• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Note on orthography
 Classes 1 and 1(a)
 Class 2
 Class 3
 Class 4
 Class 5
 Class 6
 Class 7
 Class 8
 Class 9(a)
 Class 9(b)
 Miscellaneous concords and...
 Adjectival stems
 The copulative
 The numeral
 Locative construction
 Comparitive vocabularies






Group Title: Communications from the School of African studies, University of Cape Town. New ser., no. 2. June 1942
Title: Notes on the noun-classes of some Bantu languages of Ngamiland (Yeei, Subia, Gova, and Gcereku)
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073389/00001
 Material Information
Title: Notes on the noun-classes of some Bantu languages of Ngamiland (Yeei, Subia, Gova, and Gcereku)
Series Title: Communications from the School of African studies, University of Cape Town. New ser.
Physical Description: 1 p. l., iii, 1, 103 p. : ; 34 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Schapera, Isaac, 1905-
Merwe, D. F. van der ( joint author )
Publisher: School of African Studies, University of Cape Town
Place of Publication: Cape Town South Africa
Publication Date: 1942
 Subjects
Subject: Bantu languages -- Noun   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by I. Schapera and D.F. Van Der Merwe ...
General Note: Reproduced from type-written copy.
Funding: Communications (University of Cape Town. School of African Studies) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073389
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: African Studies Collections in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26883465
lccn - 45034777

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Note on orthography
        Page 3
        Plain consonants
            Page 3
        Clicks
            Page 4
            Page 5
    Classes 1 and 1(a)
        Page 6
        Yeei
            Page 6
            Page 7
        Subia
            Page 8
        Gova
            Page 9
        Gcereku
            Page 10
        Table of concords: Yeei, Subia, Gova, and Gcereku
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
    Class 2
        Page 20
        Yeei
            Page 20
        Subia
            Page 21
        Gova
            Page 21
        Gcereku
            Page 22
        Table of concords: Yeei, Subia, Gova, and Gcereku
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
    Class 3
        Page 28
        Yeei
            Page 28
        Subia
            Page 29
        Gova
            Page 30
        Gcereku
            Page 31
        Table of concords
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
    Class 4
        Page 36
        Yeei
            Page 36
        Subia
            Page 37
        Gova
            Page 37
        Gcereku
            Page 38
        Table of concords
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
    Class 5
        Page 42
        Yeei
            Page 43
        Subia
            Page 43
        Gova
            Page 44
        Gcereku
            Page 45
        Table of concords: Yeei, Subia, Gova, and Gcereku
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
    Class 6
        Page 52
        Yeei
            Page 52
        Subia
            Page 53
        Gova
            Page 54
        Gcereku
            Page 54
        Table of concords
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
    Class 7
        Page 58
        Yeei
            Page 59
        Subia
            Page 59
        Gova
            Page 59
        Gcereku
            Page 60
        Table of concords
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
    Class 8
        Page 64
        Yeei
            Page 64
        Subia
            Page 65
        Gova
            Page 65
        Gcereku
            Page 66
        Table of concords
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
        Adjectival concord
            Page 70
        Possessive concord
            Page 70
    Class 9(a)
        Page 70
        Table of concords: Yeei, Subia, Gova, and Gcereku
            Page 71
            Page 72
        Subjectival verbal concord
            Page 73
        Adjectival concord
            Page 73
        Possessive concord
            Page 73
    Class 9(b)
        Page 73
        Table of concords: Yeei, Subia, Gova, and Gcereku
            Page 74
            Page 75
        Adjectival concord
            Page 76
        Possessive concord
            Page 76
    Miscellaneous concords and pronouns
        Page 76
        Subia
            Page 77
        Gova
            Page 77
        Gcereku
            Page 78
    Adjectival stems
        Page 78
    The copulative
        Page 79
        Subia
            Page 80
        Gova
            Page 80
        Gcereku
            Page 81
    The numeral
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Subia
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
        Gova
            Page 86
        Gcereku
            Page 87
    Locative construction
        Page 88
        Yeei
            Page 88
        Subia
            Page 89
            Page 90
        Gova
            Page 91
        Gcereku
            Page 92
            Page 93
    Comparitive vocabularies
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
Full Text



University of Cape


Town


COMMUNICATIONS FROM THE

SCHOOL OF AFRICAN STUDIES











MLTON. C.T.


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A~ev"i^^^^. L aqi~m^L fa.
PVAGl (-z<


Cq^. ^^

































EX LIBR15
THIS VOLUME HAS BEEN
MICROFILMED M THE
IUNIVERSiTY OF FLORIDAl "X
LIBRARIES




iEC r E FORTUNE COLLECTi1i'














NOTES ON TIE NOUN-CLASSES

OYP SOME BANTU LAI'TGUAGCS OF NGTAHILATD

(Y..I, SU3IA,; GOVA ATD (,GC-,zREKU)





By





I. Sohapera and D.P. van der Merwe


GEORGE FORTUNE COLLECTION









Communications :ro.: the School of african Studies
University of Cape Torwn

1942



UNIVERSITY CF .. a: ltIIES

/


33;:7
r







TIST OF COTi':;TJ?
Page

I. INT.RODITCTTCN (' 1 6) 1
II. NOTT ON ORTHOGRAPHY (9 7 10)
Pl_;in Consonnnts (" 9) 3
Clicks (9 10)
III. CLA3SE3S 1 and 1(a) (5 11 41) 6
Yeei ( 1 -5 6
Subia ( 16 17) 8
Gova (& 18 191 9
,'ereku ( 20 21) 10
Table of Concords:
Ceneral remarks (. 22) 11
Yeei (7 23 27) 11
Subia ( 2;J 32) 14
Grova (j5 33 37) 16
oerckulc (.S 36 41) 19
IV. CLA.S3 2 (9a 42 77) 20
Yeei ( 44 45) 20
Subia ( 46 46) 21
Gova ( 49 55) 21
c-cerek' ( 15 54 56) 22
Table of Concords;
Yoei 57 62) 23
Subia ( 6 67) 24
Gova (;- 68 72) 26
k-cereku ( 7i 73 77) 27

v; CLASs3 ( 78 112) 26
Yeei (,j 30 83), 28
Subia (. 84 86) 29
,-ova (: 37 90' 0S
Gcerelk (. 91 93) 31
Table of Concords:
Yeei 9 94 98) 31
Subia (' 99 1053 33
Gov' ( m 104 108) 34
Ocereku, (i 109 112) 35

VI. CLASS 4 (J 113 144) 356
Yeei (.:- 115 116) 36
S3bia ([ 1171 37
Gova (1,, 118 121) 57
Gcerek:u ( 122 .- 125) 38
Table of Concords;
Yeei *(', 126 130) 38
Subia ( 131 135) 39
Gova ('S 136 140) 41
Gccrelku ( 141 144) 42
VII, CLASS 5 ( 1,45 187) 42
Yeei ( 147 151) 45
Subia 152 157) 43
Gova (- 153 16-) 44
Gcereku ( 164 169) 45
Table of Concords:
Yeei (3 170 174) 46
Subia ( 175 179) 47
Gova ( 180 183) 50
Gcereku ( 184 137) 51








VIII. CLASS 6 ( 188 225) 52
Yeei ( 190 196) 52
Subia ( 197 199) 53
Gova ( 200 201) 54
Gcereku (, 202 206) 54
Table of Concords:
Yeei ( 207 211) 54
Subia C( 212 216) 56
Gova ( 217 221) 57
Gcoreku ( 222 225) 57
IX. CLASS 7 ( 226 256) 58
Yeei ( 228 231) 59
Subia (1 232 233) 59
Gova (W 234 235) 59
Gcereku (2 236 237) 60
Table of Concords:
Yeei ($ 238 242) 60
Subia (} 243 247) 61
Gova ( 248 252) 62
Gcereku ( 253 256) 63
X. CLASS 8 ( 257 292) -64
Yeei (t; 259 264) 64
Subia (6 265 266) 65
Gova (& 267 270) 65
Gcereku ( 271 273) 66
Table of Concords:
Yeei ( 274 278) 66
3ubia (r 279 283) 67
Gova ( 284 288) 68
Gcoreku (Mt 289 292) 69
XI. CLASS 9(a) (f 293 316) 70
Yeei ( 295) 70
Subia ( 296) 70
Gova ( 297) 70
Gcereku ( 298) 70
Table of Concords:
Yeei ( 299 303) 71
Subia (.& 304 308) 71
Gova ( W 309 312) 72
Gcereku (j 313 316) 72
XII. CLASS 9(b) ( 317 335) 73
Yeei ( 319) 73
Subia 320) 73
Gova ( 321) 73
Table of Concords;
Yeei ( 322- 326) 74
Si3bia ( 327 331) 74
Gova ( 332 335) 75
XIII. MISCELLANEOUS CONCORDS AND PRONOUNS 76
( 336 348)
Yeei ( 336 339) 76
Subia ( C 340 343) 77
Gova ( 344) 77
Gcereku ( 345 348) 78
XIV. ADJECTIVAL STEMS ( 349 352) 78
Yeei ( 349) 78
Subia ( 350) 78
Gova ( 351) 79
Goereku ( 352) 79







iii'


XV. THE COPULATIVE (i' 353 359) 79
Yoei ( 353 355) 79
Subia ( 356) 80
Gova ( 357 358) 80
Gcereku (Q 359) 81
XVI. THE NTUMTERAL (5 360 372) 81
Yeei (l 361 364) 81
Subia (}' 365 367) 83
Gova (' 368 '70) 86
Gcereku (Q 371 372) 87
XVII. LOCATIVE CONSTRUCTION ( 373 377) 88
Yeei ( 374) 88
Subia ( 375) 89
Gova ( 376) 91
Gcerel.u ( 377) 92


XVIII. COMPARATIVE VOCABULARIES













I. INTRODUCTION


y 1. 1he information on vrhich the following note; and
vocabul_:riss are based was obtained during a trip to the
BaTawana Reserve- of the B~echuanaland Protectorate lasting
from Julyl to October, 1940. This area, generallyr referred
to as Ngamiland, is inhabited by many different Native
peopler. The ruling community are the baTawana (an off':
shoot of the baNgwato) who entered the country from; the
south-east in the last decade of the eighteenth century,
and gradually subjugated the local tribes. The latter in-
clude both Bushmen (1JaSarwa) and Bantu. Of the Bantu.
(a) the most numerous are the RaYeei, comml-only known as
the maKoba, who themselves, according to their'traditi.ns
ara immigrants from North-Western Rhodesia. They are now
spread over the whole of lTngamiland., where they are divided
into several mutually independent groups, like the waTl.ji,
NaTs hara, OraCa, wairikoni, waK.wew, waTgowi, ;aTsewuas wa-
Dzo: WeaTsingaima, waGaga, a~aopoi, and waTarana.
(b) In the northern parts of the Reserve (Mohembo ,.nd
:'abamnokoni districts) there are also a large number of the
people commonly known -sr mabuknuu. Their own name for
themselves, however, is apparently haGova.
(c) Oth-r Bantu founa- in Nigamiland include maKgalagadi
(of old Tswana stock), ovaHeereo and ovaMbandieru (immi--
grants from South West Africa, whence they fled after a
disastrous 1'ar with the Germans- in 'OS); .aSubia '(who call
them selves velkwahani) :rom the region of the Central Zar.-
besi .i ana~ Tj (3hona) from Southern Rhodes.ia, and nla
Gcc-rc'-u (a branch olf the ovaKvwangari) from '..,hat is no'-' the
Ckevo.,no -ZRserve of South West Africa.

) 2. 11My visit to i.Tgamiland vas undertaken an part o. a
general.. investigation I have been ,aking for the 'Oechuana
land Protectorate Administration into Tswana law and custom
and most of my ti'.,e while there was devoted to that particu-
lar field of inquiry. However, knowing that little .rork had
yet been done on some of the Bantu languages spoken in the
Reserve, I also collected short vocabularies which I thought
might be of interest to ph:ilologists.
My informants were all necessarily drawn from Maung,
the administrative and tribal headquarters cf the Reservec
which was the centre where I was working. :or geYeei I had
five men. e.n could have obtained as many more as j: wished .
The position in regard to the other languages was less
satisfactory, since very few of the people. speaking them are
actually resident in Maaung. My Subia (Ikwahani) :material
came mainly from two police troopers. My icereku material
/came

1. Thc- bi.tory and general ethnography of _gauilaj.n aore dealt .i;h in
lthe folIow-in, publications :
Pc s -ar r'e "Des Oka:-ianosuSir.TfL-na a nd seine BeZ, ohnier"' Z. E.thn.
vol. 37 (1905), pp. 6'*.-716.
G,.. i. etClton-: "History of the T:n-iloand Tribe,: up to 1926",
Stdiea, vol. 6 (i34); pp. 343--60
E.KH Aslton: ""otec on the political and judiciLl or'anizetion of the
Tevo:nc" Dentu Stujic2, vol. 11 (1327), pp 67-83.







- 2 -


came froi twro :,roiim!-, ,:n .,.io had been living in Maiinc since
chiJdho'.d &n rho 1aif that ttz k-: n' orgo ten ,ri gooci O'eu.
of their ,iother-tongrue I .,,as able -o checl.: some o:- it wIrtdth
another mman; on his ,wTa- home from the itraterrend mines,
but it is, po:ible that here and there my principal infor,v
ants mar hnave introduced woz-ds foorom other lanPuagee. j)or
ceGrova (seT:hul?.kLgu) ; the Only, inolnant I could fin. nd.
convict znderggoing a long. term o2e iiprioonment in the loc&.s
gaol.. 11e wa killing %nO intelligent, holrever, and the
ma-terial T o'-tai.ned ,rom him chec!:sa ver-y satis.-actoril- .,fith
vocabuwarie7 previously published by Passnrge and Johnston.
I shoJild ad: thlat in each case myr inquiries were -macde
through thae ricdium of seTswana2 which all the informants
spoke Pfliently.

3 OPf thle -soour languua as I !knovf) has not previcl&1sl 'r.een recorded, nor have I been
abi?.5 to discover anyrthino relatin.,' to the other. Xr'mngari lan-
gma.-:es or djalect.,s, ,ith 1rhich it i.- saib y~r my i.nforzants to
have close af 1initie Yieei uria, end LbUku u ere however
represented1 in t-he cooarti-ve voc lari: : Bantu 1anf;gmies
published by Sir 1'Harry Johnston. Hc classes .3ubia with 1,enje.
Ia, la nn "'!cn,-', in Group TT (the W'"est Central Zainbesia len.
.11aP_; s, nnd 7eei. znd M'i2l;.nu vr-*h 1uri in Gro T V (the est
ernm Za:1be, 1 nylees and describes hi! sources o.l infor-f.v-
tion as roJ1o")-3:1


a.i~ a. t~.i *.hubCC a Or :.-s~ub~e of Livin ~rtoII i~? ot1~OV
Ox "0- o f $out-C entrl 2rict, ru is rc: rceicortc- in
0 toni '- alba bulbrieo Coupi1~2 a out 10,351. t ro
cv!iv.c no Qurt-cr i17.ustretion .-oxecver, rmtd.]. t;c .tudes our
~2;,c~r_,~ir.~~:.l~tze~: ~+r'annnvire Spt:bi'.s ct LOul~i .Ja
iol 2" J '. I. ;cottet &t Pario in 1896 ('ir'iwst
LC 1 0 1E,' 0117, i ac s, cnc e :-G ontri u i Ln t o %,; a i d d b1c
.o,:v!~;- r--icl c.~ Itc~ :; ::cen ~iIic-eu:7Fc 'or ::c:y3
l S o ,V' (v.Lj. W.LSiinnton
.ii:S ~.l, ~LO:.;1~U) i? GESS ~laCE, U in; I~ l-y possee-Edoil.


T::iz 3cn;cc; known lonyua : of Iuai affinitie. oun, br
j.; 1 C:jc C ch of tlne J':. -*chdc hers on LE, ".j
11d, I tG 0 C C Vic Low Y i..J.uetra c, ~ bi 2 .
-3 4.*] VOQO bsU1i 'iE firEt I "3E ;obE' ei nex t
> '.ca.e'c It ic ttoha:3.e t 1et ::c recorded s juaibic of
1. t %ye or Zi-Tx; (ETub KUbu1 EnZ' I~pU3:ulu ,
part en ou;....2ore o. ;Kercr or in Kuouy5rw i -

tTE hoyt SOCitht (o,. rn ,-F, -lieJ oeot 1-i vr--
ion of Yc,.

C' -'. Livinc-.tone : I ci;1: o -e i VI ti C Oc o. L
thc 110 0 1 0to: l: ,: the Yl:7 rAC 0e Kl, y in
rce,, J :x; t a 'cu. o Lu v-. it iiL s o `3a ro-.;r*
i ihl' `02 0 oS Cocc' I I I- r iI r C~i
c1f t Zy~ Crc' a" Go o .n noJ. I: C-L Lcc, ij j! b%- Dr
?: ii'c11:, C .f"orts."


1. Tl>K. Jolmnston, A Compurative 5,0u16' of the a3ante sn,' SCmi'f-3ent,-u Irun"
:'~2 (2 voli, Oxfori, 191S,-22), VO. i n. 7vol. ihevOCabu
2.eries tie:ec2.voe ire ub2.hec in vol. i T 3132










4. The literature available on these languages even at
the time when Johnston vrrote, is actually not quite so scanty
Sas would appear from the remarks just quoted. Jacottet had
published, in addition to the 3Sibia grammar, a volume of
Subia tets, and Passarge had recorded short vocabularies of
Subia, Yeei, and i.Tbuku1u.

5. It is nevertheless obvious that, with the possible
exception of Subia, veor little is yet known about pny of
the four languages. It is for this reason alone that I have
ventured to publish the following notes, which., inadeiquate
as they undoubtedly are, do at least add something new to
our knowledge, T am not a professional student of Bantu
languao-s, and I cannot even speak a single sentence in any
of those dealt with here. Having the opportunity, I collect-
ed data that I thought might be of use to others; but; al-
though I have tried to be as accurate as possible, I cannot
hope that I have made no mistakes, or secured all the
material that the comparative philologist would wish.

