i') those with typical -c in conju;ation and
derivative forms e.g. pa, a ive >perf. -pele; (ii) ala-
talised stems takin typ cal i, e,g. ya, _o i -i e ; i
velaribed stems ta-ki-ni typical i, e, fwa, -ie 2-fwTle.

SMAKE-- A.-. OOMPLE.TE. LIST OF MONOSYLLABIC VEB
STEMS, AND EXAMINE CAREFULLY .FOR -SUB-DIVISIC:S.

(3) Vowel-verbs: Verb stem-s comeencinn in vowels are f:~und in
all Bantu languages; the initial vowele cause modification n
in conjueation. Zulu uses only secondary vowels, a, e-


an"d/ 1 9






39.


and o-,' c:.g. eakh8, bii2A bnzuH..3.ki; b~a, *beiti but other
langu-ages r such as Soi o; Lambaetc'.'. 11Z'e =eT, vowe'.. Tg. Lamba:
itarJ ~~~L tnFn h~i r ;,i4 z ka, -n4kndLe ; e1 w-innow; onta,
Warm oneself, -
t PASSIFY riWITH P:1 LE-$ THE_ WOWEL-VER23 STEIS,: RE-
~i$x -ON ANY- X TEl L
() e verbs 1>t u t r.o. syl bleIs than" two w ill
R epve:tp7.be7 ke._e d f7rn. scspe. simp fexl tc~rr:, h s o`ni the
dar Iva ion:unay Li44~. be cbsCu;je-

# verbal) -Dt vt`.-s C', _6-b ve.XdP tVed 'ro.f nfbs).
S-lmo~s~t~ enj y~.~ rneu ~i'1 r,,r:ec;i Ts7ffix S6me are
comon .t-p~a~tJ~edAYes.1 ,_._o hers are
o,) inmo n tG.-_p-1aqtJ..ca'1.Vv t~F ai-~ 3a~7Lg e6 bh~3 T
no: longerF.~:t .:L~Z~ Wr fL somei J~an.~g es; yet others,
*- whle k 'ra 0,0cf7,,osr 1,,S 1 s.d1e6 :iS- fi!-e Z in S re_*np, longer
anal.ysalle aas U.. -t:d~not ..C
,TAJU1lj4,E THE ER'F DE- PEPVA T 1VE SUFFIXES WITH
EXAMPLZS&V

(i) Passive indicatingg thi n tA-he ,u b e 6 is aoted upon
by an-ge nt; t.ut, 'pbe AeaKedl n Aantu a-s a "11,vc ioe"1
opposed CTLj tdice .ej.'iotc q- icjted by 'ufffix -wa,
CPPfK: O-UW7L, t_. i `t' ''C g Ph.s e a
-iwa ._--__ -e-tc_ g- 6onag, > 6o nwa
be se e~zj:n; hji-. >i w?. bo. gJ~vei2~e 6ud~gc
Pety j7:i~ Ii~; t~.t :s of fr- rmaticn in
Xhcysa: eiF aone:;7cy suffxjr1d.1~tt iwa to -1on6syllabio
and ioW >1 .t<,,VYi r,.c.~ ona "51ee e ome into play.
1n Shpa e-l a i~,: uaCe pl. -cre eg. Z ?-a hall >apxa,
lbe heaajed,. n n Io', ao e Th s ives o other
-&2zeiva t fves, s but theqinaybe: fq; qnste a xeciproocal
of a passive; thus both iY:ims '66'nafthm and onfana (be
;-,-seen mutually. Aocu~rx.
Somme 3a'atu 1:-o&,se5Thlo~o t;e hhe' paasiye: (1)-
Kele mAkes dise rh! II- natc*Cd; 1lois while having
apa'aivef- f? a- pi:ef seis t cuse the
stdtive :end.ing -i-n 11 1 llJ S e 2" h're stative is
found in Ngala and UgTo7m'be,
&T -OUT -'V I t fE: ASSJVE FORMATION WITH
EXAMPLES, AND C&LVD S S -Gl ThWG 'HOW H- TE PAS-
SIVE IS USED FOR INS._!V' 7 LT AN AGENT,

(ii) N'ebuter (lnP.t~n cr ,Fnrt nei.: -? sta-te' or: con-
ditioni, rt ,a 'at~pbIJ.itp GiIeraIjifiS 4s:-iE k or
-;-ea(A acoordirt to voweW-hC1nonC nV n Oentr'1 & Oongo Dantu.
,.;:Ei::r sfrom .L4-'q." 4q nt n ndiv ble; to*a,
k break -t o'geki& aor _'}cen,' J. S 7'. ?h -c 6 tern -'ant TF6ere





40.


is :a rarely-used additional neuter suffix: Zulu
-akala, Sotho -ahala.
Compare the Neuter suffix with the Intransitive
deideophonic suffix -ka .

(iii) Applied (indicatin- that the acti n is applied
en behalf of, towards -r with rc-ard t- s:ome ject).
Central :antu suffix is -ela, -ila, -ena, -na accord-
in; to rules of vowel harmony and nasal stemr; n ECo
languages r takes the place of 1. Exs: Zulu: hrlaa,
wait >"hlaTela, wait for; hamba, travel >ha::.tes,
visit; Lacba: lima, cultivate liminaa, cultivate
for; Nyanja: nena, speak >nenera, speak t ;r r;
Swahili: leta, -rTnK' >letea, 'rin- for. Rules o
formation in Central 3antu are extre:-.ly croDlicate-.
The applied f rm .f so:e verbs acauir F a snecialfisc
meaning, ce.g. in Zulu: shaya (hit), s~ayela ."drive a
wagon)
SET OUT THE RULES FOR TEE FOR:ATIC" CF
THE APPLIED FORM, AND INDICATE CAREFULLY ITS
SIGNIFICANCE.

(iv) Causative indication : cause t:, d )r cause :o
be). The suffix of the causative varies conrsidr-
ably from language tc lanmua e, ::einhof's r-_ar:t
-ya appearing variously as -isa, -ishya, -iza r 'ith
vowel e as -esa, etc. Special contractions alsI take
place according: to rule, e.,. Shona: farmca, travel
> fambisa, cause tco travel, drive; zara, be full
Szadza, fill. In Zulu the causative for:.. of veros
of communal action means 't, help t d', E. li:a,
plough >-limisa, help to plough.
Lamba has tvw tynes f causative: (-) norma
.formation with suffix -is.y -csya and complicated con-
tracted forms, and (;) a f rmatin from. Stative and
Contactive verbs with suffix -ika; e.. ia, -et uo
>.imya, raise up; but ima, stand up >ii.ka, sc u
standing.

SET OUT THE FULL RULES FOR THE FCR-ATIC::
AND USE OF THE CAUSATIVE.

(v) Intensive indication intensity or Cquickness of
action). Generally the suffix is the same as that
for the causative, but it does not.contract a, the
latter does, e.g. Shona naka (be -od) > cause, nakisa
and natsa, but intense, naYisa only. Zulu differen-
tiates with -isa caus. and -isisa intense e.,r uza,
ask 6>uzisisa, ask insistently.
(vi)/...








(vi ) cipyrical (dc'notin,- thnat t.h: action is r.eciprocatcd,
done one another-) .. U.ual' -antu suffix is -ana, e.g.
S Zulu 6na., :so -> tonana, u cn'e another. In Lamba there
-- aT-e -tw tyTes one in -ana- indict in rtcliro city between
.t*w i ndwividahl- a tott- odt ies; the ather -. -Tnsyanya
.'denot:ln bo-dcie;' -.. lekana, divide "iirt. two ;..-lekahsanya,
divil: ue -ntte'Frally into a number of unit-s.

Note that reciprocal, verbs often take a conjunctive.
Sconstruicticrkia ,f-ter th-emr, -e. Zulu:.-: anihlanaa nomuntu
( -meeat-rqc~lpro;a-ly andlpa-peTron, i.e.- I mect 41a pers :n).
..-SE-T- O kU .T T-.. TYW -S OF RBOgIPRilOAL FOUD, VITH
RifLES Oi
(vii) -k i -sclat'v ( iindica'tintg tw'r- or mlore -subjeots assTc-
iated in acti.n)'. Central 3antu uses the'suffixes
-akana and a~ kana, e:., stka, bury ->,lkakana, be buried
to getherT ;. owakhaa, wall iT uni Soth.._ uses -ahana.
The forr.d is rart--; many lanuagtdsdo- not- emnrpby- it, Zulu,
frj ,iAn.tane,, utsin[, the reciprocal. suffix .-an often with
th:is ig if.ioe-, L..--. xa., *M- 4.'& a- g t mixed to-
Le~ thi: : .. "'. ... /-: '' '. '" '. i'

,TH., .OC UR ECF: F .T-HI S,
(V ii). e ive Tic tn an en-tire. reversal of the
action), I. 'y languis.. this s s still a regularly-
formed deriva'tiv, 'In '0entral Jahtu, the' transitive
suffixes are -ula, -ulula (-ola, -olola if the stem-vowel
is ) ; intr.ansTt-ive .-frE .: Elllarly assume the suffix
-uka, -,luka., -boka, -olka; ..if the final consonant of
h -:teria anae, t tieE sEuffixes apn~ar 'as -una, -ununa,
..-ona, -nLonoa, -unUkt, -cnoa, -There are als.o. causative
f rmFs in -7ilh a, l- 7 looia -, ctc. Examples:..from Demba:
flka, fit to either > fTkul-', take apart; funria, fasten
>fun-alula, unfasten. -n- Swahili the transitive suffix
'iF --a, in Soth" -olla.
., The same suftAxe:s, .:in.ce.rtain languages, are used to
fo:rm the RceTtitjv& oetivativc. indicatingg a repeating or
doing over -a.ain -tObvioutsly, thpi is a subordinate idea
to the reverp ive. Examples': Laaba: -* yala., sow >y alu-
lula., resow; u;--Ia uia, trade -.ululrula,- retrade; beza,
S car ve > be zluiL a. eoarv ..