S6. After my return from the field, I tabulated the
vocabularies that I had collected, and drafted a prelimi-
nary sketch discussing, w-ith illustrative data, the main
characteristics of the noun classes in each language. This
material I then handed Qver, with all my notes, to Dr. D.P.
van der Yerwe. Junior Lecturer in Bantu Languages at the
University of Cape Town. To him is due the main credit for
the final arrangement and content of this paper, and for
such comparative data as is included in it. Nevertheless,
since he was necessarily restricted to the material that I
had collected, I alone must be regarded responsible for
such errors and omissions as future workers in the same
field mar find.
I. SCHAPERA.



II. NTOTE ON ORTHOGRAPiH

] 7.' The orthography employed here is based largely upon
the one now accepted as standard for Tswana, the dominant
lan-ua-e in Bechuanaland Protectorate; but some modifica-
tions and a-dditions, indicated below, were found essential.

8. Vowels are as for Tswana. Nasal vowels, which are
occasi-nally met, are indicated by the sign placed over
the vowel letter; e.g. a-5, 1.

9. Plain Consonants
a. explosivess
(i) The alveolar voiced explosive, represented by the
symbol d, occurs frequently in all four languages before
vowels other than i and u (see d. below).
(ii) Palatal explosives occur regularly in Yeei; the
radical palatal explosive is represented by t3 the aspirated
by tyh, and the voiced by dv. In Gova only dy has been met.
/(iiTT The

1. E. Jacottet: Ztud-c sur los Lsngues du Hsut-Zcrmbzec Seconde Partie.
'Tcxtes 6oubiya,8 (Paris;, E. LOroti,:. 1899,)
PEe sa.rg-e: "Die lambuuchu"' Glous vol. 87 (1905), p7. 3C00-1
(German-Govs vocabulary).
S. Psssa.rge; "Das Oka-mngosumpfland und seine Beohner", Z. Ethln
vol. 57 (1905), pp. 714-6 (Gertra.n-Subia-Yeei vocabularies).










4. The literature available on these languages even at
the time when Johnston vrrote, is actually not quite so scanty
Sas would appear from the remarks just quoted. Jacottet had
published, in addition to the 3Sibia grammar, a volume of
Subia tets, and Passarge had recorded short vocabularies of
Subia, Yeei, and i.Tbuku1u.

5. It is nevertheless obvious that, with the possible
exception of Subia, veor little is yet known about pny of
the four languages. It is for this reason alone that I have
ventured to publish the following notes, which., inadeiquate
as they undoubtedly are, do at least add something new to
our knowledge, T am not a professional student of Bantu
languao-s, and I cannot even speak a single sentence in any
of those dealt with here. Having the opportunity, I collect-
ed data that I thought might be of use to others; but; al-
though I have tried to be as accurate as possible, I cannot
hope that I have made no mistakes, or secured all the
material that the comparative philologist would wish.

S6. After my return from the field, I tabulated the
vocabularies that I had collected, and drafted a prelimi-
nary sketch discussing, w-ith illustrative data, the main
characteristics of the noun classes in each language. This
material I then handed Qver, with all my notes, to Dr. D.P.
van der Yerwe. Junior Lecturer in Bantu Languages at the
University of Cape Town. To him is due the main credit for
the final arrangement and content of this paper, and for
such comparative data as is included in it. Nevertheless,
since he was necessarily restricted to the material that I
had collected, I alone must be regarded responsible for
such errors and omissions as future workers in the same
field mar find.
I. SCHAPERA.



II. NTOTE ON ORTHOGRAPiH

] 7.' The orthography employed here is based largely upon
the one now accepted as standard for Tswana, the dominant
lan-ua-e in Bechuanaland Protectorate; but some modifica-
tions and a-dditions, indicated below, were found essential.

8. Vowels are as for Tswana. Nasal vowels, which are
occasi-nally met, are indicated by the sign placed over
the vowel letter; e.g. a-5, 1.

9. Plain Consonants
a. explosivess
(i) The alveolar voiced explosive, represented by the
symbol d, occurs frequently in all four languages before
vowels other than i and u (see d. below).
(ii) Palatal explosives occur regularly in Yeei; the
radical palatal explosive is represented by t3 the aspirated
by tyh, and the voiced by dv. In Gova only dy has been met.
/(iiTT The

1. E. Jacottet: Ztud-c sur los Lsngues du Hsut-Zcrmbzec Seconde Partie.
'Tcxtes 6oubiya,8 (Paris;, E. LOroti,:. 1899,)
PEe sa.rg-e: "Die lambuuchu"' Glous vol. 87 (1905), p7. 3C00-1
(German-Govs vocabulary).
S. Psssa.rge; "Das Oka-mngosumpfland und seine Beohner", Z. Ethln
vol. 57 (1905), pp. 714-6 (Gertra.n-Subia-Yeei vocabularies).






- 4 -


(iii) The voiced velar explosive occurs regularly in all
four i.,n-ui..:es and is represented by g.
(iv) In Yeei palato-.velar consonants have been en-
countered in a few instances. They are represented as fol-
lows: sky radicala) and ga (voiced).

b. '?ric.atives
(i) The following fricatives occur regularly in all
four languages:
bilabial voiced, represented by j
denti-labial voiced, v
alveolar voiced. z
(ii) In Yeel the following fricatives have also been
encountered:
palatal voiced, represented by 2
palato-labial, '
(iii) In Gova and Gcereku interdental fricatives are
employed. They are represented as follows:
2 (radical), and z (voiced).
S(iv) In 2ubfa a velar radical fricative, represented
by / is met with in words of Tsvrana origin; e.g. iputero
(as iembly), cf. Tswana phuthlg8 (assembly). [Tswana g =
Subia(J1

c. AfPri c t ive s
(-I 3 represents a voiced palatal affricative.
(iij Tn Yeei there is also a voiced alveolar affrica-
tive represented by dz.
(iii) In Gcereklu a voiced,interdental affricative oc-
curs, represented here by dz.

d. In all four languages a flapped consonant occurs,
but onl:P. before i and u, for which reason the symbol d can
safely be used here as well (of. a(i) above).

e. Nasals
(i) Avel.ar nasal, represented by -), occurs singly in
all four lanuagc:es.
(ii) INas1al occurring in a compound are homorganic v'ith
the followivin consonant. It is not considered essential al-
ways to indicate this in the orthography, so, e.g., _g and k 3
are represented by ng and nk.

f. Semi-vowels are as for Tswana.

g. -It may be noted that (i).no lateral fricatives or af--
fricatives have been encountered' in these four languages, and
(ii) only Subia has a lateral voiced 1.

10. Clicks
The symbols employed here to represent the clicks are
identical vith those employed in the standard Chosa ortho-
graphy for representing Xhosa clicks of the same nature.

A. Yeei
1. Dental, palato-alveolar, and lateral, clicks occur in
Yeei, but only the first two types are common.
2. The following are the only words obtained containing
clicks:


/a. Words










a. Words containing dental clicks
(i) Oral


Radical
S- cimba (p ain)
. aci (thong)
-cejski (one)
-cudi (clever)
-cwa (red)
cotirwa (be
punished)


Radi cal
-nceni (s Eall.)
moncu (leg)
-ncra (red)


Aspirated
ochodi (wi sd.om)
Mechau (basket)


(ii) Nasalized
As irate d
ncho (t ip)


Voiced
mogceniti (builder)
gcena (build)
digcebe (shield)
digcivi (cornbin)
gegcanzi (door)
egcca (forest)
rogcoo (valley)

Vo iced
onci. (-animal)
enLcamu (branch)
zeng c o (valleys)


b. ''ords containing palato-alveolar clicks
(i) Oral
adical Aspirated
bTeauti- oo haho (sorrow) mogqaw
ful) eqhe (us) gqa@a
(deep) kokodiqho (after- -gqudi
(ow!) wards) gqotor


(verbal
forma-
tive?)


(negative
particle)


ejha ( bundl.
eqhoo (rubbi!
roqhoo (sumiue
qho ro (blunt
-qha (in --qha
tsYara = six)


es)
sh)
r)
)


gegqan

ko gqag
gqani
Se qg8
2gq


Voiced
a (arrowv
(calabash)
(big)
a (grow)
a (well)
(hole)
qatikwa
(drunkenness)
(tray)
(pole)


Radical
monqoi (camel-
thorn


on qu
on gwand a
lenqwAere


tree)
(bowl)
(otter)
(hoof)


(ii) Nasalized
Aspirated
onqhuni (palm


Voiced
korangqamu (before)


tree)
n .hawa tortoisee)
*--qhoro (as in:
entonrgo yeenqhoro =
a blunt needle; of.
-ghoro = blunt)


c. The following are the
lateral clicks: mogxekwa
Senxe


only words
(woman)
(law)


found containing


B. Subia contains no clicks.

C. In Gova onl;.- one vord containing a click has been found;
,digcubi (cornbin)

D. The only words found in Gcereku containing clicks are:
moCu (a Bushman)
dici (an otter)
moGcereku (a Gcereku)
seGcereku (Gcereku language)
gegcuho (basket)
/III. CLASSES


-qa

o qi'
naqC
ZS ci a

0~~


J


R













III. grAS3;J 1 AJD 1(a)


', 11. Y T. SUIA C4 VA | GC.RERT

1 (a i 1 l(a) 1 1(a) i1 l(a)
8. 0 -a, o O | 1- o -

--- _i
O, ara-, ae- a c ha aI ha-- Wa- a



9 12. Vit;. a very few ex captions, Class 1 contains, in all
four l. :;luac6:. per~conal. nouns. only..
In al fori .r lan- 'i.,. Class (a) contains predomi-
nantly n>ai3. of animals, probably originally personi:?fie.
Pe,'-L oAl, no uin:; o:ten cdenoting individuals of importance,
arc so'etJ.:ie ,lso :found in this class. In Yeei the namely
of. a few plants aree Ffouln,: s3 vell.





L.. 1- .'-ll pr;-...i;. o o and a ,- ( ,ae .1 apper to b.
r. tiv. ra : -1- .o1r eailmplea were found contain-

Z. no~o (person) P. a&ato
",Io.i... i (. ool) awed ini
o;on)! (o."er ) a,!, ni
o'loz.l i thi etif) .ez i.
i'hc pr:'!i:-: a- hs. a paroll-!.e in other .:3antiu lan-
::;oe-s .._ i. Z u t it; hor:evcr, posi' le t at, a;
a r.t .; 2 r... :, 2 X iv 7;: "similation, awva- ~.a awe--.


14.j ) .i:"l. pe'i:. es com-ronlr found are m -- and Ra-;. e.q.
3. oro-cie (man) P. *arome
mo Pao clr avei a~ ya
..a............. wawoya

(b) he '0 -.lloin.- posas'Civc cons tri-ct ions prove that
thi. profi 1. i .in 0so:13e c .a s C : least, preceded rhy a
latent t;
o1'nene oc.-.Oai o (th-.. go,: o. ? the womann, oqolcaze <=C
'"ao.,o aK.z3 *": a + (o', ao. aze; .'.:ne ,nT,(.neO,'.1 (the
out : th" ...oman) Qomoa5 ze '"aorMc-:abe -: Ca -,
wonio'az -.^Oo :orotan:e (tlhe kni:c o. the hunter)
10oi.,tan? e < ',:.oo t
(c) Itt "oul.c appe ar as if mo+- i-ib e. ,, moodi
(b-ruyer; cf:. *: >9aoci (b5uar' ) and Ur-?.antu ul p (by I
mbodisi ( eller), :"-. aodisi (sellers).; moanga (companion)

(crisp le .r f

(!) npoia (ant) :'hopoka, v'ith plural ,,apok., is an
ex'oamle o:, a non-p'ersonal noun in Class 1.
-. --. --. ---- 1----
1 Of. DL- : Do'.:3. Te~t-book of Zi.iu Gramcmar p. 37.
2, Cf- Bourouin. Nte UrT-B; atu .Iortsame (herecf-ler referred to us
A.ourguin), p. 241.













III. grAS3;J 1 AJD 1(a)


', 11. Y T. SUIA C4 VA | GC.RERT

1 (a i 1 l(a) 1 1(a) i1 l(a)
8. 0 -a, o O | 1- o -

--- _i
O, ara-, ae- a c ha aI ha-- Wa- a



9 12. Vit;. a very few ex captions, Class 1 contains, in all
four l. :;luac6:. per~conal. nouns. only..
In al fori .r lan- 'i.,. Class (a) contains predomi-
nantly n>ai3. of animals, probably originally personi:?fie.
Pe,'-L oAl, no uin:; o:ten cdenoting individuals of importance,
arc so'etJ.:ie ,lso :found in this class. In Yeei the namely
of. a few plants aree Ffouln,: s3 vell.





L.. 1- .'-ll pr;-...i;. o o and a ,- ( ,ae .1 apper to b.
r. tiv. ra : -1- .o1r eailmplea were found contain-

Z. no~o (person) P. a&ato
",Io.i... i (. ool) awed ini
o;on)! (o."er ) a,!, ni
o'loz.l i thi etif) .ez i.
i'hc pr:'!i:-: a- hs. a paroll-!.e in other .:3antiu lan-
::;oe-s .._ i. Z u t it; hor:evcr, posi' le t at, a;
a r.t .; 2 r... :, 2 X iv 7;: "similation, awva- ~.a awe--.


14.j ) .i:"l. pe'i:. es com-ronlr found are m -- and Ra-;. e.q.
3. oro-cie (man) P. *arome
mo Pao clr avei a~ ya
..a............. wawoya

(b) he '0 -.lloin.- posas'Civc cons tri-ct ions prove that
thi. profi 1. i .in 0so:13e c .a s C : least, preceded rhy a
latent t;
o1'nene oc.-.Oai o (th-.. go,: o. ? the womann, oqolcaze <=C
'"ao.,o aK.z3 *": a + (o', ao. aze; .'.:ne ,nT,(.neO,'.1 (the
out : th" ...oman) Qomoa5 ze '"aorMc-:abe -: Ca -,
wonio'az -.^Oo :orotan:e (tlhe kni:c o. the hunter)
10oi.,tan? e < ',:.oo t
(c) Itt "oul.c appe ar as if mo+- i-ib e. ,, moodi
(b-ruyer; cf:. *: >9aoci (b5uar' ) and Ur-?.antu ul p (by I
mbodisi ( eller), :"-. aodisi (sellers).; moanga (companion)

(crisp le .r f

(!) npoia (ant) :'hopoka, v'ith plural ,,apok., is an
ex'oamle o:, a non-p'ersonal noun in Class 1.
-. --. --. ---- 1----
1 Of. DL- : Do'.:3. Te~t-book of Zi.iu Gramcmar p. 37.
2, Cf- Bourouin. Nte UrT-B; atu .Iortsame (herecf-ler referred to us
A.ourguin), p. 241.










- 7 -


S15. (a) ost nous in Clars .(a) have a sincfular. prei.-: --.
There ar-e', however; a e,; o v1ithout any singular pref.i..; e.g.
S. nchaia (!,n(d tortoise) P. wan.ha ,-a
ndzodzo (hartobees t) ian dzod zo
hama (friend) wahama


(b) Personal nouns:
S. oreza (od)
o zsmu (ghost)
o a? e (whore)

(c) Names o- animals:
S. ompene (goat)
ooando (crocodile)
on j ovu (elephant)
ompuru ( hyena)
ombbwa (dog)
ondavu (lion)
ontwe ( leopard)

(d) !INamesr of plan to
S. ombuti (creeper)
on qhuni (palm-.tree)
onklhomb (cal a' ash)


p. -




rwaeando


wa'inpur
wa,,bwa
ondclaviu



p. wambnuti
vran qhoun i
wanikhoi'ubo


(e) If some- of the exm.pl.es c!oted in (c) above are corm-
ared- ith their parallels in other )antu languages, it be-
come- evident that the nasal folloing initial o0 in the
dSin.?., I.'!nd ..a- in the plural', does not belong' to the tern
prop r it is act-allr a remnant of the prefi.. of Class 5
sin'!. (or plur., for that iatter).
Compare, e.g., ombwa (dog) ,rith ITorthern rothe mnpya
(do.:) :.:rnd r--'.antu 'nwa (do ;'1 onge (leopard) with r. Sotho
ni^ '(le ropar) Und TTr-.antu Yi pv:2 oneopaene (-oeat'
w:ith Utr *anto ene (goat) .3
There are other e-.camples o" this nature, and- it is
even possible that .the nasals which occur initially in
Cla; 1 (a) nouns (cf. (a) above) as well as all those which h
occur i ,-:cdiately following: up)on o0- and '7a- in Class 1a)
nouns (c:. (c) and (d) above), are remnants of the re:fi: of
Class eqpoloyed vith the nouns concerned. In cases where
the n:sals do actually have this origin, the prei;es are of
course of a compound nature: o + nasal (re:'inant of Claz- 5)
in the singular a + nasal (remnant of Class 5) in the
plural.
These remarks will also apply to 3obia.



/SUJIA


1. Of0 clinrTof rnd mvn ..'sr:o:e l o; B3n rbu Phonologvy p. 244.
2, CO. Ibid_, 246,
3. Cf. Bourquin, p. 212.





- 8 -


SUB I A


S15.(a) In Clac 1 are
S. maolkwme
molozi


found only persona
(man) P.
(wizard)


-oodi (purchaser)
mosa (thi efF)
mnontui (person)
molcIwahani (a 3u.bia.a
m,.olzanza (a Yee.i)
?1h.- pr..fix : e- has a parallel in,
mo'svana (a '[rwana,, beTsw ana (,'vnanea).


1 noun e.g.
wa: wa me
1alo i
Raodi
wa a
wantu
we Tkwahani.
welzanza
e.g., Tswana; cf.


(b) The fo'1owing possessive constructions prove that
the pref.i: i;. iin osomet casec at least, precedred by a
latent o.
ombvwan o.mokol a:T. ze (th:. do%" of the v'oman) omrokolwakaze <~
ooa o 1 laaz- .1, a (o) l o'moola: ze- rambwa
wonmokol1.az (thei do of h' oman), wonokolvwakaze <
_o olak.ze < -- (o) riool~'akaze; izina diomontu
(the name o:' the person), diomontu < ~ ciaomontu <
dia + ( )cntun; 3i ns diomokvraine (th,- eye of the man),
diomo:,kwame < ~diaomoa:jwamc < dia + (o)okwame.

(c) Note thu. the personified form of ipoimbwe (baboon)
is ompobe perhaps 'rom "imopombwe.

(d) :ote the :oliowin,: niwana (child) P< *moana, pl.
wana; mw:ango (friend), pl. jiamwango; monyolzi (antelope)
pi. zenyol.zi.


17.(a) Trouns oP Class 1(a) witho.t a singular prefix are of
the follovin~l t yp e s:
(1) Terms of relationshi: .p.g.
3. mayo (rm mother) P. wamayo2
(2) Other per::onal nouns, e.r.
3. :se'wene chief: ) P. wasemwene
ereza (rod) Ger.za -C *saereza2


(3) .'erms denoting animals; e..r
S. nawaklolo (lpnc! tor--
toise)


P. wankwakolo2


(4) It should be. noted that some nouns e-ceur either with
or witho-t the pref'i: o*- e.r. nt-hiai or ontihizi (sister).3

(b) .ouns o0. Class l(a) with a singuTlar pre:,i-: are of
the follolvin.' types'
(1) ?ermi; o relationship; a.g. Onkoi"i (eller brother)
c.", also ont.hi3si. nthizij (sister).
(2) animes of animilsl :
3. oni0$k (ionlkey) P. 'an6ko
ongw8 (leopard) wangw6
ombv)a (dog) amb wa
onto (h yena) Wanto'n
onzovu elephantsr vanzovu
onyati buffalo o) anyati
/_/.Ti th
1. Of. Jacottet, etudes sur les LsngueL du Haut-Zsambze;: rer.iire Psrtie:
Grammaires Joubiya et Louyi; p. 17. This publication will henceforth be
referred to si-ply as JLacottet;
2. For further examples, of. Jacottet, p. 17.
3. Cf. Jacottet, p. 17.










1i* o some noun of nlass ,5 singnJlar (i.e. the i + nasal
class'\ a ch"_mn:'. in class is eff'ecte,' by .1h bs ti t tingt. c_ for
nthe initita i i .in-,e (_leopard), inat (buffalo),
inzov1 (elephant) > onaew, on-rati,: onzovu. 'i:th' irals
"P angfr'. fanr ati,; anzoCvn ll ere 'le have coitTrpo1 nd pre" ixes:;
o nasal (re .:n t 01c *1~jJs 5' in th- singular, .nc Wa +
asal (remnant o0 Cla'-s .5 in th e p.ural.1
Ao far as cou1.3 )e ascertained, no-ins with this tTpe of
yre. i denote a.ni.::! oan. .t, accordIing to ,T acottet, not
all 11.as 1(a) no1a Genotiu-1 an nial0 have this -.e3 o pre-
fi:-: so3: e t' onl- o.- (,u-9 according to T icottot, in the
sinplar, and only wa- in the plu-nal e. -. osulwe (haro)
a 1we (har;e f. >o odimbi (hav'), adir inbe ha'wK3 .
r'ote; onoe'u (e7....d) and n ansefu (elandcrs) have alterna-
uive -v. r ,. and a se...
(1) Lee of pl.nt; tto:.bwe (tobacco), 'atom;bwe (t,'pes of
tobacco~ .




G-OVA


1G.(a) In Clase 1 r ar
>3. oro.ne


1io. ere
S10 01ezi
inorozi

(b) Tn Ta :e cases

ob-a 0rve that these a:''e


found onl1 personal nouns; e.C.
(man) P. harome
(.. r, ve) hapi a
. (ersoni h ano
(friend) hadere
thiefi hezi <- 7haezi
(wizard) harozi

the plural prefi is a-- e.!.
(Toa"vna):; aJoajoo (Yeei'T It will be
all names of triJbes.


(c) ''roi oth. f ..o.;-in- -,o-:;.- constructions it
.o.l. a a if there i ... at.t precding at least
0oe c the non of Clas l a)
roo. i onoribe (che ': o .o on.o e .< ... ..won.oib <,
w-a + noie otsii o;z ovrn. .ilair-t or" trhe elephant'"
onzovil < "'v onzOVU wa (o.nzcOVil.


S1]9.(a) T '-aoroity on la.s 1(a no,! n do not take a sing.
prcfi-:. :he f:c:." 'in.: t:: 0eo-: of nounn: have ben noticed in
thi c1 "as:
(1) "'::o n a:. no1ns3 :
13. -gan' (d-octor) P. hanciangr
f- e (chtie' hfu.Iu.
s n da (on er ha c n da
( 1. ) .e .. denoting animall., I Iio2t 0 .' v'hich belong to fOlass 5;
ar2e csome times Ji lac e (d in Clasas 1(a) e:.
k. ki-ok (mo nkey) P. hao8,.o
nyimee (lion) hanyainee
mbona (python) hambQnu
zir-boo (an tear) h azi-ib oc

/(b) In
Ie CI. 5 15 (e) above.
2. Cf. Jacottet, 17.
3, JoL-hnson (op. cit., vol. i) 'ives the folloino ~personalnounc. tate
after) 320; nana (umothor) ,1. 323 Presumal.ly they belong to











(b) In a few instances, nouns of Class l(a) have a pre-
fix o-; e.g. ofumu (chief) (of. I, 19(a)(1, above), hafurnu
(chiEs).

(c) The nouns hefr. (eland) and mara (impala antelope)
form their plvral in mo-, viz. mohefu and momara respectively.
Thic may be a variant-ot the colT e-ive plura, 'which is
formed in o--; e.g. nguya (baboon), with the collective plural




GCEREKU


S20.(a) Tn Class 1 are
S. morome
month
mnoorona
morodzi
mlowi dzi


sion:


found only personal nouns; e.g.
(man) P. warome
(person) wanthu
(headman) wako rna
(wizard) warodzi
(thief) uawidzi


(b) Note the following examples of coalescence and eli-


3. moana
mwene


(child)
(owner)
(slave)


P. wana
wawene
wapira


(c) The following possessive constructions show that
there is a latent vowel o preceding at least some of the
nouns of Class 1 :
.jomornme \dor of the man), yomorore < 'yaomorome <
ya + )niomorome; mbwa zowarome (dogs of the men]''
zoarome <- *'zao@arome ,- za + (o)warome; honde
yojmokaze (blood of the woman) with the plural honde
zowa pe ze.


' 21.(a) Cnl: .one example has been obtained of a Class l(a)
noun with a singular prefix o-, viz. okwata (captive), pl.
wakw.ata.


(b) The majority of Class l(a) nouns do
prefix, e.q.
(1) Personal nouns:
:3. hompa (chief) P.
moonjo (boy)
nganga (doctor)
nyambe (God)
(2) Terms denoting animals;
S. .grya (baboon) P.
myvo ( hippopotamus)
mbwa (dog)
ntiefo (eland)
nyimee (lion)
ngando (crocodile)
bambe (duiker)
/Table


not take a sing.


1ahompa
wamoonjo
wanganga


wanguya
wamvoo
warmbwa
wan tefo
wanyimee
wangando
wabamb. .


1. Of. Class 7, 235(d).


- 10 -







- 11 -


'-'1e -of" Cc c r.ds

2 22. General Remarks:
(a) The subjectival verbal concords given in the tables
are those emploted in the present tense positive of the in-
dicative io- d. But, as will be o:berved, sentences which
contain ver :bs- in other tenses are also quoted belo!'.
(b) The relative concords given in the table are those
employed :;rhen the tantie tanti qualified is the subject of the
relative predicate. But, as will be observed, sentences
which contain different types of the relative construction
are also cuoted below.
(c) The following' abbreviations vill. be used:
S.V.2. = subjectival verbal concord
O.V.C. = objectival verbal concord
Adj.C. = adjectival concord
Poss.C. = possessive concord
Rel.,. = relative concord
Num.O. = numeral concerd


6 23. Y5 I

S.V.C. O.V.C. Adj.C. Poss.C. Rel.C. Num. C.

S. ia- mo- yoro a- yoo- .2 mo-.
Sema-

P. vwi'- aa Vaca- ea- %a- _a-



;} 24. Subjectival Verbal Concord

(a) Present Tense: Positive (':orn 1)

1. -moiaze mate'dima moni ifua
(the ,wo'an is plough-in" in the fiel)

2. warombwana aterakara neti
(the young men are fellin .the trees)

3. mopunde m ate wa
(the child is 1 ailing)

4. wapunde Wateoeka 'ambwa
(the children are laughing at the dogs)

5. moa'ceniti materoara keembe
(the builder is sharpening the axe)

6. mokan. mantetshema zeraro zake


7 morombwana materanda moti
(the boy is cliibin' the tre e)

8. oi.ene miatedia nma ere
(the ,goat is eating the corn)

S/9 r"anpnene
1. For examples, see the sections on The Numeral. (1i360 ff.).
2. Of. the 'Rel.C. iyi Tssana 1






- 12


9. waineno _tnteyopna omporo
(t .a.ot .e afraict r. the hyena)

-0. .-noten.t ,e ;,^atewera ,ambwa iak e
(the runtcr is c. lin .i.g ,o s)

11. ,t.on .9 y a teo.di'e if*:h'a a,#~ekati
(EKT- iirv:ts are plouitfhin-r the garden of the
chief)

12. kana r n .atetv,a mawere
(th- --irWl77 .xrse stariping corn)

13. wVateC#Twe:t ami amaqa monini eegqana t5eni.
(they' '7.ri,w reshT water from this well,

The fobrtivtv preceding( the verb-,,temi is -ate-
and. not --te-. This. can be clearly een from Ola. ses where
tho 3.V.C. eids in :- vowel other than a. ITn lasr 1 vowel-
elision has taken place. Thus: atedima (cf. 11 above) --
*te-t%tedira.L, arnd mtei ter..a (cf. 10 above) <, *mnaatewe ra.

(b) Present Tense: Poitive ('orm 2)
A few o0. the examples obtained do not contain
the fo,'.m.a ti veU -ate-:
1. Wanyana *'asel-ama pipo nevwatha
(th? men are aF~ ;tin, in the counoil-place)

2. on_.mdavu abora zenpjobe
(the lion is ktillin.;: the cattle)

3. W,andavii ratia. atanze
(the lions are fleeing; :ro1n the hunters)


(c) Preoent Tense: Tegative ('orm 1):
1. ilonana jenii mocho1 !ovyata ekae gegesepa
(the i.an is no6- cuttinE' the black skin

2.a algo lottanda ^anvaogy
(the~ are not hunting the game)

3. mopunde yomonceni oqho komwaina nyena
(ihF little child does not see her mother)

4. on,-,we 'moglho komwana oorutwa
(the l.opard does not see the babnon)

(O". alao
5. n doho rhomwanao egombe anga
(I do not see my x)

/(d) Present
1, .-lho i procCreSd by ic.. in Cicss 2 also,







- 15 -


(d) Present Tense: re.-ative ('"orm 2)

1. kayizere dina
(!he does not now the na.m:e)

2. ikano malota
she roes not -rin'. thhe milk1)

3. .. .. tr adi ze' .
(people rlo not eat fish)

(e) Past Tense; Positive (lrm 1i

1. oekati maya p po e -;watha
(t.h ichie c, to t-e councill-pl.ce)

2. :morjan;lr ia la pnoa ;mioninds oroanda
(the doctor wov.ked in "the -i l7re oi:n the 'eraa .".


(f") P's. Tn"e- .. positive 2)mB ,
1. .eati I' mar c ok nda map unde
.(the chief ,oasi teachin~ the children)

2. mol:aze jarekocerek' enyia
uthe Tomlan .f cR oo.inr" ":T Ie meat,

3. arekoer:cini Cn ln rno, o .-noze
(tihe;" -rere bulnndin a u a Fut i the village)


(g) P:st 2en.o: Pcsitive 0orcm 35)

1. on.oro l:areksotia mon'enjera
(th hare wts running in the path'

2. ondav.n 'careoftodia ombii
the lion was eating; the horses

3. monyana 1kare'-ote eqhe mror..!anga
(the -an aWas showr-n, us the river


(h) P-st enc. P 'osi. tive iorm /4
iackaze v0oozeraro za ke zataiiwa mnelmono oimoziJ
theI wonan Ihose cl.othe. werel ,ver toIT_,in isa x F the,
thief)


. 25. Adjectiva. concord
..P
1. mo.n.nrle yoo a (beavutifl' childd\ 'apunde L:a'aqa
2. onCIatji y_0o1idO i (bi, 1uff.nao) wanyati swFaggqudi
3. on~.xre 7yo',cnccni (sr-all leopard) wangwe vraanceni
4. ibodCi yomnpia (new buyer) waodi iwaaapia


/A 25.







- 14 -


S26. Posei.3ive Concord

8. P.
1. mopunde anga (my child) .punde wanga
2. om',rTa anga (nry r':00 'ambwafa wanga
3, rmo'0an'a o.'oze1 (doctor of the waDanga. ooloze2
village)
.- ondavu a e!a'ti (lion of the chief' Randavu vtagekati


27. Relative Concord

(a) : When the substantive qualified is subject of the
relative predicate:

1. monyana yooranzere moni njoo
(the" man wh~i'~-aI sl-eepin-~ in hhe hut)

2. Wanyana eliaranzere moni njpo
(the men who are sleepin, in the hut)

3. ompene ematefora moni ifuta onjwa-ga
(the oat which is gFraziTngin the field is mine)

4i, Wanm-)cne eratefora moni ifulwa embanga
(Et.e goats wh ich are grazingTn the iel are mine'


(b) l''hen tihe 5'bstantive qualified is object of the
relative predicate:

1. ae'ato waoamno (the people whom they saw); cf.
2. monycna yeyimamrono (the man whom you saw)


(c) 'henC the substantive qualified is brought into
possessive r'l tionship with the relative predicate-

1. aonylan a yoyombwa'ke mafu maya
(the i-Tn whose dog is dead has come)

2. molaze voyozeraro zake zataiiwa mamono onozi
(the 1-woanu -H--iose---nes were .oo-fTen saw the thief


28. 3SUB IA

S.. O.V._'.. Q Ad j.C. Poss.C. Re l.O. Numh.

3. o--, a- I mO mo-- a-,A (Iwa) 700.- o-

P wa-r a.-- wa- wa-- Wa-" __



1 oroze _p+. -z

2" %(ozeo ()-:noz-e
3. Jacottte (p : ZE) livess a Pos o.Co wea- for this Class.







15 ,-



E7[:PI.:3

29. Subect:ival Verbal Concord
(a) Present Tensel: Positive (the S.V,,. singular is
here o):
1. mok1wamec otia ondavu
(the man flees from the lion)

2, wakwame atia wandavu
the enlee fro the lions)

3. mokazana oya koloizi
(the girl is going to the river)

4, wvakazana n yaaj oloizi
(-hegT are goT Fto the river)

5. odinbe oihava tozone

6. %adimbe *aiharya tozone
(thbe haw rTdTsbT7d

(b) Present Tense: Negative (the S.V,C, singular is
here .a)
'1. 'no!:lHoe k'a!. oni ondavu
( :5~man-" does n6it5-see the lion)
2., wakwame kawrawoni ondavu
(the men d-o not see the lion)

3. mokazana 1k'asaki mokwame
(t -i~'-,T~doesB not TI--e-rhe man)

4. wakazana kawasaki Wakwame
(uTe ir"rT do Ttlove ite men)

(c) Past 'ense: Positive:

1. nawIna ondavu kafuhi nomoze
(a7 aw a nTon n;.iTHF> )
2, mokwame awadi kotia ondavu
(f ma~T was T IngTrom the lion)

5 ar" *Adjectival Concord
S. P.
1. mokware mokando (big man) wakwame wakando
2. montu moloto (good person) Panrti .aloto
3. mokazana moninJi (small girl) ^akazana -a-ini
3/6 1.

1. For b discussion of the formation of tenses in Subia of, .ic:',t t.,
pp- 50 ff.











Pos3sessive concorl


3.
1. mohekana asemwene
(the servon.t of the chiof)

"(the dog of the woman)


P.
,,ahekana Easemwrene

a,.I'I v.- mo.1 C' Va"' e.


cf. :nikl/arne wra'-tanze (the first man)

S32 Relative Concord

(a' When the substantive qualifl.cM is subject of the
r l.-l tive ,red:i.cute:

1. mokwame yoosone metahi that
( .iTeman woT-" oeseer greitry)
". a~^-':m.'rin %. ..ne_ h jl }'3t.a -i
(the r:.nal ,'.1Tove ~eer .r, Z ':.ly)

3, onto -rootia
(the hyena which-is fleeing)

4. wattpu vati a
(the hyenas which are fleeing) .

5. inoolozi roo,::-H3el-.i
(thevi. z!rd ";hc, does not laugh)


(b) :'hen the substantive qualified is object of the
relative predicate,
1-. mosweso retOsaka
(the chir'whom we want)

2. ^as,/es, ro, atosaka
(the ch1-1iT5e-d vre, om .' .e want)

3. "&efu yeniwiehai
(the elaniTha- I shot)

4. fsefu Waniiehai
(the eland that I shot)


33.


3.V.C. Q .v.. A. Poss.0 C


omo-
oha--


ha-, Wa-


Rel.-. Num.-C.


yo-
ha-


/.CX4A. IPL .


S. s~**.

p. hzt-


,. l.">






- 17 -


EXAMPLES

5 34. 3ubjectival Verbal Concord

(a) Present Tense: Positive:

1. nyimee anakoyenda paya
(a lion is walking over there)

2. nyimee anakothira mbwa
(the lion flees from t-te dog)

3. hanyinmee hanakotsira hambwa
(the lions flee from the dogs)

4. mboma anarodia jmbb
(the python eaT~ s The- oats)

5. harnmoa hsha'na.odi. .ombo
(the pythons eat the goats

6. mokazana omolra tumb:i. anakot-na onzo
(the pretty girl is stampin-, corn in the hut)

7. hakazana hahato hanakodima -')rdipia
(three girls are ploughing in the garden)


(b) The above construction is also sometimes em-
ployed to denote the future tense, e.g.