INVESTIGATE CAREFULLY THE' tICIDENTCE OF THE RE-
iVERSIVE AND REPEITVE IN YOUR LANGUAGE.
S- .. (ix)/...
....... ( x /




42.


S ix) Extensive indication that the acti n iE ext n-
dt '" d in time r space,or -repeated-xt'en;eV iv-ely), A
w..._idely'-used derivative in-certain .antu l.anguaes, : e.
- -in Central 3antu, In'Larb-A the intrar:sitive- uffixe~,
ar e a-ka, `-auka or. -aikA-- the transitive -Kla' -aula
r. -aila; the -causative -asya, -ausya c-r -asa; e.g.
pma, stTr ke e>pamala, teat flog; aputuka, snap
.- put; aAka r putaka, t napped t ite A einle
forn' in -aka cccure in Tswana,- e.. r&na, cho- 're-
S maka, cho.p bout.

-x) --e-rfective (denotin,- that" an *cti- n h'e er.
carried t) Gonpletion- or perfection -n f tor, the
suffix is., a reduplication ,c.f the applied suffix, e,-,
S in Zulu --elela; .in Lamba -ili-., -elela, -inia,.
-enena, e.-, tinta, pull > tntlila, pull perfectly
.tT.. ht- with mononyllabic verbs th applied is trinli-
cated to form this, e.o. fwa, dic >4filillla, e a nni-
h ilated.

S- INVESTIGATE THIS -FOR:- '": SET "OUT THE
RULES OF FORMATION, -IF. .IT IS- 'USED.-

(xi) RedC.Allcatibn c.f the. Verbrstem -is ueual -in mEst
3antu languages and it has the effEct frrm.ln.
either a Frequentative or a Diminutive derivative,

Thi, frequentative indicates that the action is
Done over atnd cver avrain as--tin -Swahi-l ia-pt ,
strike repeaLtdly. In'Lamba with ro llaic ver's
th'- stemS is triplioa.ted., e., yay-sya, on a'nd n and
on, .

The diminutive i;ndicat-eR a diainut-ion 4f the
,acti on; tc. do a l little; e..g. in Zulu.: 6na, see
> '6ona6'ona,', see ecrsmehat, "The rules of- forr-iat io
.: vary considerably in. Zlu Tith. o-n ylloYabic' a vA7el-
S erb. stees,.

SET OUT CAREFULLY THE RULES CT .FO:. TI
FOR ALL TYPES OF VERD.

S(xi.-) Additirnal' derivative form. bocur in an-s'-osleE-
cent state,' such as th Statives .in -arna (indicating-
SI poaitio-n ; r. posture:, e. t--be in hidin:-", Lar:.a fia::.a;
"b'w-down."i_ Lamnba ina-a, Zulu ha.thar..a) ,ard .i,. -ala
(e.g. Zulu khathala te tired.) ;, the :c.ntactie in
-ata (e,g. Larba furnbata, .rasp; Zulu namatha, stick),
andTmany o'-thers,
PLYSYLLA3IO' VERDS SHOULD DE VERY ^AREFULLY
EXAMINED IN ORDER TO ASCERTAIN 7H'ETHER THEY HAVE SUF-
FIXES AND, IF SO, WHAT ARE THEIR SIGUIFICAI:CES. :A'-Y
NOT LISTED A30VE MAY DE IDENTIFIED,
<'c ) /',..






., 43.


(t) Nominal Dcrivatives (i.e. Verbs f-,rned from -.uns or
adj t:ctiv? B-- -D'.Aina'tive .Vrb). Thou ,h rare, a few
usually occur in each :antu language.
(1) 1: 3y suf fixing -ga_,:e., Zulu ihlo niy- shame 1> hlonipha,
pay rzespc0t; Lamnba -do, small >,cpa-, be tc small;
:b' .htohlai isdom >:h-lalefa, b e w.ise r here .Sotho f = ph.)
o-th-.-suf'fixeB :.. e,- -pala:- Zulu -khulu '-*c )
:>'.khu..uphal : -t.sto ut; H-erer.e -re, long. > repara, be
lon-. -mpa: Lamba -tali, long I>talimpa, be -long. -
LIST- ALL' -THE DENOMIIATIVE VEIRS YOU .CA-T FIND
IN YOUR L-LANGUAGE. .

(o) Ideophoa-iic, Derivatives (i.c. .V-erbei formed from idec3ophihjnes
-- De-iide.ol-honi:c. Vrs). Tho-uh -very common iri many Dantu
lanua.es,. l,.ttl .attent-i- s has't been .'aid to them, The
most common f .rmr.ition is by suffjxin_ -ka (intransitive.),
-la, -ra lr -na (transitive) and -sa, -za, -hya, -d) a
S(-aus aTvt ). tc disyllabic. ideophones. .Examples: Lamb-a:
au. : .au- ( erQs ning over, takin ut) > a 'uka. (.,r6 ss over) ,
S a' 6 (take ut.f wat..r),, aueya (take across) Zulu:
..- ^~l (,f falling apart) -> TiTkat (fall apart.), 6ihlila
(kmTck apart), 6ihliza (es'attetr .:about.).
'There.:ari very many yther- types which need classi-
fyin.g, c.,, in Zulu: zwi6a zwi l((ofswininn:) .khukhu-
mal:; ib- i (of quivering}, fulumana < fulu (of bending for-
ward) licita i* creeping *alonc) iocla 1 o f-talkin incessantly).

S OLAS8IFY ALL-THE TYPES OF -DEIDEOPHONIO VER3S
WHICH H YOU CAN COLLECT, AND TRY TO ASCERTAIN THE
SIGIIFICANIES OF THE VARIOUS SUFFIXES USED.



.. ... .. .. . .







COh.PTER VIII

Tbe. 0onju st:ion f- the TV. erb

The treatment of the Verb conjuation is of extre::e i.'-cr-
'tance.--in any Bahtui-lnguage., but, it, is one-' of gr-eat difficulty
to set out- in compa r&tive form, owinf to th.e .:ide differences
from language to languageB. Only- a. btief eugecstive .tutlin- car.
therefore bd given here. Apart from: imperatives ver'al inter-
j ec-ives.,-Land- infi. itivese (verbal iouns.-) every verb-for_: is co"-
pooed,.6''"aVt Irast two_.partS,' the ;shb ectiv-1r -oncard.:Tefrrinr
to the' sUbj oct, Anh:di- thi .verb .ste 'm. _- The eatrc-: nay u-rd ergo crr-
tain inflexions, as in the formation of the perfect, certain neg-
atives-, e tcr. a" well Ea in'.forning the deriv-t ive.A FlraIdy ocr.-
s id.ered. The subjectival concord is .also'Pusceptible cif range
in certain instances, particularly in indicati:g r.ood. Various
auxiliary. formatives are brought in to assist in forninrz tenseP
.iid moods, .and these are placed' sore bef-ar'-Cd. d.3-so:e af-er th-
su'bjectival concord, Objectival *condorde- ray- be e.plom7'yd
the m.-_p'e-ui .of the vcryb ,.nd they .~generally have the effect :f
hak nng th object -definite.

I U Gon'ju nations, 'All, Bantu languages hav at 'l-eat t"
(.' ) Bosi'tive (b) iNfgative,; ex. Zulu: -giafun.
".":, wa;t); and angifuni_ .ne.ga tive : I d nt -wnt te :
;'-D--come add (c)- Relati-ve- ..but it is perha.p bette ..t- treat
this as a "sub-rid 'seet bel.w .
In Kongc, Bncrit l, di.Vide-, the verb int fur o"' ju-
.,-at ,cdne- aecording"t' theVjiype ;.;f .-votel and c-nsceattal
:-.a:iiila't.idon 'aKingplad this is tct juga-in in the
1Bn'tu ense a. iathaer..-'n ns rules fcr .derivative f:r-
nflfion.. .*i., .jight- 6be.' rUferred: to, A AEiilatibn Type"C
'In the sae v-wy -Ortain lan' ages-have .vaRying"Thal :ype s
in their conjugatic,, in vwrich the t ne seqouences vary *-i't
the type,- Tc- thee alss-'the ter:: njug ti.tn ehul :-T
be applied.-,

(2) Mcods:
(a) Non-finite forms (net really r.csd):

(i) Infinitive (indicated by orefix uku-, ._-, .- -,
u-, or without nrefix at all), Thir T a nC
Olass.15 with verbal Pc~sibilitieLs. 7 ::- la -age
have negative forms, others continuous '-nd stani-e
forms, In Sotho there are future and potential infin-
itives (ho-tla-rata, to love -- in the future; 'h:- k
rata, to be able tc love). Objectival concords :.ay
be used, e.g. Zulu uku6athanda, to love them.