1. nganga omokokoto anakopanga yekorwa yeto
(the clever doctor will cure our sickness)

2. tonakodimna dipia dio mwakomwa
(e shall plough this field next year)


(c) Past Tense: Positive (the singular S.V.C. is al-
most always elided here):

1. ananipa ngombiana nojomb8
(fie asg given me caTves and goats)

2. napaka mosiri. _o arw'a wanTe
(he has put powder into '-r beer)

3. nzoo namonvata pamroidi.
(the leopard has scratched him on the chest)

4. moezi nezii ngomb wange omokuru
(the thief has stolen my big ox)

5. mnorome anarara paodidi wenzi
(the man has fallen asleep in his bed)

6. morome namono nzovu
(the man has seen the elephant'

7. haromre haXiamioi.o njovu
(th.e ;Ani. hava sec-n the elephant)

/3. hefu





- 18 -


8. hefu natIira nyrimee
(the eland has fle -from the lion)

9. hana hanafu nzara
(the children are hungry; lit. have died from
hunger)


Adjectival Concord


S.
moroiie omokuru
fumu omokuru
n ando omokuru
mwana omovra


(big man)
(big chief)
(bi' crocodile)
(beautiful child)


P.
harome ohnkuru
hafumu ohakuru
hangando ohakuru
hana ohawa


Posssessive Concord


1. nokamati wange
2. fumu oditunga

3. fumu wa'aGova

4. 3 _k6 omodengiana
5. mop ika owaRwa


(my wife)
(chief of the
.country)
(chief of the
Mbulku u)
(monkey of the boy)
(servant of the
Tawana)


hafumu haditunga




hapika Wa~aRwa


37.


Relative Concord


(a) When the substantive qualified is subject of the
relative predicate,. e.g.

1. mono nakopana morome oyoadimoka koarba seGcereku
(I am looking for a man who knows how to speak
Gcereku)

2. mono nakogana harome aWaadimoka koamba seGcereku
(I am looking for men who know how to speak Gcereku)

3. fumu wawaGova oyoarokioa mvura
(the chief of the TMbukulu, who makes rain)

4. senda wawato oyoakurupara
(the owner of the canoe, who is old)
(b) When the substantive qualified is object of the rela
tive predicate, e.g.

1. mokazana oyonganimono aneya
(the girl whom I saw has come)

2. hakazanaanaaangnimono haneya
(the girls whom I saw have come)

3. ngando oyonapaa omokuru sekonma
(the crocodile which I killed was very big)

4. hangando awaanapaa ohaku.L sekoma
(the crocodiles which I killed' were very big)
/ 38.


35.


36.






- 19


GCEREKT.


S.V.. .V.C. Adj.C. Poss,C,


omo-


S. a ..

P. wa-


wa-


Woja- (wo)vfa-


Rel.C. Num.C.

0-


wa.-


Y^^xA:PT '-S


Subjectival Verbal Concord


(a) Present Tense: Positive (.orm 1):

1. moCu kotBirs RaRwa
(the Bushman flees from the Tawana)

2. raCu 'atgira 'IaRwa
(the 'Bushmen flee from the Tawana)

3. warQdz. wo an^n waclipa wanto oWangi
(big vwizardo kill many people)


(b) Present Tense: Positive ('7orm 2):

nganga kIonakopanga wak alowera
(the- doctor cures sick people)


(c) Past Tense; Positive:

1. n ando anadi gekombo gande
(the crocodile has eaten my goat)

2. wangando Wanadi gekombo sande
(the croc odi les have eaten my goat)

3. mopikla anadi. ~ekombo gande
(the servant has eaten my goat)

4. anamono morome
(he saw the mah)


Adjectival Concord


S.
moromen omonjn8 (big man)
morodzi omonen ('big wizard)
ndimba omonene (big hare)


Possessive Concord

mo1ika wahompa (servant of the
chief)


P.

rarodzi wowanene
and.ilmba wowanen&


wapika wo@ahompa


/__ 42.
1. ko- appears to be an invariable concord used in the sing. of most classes-


, 38.


:; 39.


40.


41.






- 20 --


IV. .LA3 2


YEEI
40--


S42.


3. omOz9, mo-

P. eme-, Ie


0 SUBIA


mo-


43. In all four languages, this class contains several
terms indicating parts of the body. The singular of the
class often contains terms denoting trees; the plural of
these terms falls, however, under Class 3.


YE I


44. _7he full pre fixes ornma- and ene-- ap-"e'ar to be coni-.
paratively rare. The following exapl es containing these
prefixes have been found;
4. omosi (smoke) P. emesi
omnok^ (soul) emek!'
omoyo (hear t) e.ney
o noya (thorn) emeya
omwala (year) cC *oromoaka


$ 45. The prefixes most commonly found are mo- and me-; e.g.
(a) General examples:
3. imoze (village) P. meze
morvi nga (valley) merwanga
mopono (vrind) meopo
maog wa (arrow) megqawa
motshodzo (grass) metshodzo

(b) Parts of the body;
3. moncu (leg) P. mencu
moaana (spine) meoana
mosoro (head) rne@oro

(c) Terms denotin:- trees (these form their plural in nia-)
.3. mopanyi (mophane) P. mapanyi
mnotsTaro (Acacia sp.) mataro
monqoi (camelthorn) manqoi

(d) The folloringr possessive constructions prove that the
initial vowels, singular o, plural e, are in at least some
cases still latent:
omosi omondyoro (the smoke of the fire), omondyoro
'aomondyo-o <. a + __(_0o ndyoro; emeya e:-eti (the thorns
of the trees), ereti <~ *aemeti <, a + (e)meti;
mobanga omoze (the doctor of the village), omoze <
*aomioze-< a +. (o)moze; wabanga Womoze (the doctors of
the village), o.noze < I *Iaomoze< wa + (o)moze.


/5 46.


GOVA


mo-

me-


GCERXKU


mo -

me-
zeMo-






- 20 --


IV. .LA3 2


YEEI
40--


S42.


3. omOz9, mo-

P. eme-, Ie


0 SUBIA


mo-


43. In all four languages, this class contains several
terms indicating parts of the body. The singular of the
class often contains terms denoting trees; the plural of
these terms falls, however, under Class 3.


YE I


44. _7he full pre fixes ornma- and ene-- ap-"e'ar to be coni-.
paratively rare. The following exapl es containing these
prefixes have been found;
4. omosi (smoke) P. emesi
omnok^ (soul) emek!'
omoyo (hear t) e.ney
o noya (thorn) emeya
omwala (year) cC *oromoaka


$ 45. The prefixes most commonly found are mo- and me-; e.g.
(a) General examples:
3. imoze (village) P. meze
morvi nga (valley) merwanga
mopono (vrind) meopo
maog wa (arrow) megqawa
motshodzo (grass) metshodzo

(b) Parts of the body;
3. moncu (leg) P. mencu
moaana (spine) meoana
mosoro (head) rne@oro

(c) Terms denotin:- trees (these form their plural in nia-)
.3. mopanyi (mophane) P. mapanyi
mnotsTaro (Acacia sp.) mataro
monqoi (camelthorn) manqoi

(d) The folloringr possessive constructions prove that the
initial vowels, singular o, plural e, are in at least some
cases still latent:
omosi omondyoro (the smoke of the fire), omondyoro
'aomondyo-o <. a + __(_0o ndyoro; emeya e:-eti (the thorns
of the trees), ereti <~ *aemeti <, a + (e)meti;
mobanga omoze (the doctor of the village), omoze <
*aomioze-< a +. (o)moze; wabanga Womoze (the doctors of
the village), o.noze < I *Iaomoze< wa + (o)moze.


/5 46.


GOVA


mo-

me-


GCERXKU


mo -

me-
zeMo-





- S21 --


40. The most comnonr forms of the prefixes are mo- and me--
-00 9.


(a) General:
S. mo ya
o1ovwi
'aoe zi
no a 8

cflioo Z

(b) Parts of the
3. os.,na

.po 7.o

mC t:' i


(thor)
(arrow)
(:noon)
(yeear
(vill aet
(trib e

body:

(body"
(he art)
(tail.
(head)


p. *eeya
"mevwi
neezi
i-9ea a
lneze
me^$ico


p. mnesana
mnebere
;let oz
me t ira
imet"ri


r 47. A.co: d in to '-cot et (. 20~C) thin c-lar contains
mott M vthE nineh c'trs. ;.here 're, hov'ever, niei of
trees hich do not be'on;:; to this cla0'.


S43. Irote i..ramo (government', plural me~o8i.



G< Cr ._


' 49. ,:he ,most common for .m o: the pref
e. *.


(a) General:
5. rmodir o
,.oroo na
Io t it a


(b). Parts of the
3. moroiro
mo tsrima,
mot i

ijinsira


(fire)
(branch)
(valley)

(torch)

body:
moutht)
(h art'
(heap;)
(sp ine)
(tail)


' 50. A fe. no-nas ia' this class
nicv8 (earth)
.ofnlaq (thorn)


'ix are mo- and me-_


p. mediro


metfit a
neronga
'ne t it a
menvangr


p. meroml

i]' t iOf
inei~ao
mes ira


have no plural foris, e. .
nondere (maize)
Inoepo (wind)


3 51. Note the following:
rwaka (year) -< *moaka
nmesi (smoke) *":. m~nesi


/5 52.





- S21 --


40. The most comnonr forms of the prefixes are mo- and me--
-00 9.


(a) General:
S. mo ya
o1ovwi
'aoe zi
no a 8

cflioo Z

(b) Parts of the
3. os.,na

.po 7.o

mC t:' i


(thor)
(arrow)
(:noon)
(yeear
(vill aet
(trib e

body:

(body"
(he art)
(tail.
(head)


p. *eeya
"mevwi
neezi
i-9ea a
lneze
me^$ico


p. mnesana
mnebere
;let oz
me t ira
imet"ri


r 47. A.co: d in to '-cot et (. 20~C) thin c-lar contains
mott M vthE nineh c'trs. ;.here 're, hov'ever, niei of
trees hich do not be'on;:; to this cla0'.


S43. Irote i..ramo (government', plural me~o8i.



G< Cr ._


' 49. ,:he ,most common for .m o: the pref
e. *.


(a) General:
5. rmodir o
,.oroo na
Io t it a


(b). Parts of the
3. moroiro
mo tsrima,
mot i

ijinsira


(fire)
(branch)
(valley)

(torch)

body:
moutht)
(h art'
(heap;)
(sp ine)
(tail)


' 50. A fe. no-nas ia' this class
nicv8 (earth)
.ofnlaq (thorn)


'ix are mo- and me-_


p. mediro


metfit a
neronga
'ne t it a
menvangr


p. meroml

i]' t iOf
inei~ao
mes ira


have no plural foris, e. .
nondere (maize)
Inoepo (wind)


3 51. Note the following:
rwaka (year) -< *moaka
nmesi (smoke) *":. m~nesi


/5 52.






- 22 -


52. A few nouns in this class take their plural in ma-;
e.g.


(a) Names of trees:
S. mop anyi

nmolekete
mokekete


(mophane)
(baobab)
(Acacia,sp.)


(b) Certain other nouns;
S. moidi (chest)
mohaonye (grass)


P. maranyi
mavuyu
makekete


P. maidi
mahonye


S53. ?rom the following possessive construction, it would
appear as if there is a latent o preceding at least some of
the singular nouns of Clas: 2:
moisi onmodir8 (smoke of the fire), omodir8 *W "fomodir8 <..
wa + o modi ro.



GCERTEKU

9 54. The common forms of the prefixes are mo- and me-,


e.g.


(a) General:
S. motete

mondiro
mo t i
mo n z

(b) Parts of the
3. moeira
motif ima
mioongo
ino t e


(forest)
(ash)
(fire)
(smoke)
(village)

body:
(tail)
(heart)
(spine)
(head)


p. metete
metwetwe
mendiro
met i
men zi


P. megira
met ima
metngw
metwe


55. Plurals are sometimes formed by pre:
singular prefixc mo-;1 e.g.
S, mokoro (river) P.
mot Nima (heart)
mot n do (medicine)


i 56. A few nouns; notably those denoting
their plural in ma-; e.g.
8. mo.ni (mophane) P.
mnlowo ru (baobab)
mio oni (grass)


Citing ze- to the
Z-' ^ ___


zemokoro
zemo tima
zemo tondo


plants, take

mapani
mawoyu
masoni


/Table

1. Cf. the peculiar plural concords for Class 2 in Gova ( 69-72).
Ire they perhaps crie to a similar preprefi:: e_-? No examples to sub-
etanrtiate t-is \ere ol:tainedci






- 23 -


Table o: Concords


, 57.


s3.7.. O.V.. Adj.O, Pos3s.C.


3. o-


P, e-


Womo -



yeme-


2SXAF TPL~ '3


Subjectival Verbal Concord


(a) Present Tense; Positive:

1. motwe oatedzeswa komiowoya
(the ash i- b-eing removed 'b the servant)

2. mo'tshodzo oatetshemekwa kowaprova
(thLe grass i being fired by the servants)

3. meti eateduwa !-oolhimlvwe
( th& -rees are being eaten by the locusts)

4. o:pwara. oatefuijpa
(the year is coming to an end)


(b) Present 'jcense: Nregative:

mondyoro moqho 'ropata
(thi .A re s not brnincg)

Adjectival Concord


S.
moze _wo~n' .i (big village)
moti o..pq.e (tall tree)
mnonc1.. ',omno:ando (biF leg)
motori onoa :anco (bi.. head
lomoya. omotae (sharp thorn)
motohodzo omodana (green grass)


p.
meze ye;megcudi
r.-eti yem-ere
menc- ye,,iee:ando
me eor6 e: ekan'o
e!:.eyc emetse
mretshodzo em;edana


Possessive Concord


io0 or60 ,anp:a
omovyo alIrye


(my head)
"his heart)
(tails of
lions)


men'rd anga
-- ---- ----- 4.---..-
enoya awo
eth i ra' o an dav u


See also: oqso:9..i on)n yoro (scnole of the fire), omondyoro " trees) eieti /2 61.


Io -


e.yle)-


S58.


; 59.


60.


Rel.C. Num.C.





- 24 -


5 61. Note:
(a) In the f.olloing cases the possessive concord has
been elided:
1. roze z eekati (village of the chief)
2. moze moRwa (village of the Bushi-an)

(b) In the fKollowing cases the terminal vowel of the
noun-stem has been elided:
1. mez' adelati (villages of the chief)
2. :iez a^aRwa (villages o: the Bushmen)


5 62. Relative Concord

(a) '"hen the substantive qualified is subject of the
relative predicate:

1. omoya ovrategqotora papo moti motae nanyena
(t-he- thon which -grows on the -tre-- is very sharp)

2. emeva eyateqotora napo noti metse nanyena
(the- thons "Q ich -gro- on"f t ifree are very s harp)

3. moze owakotyo d.imorvanga nonceni
(the village which Is 1 acr oss 'he river is small)
4. eze e7a.. !oto 'imorwanga menceni
(the villages which are across the river are small)

(b) Wrhen the substantive qualified is the object of the
relative predicate;

iToti woongar-t't .'ciY e.ana_ kwoo di vrovo
(the tree which we shall see there is a baobab)


f 63.


S. o--

P. e-


S. V ', .

meo

me,-


STTIA


Poss.C.

wa-.

y :-.


Rel. C.

o0-

e--


Num. C.

O-

.y0r


64. 3ubjectival Verbal Concord

(a) Present ,Tense; Positive:

1. mot'hc onyiwra vronse
(beer i d runO bty all)
2. :netiht enyina 'inse
(,dif-erent 1-;.nds of beer are drunk by all)

3. mmo qi osak-a antu
(th:- governm-ent lies the people)

4. ,mewoo esak'a wantu
(the governmen'TtTike the people)
/(b) Present










(b) Present Tense: Negative:


1. mopowo k'odimi iwa
(the -trihe does not plough the field)

2 e. me'Soo kr'el imi iJwa
(the tribes do not pIou.h the field)

(c) Past Ten:;_e: Po.itive:

1. inoze ovalrndi maoakadi
(the village -moved last year)

2. meze ewakudi moakadi
(the viL'lrage's moved last year

5. moera o,'ahwLezi monw'akwe
(th. thorn pierced his finger)

4. mee7Ta erahwezi menwe Vakwe
(the thorns pierced his fingers


Adjectival Concord


S.
mosa;..o .ipoloto
'mokitana !ohia


(fine medicine)
(ne,;r bag)


P.
mesamo meloto
mekl tana mehia


possessive Concord


3.
1. nmoowc ,'nTsemre ne
(the. tribe o. t chief)

2. ;-otch3 ~i' w.:noolv'a!.e aze1
(the 'beer- o: the woman)

3. monwi' akwe3
(his rinoer)


P.
meo'ro yasemwene


metbh6 yomokolwakaze2


Relative Concord


(a) '.hen thbe substantive
relative predicate:

1. mo-owo olwa
2. me~or elwa
3. modiro ohi?.
4. mediro ehia

(b) :'hen the substantive
relative predicate;

1. m-otoho oninX.yvs
2. metdh_ yreninywa
3. modinga oni.waodi
4. medJnga yen iZaodi



2, :0 ,o lyj.a; a -< -- y : (o 'mokoilue
0 .l v'e C.,c < 0:; on_ e Va.E I.7c


qualified is subject of the


(a tribe that fights)
(tribes that fight)
(the fire that is burning)
(the fires that are burning)

qualified is object of the


(the beer that I drink)
(the beer that I drink)
(the spear that I bought)
(the spears that I bought)

/ 68. GOVA .


S65.


" 66.


67.







- 26 -


3 68.


3.V.C. O.V.3. Adj.C.