:.aULATB,








TABULATE THE FORMS A:TD POSSIBILITIES OF THE
INFINIT-IVE -.1 .YOUR_ LANGUAGE. .

*(il) Imp~rative:.(-syntactically an' interjective with
verbal., potentialJity).: The singular is generally the
Simple stem f. the verb, e.g. Swahili pia, strike, The
plural is, formed: by suffix.ing, -ni, -ini,, -i, (eg,
Luba, tora,, drJiHn:-;> plux. toma,i drink -ye)". In some
languages moncsyllJabic Ptemrs and vowel-verb stems are
modified to form the imperative (e.g. Zulu: pha, give
.. i.jyipha .cr phana; .. enza d yenza; Sdo z hcna: bva, go
away _- ibva) hen an objectival. concord is used with
an imporativ, final -a becomes -e -(,g: Tsonga: dlaya,
kill >yidlaye, kill if; pfunani, help. ye >mupfuneni,
help ye him).
The negative imperative is commonly formed by means
of a deficient verb imperative fcllcwed 'by the infinitive,
e.g. Sh.ona: rega ku ona, d.onTt seel Southern Sothc has
a direct -negative with:th:e fc;rr native se-, ,eg. se-bone.
don't setI La.iba.-uses the formative Te- followed by
infinitive, eg.- tegkutona, dni t seel Other languages
rely solely upon the negative of the subjunctive for this
purpose e."

SET OU.T- THE: RULES OF I-FTI-TIVE- FORMATION,
REMARKING ON ANY INFLEXIONIS DUE TO OBJECTIVAL CON-
CORDT. USE OR I NEGATIVE FORMATION.

*(b) 'Finite -forms: 'Generally-speaking th. following are
,recognise-d: (i) :indicative, (ii) subjunctive, (iii) po-
tential or .cn-ditionaIl, (iv contingent and- (v) particip-
ial .or relative .sub-mood. -

S(i) -Indicative Mo.od (representing the denoted act or
state ai .an.o'b .ltivei fact as distinguished from an act
or state merely thought of):' This.ccmprises most cf the
verb .tenses .and may have three s.ub-divisions according
to implication, thrd'c further: divisions according to
manner or aspect. and finally several sub-divisions accor-
ding t' tense

Implications (imrplying something regarding a previous
stat -:or ":act ioyi) are' thre;t-f. ld:
1.- Simple.
2. Prpgreissive, implying :that .the action has been
going on previously.
.3-. Exclusive, implying that the action has not been
going on previously,. .


Examples/...





46.

Examples from Zulu:

1. Sinple positive. ngithanda, I lveP.
----- negative: anrithandi, d: nt love.
2. Pro ressive positive: nisathinca,-1 till lve.
-- "--- n native: anpgisathEadi, I lngerI

-3.Exclus.iv -.positive: sengithainda, :; I love.
negative; angikatnand.i,p I do not yet
love.

Many Bantu lan uazes do 'n-t -eml;y thickc full set
of forms, e.e Lamtba has no prfre selv r.~ tive andr
no exclusive positive. --TABULATE EXAPLEZ C- TH-
TIPLICATIONS -_AS: FARc 'A -THEY EXIST I;: L. -
UAGE.

Manners or Aspects of :.tht. verb are also three -fl-d:
(Zulu).: (S. S th.)
I, Indefinite' -nRalamba I st k'a-lana
hungry.
2. Continuous: nra-ilamba I ne-ke-aa
S- was- e ttTn:-
hungry.
3. Perfect: ngangilambile ke-ne-ke-lanill
I was hungry.

The Oonti-nuous m;-anner i's indicated in -sF.e la.n-
uages by an infix (e.,-. Lar-ta: nalukufwaya, I was
S wanting; in others by a -suffix -a', .-. -n .
Ga'nda':- anasomanga, he will -rea& o n-tinuallvy, .a i.i-
lar suffix b-ein. us ed wi-th ir.erativcs to :.ak? the.
emphatic in some languages,.e.g. in CTala.

In some lanuages, ee.g. Zulu 'ret~ent ane d i-.:.ed-
iate patt tcnsps, therI is a distinction lett-e'-n def-
inite and indefinite manner; thu' nr.i6:a i? fill-w-
ed by.'an indefinite object 'and n-iyat~nE, with : -
tival ccnobrd, by a definit'c objcct.

The perfect manner, usually ccrveyin St. ve
idea, is generally indicated by th- suffix -ilE, Et.
sometimes by internal vowel infltxicn (- --. l .
>-lele, asleep, in Zulu) ; 'rmre-rarely by an-nfix,
as in Shona wakanaka, he is c:od naka, b e rjod.
Tenses: In Bantu these.are mainly indicative of ti.e,
and the division iis comm.-only five-fIld:
(Zulu) _(Laa)
Remote past: nga6ona I saw naibrrne
Immed, past: I ionle I saw r nar:na
Present: ndlyabona I see k...uku. a
Irammed. future:n' ziobona I shall see naku wona
Remote future:ngiiyobona I shall see ikaT na







-47* :

Lariba has exact ti:m division, viz. Immediate past and
future tenses of actions takin'i lace -today," Remote past
and future tenses cf acti ns takin: place before and after
today respectively. Other lanoiuaees have different time
divisions, some vague in distinction, some with finer -,
intermediate distinctions.

Some languages have additional tenses tc indicate
"habitual" action (e, Lamra: tulalima, we plough, i.e.
ploughing is our occupation), others used in narrative or
in the historic past.

CLASSIFY THE TENSES, CAREFULLY NOTING TIME LIMITS
AND OTHER DIFFERENTIATIONS.

Remarks:
Sa) Auxiliary -a- used in past tenses.
S Auxiliary -ya-, -a-, -na-, -no- -luku-, -le- used
in forming the ordinary present tense.
(o) Auxiliary -a-, -za-, -tla- meaning : "come") used in
forming future tenses Tn some languages.
(d) In the Negative Ccnjugation prefixal a-, ka- (Zulu),
ha- (Sothc, Shona) ta- (Lamba, Swahili) is use-, some-
tTmes accompanied by suffixal -i.

SET OUT A COMPLETE SPECIMEN TENSE SHEWING
PREFIXES FOR TIE 1st AND 2nd PERSONS AND CONCORDS
FOR ALL THE CLASSES OF. THE 3rd PERSON.

Specimen .'f portion of a. tense from Swahili:

Press nt Indict'ive'. positive.
let pers.,,sinr: nicnapiga I am beatingg.
S----- tuna iv a We7 are- beating.
2nd pers.- sin unaia .Thou art beat.ing.
--- p. napiTaa You ard beatih.:
.3rd pe~rs,. 01.1. ana iga. He, she is beating.
2, wanap ga They are beating,
unapT)a It is beating.
ina Iga They are beating..
7 kinapi ga It is beating.
.. vinap They are be.ating.

S MAKE A PARADIGM OF THE INDICATIVE MOOD POSI-
TIVE TENSES (ENTERING 1st PERS. PLUR. 'FORM :0rNLY FOR
-EACH -TENSE,- AND USING A TYPICAL VERB) BY FILLING
IN THE BLANKS ON THE ACCOMPANY-ING SCHEME OR ON A
REVISED. SCHEME MORE SUITED TO YOUR LANGUAGE.









Indef.

Remote
Past-

Immediate
SFast:



Immediat e
Future

R mo te
Future


,Simple


:9---- --------- -f-


ProTressive


Contin.. Perf. Contain. Perf.


Exclusive

Indef. Contir. Perf.
-----~-T--T-


1i'
i --
^_77____ _


MAKE A SIMILAR PARADIGM. FOR THE IDIOCTIVE
MOOD NEGA T IVE TENTSES.
ADD 'ALL DETAILS OF -THE SIG7IF I"ICAN S D
USES OF EACH TETSE, 7 ITH TYPICAL SE"TE-::S I':
ILLUSTRATION.

(ii) Subjunctive Mood (representing the denoted action
or state, not as a fact, but only as a continent and
dependent mental conception): Typically represented
:in Bantu by the,change of the final vowel of the verb-
stem to -e in the present, e. Lamba: twende, let us
go; Swahli: akafunge, let him tie, The subjunctive
is generally used in subordinate olauses of nurpo'e,
desire, etc.; also in pcrniPsive interrorati-n (pe..,
Zulu: ngihlale,.am I .to sit?); in South-eastern
Bantu it is also used after certain:deficient verbs,
and in consecutive construction (.g. Zulu: ham-.ba
u6one) grand see).
TABULATE THE USES OF THE SUBJJ:CTI T .