3. o- -mo-:


P. ze-(a..")


zoze.-
*. e. -


GCVA


Pos .C.

wa-


00-.


ze--


~XA~?T ~


K 69.


i-ubjectival Verbal Concord
D;--;-----


(a) Pr:sent Tenre; Positive:

1. :7iohpn;e 'og 0(na\1 oomisa .'o
(thi. gra.s iJ3 being used for thatching" huts)

2. monla _ona-aounirj veramla yramono
(the thorn is piercing the skin of the person)

3. ;;eunet (zcnai):oym;Iba yerama ya:;ono
(the thorns ar; piercing the skin of the person)


(b) Past Tense: Positive;

1. moron.a onmaeyrtra ..elo
(the vlley :iis .ll.o! water
lit., he vl.!T'.r has become filled w 1ith water)

2. 'eieronre anaara *leyo
(the vall e-s are fn 11 off -ater;
lit.; the valley have become filled with raterr)


70. AdIectival Concord


1. moroii omokir
2. moin omnrata


(big mouth)
(sharp ne edle)


P.
meromo zozekuru
meino zozepata


Poasessive Concord


1. miotwi v.,ia.moiaze (head of the woman)
2. rnondere 'range (my naize)
3. mi.ohonye wa*.'aJoo (the gra,-s of the
yeei)
4.. oiro onyipee (the tail of the
lion)


metwi zahaka ze



mesira zonyuiee


S72.


Relative Joncord


(a) ''hen the substantive qualified is subject of the
relative predicate; e.g.

1. tnon.enge (ni)nako.osana oonionzoo
(I ant the torch ,lhich is in the house

2.. ienvengae (ni na~osana zomnonzo8
(:t ~rnt th. to:ches vich are in the house)
/(b)


, 71.


Rel.C. Num.O.







- 27 -


(b) hen the substantive qualified is object of the
relative predicate: e.g.

1. rnoron~-',). oofnlanimlonqo onoflarns rie'o
(th vall.ery haich I sa"w is full. of i-rater)

2. meroni a3 3nnimiono anavara ac7,yo
(the valleys which I saw are full of water;


73.


GCTI,, U


PosS.C. Rel.O. fNu.C.


S. o-

P. ze-"



2,A- lrjpE 3


74.


010--


w a-


A --


oo--

zoo--


. e6.Z..ct biv a 1Verbal o ncor c


Present Tense: Positive:

1. mokor!o ormcoinn omnaira m8nma
(the --bie river i-s full -of- water)

2. zenmo!!oro zenaira niimal
(ftheb vers sar full o<: water)

3. zemotonpo omoororme zetoare
( he man' ...... cinsar s sweet)
................ w is t Es at3 sweet,


7 "5.


A~d.jectival Concord


S.
i. monzi omronne
2. mnotwetve or l]Olene
5. lmo'loro omnonene


(big village)
(big ash)
(biI river)


P.
menzi zozenAnn
metrj!tv__e _vomeninie
zemo:-oro zczeneni
A ~~------ __ _-~.--


76.


Possessive Concord


S. mo.irS oeimbunriu (the tail of the hrena), -oembungh <-
*waopeIqupnpu -.. vwa + (o_) evnbun ,gu.
P. ime'ira ,_oe-mbribngu yoembungu .- *y:aodembungu <-
ya + (oi) embunru


77. Relative Concord

'hien the substantive qualified i" subject of the
relative predicate, e.g.


1. mot imu, ogara
2. zemotii zoogara


(the heart which is sore)
(hearts which are sore)


/V. CIAS3 3


ze..-
A -


.. C. 0 .C. Adj.C.









V. COLAS3 3


U ITT': IA


di-. -


s. idi-CA i


S79. Noizmn In thi.3 class a;'. miscellaneous in character,
*:.ndi incTl..cde names of some materiall objects, vcgetable
substances, part, of *;he bo''y, and. (in the lpural only) some
liquids a.nd oth:r bulk" substance.






5 60. The :'ul .'.. prc:-i. iTi- and ama- aro ver- r- z -11heC
.ollowtin ar'c tihe only examples ob-taned which contain them.
8. idinO (q P ameno
i diao eo.oe ame-ot
(- fat areasze
.,.'. a.l ari- (''ater) ;.' _ali-- or amai1~


81. *The pre:i-:es most commonly"
(a) GenerFa! e:.:-amrpe.3
3. din (na;e)
dii (woro)
di.,:i (light)
diva (day)
diviu (country)
diazo.ndzo (cloud)
digqo (hole)
diwo (arr my
dipiaba (hoe)
d.i civ.i (o rnb i n)
dirLcebe shieldl)
dinvenyane (ear-ring

(b) Parts o:' the body:
S. ci.anja (hand)
di iere (breas t
didzi (knee)

,c) Vegetable sibs tanccs:
S. diIoyo (ba oab)
Siroro~bo7eerla (p-rumikin)
dipa pi a (l.eaf)
diemo-ba (bean'


found are di-- and. a- e,.'.

P. mana
maj.
masedi

mavu
madzondzo

mawo

maaCi.yj.
magceb e
manyenyane


P. maanja
i1 'ma e r o
;nadzi


P. paawoyo
ain doromb ea

me emn c


(d) The : 0 V'j'o./in:" pos3ses ;ive construction proves that;
1:n O.s!mie ce~e at le&sct,, there is a -latent i 'before di-:
ekati. oedivn- (the chbie._ the country) ed.iv -- .aidivu <
a.v .. !i'. al-so nedivu (and the country) <
*nii.d.J!vu ,< n< tL + _i! i_vi. u.


1. Ci- 'it,,a'3n- metei -< :Tae.tsi; here alIo the vowel of the prefi:;,
u'hici: succeed. -. t.:"e m s hE becn elideod


78.


N/',


GOVA


di-.


G0OREKIT


di--


)









V. COLAS3 3


U ITT': IA


di-. -


s. idi-CA i


S79. Noizmn In thi.3 class a;'. miscellaneous in character,
*:.ndi incTl..cde names of some materiall objects, vcgetable
substances, part, of *;he bo''y, and. (in the lpural only) some
liquids a.nd oth:r bulk" substance.






5 60. The :'ul .'.. prc:-i. iTi- and ama- aro ver- r- z -11heC
.ollowtin ar'c tihe only examples ob-taned which contain them.
8. idinO (q P ameno
i diao eo.oe ame-ot
(- fat areasze
.,.'. a.l ari- (''ater) ;.' _ali-- or amai1~


81. *The pre:i-:es most commonly"
(a) GenerFa! e:.:-amrpe.3
3. din (na;e)
dii (woro)
di.,:i (light)
diva (day)
diviu (country)
diazo.ndzo (cloud)
digqo (hole)
diwo (arr my
dipiaba (hoe)
d.i civ.i (o rnb i n)
dirLcebe shieldl)
dinvenyane (ear-ring

(b) Parts o:' the body:
S. ci.anja (hand)
di iere (breas t
didzi (knee)

,c) Vegetable sibs tanccs:
S. diIoyo (ba oab)
Siroro~bo7eerla (p-rumikin)
dipa pi a (l.eaf)
diemo-ba (bean'


found are di-- and. a- e,.'.

P. mana
maj.
masedi

mavu
madzondzo

mawo

maaCi.yj.
magceb e
manyenyane


P. maanja
i1 'ma e r o
;nadzi


P. paawoyo
ain doromb ea

me emn c


(d) The : 0 V'j'o./in:" pos3ses ;ive construction proves that;
1:n O.s!mie ce~e at le&sct,, there is a -latent i 'before di-:
ekati. oedivn- (the chbie._ the country) ed.iv -- .aidivu <
a.v .. !i'. al-so nedivu (and the country) <
*nii.d.J!vu ,< n< tL + _i! i_vi. u.


1. Ci- 'it,,a'3n- metei -< :Tae.tsi; here alIo the vowel of the prefi:;,
u'hici: succeed. -. t.:"e m s hE becn elideod


78.


N/',


GOVA


di-.


G0OREKIT


di--


)






- 29


' 82. Certain nouns, names of either liquids or other bulky
substances, are -ounn in the plural on'lv: ami (water)) amaze
(fat), iaropa (blood) maota (milk), 'Mawvere (corn).


83 A few nouns have no plural, e.g. dioro (sk0).




SUBI A

S4. T'he sinngular prefix di- is very rare; e.g.
S. dino (tooth' P. rmen8o- niain6
dins_ (eye) -mens8< *mainso2
.Tacottet cives a fe' more eavples; e thinks, however, that
they have b-en borrowed. from iololo.3


35. ihe most coimmnonly- found singular
plural ma-' e.g.
(a7T General:
S. izina (name) P.
isak3ani (kraal)
isedi (light)
ikl? (cloud)
riindi (hole)
izd'a (day)


prefix is i- ; with


ma zina
masakani
mas edi
mak8p_
madindi
malzowa


(b) Parts of the
S. itende
iz/wi
iberir
izolo
ianza


b ody:
(foot)
(knee)
(breast)
(nose)
(hand)


(c) TIaterial objects:
S. ihamba (hoe)


.inenyane
itondo
ikomba
idandana


(d) Vegetable
S. ibozo
ikSba
itanga
ihani
isamo


(ear-ring)
(basket)
(shield)
(bow)


substances:
(baobab)
(leaf)
(pumpkin)
(nophane)
(tree)


(e) Names of animals:
S. iLonb1e (baboon)
isonsone (owl)
:is hn (worm)
ises (frog)


P. matend1
mazwi
mawere
mazolo
maanza


P. mahamba
manyenZyane
matondo
makomba
madandana


P. mabozo
mak oba
ma tanga
maphani
masamo


P. qapombwe
masonsone
mas n8
,mans ese


1 Ur L n Ijntui (toot") of. "leinhol' and vs -.n 3oio a t3o oPnouo1y,,
241,
2S Urnt: yfo io of. J 245.
3. JcOcott:Et 2..






- 30 -


5 86. IjTote the fol-I or'.in!:. forms
(a) U ap.. homee t'er-, .) .i.th thel plural iarapa;

(b) certain nofrn.;, mnostly denoting' liuirui~ s ore found
in the plural. onl] , .
1. liquids:
a asza ('milk) 1 malah.a* (blood), maluta (fa t),
mati (sali.va- menzi ('water )<. *mainz.,
%. net C.li.!idCS:
mani ( gr.- s, nahera (corn), ,iawe (hail),
maseko (nirht).




G.OVA


S87. di-. nrnd ma-- aro
Class 3; e.r.
(a) general:
S. di t''


ciilfni
dii
cdi.ii


(b) Parts o. the boc'Tv
3. di e.,o
cina ze

(c) ;:;teri,' ob0;j ct:C
8. d o
dion o
"i.te no
.._. '" n c ---i- -


the onlJ.- "ormr..


( o y)i
(country)
(:f'iei'd
(1yorQ)


(tooth)
(fo, t).


( arrow)
(ape ar)
(hoe)
(cornbi.n)


(d) Vegetabl.e i'.bstancec
j dii.tand (p mpien)
di u._ Jnde (bean)


(e) lTT .e-. of ani 1-1 s
:. dimbhun u
divinvre
d 3:10b a


(hyena)
(wlorm)
(locust)


o'7 the prefiTres of


p. nju'ra
ma tu.nga
maria
ma--- i


P. "iejo
manaze


P. tlaic
00_G 0_ii 70
matenc
imcvibi


P. iatanda
imakunde


P. ianbbnngu
~,avi:.nyo
'V A rlr.~


Q 88. Not: the "ollo-w^ing. cases o7 elision and co:tr-ction
due to the noun--s tc:n' being. vocalic:
3. djin. (name) <: diia P. m:na < *iaina
diho (eye) 'dlih' mnh <~ *mnaiho
d ieri (breast) er < : aire'
But note also: Ciimbo villageg. e) a iimbo villageg es).


S839. The f'ol.L-"'in. t~:r.n which denote l.c.id do not have
singular for;.3 : m.aaze (fat) mahwi (milk), manyenga (blood.)
rnmeyr watere)


/s 90.











S90.. Some norns do not ha-.e a plural for'n, e.g. dimnba
(locust(s)) c, dimba diwati (two locnsts) ; dikaya (tobacco)
diki (totem).




GjrOF TT


S91.. di.- nd ma-- are
Clas3 3; e..
(a) General:
3. -dioi.a
difowa
ditorep
diremo


(b) Parts of the
3 dintur

d.i. nt o
di vok o


the only forms o- the prefixes of


(day)
fieldl)
(well.)
(clodi


body:
(nose\
(too-th)
(eye)
(arm)


(c) iMaterial objects:
3. di temo
ditsw6
dionga
dikalnga


(hoe)
(spear)
(shield)
(bow)


(d) Vg- table lubs tances;
3. d.itaSa (pumpkin)
dik:nde (bean)


(e) Names of animals:
3. diyamra
.9 .d_-iZ a o i a
diyooro
divinvo
dicika
dici


(antbear)
(tortoise)
(worm)
(snake)
(otter)


P. maZTZowa
mla. owra
matope
iaremo


p. mayuri
-iaeyo
man t o
flja.oko


P. riateno
mato.gea

makanga


P. matanga
makunde


P. mLa m ag
mayooro
mavi ny_
mavoka
maci


92. The following nouns have no plural form: dipungu
(maize), dimbonde (locust).


9 9'. The follooinn, names of licui-ds have a plural form
only: manaini (rilrk) ,maaze (fat), marovu (beer), mma
(water).


Table o .Concords


94.


S. di--


P. a--


YEEI


S.V.C. O.V.C. Adj.C. Poss.C. ,iel.C. INun. C.


di-


didi-. (di-.)
dia-


ama--


- 31











S90.. Some norns do not ha-.e a plural for'n, e.g. dimnba
(locust(s)) c, dimba diwati (two locnsts) ; dikaya (tobacco)
diki (totem).




GjrOF TT


S91.. di.- nd ma-- are
Clas3 3; e..
(a) General:
3. -dioi.a
difowa
ditorep
diremo


(b) Parts of the
3 dintur

d.i. nt o
di vok o


the only forms o- the prefixes of


(day)
fieldl)
(well.)
(clodi


body:
(nose\
(too-th)
(eye)
(arm)


(c) iMaterial objects:
3. di temo
ditsw6
dionga
dikalnga


(hoe)
(spear)
(shield)
(bow)


(d) Vg- table lubs tances;
3. d.itaSa (pumpkin)
dik:nde (bean)


(e) Names of animals:
3. diyamra
.9 .d_-iZ a o i a
diyooro
divinvo
dicika
dici


(antbear)
(tortoise)
(worm)
(snake)
(otter)


P. maZTZowa
mla. owra
matope
iaremo


p. mayuri
-iaeyo
man t o
flja.oko


P. riateno
mato.gea

makanga


P. matanga
makunde


P. mLa m ag
mayooro
mavi ny_
mavoka
maci


92. The following nouns have no plural form: dipungu
(maize), dimbonde (locust).


9 9'. The follooinn, names of licui-ds have a plural form
only: manaini (rilrk) ,maaze (fat), marovu (beer), mma
(water).


Table o .Concords


94.


S. di--


P. a--


YEEI


S.V.C. O.V.C. Adj.C. Poss.C. ,iel.C. INun. C.


di-


didi-. (di-.)
dia-


ama--


- 31











XA? 195.PS

95.


Subjectival Verbal Concord


(a) Present Tense:. positive:

maitati ati vwana (at i rwana - (the chiefs are .ghting one another)


(b) Present Tense: Negative:

1. cli.anja cdiQho!opata Ikaforo
(i71 haRn. does not take hol( of the 1.nife'

2. mai ake ieaqho koivwa kbtaato
(hi vrTi l are not heard by the people'


(c) Past Tense: Positive:

dianja diataromatwa kIoondavu
(t-e hand cgs bitten by a lion)


y 96. Atjectival Concord


S.
dive lidi.-kando (big stone)
idigo didikando (big eye)


p.
mnawe amakando
amego amakando


Posses.sive Concord


dina dia nga
id.i4o dianga
divu. diaaYeva

rdina.. dimonjna
idjio di .o't-be
idjdo ciomoto


(m:y name)
(my eye)
(country of the
Bushmen) ,
(name of the man)
(eve of the ox)
(eye of the person)
(eyes of the people)


mnana anga
aimefo anga
mavu aqaYeya

man;: aaanyana
1
ame o ezi'Oombe
ainme o;'noto
a5, oC awato


Note: The PoS .O. dia-- i-: u.ed leras cornmonly than ci-.-
)revi. ter t o:" .1 "h iq r1i onfl n.. -' ia (o' lon'rane


S98.


:-elative Co.ncord


'When the substantive cnalified is subject of the rela.-
tive predicate:

1. idino ididiatindinguni podigi dina
(the tooth which has been hurting ime is still there)

2. a-meneo ratindinguni poai dina
(the teeth vhich hav )e"7n 6Turtin.: me are still there)
/ 3. divu

1 z.e.zi.o:e <- i.io..o < _L-ij-zi2oz rme (CfI Clss 5).

*2- r::oto .< ", c. 1, < o'-o.


'. O.to < .in to < -1- ~ ato


97.


3"<1












3. divu didiapo in oni diwv diaRozi
(the country which is ne:t to Barotseland)

4. mavu aano inonii divi cliaRozi
(te countries Fwhich are ne-rt to i:-rotseland)

5. a.i ..u.tiarak. i- aone kahoma
(the- water ivhich is boiling in the pot)

6. aw ata; ne:Seitane ataraporwa
(the armies that came with Sebetvane were scattered)


SSUBIA

S.V.C. C.V.O. Adj Poss.C, Rel. C. Num.C.


3. di--


ma-


XA L00.
5100.


dia.- i

a-8


di-


di-


SubJectiva. Verbal Concord


(a) Present 2rnse: Positivei

1. iDombTe ditia ondavu
(the babooIn lees fTrom the lion)

2:. na.iomnb.ve atia ondavui
(tEe b-aboons f-ee from the lion)


(b) Precent Tense: Negative:

1. i po:mbe adiboni miokwame
(the baboon does no; see the man)

2. "mnBwpro "be ''a aboni mo !-Tame
(th1' baboons do not see the man)


(cW ?'st Tense; Positive:

1. dinso dia'I'-re cli.wali.hwezwa nomo(iQinga
(hi:- eye ,',a pierced by a spear.

2. menr1nci a&we a~rahwezwa nomod.inga
(hif eyes were pierced b;y a spear,


Adjectival Concord


*. ipono'e llnndo
2. itondo icando


(big baboon)
(big basket)


P.
i..ap oimbvfe mak1-ando
matondo makando


/ 102.