It must be observed that the present (positive
and negative) are not the only tenses in the sub-
junctive. Lamba has a typical future tense, e.g.
ati aka*one, that he may see (future). Zulu has a
number of -tenses, -positive and negative, present,
past and future.

MAKE PARADIGM OF THE SU3BJUICTIVE TENSES,
POSITIVE AiND NEGATIVE.
iii)/..









,. (ii)- Po tntiac ( exprncssivc f ability) ahnd Conditional
(imply ingI a conqiLtion s.r supo-nsition): ,These. two mroods
re aki: .in forf-i, one nlanua,-e usin- .the form with the
S...'':.one. significocncte, apqth.rl wivth the other sig ificafe;
.. for in tance-,Zulu. hR thq po tential. (e g. sinGi6cna.,' we
Ocean see), which jLamqL has.s .the. conditional (Je. g. tu7rgaIona,
w. e woUld pee:) '~,lso"~o Sw.,hi.i (e:.k, tungeona, we -fould
:" se e),- Typicalliythe, tensi are indicted by infixedd
-n a-; they may be present or past positivee and-i.neative),
bu- not future,
"ABULATE THE V(IELlTIA L OR CONDITIONAL TENSES,
INDICATING THEIR SIGNI.FICi~COE AND SYNTACTICAL 'USE.

(iv) Contingent (expressive cf liability to .ccur, depen-
dent upon certain unlikely or unfulfilled circumst'nc.s):
The tenses ari found in past tine, and generally indicate
.unfulfilled intention,a r condition (e. g Swahili: ninva-
.lipehda,I hCuld have. loed, if...) In Zulu elements
Of tb"h past and future tenses are combined and some call
.these .'.e --t.t- ur.s" ( ,g. engizokuthanda, lit.
I-was-will love)

INVESTIGATE. THKE INCIDENCE OF -CONTINGENT TENSES
IN .YOUR LANGUAGE .,. ':
(v) 'Participiatl r Relative Sub-moo.:. Th.il.'"ood" has
forms corresp-ndin. to indicative, potential"and contin-
gent tenses, adnd is therefore deemed a "sub-mood". It
is-gene-r lly the' basirIof relative clause -con-struction;
S in:fact this is iLts-mai.nfunction in Lamba, for instance,
v whee-., it ha' been' clapsed' a da Relative "Conjugation".
S Tri'-nZulu it is used (1) ae the En-lish participle (e.g.
-'"6 aflka 6ekhala, they came (they) crying), (ii) after
certain" con'junctins e(e (tE tiff ,-I 'when 't because),
(iii) after certain deficient verbs, as well as (iv) as
:the basis o.f rclatihe construction. .

S';-.iAXE ,-rARADIM-S FOR! 'OTH. POSITIVEE AND NEGATIVE
OF .THE .TENSES OF THE PARTICIPIAL SUD-MOOD,: NOTING
PARALLELS 7ITH THE INDICATIVE, POTENTIAL AND CON-
TINGENT MOODS,
Nb. Many tenses' may be found to be identical with in-
dicative tenses, Subjectival c.,ncoris may differ only
slightly: in Zulu the only differences are in Cls. 1
(indic. u-, particip. e-), 2 (indi. 6a-, particip, 6e-)
and 6 (indic, --, partlcip, e-).






50.


3) Compound Tenses: Some Bantu lanRuages, especially those
n Lsuthern zci-es, au ~ient the ir *verbal irni fican.ce by the
Ule' f deficit ;verb, i-.e. verbs, often defective in fr.,
which -require a subordinated predicative cor:nlement to Cr:-
plette them. In Zulu the- complementary verb- i in -he n -
SjunctiveI'mood or the participial suh-m .. exs-- g'ke nifunde, I sometimes read ( <_ -ke, e~..ti
+i subjunctive),; alckhu 6elin a, they keep n .pl:u .n
( < -oihu',' at continually + participial) _Ei _n__-
khuluma, we have just spoken ( < -sanda, t' have. uset acte
+ infinitive).

CLASSIFY- THE DEFICIENT VERBS (IF THEY A^R USED)
.- ACCORDING TO THE CONiSTRUCTION OF TEE C00:.:?LEL,.TRY
VERBS FOLLOW IITG THEM.

(4) -Predica't-ve COncords :
: (a): TABULATE -THE SUDJECTIVL COICORDS FOR ALL ?E-
SONS AND -CLASSES, INDICATIITG A~Y ALTERTEC:IS
SFOR : THI DIFFERENT MOODS. e.r, in Zulu, 1lass 1,
S' indicative and. cntincrent u-; sutjunctive and. n-
tential a-; narticipial -_e-; negative indicative
ka.

TABULATE CONCORD CHANGES FOR PAST .:
FUTURE TENSES.. e., in Zulu, Class 1, recent =-,
past:' wa-, future = T~ (due to coalescence with aux-
il iary- nf ixe s).

S(6'), TABULATE THE OJECTIVAL CONCORDS FOR ALL ?ESCNS
A AND CLASSES, AND NOTE "HERIN TEY DIFE. (
THEY bD) .FROM SUBJECTIVAL CONCORDS. .RCOR T.E
.* REFLEXIVE INFIX, WHICH IN FOLr: AND FUNCTIC :I
AS -A QD]J'CTIVAL .CO:CORD. Note that -tectival
c 6ohcords immediately precede the verb stem.

(5) The Perfect Stem:' GIVE THE RULES FOR THE FORMATI'
OF THE-- PERFECT .STEM OF THE VERB. In so)e lanua- res
These ari very intricate, involvin.L contractins and assimi-
lati6ns; n-te the similarity to the formation of the Ap-
plied' Verbal Derivative.

.INDICATE JITH EXAMPLES THE FUNOTIO-N AD USE CF
THE PERFECT STEM: NOTING PARTICULARLY ITS USE :I-
STATIVE VERBS.,





51.

CHAPTER IX

,. v The O nulatlve

Definition: The copulativ, is a word which does th< work of a
prt.di.cative., rand y/hich is f cr:,.id directly fro.a scme cther part _f
spyicLy tnc dificaticn -.f -r.tfix .r ccnccrd or. by some their in-
fluexicn. : .
T F-r ~u-iane.;'tht 'iani' s i-. rul .f fc ry iatic n fr.cn three languages
( Zulu., rI-.; and SWahili) t ,iv: -..

(1:) ZuIlu Rul-es. .. : '

(a). F.re~i, 'Nun: Those.- cqmr:.:encing in -i-, lower the tone on
That --vowel and miay. r'eplat y- (e.'g, imbuzi, :goat > yibuzi,
it is- a goat);' those coiriencing in -a- or u- lQ wer-.;thelitone
and may rile ng- (e.g. aantuL ,nga6an-u, 'they are people;
umuzi > ngu::mzi, it i.* a .-illage );'- .thoF e -,r ithh contrasted nrd -
fixes in or u- (Ols. 5 and 11) take 1- (.g. itshe >lithe,
it is a stone;- uhun i > lukhuni, it is a :piece :of. firewood ,

:4b) FroI Pronours: General rule is t o' replace. i- (Ce.g.
ona, they >yieona, it is they)..

(c) From A'djectiver:- Th. initial vowel of adjectives .i
elided, except in OT'l,-9 wh'cn gives place to i- ( ,g. -'u.untu
S orkhulu, a big person "7:umuntu tikhulu ,the -prson is big;
inkosT .nkulu > inkosi inkulu, th, chief is big).

(2) Lariba Rules: .

(a-) From A-Nune: ,-Nou.ns of.I normal disyllabic -refix drop the
initial vovw(Fl ind 'raisL: thc tfont on thi' remaining syllable of
the prefix ( .g. uinuntu > mnirmt it is a person). Nouns cf
C1.5 with pcfix I-- preplace; 1- (e.g. Isara -:lisana, it is an
-gg) Nqu:--having .no .initial vowel, 7 of .the sub-classes,
and nouns with .nc;pnQyllab.iq prefix, i. c.. cf -Cls 9 and 10,
assume the Cooulantive formative ni- (e.g. tata c- nit-ta, it is
my fatheri;- u mboni- >niumbcn:i,- it is wi tness:; 'i butsi> ni-
*.busi, -it 1i & goat) .
.. -
(b) FroiG Popnounse: General rulc i: ct pteplace n-i-; with
demcnetratives this is replaced -to:-a.modified forcr of the
pronoun (e:...ici, .tjhis nicigi, it is this).
*(o) rom Adjectivcs: I-nitial iv l ei' i li-ded and tcne raised
'- g. umuntu umukulu, a big -person >_umnxid mukulu, the pers n
is b but if O the adjectival ocnc':rd-is merely a vowel, that
remains with tone raised (e.g. umtfti'-ukul,-' a big tree .>u.:uti
ukulu, the tree is big).
(3) ...






52.