1, JVcottet (p. -5) 2'ives Is:: i2 addition to d.io:-


101.










possessive Ioncord


1. isak-ani diasemv;ene (the kraal of
chief)
2. din( dia5 g (mr tooth)
5. izina diomontu1 (the name of
the person)


p.
masakani aseme ne

m6 n6 ango
mazina aIantu


10. Relative. oncord

(a) 'When the substantive qualified is subject o' the
.relative predicate; eg.
1. 1onmbwe ditia (the baboon which is running a'".7)
2. mapombwe atia (the babocns that are running av!ay)

(b) VW"hen the substantive qualified is object of the
relative predicate; e.g.
1. iwa dinidima (the field that I plough)
2. itondo dinibona (the basket that I see)
3. matondo anibSna (the baskets that I see)


-, 104.


GOVA


S.V..C. C.V.O. Adj.C. Poss.C.


3. di--

P* a--


dodi-

omia-


dia-

a-


Rel.C. THum,C.


di-

a--


di-

ma -


A;Irnr -p'R


106,


Sub jectival Verbal Concord


(a) Present Tense, Positive:

1. dinbun gu (dina)kodia '8mb8
(the hyena eats the goat)

2. mambungu (ana)kodia p8mbb
(the hyenas eat the goat)

Adjectival Concord


3.
1. dionga dodikuru
2. dipia dodikuru


(big spear)
(big field)


P.
maonga omakuru
mapia omakuru


/ 107.

1i. diomontu < *-isomontu < dia -+ (o)montu.


o106.


- 34 -


du 102.







- 35 -


107. Possessive Concord
9 P.
1. di tuna d!ia^'a,-ova (the country of matunga araGova
the ;:bukuu)
2. dire diamolkaze (breast of the mere armokaze
wotian)
3. dina diafumu (name of the nena ahafumu
chief)


108. Relative Concord

(a) ''hen the 3iostantive qualified is subject of the
relative predicate; e.g.
1. dimbungr dio:opay si :Ombo dodikaze
(the hyena which is k:il..in7; the goat; is a female)

2. mnambpngui olopaya Cj'mb6 omaka- e
(the hyenas which are Kill.n1ing he goats are
females)

(b) When the substantive qualified is object of the:
relative predicate; e.g.
1. diners dihemba hakaze doditowe
(the song; which the women sing is fine)

2. mapera aahemba hakaze amatowe
(the songs; which the women sing are fine)

1r9. GC'EREKU

.V.. CV.O. Adj. Pos C. Rel. C. Num.0,

di-- dodi dia- di -

P. a- oma- a- ma-


EXA:,PT r.3

; 110. Subjectival Vcrbal oncord

(a) Present Ten3e. Positive:
1. diyol:?a 'onakokokova modivu
(the snake 1i crawiini- in the sand)

2. mnayiSa onakokokiva modivu
(the snakes are crawling in the sand)

3. dimbonde konal:odia widia
(the locust is eating the corn)


(b) Past Tense: Positive:

rmapungu omokaze anamere
(the woman's corn has come up)
/ -1







36 -



Adi^ectival concord


i 111.


s.
di8lka dodinene
difofPa dodin-ne


(big snake)
(big field)


P.
may8ka omanene
mafowa omanene


Posseo~ive Concord


1. d-iternodi dhomp s


(the hoe of the
chief'


2. dipata diahormpa (the homestead of
the chief)
S. (the homesteads of
the chiefs)


matemo ahompa



mapa ta alahomipa


VI. CTASS 4


SUB IA GOVA GCIEREKU


ze-1


P. ezi-


se -
e.-


S114. This class contains the names of many material ob-
jects; of some parts of the body, a few abstract nouns, the
name of some living things, and the names of lanagages.




YEEI

115. eti-. ezi-, and thi-, are rare prefixes. The follow-
ing are the only examples obtained which contain them:
3. etuira (porridge) P. ezira
etMito (thing) ezito
t'iia~ib?.o (lawsuit) zaa mb o
*zeambo (cf.
amba_, to speak)
toIongrP n (island) zoongo <
7. tC 0 On 7o '"z e o on o


S116. The prefixes most
(a) General
S. eoraro
^epona
?e ondo
_ehvCta
Sevunyo
epatwa
emaze
ecimba


commonly found are se- and ze-; e.g.


(clothing)
(seat)
(foot)
(speech)
(vorm)
(captive)
(tribe)
(pain)


/(b) Names
1. zi.- according to Jacttottt p. 16.


P. zeraro
zepona
z eke n do
zekondo
zehweta
zevunyo
zep a twa
zedaze
zecimba


, 112.


113.


w.-


3.







36 -



Adi^ectival concord


i 111.


s.
di8lka dodinene
difofPa dodin-ne


(big snake)
(big field)


P.
may8ka omanene
mafowa omanene


Posseo~ive Concord


1. d-iternodi dhomp s


(the hoe of the
chief'


2. dipata diahormpa (the homestead of
the chief)
S. (the homesteads of
the chiefs)


matemo ahompa



mapa ta alahomipa


VI. CTASS 4


SUB IA GOVA GCIEREKU


ze-1


P. ezi-


se -
e.-


S114. This class contains the names of many material ob-
jects; of some parts of the body, a few abstract nouns, the
name of some living things, and the names of lanagages.




YEEI

115. eti-. ezi-, and thi-, are rare prefixes. The follow-
ing are the only examples obtained which contain them:
3. etuira (porridge) P. ezira
etMito (thing) ezito
t'iia~ib?.o (lawsuit) zaa mb o
*zeambo (cf.
amba_, to speak)
toIongrP n (island) zoongo <
7. tC 0 On 7o '"z e o on o


S116. The prefixes most
(a) General
S. eoraro
^epona
?e ondo
_ehvCta
Sevunyo
epatwa
emaze
ecimba


commonly found are se- and ze-; e.g.


(clothing)
(seat)
(foot)
(speech)
(vorm)
(captive)
(tribe)
(pain)


/(b) Names
1. zi.- according to Jacttottt p. 16.


P. zeraro
zepona
z eke n do
zekondo
zehweta
zevunyo
zep a twa
zedaze
zecimba


, 112.


113.


w.-


3.







- 37 -


(b) Names of languages:
S. e ei ( ee. lanrguge)
_i.('9 (Tawiana language)


(c) The following singular Class 4 nouns are irregular
as regards their plural:
S. evyunyo (orm) p. zevuno; rnavunyo (ci. 3)
esemroz8 (birth) iasemozo
Sezuru (powder) mezuru (C1. 2)
epnatwa (captive) zepatwa; apatwa (C0. 1)
Sepezo (broom) zimpezo

(d) zenama (strength) is found .in the plural only.



SU.BIIA

' 117. The only forms of the orefix are tVi- (singular) and
ze- (plural). COne informant consistently subs tituted ke-
for tsi-, but the others maintained that this was a usage
taieen over from :i-awana.
S. t.izawalo (clothing) P. zezawalo
t Xif"u (lid) zefup.i
ti if ahwa (bone) zefahwa
t, ikavi (skin) zekavi
thihodi (cripple) zehodi
tikpota (council-place) zekota
t bifudi (duck) zefudi
t itoto (corpse) ::etoto
t~iRwa (Tawana language)
tsiZanza (Yeei language)


GOVA


113. The only forns
ye- (plural) ; e.g.
S. s.eupata
seponya
s ek omb a
sedia
seaimbaa
s enyony-
seczera
s eRwa
s eJoo


of the prefixes are se- (singular) and


(clothing)
(seat)
(skin)
(food)
(lawsuit)
(bird)
(taboo)
(Tawana language)
(Yeei language)


P. yesupata
yeponya
yekomba
yedia
yeambaa
yenyizer
yezera


S119. A few nouns form their plural in ma-; e.g.
S. sepata (forest) P. mapata
sekomb8riso (broom) makomboris6

120. Some nouns occur only in the plural; e.g. yekorwa
(sickness), yerama (body), yesima (mud).

121. seemwa (truth) has no plural form.
/GCEREKTJ







- 37 -


(b) Names of languages:
S. e ei ( ee. lanrguge)
_i.('9 (Tawiana language)


(c) The following singular Class 4 nouns are irregular
as regards their plural:
S. evyunyo (orm) p. zevuno; rnavunyo (ci. 3)
esemroz8 (birth) iasemozo
Sezuru (powder) mezuru (C1. 2)
epnatwa (captive) zepatwa; apatwa (C0. 1)
Sepezo (broom) zimpezo

(d) zenama (strength) is found .in the plural only.



SU.BIIA

' 117. The only forms of the orefix are tVi- (singular) and
ze- (plural). COne informant consistently subs tituted ke-
for tsi-, but the others maintained that this was a usage
taieen over from :i-awana.
S. t.izawalo (clothing) P. zezawalo
t Xif"u (lid) zefup.i
ti if ahwa (bone) zefahwa
t, ikavi (skin) zekavi
thihodi (cripple) zehodi
tikpota (council-place) zekota
t bifudi (duck) zefudi
t itoto (corpse) ::etoto
t~iRwa (Tawana language)
tsiZanza (Yeei language)


GOVA


113. The only forns
ye- (plural) ; e.g.
S. s.eupata
seponya
s ek omb a
sedia
seaimbaa
s enyony-
seczera
s eRwa
s eJoo


of the prefixes are se- (singular) and


(clothing)
(seat)
(skin)
(food)
(lawsuit)
(bird)
(taboo)
(Tawana language)
(Yeei language)


P. yesupata
yeponya
yekomba
yedia
yeambaa
yenyizer
yezera


S119. A few nouns form their plural in ma-; e.g.
S. sepata (forest) P. mapata
sekomb8riso (broom) makomboris6

120. Some nouns occur only in the plural; e.g. yekorwa
(sickness), yerama (body), yesima (mud).

121. seemwa (truth) has no plural form.
/GCEREKTJ











CCTT '-IT

122. The only forms of -refix are e.- (singular) and wi--
(pluralS) e.g.
S. @eranda (bead) P. wiranda


Sepona

Serama
Sedira
heree
Memvoo
Sereria
e. ePL112Y?
SeRwa
SeJooP


(seat)
(ak in)
(thigh)
(bird)
(hawk)
(j acIkal)
(cripple)
(deaf-mute)
(Tawana language)
(Yeei language)


Yiiponaa

'irama
0idira
li,,ihere

wir~ma
wip urupuru


S12. eai (chief) ta~tes the concords of Class 1, and
forms its plural in ^a-, viz. a'gyanbi,.

S124. 6embuigu (hyena) becomes m-ambunb u in the plural.

S1 5. Sor1r nouns occur in the plural only,: xidia (corn),
witema (porridge).



Table o- Concords


YEYI


zeze-.


Rel.C. Num.C.

ge6(e) 6e-


za--


e z(e) -


ze-


EXA.PL ES

j 127.


3ubjectival Verbal Concord


(a) Present Tense: Positive:

zezera zawaYeei zetshokana nazezavaRwa
(the taboos of the Yeei differ from those of the
Tawan a)


(b) Present Tense: NTegative:

seggana iIe apbo 'ip2LawngRa ami egqho armi nanyena
(the well near the river has not much waterT-


(c) Past Tense: Positive:

zegaze zamaaRoI i zatakhonwa koomaTewere aSebetwane
(the tribes of ba rotseland were conquered by the
Ndebele of Sebetwane)


/S 128.


126.


ze--


- 88 -


S.V.C. 'O.C. Adj.C. Poss.C.


S. I e.











CCTT '-IT

122. The only forms of -refix are e.- (singular) and wi--
(pluralS) e.g.
S. @eranda (bead) P. wiranda


Sepona

Serama
Sedira
heree
Memvoo
Sereria
e. ePL112Y?
SeRwa
SeJooP


(seat)
(ak in)
(thigh)
(bird)
(hawk)
(j acIkal)
(cripple)
(deaf-mute)
(Tawana language)
(Yeei language)


Yiiponaa

'irama
0idira
li,,ihere

wir~ma
wip urupuru


S12. eai (chief) ta~tes the concords of Class 1, and
forms its plural in ^a-, viz. a'gyanbi,.

S124. 6embuigu (hyena) becomes m-ambunb u in the plural.

S1 5. Sor1r nouns occur in the plural only,: xidia (corn),
witema (porridge).



Table o- Concords


YEYI


zeze-.


Rel.C. Num.C.

ge6(e) 6e-


za--


e z(e) -


ze-


EXA.PL ES

j 127.


3ubjectival Verbal Concord


(a) Present Tense: Positive:

zezera zawaYeei zetshokana nazezavaRwa
(the taboos of the Yeei differ from those of the
Tawan a)


(b) Present Tense: NTegative:

seggana iIe apbo 'ip2LawngRa ami egqho armi nanyena
(the well near the river has not much waterT-


(c) Past Tense: Positive:

zegaze zamaaRoI i zatakhonwa koomaTewere aSebetwane
(the tribes of ba rotseland were conquered by the
Ndebele of Sebetwane)


/S 128.


126.


ze--


- 88 -


S.V.C. 'O.C. Adj.C. Poss.C.


S. I e.







- 39 -


Adjectival Concord


s.
begzgana_ "e eqo
Seer a e6 ebi '
8ekae e&ekcoro
dethare Megekando


(deep well)
(bad taboo)
(old skin)
(big tree)


P.
zeggana zezeqo
zezera zezebhi
zeke, 7 ezekoro
zethare zezekando


129.


et
et
e
ide


130.


PosSessive Concord
gira Manga (my porridge) ezira
ial!bo gan ga (mIy lawsuit) zaanmb
dito i anga (my thing) ezito
poo gonjovu (mouth of the zepoo
elephant)
.on9uJ.oYv <7 "aongovu-' oa + onjovu


zan nga
o anga
zanga
zaVian jovu


Relative Concord


(a) When the substantive qualified is subject of the
relative predicate; e.g.

1. 9ekae eSgapo louru dinjoo yemwa antganga
(the skin which ias ying)on top of the hut is
not mine)

2. zekae zezapo louru dinjoo yemwa andzanga
(the sklns yln on top ohe hut are not mine)

(b) VWhei the substantive qualified is object of the
relative predicate; e.g.

1. tdiambo gegendatedieta kolekati ?zoo pame
(the case whTch I am ringingg to the chief is
too hard for me)

2. zaambo zezendatedieta ko ekati zz0oo paime
(tye caes'-"- hI-a- b-i- Tn---t-h-7 cKTeif are
too hard for me)

3. zeraro zezendamono pani_ yemwa andzanga
(t"he' {cthes which I see here are not mine)

4. kandizere gefenkandokum',ana kwoo
(I do no- t kno- w Hhat- "-XFalli-.. see there)


S151.


SUBIA


d.V.C. .V.C. Ad Poss. C.


zei-
ze-2


Rel.C. NC. m.C.


t i-


t#i-


za-


/r.iP TLE3


2, zi-", according~ to Jacottet, p. 23


S. tgi-
P. ze-1


1. zi-, accordiiL' to Jacottet, p. 26.


18t8.






- 40 -


EXAMPLES


132.


5 133.


Subjectival Verbal Concord


(a) present rense: Positive:

1. tUifudi ttidia isn8e
(the duck eats the worm)

2. zefudi zedia masin&
(the ducks eat the worms)

(b) Present Tense: Negative:

1. t,ihodi katdizani
(the cripple does not dance)

2. zehodi kazezani
( th cripples do not dance"

(c) Past Tense: Positive:

1. t ikota tgilaserekvra zona
(the counc.il-place wIas recently doctored)
2. zekota ze@aserekwa zona
(the- council.-places were recently doctored)

Adjectival Concord


S.
t.iikwa t ikRando
tIidio tilo--to


(big forest)
(good food)
(much food)


p.
zekwia zekando

zeadio._ ze ni


Possessive Concord.


1. tihanto tgasemwene (gift of the
chief)
2. tiizano taeZanza (song of the
Yeei)
3. t.isima taawo. (their well)


zehanto zasemwene

zezano zaweZanza

zesima zawo


135. Relative Concord

(a) `.hen the substantive qualified is subject of the
relative predicate; e.g.


1. t;izera t.izi..n.
2. zezera zeziefne
3. tgidiranto tzidiritwa
4. zediranto zedirit wa


(a taboo that is notorious)
(taboos that are notorious)
(wealth that is owned)
wealths that are owned)


(b) When the substantive qualified is object of the
relative predicate; e.g.


1. tzinto tzinibonp
2. zento zenibona


a thing which I see)
things which I see)
/ 136.


1 4.








- 41


S.vJ1. 0.V.C.


S. s e::

p ,r


137.


GOVA

-dj.c. Poss.C. Tel.C. ITum.G.


sose-


so-
A --*


0-.
,sqL.


3ubjectival Verbal Concord


(a) Present Tense positive:

1 semende ,crL *'o le' u sekunye
(thei kn.:e i' cutting the Vood

2 yemende yenakoveya sekunre
(the k'nmve are ciGtAn-r thn wood)


Adjectival Concord


setondo sose.Kuru
se-ene nde..,.s
set--ondo sosee


(big tree)
(nev knife)
(tall tree)


P.
Setondo yo2 Pe:'I=
3 q o ,


Possessive Concord


1. aemende sane (my knife)
2. seinende samodengiana (the boy's
knife)
3. sedi safumu (grave of
--the chief)


yemende yange
yemende yahadgngiana


140.


Relative Concord


(a) 'ihen the substantive qualified is subject of the
relative predicate; e.g.

1. semende somonyara zange kadi sange
(h knife tat"is "in' m i is not mine)

,2. yemende yomonyara zange kadi yange
(the knives that are in my han e not mine)


(b) lien the substantive qualified is object of the
relative predicate; e.g.

1. setondo esenaiono rnI'i:.-.'
(the tree" 1-1.1t i si r -~: T~' mophane)

2. yetondo eyenamono mapanyi
(the -tr-ees -that I. saw are moph.ane)


/ 141.


1.56.


138.


. 139.


- --~I


sa-
A -'










GCEREKU


Poss .0.