(3) Swahili Rules: Gentrally -p king th for:r.ativ ni- ei
used in the positive and. si- in th< n-g:tivc (.. J--a rn-
-mpagazi, Juma is a carrier- Jura. si--.aPazi, Ju::a is : t
a carrier).
.- : There are t.m main cobul..tiv -f r:.ingi vtrbp ir'3--ntu:
('1) -16a, -wa or -_a, and (ii) -1. In each -cas th- s are
auxiliary h-n force and ar(- f ll- ed by ccpulctive (.:r an
adverb). In Zulu -n(e V,'rd results (L.g. uku an.:runtu, tL
be. a person; uzo6ayinkcsi, he will be a chief); in Lambc-
two words result (c. g.uk.u~a :ntu and-. -kalukuli ni::.:fu:,
respectively). Th, above verbs art cnerally usea in c-
jugating the copulatives, and n.t in the plain rredicati. n;
though in Shcna and sone. ether lanr ac s tht auxiliary -ri
ise employ-d in ordinary pre-dicati n -(i.. .,ari _-ahu, they
are people; *ndiri murcfu, .I am tall). In La::ba the aux-
-iliary -li-is used .in -conJu tenses., -a in, :th.c -ubjunctive and conditional, -h-ile ".'th
arE..-found-'n infinitive format'i-.ns.

Summary: Four meth-ds appear to b(- e:mloyec A
(i) General inflexi-n in which tone plays a cnsLr sdraBle
S part,
(ii) The use of unchan:,inm formatives, x yi- (Zulu);
ke- (Sotho), ni- and si- (Swahili), etc.
(iii) '-Th-e use cf auxiliar-y verbs, -li. a, etc.
(iv.) The use f subjcotival c nccrde bef rre unalt r;d words.

SET OUT THE RULES OF COPULATIVE FOILATIO: FF.O-
NOUNS, ALL TYPES OF P1'7C:OU.S, ALL TYESS CF QUALIFI-
CATIVES, AND FROM ADVERBS. GIVE EXA .FL-ES..

STABULATE- THE .-COO1JUGATION OF COP.ULATIVES,- IVI:3
PARADIGMS FOR -EACH MOOD.
INVESTIGATE THE II'CIDEITCE .OF SPECIAL 00ULa.TIVE
FORiS, E,G. LOCATIVE DELO STrATIVE COPUL.iTIVES .0 :E3-
ATIVE PRONOlMINAL COPULAT-IVES. TABULATE.-

b (.' "(i) .Locativec demonstrative copulativce in Lasta arI
such forms as: gu (C1.1. here he is), syesyE (01.1C.
there they are), mbalya (01.2. y-nder they arT),
There being forms fr- each class, cf each no:itional
type of demonstrative.;
Nb. (ii) Negative iprcncrinal--ccpulative-s .in Le-ta- are
such forms as: woy (C1..1. not he.l); fyf (C1.3.
not theyl:; k--ku (Cl.15.: not "ittl), thtr :ein- r:.-s
*for eaoh class of the third person, which .may be' sea
as negative .adverb s.





53, ^- / '.
CHAPTER X
i7, I ie: Adverb

Definition: Akn adverb LIisla word which describes a qualificative,
predicative or ether adverb with respect to time, place o.r manner.
, W:ith manxifier may ':e asso cited the .following semanti-c types:
(i) instruiment, (ii) conjunction,: (iii) comparison, (iv) agent,
and. (v) stato.

(1). Adverbs of Time- These'are generally indicated 'by:-the use of
-nouns (e.g, Zulu; ua6usuku, night, by night-; Lamba: uluoelo,
early morning, in -te eaz-y morning) or of nouns shorn of
initial vowel (a,. Zu.lu niambama, in the afternoon < inta-
mbama, afternoon; Lambat mailo, yesterday, tomorrow< obE.
noun amailo), Lamba uses, also-, the.pr.efix 1'i- connected d
with 01.5 i'refix) to form certain adverbs of time (e.g. linj,
now; lisa? when? li_.ili, again; etc.).
CLASSIFY THE ADVERBS OF TIME AND THEIR METHOD OF
FORMATION.

(2) Adverbs .cf Place: These in Bantu come under the -general head-
'1ng lf locat-vfs., Tbose Bantu languages which use the pre-
fixes cf 010. 1b, 17 and 18 to form noun classes may use the
.same words-syntactically as adverbs. Note.: In most lang-
uages the dictincticn between noun and advert ,iis elastic, e.g.
,..,.,q-tomorr.ow", in English, izolo (01.5) in Zulu,- Vhile the tern
"locatitve- -primarfily ean.s- "lacei, .it may- also be. used of
time (eg. in Zulu: ezinsukwini, in the days, esikhathini, at
the time.
i.Locative adverbs may be formed (i) by Prefix, (ii) by
-Suff' ix,. (iii) by.both prefix and suff:ix, iv) without change.

(i) central and NorTh erni Bantu use prefix forms, employing
0l,16, ..- occurring al.o as a-, fa-, ha-, va- etc.; e.g.
Lamba,. pamutwi, on the head;. panST on t. e ground), 01,17 ku-
(o,c6ur nu also ho,--, u-.- altern as does-the infinitive pre-
fix; .e.g. L.amba, kuiaLnda, to the house;: kw l i, up above),
01.18 mu- (occur:rin, 'alsc as m-; e. g Lar-ba., munda, in the
stomach;-"mukati, i.nide) and the pref i e- which, is strictly
adverbial, as found in Ganda (eg eMengo, at Mengo; eno,
here; ewafe, at eur place). This same e- occurs in Zu-u
(e.g. eMiea:. at home; eKii, at Cape Town) Refer to the
significance of the prefixes pa-, ku- and mu- dealt with in
Chapter III .
(ii) -In..Eastern, nd Southern Bantu, locative-adverbs are
formed primarily:by suffix, e. Sotho : -nfg (thabeig, on the
mountain' taun, to, the lion); Swabili: '-ni (nyumbani, in
the house; mtoni, to -he river). Note thaT-Swahili uses
concords/...








concords of Cls. 16, 17 &: 1...with certain aualificatives in
agreement (e.g. nyumbani 'ranhu, in my hcuse; nu'ani
-.: .. ,.at- my, house ;, n yumJL nT.kanu, -to :y ho use) ..

(iii) Zulu commonly uses suffixal -ni smith mrefixal e- ir -
-( e.g. inta6a:> enta6eni, onn-the mountain; -izulu > ezulT.ni,
S.n he;ai ven.; :..t hl. Gthi ni. on -the stick). L1akua -uses
suffixal' -ni wt-h the -refixal forms of Cle. .16, 17 & 1l
(e.g. vamaihini, at the weter; umashini, t- the wster;
mmashini, in th.e water. mashi, water). Tswana. in ad-
Sdtion to euff.ixing -n cormo.nly usee.s' the- -Te*-fxes- oc-,
kw'a- and ha- (-eo,. boyang mo-toyan e.ne in..'the a 7F).

Sote 1: W here there is irc ind'ich-tin f Classes Ic,
17 or 1.. (a.s in Zulu) -the-precise significance :'f the loc-
live, ;lto: ,- 'frcm ': n '.in! '.n', etc, depende-unon context
or the verb used, '

Note 2'.. Even in the suffixs-usin lar. uazes -of the
South, adverbial forms in pa- and ku- persist (e.:. Zulu:
phansi, hakathi, phezulu; kude, fr, kufunhi, near); ku-
is also found in the locative formations cf 1.1 (particu-
larly la, e.g. Xhosa; ku6awo, to my father < u6awa- and :f
pronouns -(eg. Xhosa: .kubo tc them< 6ona).

(iv) In ceTthin languages of .onosyllatic prefix, where di-
* Syl-labio languages would use e- refixx, there iE. n, change
to form the -locat.ve. aLdver Shna: .azari, t: Harari
i:.' t' S-alf'sur7-.; Soth~: Fora, to or from France),
(v) Note should be made of the use of the cEssessive 1;c-
ative prefix kwa- (mwa- and pa- also in crt.ain lanzuaee)
used wittht name s of:persons indi'at.in- the place under
S that person ju-risdiction -e Larba kwaXata:K.a, at
Katanga's village; Zulu; kwaZulu, in Zululand),

(vi') certain languages: i; gp:cefixa ku-and -, have
deri-t'ive predictt ve forms before nouhs of Ol*si T1a and
S 2a-, hounswitli preprefies -and pr6nouns. In Lamra these
are- pai- kuli and muli (e -k-uli tta to y'father;
uli.__- j in him); 'in Shona they.are pan, kuna and'.una
e,. pana lye, on"him) ----
SET OUT THE RULES OF- LOCATIVE FORMlATIOR I:
.CAREFUL DETAIL.

3) Adverbs of Manner: Many Bantu lanuacep have miscellane us
words to indicate manner- adverse (e.. Lamba:- win, well;
'Shdn,, zakanaka), but some use-.a special formative, e. .
Zul: I.a-(- e ood >1ka.4:e, well); S6the : ha- ( ha-
Sr-.te ;iewell'); -lia ka- (kabotu, we.ll) .
LASSIFY THE ADVERBS OF MANNER,





55.