S. e-

P. l.-


Rel. J' T I.C.

e,


...~


Subjectival Verbal Concord


(a) Present Tense: Positive:

Senlkhowoj o genakarIa :ncjic,,ai
(the frog Tives in the water)


(b) Past Tense: PositIve:

1. 9ekombo denadi widia
(l-c tr- Thas eaenthe corn)

S. "ik.:o c"boJ rinadi i'i.7 .
(tIl o'Ats i-lcv t e'-t'i the corn)


5. Adjectival Concord


3.

i, Ltun e o 5oienicn3
,e)r .,?. ." 9 o5'enni


(big skin)
(big firewood)
(big country)


p.
Wipapa wo inn&-
wikune kowingn8


Possessive Concord


Sekombo mande

9edwata gamokaze.
----l-l--- -LI1 CI 1 S -.i


(my goat)
(my food)
(the clothing
the woman)


^lkri,-irbo iande
widia iiande
of
I


146.


S. e+nasal-, e-
nasal-

P. ze+nasal-,
7e6-


VII. 'LA-"3 5


SUIT!' IA


i+nasal-,
nasal-, i.-

i+nasal-,
nasal-, i-


GrVA


nasal-,
I=!'
nasal-,
e-? ma-1


e+nasal-,
nasal-, -

ze+nasal-,
nasal-, -


14, Thi.- cl.a-i3 although of. a miscellaneous character, con-
tai.n, cspc i aL'L.: the names of many animals, of certain common
ob-jects. anr. occasionally also- of parts of the boa)r.
Us/ed fairly ofte ,/ the 147.f'Cas
1. Used fairly often; cf, the plural of Class6,.


, 142.


S14


j 144.


141.


S.v.c,. ov. A ,i.c


woi- *i' a-


"r f.)'E ",' r
Sr'..J L.'il IJ,.










a 147. The: form o::' tfho nasal following e- depends upon the
form oC: tho follo-'in. co on.oant; e.
e. emoro (tortoise) P. zenlq.0oro
eulivura (rain) zeimnli.ra
efipofu (ostrich) zeP1_ofPu.
emb*i'ana (python) zembwana
entongo (needle) zentongo
enzimiba (grave) enzimnba
ensinga (horn) )ensin a
eneni (bird) zen vena
er ama meata) zeng:~.a
enfjii (hair) zenDI ii
enrata (star) zenat a
en-ango (shoe) ze n n ngo
enjera (path)
en joo (hut)
enEop (blanket) zen _o
eni.:o- o (arnm) zengoro

, 1468. :i a n:ew casos, 1the .anal. o: the prefix has been
elided:
3. eF, (fish) P. zewi
e thipi (iron) zethh ipi
Seqhoo rubbishh


149. In T:n fewv csPes, ths initial vowel of the singular
prefix hac been elided:
.3. nthare (cradloesin) P. zenthare
ng_:a (drum) zengoma
nk6 (gum) zenk8i
nch' (tip)

( 150. A few nouns form their plural in a-; e..
:. enjera (path) P. mayera
-njg (hut) mayo8


, 151. some speakers .,ronovnce the :;i.Tnlar prefix yei-",
etc., instead of eia- etc. This may be dialectal.


SUBIA

", 152. The noun does not change in form for the plural; but
the plural concord is always distinctive. The English trans-
lation: below ill, be cvivn only in the singular.

153. The full prefix i+nasal appears to be ver: rare; and
here, es well as in 154, the form of the nasal depends upon
the form o' the following consonant; e.g. insimbi (iron),
inseke (hair), inyang (bean), inyinza (boundary); inkol!
(heart), inzo'r8 (hut), inkanda countryy), indongo (bead).-
/ 154 ._
L1 The lasmi throe noune take their plural in ma-' m) zo 8., makandc, malonpgo










a 147. The: form o::' tfho nasal following e- depends upon the
form oC: tho follo-'in. co on.oant; e.
e. emoro (tortoise) P. zenlq.0oro
eulivura (rain) zeimnli.ra
efipofu (ostrich) zeP1_ofPu.
emb*i'ana (python) zembwana
entongo (needle) zentongo
enzimiba (grave) enzimnba
ensinga (horn) )ensin a
eneni (bird) zen vena
er ama meata) zeng:~.a
enfjii (hair) zenDI ii
enrata (star) zenat a
en-ango (shoe) ze n n ngo
enjera (path)
en joo (hut)
enEop (blanket) zen _o
eni.:o- o (arnm) zengoro

, 1468. :i a n:ew casos, 1the .anal. o: the prefix has been
elided:
3. eF, (fish) P. zewi
e thipi (iron) zethh ipi
Seqhoo rubbishh


149. In T:n fewv csPes, ths initial vowel of the singular
prefix hac been elided:
.3. nthare (cradloesin) P. zenthare
ng_:a (drum) zengoma
nk6 (gum) zenk8i
nch' (tip)

( 150. A few nouns form their plural in a-; e..
:. enjera (path) P. mayera
-njg (hut) mayo8


, 151. some speakers .,ronovnce the :;i.Tnlar prefix yei-",
etc., instead of eia- etc. This may be dialectal.


SUBIA

", 152. The noun does not change in form for the plural; but
the plural concord is always distinctive. The English trans-
lation: below ill, be cvivn only in the singular.

153. The full prefix i+nasal appears to be ver: rare; and
here, es well as in 154, the form of the nasal depends upon
the form o' the following consonant; e.g. insimbi (iron),
inseke (hair), inyang (bean), inyinza (boundary); inkol!
(heart), inzo'r8 (hut), inkanda countryy), indongo (bead).-
/ 154 ._
L1 The lasmi throe noune take their plural in ma-' m) zo 8., makandc, malonpgo






- 44 -


154. In the majority of cases the vowel o. the pre:fi': has
been elided; e.g.
inbezi (horse), mberare (sheep), nmbSna (python),
mbezo (axe), mbuto (seed), pene (goat) mvula (rain), ndozi
(witchcraft), nzala (hunger) nswi (fish), ntongo needlee)
OOuibe 2 (ox), oen go (antbealr), Danga (doctor) 'O.nze (sleep),
nlwina (crocodile);, ng'Fr8 'blanket)., ngSma (drum), nkondo
(army); nk;.'- (-"ovw l)

S155. In a few cases the nasal of the prefi;: has been
elided; e.g. isoko (dust), izie locustst; iva (earth),
ikcwer (thong), ipei_ (charm).

. 156. The following noun- appeae- to be borrowed fro'' Tswana.
itoto (teaching), ithebe (shield), innete (truth) iputeTo
(assembly); cf. ;awana-r thut (teachingT theb8 (shielid,~
nnete 'truth), phutheg6 (a_3sem1bl.y) .'

. 157. The follo- in; obsessive constructions prove that in
some cases at lea'.s, there i- still a latent i preceding the
prefix n:
ndozi yeDanga (t tthe witchcraft o e doctor>, rgeanga <_
yvaiDuanga <-. a + (i)'oanga; lodimi lwepombe (the tongue
0.2 the beast\; Iwe orbe <( lvaiDom"nbe -< 1 +wa + (I ombe;
ketw!;i kwemripen (the ear o0' the goat') kve ne?, <
ehwaimpene

GOVA

j 158. ,ost nouns do hot change in form for the plural.

159. With one or two exceptions, the prefix (singular and
plural) consists of a nasal only; the form oo the nasal de-
pends upon the form of the following consonant.

5 160. Na:.ies of animals genera?.ly, fall in this class, but;
as already indicated, they are sometimes placed in Class l(a),
e.g.
S. mbwa (dog) P. mbwa
mbfma (python) 'mb".'Ti
mvuu (giraffe) mTVuu
rmwe (ostrich) we
Dobo (goat) rosmb
(_an co (crocodile) TDand
ngorib o o:) ng o; be


1. It should., however, be noted that the parallels given by Johnston for
some of the examples quoted below sre provided with en initial ._i cf.
Johnston, vol. i. pp. 318 ff. The absence of initial I in the e;x-
amples obtained by me may be due to a dialectel difference of long
standing, or it may be the result of a process of elision of recent
date. Parellels given by Johnston. imbelele (sheep), imvula (rain);
inzala (hunger), inswi (fish), ingma (drum), iTpene (goat).
2. itombe according to Jacottet, p. 16.
3. Of. komba (shield), Johnston; vol. i, p. 324.
4. Tswone g = Subis T.






- 45 -


161. In a fev casc no nasal is employed; e.g. hefu
(eland) uI'w (h n), tuv-'bi (corn sona (needle).

S162. A .'.e' nouns in th ic cla s have a prefix e- it is,
holwever-- not followed by nasal, e.r. esi (fishy eanba (law).


S1 53. 9o!c no unos o:F thi"- 7l.j:3 form; their pc lura in ca1 '. .
'.. n:: (blanket) P. maoi
n er (path) laera
n iya (horn) maiya
noka (s nake) .iay'
nlar a (hen C) :ayar a
seong (needle) Inaonga
Notoe nzo (h) wit h.. ,11uiral mLehG




^ 164. Iost noi-ns do not change in form for the plura.l.

S165. "t 'j..: few perceptions to be indicated below,, tl.e
prefi:: (3ingulr e;nd plural) consist-; of a nasal onl.,. The
form of thb. na'el depends 'ipon the .:'or;m -oe the follovring
consonsnt. e.:.
.. 0_b,.a (python) P. mboma
mb athi tortoises) mbathi
h0oo (; a-:e) mboo
hphadd (foot) phaadze
Vi -ra (rain' mvura
Sndz i (fly) nazi
ndlrn (.rave) ndaro
nt:n ,'ezi (s tar) nt ngvre i

nt ana (calf) nthana
n Y ma (me at) nyarna
yara (hand) yara
njo" (hut) njo"
n jer (' th) n era
n_ mb e ( o: ) n7o-e
ngoi 0' (blanket) ngo?'^
nkihango (' ord) n han
Note, however, -(i .(fish)

S166. iT; a fe c c3es nc nanal is ev:*ployed; e.g. hanbo
(cattlepost), honde (blood), fund (powder).

S167. COnee xample v.ar obtained where the singular prefix'
co';insit of e+nasal: enjoo (lawsuit).

5 168. In a few cases, the plural prefix consists of ze +
nasal; e.g. mboro (club) with plural zemboro; ngomra (druTm)
with plural zenroipa.


169. Occasional'y the plural is formed in ma-; e.g.
phadzge (spoor), with plural mamhadze.
/Tab1









I'jn1 o0P ,1corcOs


1 7C. 'Y1iT

S.V.CO.V.,. PA P ose:.. Rel.C. Nuim.C.

3. e-: yeye+nasa a:. yer(e) !- e+nasal

P. ze-- zeze+naeal za- zez(e)- ze+nas al


LXAPL
S171.. S-iec4tival T" er ')al oncord

(a) Presenit -ose: positive.
1, e~.v ... .
1. eny:"ni eateorole bkwoko dioro
(a i::" i flyinrg in the s&yv

2. zen'-ni z. .eoroha at'c e'opa e o:hiri1-e
(thoe bi-.'is are fl.-ring and 'ctch)ing locusts)
zateorol:a z- *zeoateolokaa

3. ze-wvr zateflatTa (:fish are being caught)
zatepatwa < vzeEtepat wa


(b) The f:lio'.::ing" e::awloles do not contain the formative
ate:

1. zen3oo zae;a.a ze ze:nfwanan na e'W.ran7ana
(..oinenl3 blan 'ctc are thie same as those of men)

2. enjera eezerwJa ITormoketisi arato
(the road is cnovn by' the leader o-r the people)


(c) Prcsen t s Tense: Negative:

1. zeibl'eo zegho koduwa l:ocn'oro
(seecs. ar'e not eaten by the hare)

2. zenyeni zeqho ;:oionvira ':omopunde
(th-e birds ar not seen aby the boy)


(0) Peat jense: Positive ("'orm 1):

1. *enyoni zsawir.i paca-pioe
(the birds fell on the ground)

'2. zedwi zapatwa koto/awa
(,ish were caught w.'ith nets)


(e) Past Tense: Positive (:'ori- 2)..

zeouinbe Zerckofol.ra none 4emwe
(ca ttble were grczinr- .i the veld)






1 47


(f) Past Tense. Positive (7'ori 3):

1. ensin~an e'o-, *be vyatavunjika koko ncho
(tne ho.n e:the ox vas bro ken aF he tip)

2. enzi inb aeklati yatasewa mono roanda rwake
( the" -celf' grave vas made in his cattle-kra.a)


Ad1cctival Concord


S.
I. env&ma yeencr:a

_. J ...._ ...---........--..
2. popb e yreeehwe
3. ej to no .yve nt o
4. ent',a veenkando
5. engoro re ren._eando


(red meat)
(white o;;)
(sharp needle)
(big army)
(big arm)


P.
zenyama zezencwa
ze,)oine zeze-yjhw'e
zenton.o zezent:,e
.nent'w-a zezenicando
zengoro zezenhando


,ote: (1) The forli of the nasal of the Adj.C. depends upon
the form of the follov.in: consonant.
(2) The sinrg.lajr Adj.C. ree + nasal is an abbreviation
of the connord :Trcye + nasal still ,-et occasionally.


S17.73


Posses.sve Concord


1. e)oilbe anga
2. enzi r;ba a ekati

3. e6p!o7be omozel

4. ensinga eaombe2

5.


(my ox)
(grave of the
chief)
(o:c of the
village)
(the horn of
the ox)
(blankets of
the woman)


z.eDombe zanga


zegombe zamoze



zengowo zawakaze


Relative Concord


"'-hen the substantive qualified is
relative predicate:


subject of the


1. embwana yeyateendera podooro diamawe enggqudi nanyena
(te python twhfiTs- creeping 6ver the rocks is very
large)

2. zembwana zezateendera podooro diamree zengqudi nanyena
(the pythons which are creeping over the rocks are very
large)


SUBIA


S3.V.C. O.V.C.

P. i-


P. zi.-


Ad) .C. Poss.C. .el.C. Numi.C.


i+nasal,
nasal, i-

i+nasal,
nasal, i-


1. omoze -< *a omoze <- +_- o)moze
2. eombe < -'ae ombo <- a + eyombe


, 172.


174.


175.


ya-


za-


zi-


zo-






- 48


6 175. S ctival Vebal Concord

(a) Present Tenee : o~itive:

1. Danra isere.he a9rol.re'_
(the doctor cures s-ic^ness)

2. Tansn zisereka .o'l.rere'
(the docto.r3 cure sickness'

3. -iberere itia ondavii
(the sheep flee o fro the lion

4. mberere zitia ondavu
(a e, seep 7Tee :ro'n the lion)


(b) Prasent T:nse- Ne'-Feative;
1. Dansa k'jisereki 'ol.w8rei
(the6. 0oco.r7 doer3: not' c, c the C7.icknes)

(the doctor~ S-o n-c- cure the ic' krness.


(c) Past 'oen,-e, -ositive'
I. emp en 't, Iu i^leh,:-.1ia -^ ilw-aai'wa ngwena
(our roa.t ras kitld by a crocodleT

2. mip-ni zeti. zi.eh'ai'c;a nvrena
(u'1 o rt. e ,, kill-.ed b a crocoi.le

3. Oombe' n i'.asenenge vahera _ango
(.o... (p--.. ox has ,:iolleoi 'iy corn'

4. 'Ooa'me zen ziTasenenge mahera ango
(yO c-TTi o:en Iv`e ,o-Ter--C 6r n)

S1.77. U'clectival Concord

(a) The forn o? the nasal depends upon the :'orm of the
following consonant.

(b) If ;the adj. sten comimeoence in 1, the 1 .1>- d under
the inin"lience o": the nasal o:' the -d i.O..: c:f. 'below,; 1aso
Jacottet, 5n. 5 end 23.

(c) The full. fori i+nasa d'oes not seesi to be coimonly
used. The followinF are the onlp exa':roleo obtained from in-
formants: Danga in1ando (a bi7 doctor; or, lbiq doctors)
'0eol-in.ano (-a big antboear or: big antbears)


1. ''his is te for;n given by J.cottcet p- :3.







- 49 -


(d) ~he concord consisting merely of a na.s- i.:; minih more
common; e.g.

O.aga _.n.kando (a big doctor; or, big doctors)
v l... qi'r1'.'i (much rain)
inyinza nd@ (a long bo.uin(,-n .r'** or, Ion.- 'onrii .:.ic-s
C(a. the adj. stem _-.)i
ikr,lQ. nc (a long thong; or, long thcn-s)
j1eT8' ndoto (a good charm; or, good ch..::'is:)
(cf.'the adj. tem. --loto)
mbuto ndoto (good see"'-
mpakwa nhi,- (a'new cradleskin; or, new c>-d..es:in

(e) In some cases only the i' of th .-- :re'ix is re- ;-i.rien
e.g.

iVu ikando (big earth) ivu iloto (good 3r.nth'
in.zi iloto (a good word) iha (a .i:e dri,
ndaola ihia (a .newi div.ning.-vtone)


~ 176,.


Possessive Co ncord


8.
2 anrI. :acei .ene doctort, of the
Chief)
(np ycgokvarme (goat of the

(goats .of the.
men)


P.



mpena z2ei:aiee
mp*ni ades!:wane


Relative Concord


(a) `'h!enL the substantive qualified ;is subject of the
relative predicate; e.g.


1. pang iziritwa
2. oanga ziziwitwa
5. ''mb''Winti
4. 'mp3n8 zitia
6. mberere zinonit8


(a doctor who is famous)
doctorss who are famous)
(the goat which is running)
(the cro-;ts which are running)
(a sheep which is fat)
(sheep which are fat)


(b) '!hen the substantive qualified is object of the
relative predicate; e.g.


1. ndozi intia3
, oombe ini-wehai
2. '6ombe Ti e i


(witchcraft that I fear)
(the ox that I killed)
(the oxen that I killed)


,' 130c..


179..


1.I No srentii;h.ningi t lkes place; but of. ?Jcottet, pc 5. snd 3o.2,
.. pl .pp .. 1 98 below,
, yqok kav w. -T; y omokwame *< yai + (o)mokwar.e
3, Ab'b~reviated1 fro;>) imptiga


.


"--


; ~~;- `"- ~i~ ~~` '


. I










I so -go VA
18Io. V' oA

3 o p.2e Q C T .0.