(4) Adverbs f Instrunent: There is generally a prefixal for-
mative used Tt i subT, antives to form instrumental adverse ,e. g.
Zulu nga- (n:ama6omu, on purpose; nothi, with a stick;
nga6o7,Thrcuoh them)-.-; L-amba uses eTther "conjunctive" na-
or- Tocative& ku- for this purpose (nefumo or kwifumc,, wIth
a.spear, by means of a spear); SwahTil uses. "conjunctive" na-.
WHAT -PREFIX IS USED TO INDICATE THE INSTRUMENT,
GIVE -TYPICAL EXAMPLES,

(5) Adverbs- of Conjuncticint Th& conjunctive formative (generally
.na-; SothT le-)' is used: to form con;junctive adverbs, indi-
catinrg to _e'tr v.ithi -(e,-g. Zulu: ukuhamba nenja, to travel
'wi-th a dog).
RECORD THIS IF IT IS USED,

(6) A-dverbs of Comparison: Generally some prefix is found to in-
di.cae these e. p.. Gandal n'a-, lcn.iovu,~ like an elephant;
Shorna:. ser-, somunlihu, li:-'a person: Zulu; n en a-, nengo--
.muntu, like a person Zulu also has nanga- (of the same
siZe an)) kuna- (in compc-rison with),
RECORD THE CQOMPARTIVE FORMiATIVES, GIVING THE RULES
OF USE.

(7) Adverbs of Agent: Different langkuaes *indicate the agentive
adverb in different ways, Zulu uses the copulativeform of
the substantive to indicate the agent of an action (e.g.
u6onwa ngrumuntu, to be seen by a person); Swahili uses (i)
Sconjunctive na- and (ii) copulative ni- according to dialect),
STATE THE .FORMATION OF THE AGENT AFTER PASSIVE
VERBS.

(8) Adverbs of State: .Somet-imes there are special 'formations for
these; ZuTIu with prefix 6u- (connected to C1,14 prefix; e.g.
6ume, in standin,;^.psiti.bn;; Lamba uses ubwi- (of same class;
e.- g. ubwisanern., f-ce it-0wards, ubwifutenuma, backwards),
RECORD ANY ADVERBS OF STATE THAT MAY EXIST IN'-
YOUR LANGUAGE,
Adverbs may alteranatively be olssified according to
form, as in Lamba:
(i Absolute adverbs (eg, kani, perhaps tanje, lirst of all).
(ii Noun-stems with short pretTxes tc,". oi-, cipale, perhaps;
lu-, lukoso, simply; ma-. makosa, exceedingly: -u-, *ukumo,
now; li-, litatu. three tilue).
(iii) Adverbial use of fi..'ll nouns j(., ulu ilo speed, speedily;
icine, truth.,. truly;-.'. akasua, ..day during the day).







CHA'?T R. XI

7 Th eoodech', h
.D e f i .1 ,'- i, C ,nf ,m ati *, -i -

''efinFi.l:'' An .idecphone is a iw'rd, often on: r.pat'pc ic, which
dtscibe.s a- predicative, qu-alifica-tive .-r adverb in reenect t
11ahiner, colcur, sPund, smell, acti n, statc r intensity.

_-; -In -Bantu. it .is a special par- r f speech, .re seC lin, t ai
ocert in extent, in.functicn the ad vrLt, tT -tht~ eTl f4it-t zich- it
is .a ss'ified as descriptive; 'ut unlike '-hich it :.;ay Ve ueE
'in some languages as a predicate. It is noter.orthy that therre
are no ideophones of tinm or place.

In some Bantu languages the ideophonc is used with a -or-
*t-ioul4-r defective ver e.' in Ronga .vith.ku.ti, kuku' .d n.uli
(hb u titse -he said nothing.;: k-uti rphu, it *iF s~omy; yinlu
7-i_ i a- the bhut is 'right): In Zulu it .is generally' used
with.-tkuthi, in Sotho .yith ho-:.:. In La:n'a usually no- e-ciJ1
verb precedes the ideophon-e" ~hch -itself t'ecom: e the. -nrdicate
( eg. krcumfwa umwando putu, then the. string ,ent snan7; pe~
lwe nikurmusi, then it orpned out at the village). The .i- io-
phone mar aot as an intensifier vith cognate or derivative v-r'-e
( g, C in. Lanba: .ukufIto btwl, .te te .pitch black; ukus.okol sEO'o,
,o pu.l right. outT -

'. Th'e no.s.t Oatisfa.ctory cla si.fic.ion of ideophones is (i)
ocod..~ng to yallables,, onosylla'ic, disylla.ic,-t rigylla'ic,
tc, and (:L1') a further 1` -divisibn aoccrding- tc honctic Phe-
nomenae.(.e .g in Zul.u according to tone; in Lauba according to
length and -ype of vowel), It must be pointed cut that gen-
erally tChe special rules cf length, tone and stress, ap'-licale
in ordinary. grammatical .frmr, differ-consideratly in the case -f
.i deophone a,, For instance, in Zulu, str(,.s is c-har.acteristically
.'pnultimate tubut with .dephonx s it is initial; ale length is
'character is tica;.l penul timart;e. ut with Zulu. ideophonees -1
syllabLles are 3hcrt, e:ce;,;r a .fzv rare cases :T th-e final syl-
lable being long, as well as that -f monceylla":'ic idt.ph-nes.
Again in Lamrnba the ordinary tone-systei o vers'three level t.nee,
but in the oa case. ideophone- rTsingr an( falling to;e are also
found, as well as a'variety cf unusual phone elEm(-nts, such as
nasalised and pressed vowels These extra-ncrmal phenor.nena
*are often shared with interjebtions both they. and idechohe.
being emotional in character,

Though ideophones are often'nradicalp" fr. wi ,ihvet s and
nouns may be formed (e go Zulu: cdu > g oduka, t home; La::
put >putula, snap); they are alE- a-oetimT derivative fr -m
verbs (eDg. in Lamba: ukupama pame pame, t. strike and strike;
kakuluulua kkuullu, untie! cr' ukukakuluka kakuluku, t- co:r.e un-
tied; in Zu.lu. 6univani, of fading < buna; 6oniyani, of see-
ing < 6ona)
5nci-c .:t n/ ......









Specimen classification (Zulu. and Lamba):
(i) Monosylla ic: ,,Zulu: bu (of. beating), qwa (of whiteness);
Lamba: bwa ( bf tabbling), to0 (of firmness).
(ii) ..Disyllabic: Zulu: 6.ani (of flashing) ,_klbu .(of redness)
Lamnhb, lulu (cf. bitterness), njele' of-- cTaiging-o'!)
(of chopping),
(iii) Tisyllbic '.Zulu: o'fkiti (-df being' full) Lamba:
.,pupulu (of quick arrival).
(ivY. Quadr:isyllabio: Zulu.: b4lakaxa (.of. sprawling); 'Lamba:
.polzrnoakc (of headlong- movementt.

Specimen. sutb-class iYicatic ns:
(a) .-Zulu monosyll,;bic according to tone:.
(1(i:) 'i:i ig-fall in tone: bu -(of beating out) ;. .a (of
lyinT flat). -
(ii) low-falling tone: bee (of blazing); nhlp'(cf begin-
; ning time).
S(iii), low-rising tone: du (of quietness).;: .mbo (,qf cover-
A 'g o-ver)
S(iv) hi h-level tone: ne (of sticking); ntLti(f sting-

(v) -. high-falling: chi (of chattering) ; twi .(o hearing)
(b) Lamba menocsyllabic according to length and type-' f vowel:
.(i hort vowel: mbi (ofodrum beating); g -(of hard-
ness).
(ii) long vowel: mbe (of shimmering); py (of swift en-
Strance).1
(iii) p'proiongeed'vowel: wP- ('f emergingg; kwT (of drag-
(iv) nasalised vowel : n'(of depth); maPU (of snapping
(v) pressede' vowel:* w1: (cry ouf bushbuck); .i (cry of
mole.)1

CLASSIFY AND SUB-CLASSIFY THE- IDEOPHOTES, REMARKING ON
ANY PECULIARITIES OF PHONE, TONE, LENGTH OR STRESS.

.8ET OUT THE SYNTACTICAL RULES. 'FOR THE. USE OF IDEO-
PHONES, IN YODUR LANGUAGE.









CHAPTER XII*


dodniunctiv- and Iihtertedtive


' (A) 'The C o nj;n tive beino a separablJe V-Wrd, excludes the -fr-
mative na-, the. usual Bantu -equivalent to ,nili-h an ,".

In ,antu some conjunctive. are--co-rrdinat-n, as t-e
equivalents of "but" and '!therefore"; 'they di not affect
the mood cf the succeedini predicate; but the-majority
i ntroduoe a'ubordinate" clause, such;as those indicating
"when", "in order that", "because", eto. Thert are a few
conjunctions in some Bantu languages which j.in t_. ether
words, such as substantive -and adverbs (-instead cf sen-
tences), e,-. in Zulu noma.,,.noma (elther....iry, Sizoo-
duka noma namu=la acma n7?rseo (e shall- -o home either to-
day or tomorrow); but the equivalent in Lamba, Trakuya
-kw c'u:-an i:nilel kani ni~aailo, seews a revulsion against
this by using the predicative forms of l l- (today) and
mail -(tomorrow) : ;

Aocordig toform conjunctives maybe divided into
(i) primitive conjunctives, i.e. conjunctiton-e (e.,. Zulu'
futhi, furthermore; Shona; kana, if; Larrmba: scti, ut);
(TTTh')ihr parts "f speech usd functionally as coTjunc-
tives without change of firm: e.,., Zulu infinitive ukutthi,
uku6a sco that-)' ,*pro noun kodwa (but); Laba prorno-uns ?-
pele, p ka (then); and (iii) other parts of s~eeco modi-
f* ed or nTlebted: e,--Z:Zulu noku6a {-ha- + ukufa alth uzh)
S Lamba contracted, infinitive s .kdmfWa, ku- a : na (there-
upon),
Accerdinm to syntactical function conjunctives may be
divied.- inEto i). non-influenc.in (i.e. not affecting the
mood of the succecdinn predicate, e.g. Zulu kodwa, but,
,and most Lamba'conjunctive s); (ii) those zove rnin a euc-
junctive,-such a's conjunctives indioatinz purpose; and
(iii) thoQe governing .a, participial or relative eub~-od,
such as' Zulu uma, if, when} ngokuca, because; S-tho ha,
if, when; Lamba ili, when, In connection with (ii) and
(iii) the similarT-y in origin and function to the use of
dfefioient yverbS- is noticeable in .the N .uni .~rup of lan:-
uage .'. :

CLASSIFY ..THE NAIIT CONJUICTIONS (i) AZZC DI,::G T:
"THEIR FORM, AND (ii) ACCORDING -TO- THEIR SY)TACTICAL
FUNCTION. GIVE IDIOMATIC EXAMPLES OF THEIR USE,


(3)/....


.1 i.






59.


(3) The Interjective in Baintu r.,y be divided into three
type: '~- rii~7 t.tr nter Cctives j:iie-.: interjections;
(ii) vocative inte:vie tires; and (iii) imperative
interjectives. ... .. .

,(i) -'P.'iiiti ve"int er i ct-ives Like .-ideophones these inter-
e t ion a.e n'i'7T eo-L Ln.onal in character and often have
ex'tra-normal lphonetic and toneti:o. aharaoteristics, e.g, Lamba:
2 (here 'it' :,, -'i (oh my l); Zulu: 6a66o (al:ast). They
include common innte. 7'.. 'rns of assent and negation, eg.
.*. ZTilti _ha -o.) .'-it -No: Sotho. aowaan l Shto a 60'o !

LIST THE GOM.(I ,i ITYTERJECTONS NOTING ALL ..SPECIAL
PECULIARITIES.

(ii) Vocative -in M, tie'ives:- The main:rule for the formation
cf vocativ s'frm n-ous~''.7s to -elide .the-linitial vowel where it
occuis, other;w:.se ": ~iio ange (e g. Zulu: amadoda. madoda,
men. inko s >nkcji, chief" Laimba: umuntu'> munti mant
iikalamu kalciinu 1,i)nt Katat:a remains KataTa in the voo-
ative. Often :;1 I.ma e,- (siwo- .) 'nd mwer- (plir.) 'are pre-
fixed, ec:, :.wernta ~;erT (Ye people, c'e ). In.Zulu C1.2a
prefix o- by,- es -' c -.;. 6o0a6a. 0 fathers < o6a6a.

In Tsweha ar. 'tidr .thelvoca-ive forms of proper names
are the bas.iO:ones, t he nouns boein- formed from them by change
of final vowel, e, i-"Tsvwana: K rma Taul > nouns Kgam,
Taut; Venda; Tshivhis. .a-l, nr- uc Tshivhase, whenused-as sub-
ject or objects
SET OU; -TH- ,'-PLES. THE ;RULES i.FObR-F.ORMING VOC-
ATIVE I]NTE : i .OM NOUN 1. ..

(iii) Imperaz iYv :n"r 1bsy GV Verbt imperative s, have neither
subject nor s'ub ec tl-'e nCord; c.they. have th-e-. syntactical
force, of in Geriec;, 3, .ht.. t. withJ-n -added verbal implication,
-i.e. they may t"'c % j'cti a-nd -assue extensionb. They are
2nd person fo:.r.;, in-l.r and plural beihg d,-ditinguished by
.-.suff-ix. No;;e .f ro.i-.Lamba I :
fuma go aw'ytx ) p, fumeni4 -
koko (take ho'dc) pi ~ c TEeni
is hi i(,h .I i_ .. siniC _. f ,,,,- f;:r ,

The tw
NOTE THE INTE RJECTIVE L iU$E OF I'MPEfRATIVES,. AND RE-
CORD ANY 'SUCG i iTERJEC;VES .HICHV ;iAVE ,, O 0THER VERBAL
-FORM THAN TRiA,T .Oj 'L, I PRA TVE. .
." 7" ".


1 Der iv~ribdr Trbb i 'lhe Co '.ie ouan tau, 21ion.


I___ __ _


~--- -- ~-----







CHAPTER XIII
S. Lsce c ollaneous Grammatical Ph&ncmea. r

1. The Signification of Sex Gender:
jj1 It cannot be over-emphasised that sex -ender ie not a
*grammatical feature in 3antu, but there are ways ;f diEting-
Tuishi~g -owsri (,not pronouns) indicating the male and-the fe-
maJe ;f3om the generic term; Note the following;

(1) By the- sparely-used suffix (-kazi, -kadzi, -kas-i, etc.)
to form a feminine from the generic term; and the suffix
I.:.-lume 'ta form a masculine, Cf. Ch,IV .
(ii) By the limited use of prefixes forminC Class la nouns:
(a) fcr the male: Zulu so-, usokhaya, the head :f the
r house; Latba si- sikombwe, cock; (b) for the female:
Zulu no-, unomt e e, queen termite; Lamba na- -r nyina-,
; nyinha~u1,i ewe-70at.
r (iii) D3yThe use of special terms for the male, praise names,
S e.g. for "fowJl'.r .

(Generic) (Feminine) (Masculine)
Zhlu inkuku. isikhukukazi ighude
Lamba'. "insumbi inseke kom'olwe

(iv) By the use of qualificatives:
(a) Adjectival as in Lamba: -alalume (male) and
-anakasi (female) e.g. inama iyalalume (male animal),
inama isyanakas i. female animale.
(b) Possessive as in Zulu, using as basis for male,
igilisa (of persons) and induna (of animal) and for
female, isifazana (of persons) and insikazi f ani-
m"als); eg. umuntu wesilisa (male person), inrulu6e
yensikazi (sow).

CLASSIFY THE VARIOUS METHODS OF ITDICATI: G
SEX GENDER IN NOUNS.

2. Relative Clause Construction:

Note that there are tto main divisions: (a) The Rel-
ative of Direct relationship, when the antecedent iF sub-
ject of the relative predicate (e. "the man who...");
and (b) The Relative of Indirect relationship, when the
antecedent is object or in oblique relation to- the rel-
ative predicate (e.g. "the man whom.. ", "the man to whom,..
"the man by whom..." etc,), In this indirect relative,
construotions/ ..







onstruqtions vary greatly from one Bantu language,,to .another;
,rin Shona, for instance, the construction is possessive 'not
relative (e.g. 6an-a randaka.Ona, the knife whichI sao lit.
knife it-of-I-saw), In Sotho and Lamba demonstrative pro-
nouns.are ,employed'in the formation. In Venda actual relative
pronovn 1:are:used (of. Ch.V)

The use cf suffixes in relative construction should be
noted; .e. g in Zulu -yo. (umuntu ohambayon a perscn'who walks),
in Sotho n (motho ea-tsamaean), in Swahili ronominal en-
S:.cli.tios in agreementt (,tu atakaye, a person who wants, pl.
watu watakao) .
Note thtit the basis pof relative clause construction is
the participial or relative sub-mood,

GIVE A' --DETAILED TREATMENT OF- .THE 'RELATIVE .CLAUSE
cONSTRUCTION-~',' DIFFERENTIATING VERBAL FROM COPULATIVE
PREDICATE FORMS, AND .'.LASSIFYING ACCORDING' TO THE TYPE
QF RELATIONSHIP.1

3, The 'Numerati' :
(a) The. basics of enumeration in Bantu is quinary, and most
Danth .anguages have the basic forms for the numerals 'one' to
'five'. Typical Bantu lan-ua.-ees go on to use th-e forms five
and' 'neT, "'five and twot et c. and the Dantu noun 'fort-- ten' .
Other languages have developed composite for-ms for seiZl to
'nine', or borrowed them as Swahili from Arabic. Care must be
taken to sort out the ,Cardinal number's into the vaz.ious parts
of speech they represent; e.g, in Zulu: 1 is enumerative,
2. -5-are adjectives, 6-10 .are nouns,; In some languages, e.g.
cf the- Tonga Group of the Central Zone, the numerals are
definite- in type, being syntactically quantitative pronouns.

TABULATE THE NUMERALS, CLASSIFYING ACCORDING' TO THE
PARTS. -OF- -SPEECH REPRESENTED .AND THE CONSTRUCTION FOLLOW-
ED.
RECORD ALL METHODS OF 'COUNTING.
(b) Ordinal numbers are generally formed by mean of'f possess-
ive concords the; first' usually being indicated .by .uing the
verb- to begin, .
GIVE. INFORMATION. REGARDING THE OONS'RUOCTION OF
pR DINALS .., .. : ..

4, The Interrogatives:
It cannot be emphasized to., strongly that :there are no
.. *.interrogative/..
1 Reference might be made to Doke, "Text-book cf Lamba 'Grammar",
665-669, where a suggestive classification is given,


e1.i





62.


interrogative prnouns, a.s uch in nantu. Interrogatives
: are. scattered .arron e- seer.,:. other parts of speech. They
-may bei:. -- ..

(i) Interrogative N ouns: e ,z !who?" found generally in
01s. la and 2a (Zulu, uEni o'6ani'; Sothc: mango, tomranI;
Lamba, .nan on .In Lamba "vhat? indTo i
aa npun c .9. .
(i) Interrogativ Adjeotves e.. Zulu: naki? .any?
(iii) Interrog'ative Rei '-i es: e.g. Zulu: -ngakanani h:W
many? -njani? of what so:t? -nhi? where?
-:t( ivY: rIterrogat lve.- Enuaz.r atives: Zulu; -nhi? which? -ni?
what? Lamba: -isa? which? -nca? how many?
(v) Interrogative Adverxbns e, Zulu: nini? when? ngani?
*"-'"hy?- Lamba: syani? hor? Al-sothe pure Tn-erro.tive
..... hanging a statement to a cu-estion, e.g, Zulu and S.tho;
n"'a?- Lamba: -kan ? S horia here?
Certain internrrogatives, those 'of adjectival, relative
and enumerative typt !"aVy be used nronominally; cut n:
interrogatives are nroncu:,n s such
CLASSIFY- THE' INTERROGATIVES AOOORDING TO PART CF
SPEECH, RECORD- THEIR VARI'OUS-_ INFLEXIONS (TO .CR CP-
ULATIVES PRONOUNS, L0ATIVES. 'AND OTHER ADVERS) .:"
GIVE EXAMPLES OF- 'THEIT USE

5. --,Enolitio and Procl tic .o ,:tmat-lves
T. Thse are ilean inr.Cn i-. wwc rds, monosylabic words which
S.,hMve los.ttheir p, i:' ;g ;w\er, and attached the.eelves to
some othei worbd, pa.r.al tr Cf the phonetic entity If that
Sword, Enclitics E .o fxal, proolitice nrefixal.
Enclitic fo'rmkative ,--.c found in rOet Dantu lanuazee.
The locative encl-zio ..-i ". (" o are conmon-in Oettral
Dantu. In Zulu certain InterrcratTvee are used encliti-
_,i,-, oally,eg. -ph? .h.r hrc? (still. a separate wrrd in Xhoea
-* a ..Phi?, or .phhina) .n.n.? what? ..In. Xhcsa the interrocative
-na? (used t ndicate c, question) i. an enclitic' in
Zulu it is still a sepa-rate adverb, na Some enclitice
.raw the stress forward. ap wah4mba (-eE went) > waharbike
(so he went) in Zulu, while others do not, e.'. W2hA=.a-nje
(he merely went), Enclitic possessives are found, e.g.
Nyanja mwanako thy child: Zulu umkakhe, his wife; 3anla
ekitabo-kye, his book-
: LASSIFY' E- ECOITICS, '-OINIING UP THOSE. 'I
*R DRAW 'THE STRESS FORWARD AND HYPHENING THOSE ,H ICH
",r. LEAVE TH STRESS ,NALT~ERED.
.. ", "







The only proclitic used in Dantu is the conjunctive for-
mative na- (Soth, le-)
This is always joined- t-'the. succeeding word, sometimes
causing elision of an initial vcwel, sometimes coalescence
therewith and sometimes Substitution of the vbwel -e fbr--a.
Note that th(c function cf- the 'suicceed-ih word. i'~hoft altered'
by the pfefixi xn17 ithis proclitic 'which was originally a -
3antu verb meaning tc, be or 'tc have'; e. L- in the cases
of umuntu ncmkakhe (the person and his wife) both words are
still nouns. Conjunctive na- nay also be used adverbially
when the function f the wor-d to which it is prefixed is al-
tered, e ,.:,'ukuham'ba nenja (to travel with a do,), in.which
case nenja is a Conjunctive adverb.
RECORD THE FORM, RULES OF `USE AND FUNCTION OF THE
PROCLITIC IN YOUR LANGUAGE,
STATE WHETHER PROCLITIC NA- IS USED IN FORMING THE
EQUIVALENT OF THE ENGLISH 'TO HAVE!, EXPLAIN THE FORMATION.
6. Term f .Relationship TABULATE THESE ACCORDING TO THE
CLASSIFICATORY 'SYSTEM ab ,follows:.
A. Blooi RelationsEip:
( i) Third ascendin, generation ( great rand-parents, etc.).
(ii) Second ascending generation (irand-parents,, etc.).
(iii) ,First.ascendin2 generation (parents and brothers and sis-
ters of partits) ,,
(iv) Contemporary generationn (brothers, sisters, cousins).
(v First descending, teneatiodn (children, nephews-, nieces)..
(vi Second deecendinr gTeneration' ('rand-children, etc.).
(vii Third aese.endingi. generation.- (reat-mrand-children, etc.).

B. Marriaire Relationshlp .
Here arrange names for wife: (or various wives) and her
contemporary relations (brother-in-law, sister-in-law);.her
parents (father-in-law, mother-in-law), her grandparents etc.
Similarly arrange names for husband and his relatives.
Record terms for "fellow-wife", mutual.terms used between
woman's parents and her husband's parents, etc.
7. Language for Speoial bOcc&sons:. HAS YOUR LANGUAGE"-'SPECIAL
FORMS VOCABULARY R0' CONSTRUCTIONS FOR SPECIAL' OCCASIONS?
SNb., entralTBanTtu usesi theT.honodifio plural when addressing a
superior'or' as a tean' of respect. -Nguni- ang~uages use the
hlonipha speech.of women to avoid pronouncing words having the
samerod.t a.s. the name *of husband or father-in-law,
8. Forei M, acquisitions: TABULATE ,,THE MOST IMPORTANT REPRE-
SENTAUTIVES D,) 1NOUNS, (ii) VERBS, (iii) OTHER WORDS, (iv)
CONSTRUCTIONS, (v) IDIOMS, DERIVED' FROM FOREIGN SOURCES: (a)
BANTU, (b) AFRICAN NON-BANTU, (c) EUROPEAN, (d) ASIATIC.







CHAPTER XIV


N.otos on Syntax

.Only sketchy guidance can here be given upon a subject of
great diversity:and intr:icacy among the Bantu languages; a-cer-
tain number f' suggested:headings for investigation and record
are .now. set down:
I. -The Sentence.
(a) NoFmal, word order with predicate (i) as verb, and
ii) as copulative
(b) Simple sentences,
(c) Compound sentences,
(d) Complex sentences.

lI. The Syntax of the Substantive.
(a) The Substantive as Subject: principle of Concord.
(b) The Compound subject: (i) choice of concord for two
or more subjects, (ii) word-order .(? inversion).
(o) The Substantive as Object; use or non-use of objec-
'tival concord.
(d) The C.ompound object,
(e) Principal and 'Subsidiary objects (i.e. with verbs
wh ih may take ,two o.b:ects); cognate objects.
(f-) Appositional use of Substantives.
(g) Absoluplt" or .tdv_,rbial-. 'se -of Subetantives.
(h) The initial vowel of '6urs, its function.
(1) The indication of definite and indefinite Subject :r
object; how this is achieved. '
j) t SubstantiveJ. phrases,
k tSubstantival clause's,;
(1) oepor.tbd Spee'ch
II. Syntax'of the Qualificative.
(a) Syntactical o.rde of qualificatives.
(b) Syntax of the Adjective:
(o) Syntax of "thf Relative. INb. if not treated in h.,XIII,
relative clauee-conetruction might be treated here- -
(d)' Syntax of- the EnumErative N'b. if not treated ir .0.
XIII, there question of the numerals and countin- mizht be
treated here
(e). ..Syntax of the Possessive -- poseesi-ve -pra&sep.
(f): Qualificativeb Clauses (other'than Relative).


Iv/. ...






(54

IV. Syntax of the Predicative.
(a) Sequence of predicates in consecutive construction (co-
crdination or subordination).
(b) Differentiation of ordinary predicates from the use of
imperatives (interjectives).
(c) The import of the verb: the constructions with intrans-
itive, transitive, locative (those demanding locative con-
structions), instrumental, etc. verbs.
(d) Syntax of the indicative mood.
(a) Syntax of the subjunctive mood.
(f) Syntax of the potential or conditional mood.
( ) Syntax of the contingent mood.
(h) Syntax of the participial or relative sub-mood.
(i) Use of compound or complicated nredicates, as by the use
of deficient or auxiliary verbs.
(j.) Syntax of the Copulative.


V. Syntax of the Descriptive.
Consider this with reference to words, phrases and
clauses indicative of place, time, reason, concession, con-
dition and purpose,




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