3. ze- zoze- za-
p aJ zoze- za-- 5
oma- ma-



181. SubSectival Verbal Concord
(a) Present rense: Positive,
1. nzera zenskolenda mrodiimbo
(tfie pah leads to the vpiliage)
2. nzara zenakopaa hanato
('fie hunger ill3 Their children)
3, imayera anaFaoyenda mo,,lU3i,o
(ta Ea to tTvllages)


(b) Past 'ense: Positive (the S.V.C. is sometimes
elided):

1. niya zenayajra ovanga
(the hor, "is full of medicine;
lit., ... has been filled with ,..)

2. manira anayara maanya
.(tE 'ho'l --e aefllTT of medicines:
lit., ... have been. filled with ...)
3. n i.-- zofu'e zenaynlCmbul midi nom,
(the hirn of the rhnoceros pierced the chest of
the ox)

4. nyama nawera momaodiro
(the, eat fell into the fire)


S182. Ad1ectival CCon o rd
3. P.
:"1nut zo zekzuru (big seed) mbuto zo'zekuru
nondo zozekurt. (big peg) ondo zozelturu
(red oxen) ngombe zozekihu
(big lions) n eezozekuru4
nzera zozejlruI. (big path) maera onakuru
nzara sc,:-,rj. (big hunger)
n '"'A zoze"m'br (big hand) mayara omaiuru


1. 11 plural concords obtained refer to nouns with ma:- as their plural
v,r-e f'ix
2. This refers to nouns with-! ,,- as plural prefix.
3 In the si the Adj C. of Class 1(a) is enployeds ngombM omokihu
( re'd ox)
4. In the i te Adj.C of- Class l(a) 'is employed anyp omokuru
(a i:' lion)










- 51 -


--.-- ----.-.
niaT& zoIumr lc


P. niT zonzovu l
lo --. o01" ze


(JrT bncncc
T3o- oe y~ivc 'Jo'flcor


(':IT han d)
(horn of' ,:,h rhinoceros)
(h.ungcr o. the' child )

(t^sks o:f th.- elephant)
(bli:nects o::' the vonen)


. 184C C r'-'TX

S V.. 0.77.. Adj Poss.. Rel ui.C .

e. ie a- re e; -


P. ze-


zoze--


za--


1A T7 -3


'.ub jec tival Ver).a', Concord


z n 'al.
r*-


Pa-t Ten.e.; os-itive-;

t1 ... o en-,i Oi ot ooa
(the python he caten the goats'

2. n'r.i ie ei7-7i "l:0-tibo
'the-- lion 1 h.o, eaten the goot.s


LAd, ectival Concord


2.
nonce -r.'7'.none
_ .. .... ... -- -
..'o? "*-'re'ncne
nl7, ii'o 72--flflCe


(birf palm--tree)
(bi w:ina)
(big grave)


P.
none zozene n
napepo Zozenine
nda'o zozenene
n J .io Az 'r


?o 0:;e csive Concor1d


n>A ro -ahomp a

n onmbe voo70.rnome2


(grave of the
chief'
(o:: of the man)


ndaro zot ahoimcpa1

ngomibe zo,',e rome
A. -.-


1zoI~loi-mc

2 "o~!0'oroi;F


/VIII. CLA3,s

*z o- or--! < z-- -r ( a )2or, -p

-',*, o oroims1 .---I -r (o)noroYe.


:; I r


t; 185.


S1365.


& 137.










VIII. COL~S 6


.m ; IA


i+na-.!L
nEi a, a --1
nr~la?., :l1..


', 130. T'o.. content' of thi-~ clo i- a1. rgel-y m'iscello neous; .-
tho.ugh it b.'-; hir: h pr'cortion of non.-ns notingn. long obijcc':.


their n!.uryal
the ,o2. of'







affects
00-


S190. The im:jri.t7 of nQono in thig. class form
in zo+ane:> jhe for,, o.;" the ns-;.:J d*.epenclMi uonn
the foll1o--i conc o nt; e. g.
3. r9opti (rib) '. zer-pati
robaa homee tWsed) zeoa
rnOF (c eath ze; il



S191. the nasal of the plurnl prefi.: sometimes;
n)honetic.al'..ll th: initi.al. 'ou.nrd of the noun-steem;
:. rodiIe2 (ttonu. P. zendime''
roendo (journey) zenendo
r(n-; ieo5 ('oong) zej
'ro -a (feather) zem aa
rovwera (in :.n zembwera
ro-nz6 (dagO.a zenimbanze
-(rn4" -c t


:'. If t noun-a-teim coon icncea
i' i:; s ze- .- not, zem--. e.- g.
n. ronawo o Cav )
r '...one (oandl e)
ran5arc a (fingernail).


0 193. V ,om.
their normal
3.


in a nasal the plural pre.-

p. ,emamrbo
zemwo ne
zen._ara


nouns w'.th the prefix ro- in the aingular take
pln-rsl in ma-: e.g.
rou (red P. an
r.in.a (stalk) einyo <.-ino
roa ,no (peg) mc 'ambo
roujr"7 j (d o, t) ma rl.vTa


/_ 1_ 194.
1. E will I in ic td belo tihe prefi:: re-' io 'sc' ir rly often,
Mvhiclh in -l, vi it is WentionWed h-ere, As reU.:'r.s t'che concorcds used
it.'.hW..' _.. 1C:.rencei should beo Mrce tod t!he scctioun de'linj, ith
ol :. ,'. ( ,i fi') m, employs the so~me concord whether us, : ea
plural oi. ~iLs : or as plur's of Class 5.
S. d. here represeul.ts v flipped consonsnt.
3.2 here represent-s yoiced alveolar plosive.
4 Of. enao (travel)-
5 Of I.r,-.hant:: \tif (sing) (.iouruinl, p, 202).
6 ro1'i *o()AinzC.


1j 33.3


, -l


ro


ze+n3alv ,
zj^ *; -1 .-:*-


nasal.


C -i *---'--


ro--










VIII. COL~S 6


.m ; IA


i+na-.!L
nEi a, a --1
nr~la?., :l1..


', 130. T'o.. content' of thi-~ clo i- a1. rgel-y m'iscello neous; .-
tho.ugh it b.'-; hir: h pr'cortion of non.-ns notingn. long obijcc':.


their n!.uryal
the ,o2. of'







affects
00-


S190. The im:jri.t7 of nQono in thig. class form
in zo+ane:> jhe for,, o.;" the ns-;.:J d*.epenclMi uonn
the foll1o--i conc o nt; e. g.
3. r9opti (rib) '. zer-pati
robaa homee tWsed) zeoa
rnOF (c eath ze; il



S191. the nasal of the plurnl prefi.: sometimes;
n)honetic.al'..ll th: initi.al. 'ou.nrd of the noun-steem;
:. rodiIe2 (ttonu. P. zendime''
roendo (journey) zenendo
r(n-; ieo5 ('oong) zej
'ro -a (feather) zem aa
rovwera (in :.n zembwera
ro-nz6 (dagO.a zenimbanze
-(rn4" -c t


:'. If t noun-a-teim coon icncea
i' i:; s ze- .- not, zem--. e.- g.
n. ronawo o Cav )
r '...one (oandl e)
ran5arc a (fingernail).


0 193. V ,om.
their normal
3.


in a nasal the plural pre.-

p. ,emamrbo
zemwo ne
zen._ara


nouns w'.th the prefix ro- in the aingular take
pln-rsl in ma-: e.g.
rou (red P. an
r.in.a (stalk) einyo <.-ino
roa ,no (peg) mc 'ambo
roujr"7 j (d o, t) ma rl.vTa


/_ 1_ 194.
1. E will I in ic td belo tihe prefi:: re-' io 'sc' ir rly often,
Mvhiclh in -l, vi it is WentionWed h-ere, As reU.:'r.s t'che concorcds used
it.'.hW..' _.. 1C:.rencei should beo Mrce tod t!he scctioun de'linj, ith
ol :. ,'. ( ,i fi') m, employs the so~me concord whether us, : ea
plural oi. ~iLs : or as plur's of Class 5.
S. d. here represeul.ts v flipped consonsnt.
3.2 here represent-s yoiced alveolar plosive.
4 Of. enao (travel)-
5 Of I.r,-.hant:: \tif (sing) (.iouruinl, p, 202).
6 ro1'i *o()AinzC.


1j 33.3


, -l


ro


ze+n3alv ,
zj^ *; -1 .-:*-


nasal.


C -i *---'--


ro--






0 6$ u


194. '3o'iotimlnes ma.- is used in the plural as an alternative
to ze (+ nasal); e.g,
S. roendo (journey) P.. zenyendo or meendo<: *maendo
row-a(a (feather) zembaka or mawwaa
rodime (tongue) zendim or madime

6 195. Note the following personal noun: rovwera (infant))
zembvwera (infants).


196. The following possessive construction provw;. tht, in
some cases at least, there is a latent o preceding 'o-:
roseto roroanda (fence of the kraal) <-, )woroanla <
*r'waoronda r<. r +l.. (-ioJrnda.




197, The plural prefix i.nasal is not very often found.
The following are the only examples obtained:
3. lofu (death) P. imfu
'olfezo (broom) imfezo

198. The plural is normally formed by means of a nasal
only. The na-latl, whose form .lep ndo upon. the form of the
following consonant, sometimes affects phonetically the
initial sound of the noun-stem; e.g.
S. locate (rib) P. mate
lohe- (reed) .me
loizi2 (river) ndwizi
lza.. (feather) ndza'
1Qdimi4 (tongue) nl 5
lezimb. (song) nzimb8


k. l99 aoQmc
'1


nouns have ap alternative plural in a- e.g.
l1ofezo (broom) P,. mafezo, imfezo
lozala (finger- mazala, nzala
nail)
losenga (vein) ma`senga, nsenCla
lojnim (tongue) madimi, ondimi
lozea (horn) mazea, nzea


/GoVA
1. In the folloWing, case no change lihas taken place 1ioh8h8 (wind)
nhSh6 (winds).
'2. LUizi, according to JoAhston., vol. i, p. 324. The plural form in-
dicates that the I belongs here to the stem the prefix has pro-
bably been elided.
3. The i belongs to the stem; cf, the plural form.
d. d here represents a flapped consonant.
5. d here represents a voiced alveolar plosive.
6. Jacottet (p. 18) nmintains that ma.- is used regularly to form the
plural of nouns in the 1-lo class. In fact he says that he has
never come across a noun in the lo- class taking any other plural
prefix. It is difficult to see how he could come to this conclu-
sion, unless, perhaps, his observations were limited to a dialect
showing'thild peculiarity..


-A


7


.-----.Y. -~-C-~.C-











GOVA

A 2C', Ai far, as I could ascertain, 'na- is the only plur'a l
prefi.:- her', ermnlo'.eJ; ,e.g.
r. ro i-ii (tongue) P. inIdi mi
zQfngo (island) ng o
ro a a (kraal) maga*a
rondwjar (fingernail) man,,orE

201, re.are rivere) has the plural marware.




S202, The singular prefix: is always ro-, and the plural is
normally formed by prefixing ma- to it; e.g.
3. rolimnbo (,song- P. maroyimbo
roar a (:ace) n!Tro-.anra
pc .m knifee e).-,o" ^
roph-ze (hoof) .inarpjhadze
rog.endo (j journey) mireyendo
roboboro (broom) -'iroboboro


SoC.;. Sei nomn,' hov:,ever, Cr,: the ir plural by substituting
a asal for. ro-., *The form of the nasal depends upon the former
of the following consonant; e.g,
S. ro3h.t.e1; (rib) P. mhatse
ric.f ir (horn) i .ing
SM rothi L. (veir) thi'-
rokako (shoe) n'


S20Qi, The following nouns taW-e only *T-- in Th,' plural:
3. rorr1- (tonrnie) P mara' (of. 's)
ronkohobo (frog) mankhobobo


. 205, In the following case, the n.aJl has affected the ini--
tial consronnit of the noun-stem: rorEa. tongue nrja"a =
inara'_ (tonF'ur ,.

206. Note the following:
S, rnih'ki O(hair) P. hufki
nt '8i. (coupping.-horn) maroS i


Table of Concords

0T. T:,I "IT.'

*.Q.* ~0,.^.. A2. oG. 2Lssi Rel .C. Num. C.
S. ro- troro r iwa- ro_:-) r---

P. _e- zeze+nasal- za- .eze- (? ze+nasal.-




\


L,..._._,.


~___lii I___ ~ I ~_ _1_____ ) I ~_ _) __:I_ I__I ~


- 54 -











GOVA

A 2C', Ai far, as I could ascertain, 'na- is the only plur'a l
prefi.:- her', ermnlo'.eJ; ,e.g.
r. ro i-ii (tongue) P. inIdi mi
zQfngo (island) ng o
ro a a (kraal) maga*a
rondwjar (fingernail) man,,orE

201, re.are rivere) has the plural marware.




S202, The singular prefix: is always ro-, and the plural is
normally formed by prefixing ma- to it; e.g.
3. rolimnbo (,song- P. maroyimbo
roar a (:ace) n!Tro-.anra
pc .m knifee e).-,o" ^
roph-ze (hoof) .inarpjhadze
rog.endo (j journey) mireyendo
roboboro (broom) -'iroboboro


SoC.;. Sei nomn,' hov:,ever, Cr,: the ir plural by substituting
a asal for. ro-., *The form of the nasal depends upon the former
of the following consonant; e.g,
S. ro3h.t.e1; (rib) P. mhatse
ric.f ir (horn) i .ing
SM rothi L. (veir) thi'-
rokako (shoe) n'


S20Qi, The following nouns taW-e only *T-- in Th,' plural:
3. rorr1- (tonrnie) P mara' (of. 's)
ronkohobo (frog) mankhobobo


. 205, In the following case, the n.aJl has affected the ini--
tial consronnit of the noun-stem: rorEa. tongue nrja"a =
inara'_ (tonF'ur ,.

206. Note the following:
S, rnih'ki O(hair) P. hufki
nt '8i. (coupping.-horn) maroS i


Table of Concords

0T. T:,I "IT.'

*.Q.* ~0,.^.. A2. oG. 2Lssi Rel .C. Num. C.
S. ro- troro r iwa- ro_:-) r---

P. _e- zeze+nasal- za- .eze- (? ze+nasal.-




\


L,..._._,.


~___lii I___ ~ I ~_ _1_____ ) I ~_ _) __:I_ I__I ~


- 54 -











GOVA

A 2C', Ai far, as I could ascertain, 'na- is the only plur'a l
prefi.:- her', ermnlo'.eJ; ,e.g.
r. ro i-ii (tongue) P. inIdi mi
zQfngo (island) ng o
ro a a (kraal) maga*a
rondwjar (fingernail) man,,orE

201, re.are rivere) has the plural marware.




S202, The singular prefix: is always ro-, and the plural is
normally formed by prefixing ma- to it; e.g.
3. rolimnbo (,song- P. maroyimbo
roar a (:ace) n!Tro-.anra
pc .m knifee e).-,o" ^
roph-ze (hoof) .inarpjhadze
rog.endo (j journey) mireyendo
roboboro (broom) -'iroboboro


SoC.;. Sei nomn,' hov:,ever, Cr,: the ir plural by substituting
a asal for. ro-., *The form of the nasal depends upon the former
of the following consonant; e.g,
S. ro3h.t.e1; (rib) P. mhatse
ric.f ir (horn) i .ing
SM rothi L. (veir) thi'-
rokako (shoe) n'


S20Qi, The following nouns taW-e only *T-- in Th,' plural:
3. rorr1- (tonrnie) P mara' (of. 's)
ronkohobo (frog) mankhobobo


. 205, In the following case, the n.aJl has affected the ini--
tial consronnit of the noun-stem: rorEa. tongue nrja"a =
inara'_ (tonF'ur ,.

206. Note the following:
S, rnih'ki O(hair) P. hufki
nt '8i. (coupping.-horn) maroS i


Table of Concords

0T. T:,I "IT.'

*.Q.* ~0,.^.. A2. oG. 2Lssi Rel .C. Num. C.
S. ro- troro r iwa- ro_:-) r---

P. _e- zeze+nasal- za- .eze- (? ze+nasal.-




\


L,..._._,.


~___lii I___ ~ I ~_ _1_____ ) I ~_ _) __:I_ I__I ~


- 54 -






- 55 -


S208. In-bjectival Verbal Concord

Present Tense; Positive:

1. rowe roatedir.mia .oir8 an an
(the F:eT iT being p 7 ughed by the men)

2. zenjimbo zaraoYeei zemfwanana nazezawa juv~uy
('e--e son-s o he Yeei are the same as those of
the Subia)


y 209. Adjectival Concord

S. P.
rofu rorobi (bitter death) zermifu zezerIbi
roendo rorore (long journey) zenyzendo zezende
roendo, rorofaiu (short journey) ze~nendo .ezeeiffpi
roi'bho roroga (fine song) zenjimbo zezena
rongara rorookando (big fingernail) zengara zezenrando

Tote: (1) 'iThe form of the nasal of the adjectival concorr
7 lural) depends upon the form of the following consonant.
(2)'r d after the nasal.

l 210. Possessive Concord

roim;bo r,~anga (my song) zenjimbo zanga
roanda rwayo (their kraal) zeranda zawo
romwrone rwanga (my candle) zemwone zange

211. Relative Concord

(a) ',fhen the substantive qualified is subject of the
relative predicate:

zeoanda zczanomoze enzaOekati
(te -raai. ith- he village belong to the chief)

(b) When the substantive qualified in object of th3,
relative predicate:

1. roendo rorondatearawira amena koyenda Robi rofupi
(the journey which I am making to Barotseland is a
short one)

2. zenyendo zezendatearawira amena koyenda REfi
zemfup i
(the journeys which I am making to Barotseland are
short ones)

3. roanda rorwata ciniwa money eliriwe rwfsowodikwa
(the kraal that w'as built in the veld has fallen
down)


l/ 212.






- 56 -


. 212. S

3.V.O. 0_.. Adi.. P-s. ? T31.3. FTumI.C.


3 L o-

P. zi-


1 wa-


S-nnas al


za -


zi-_-


:XAPL T


5 1" .


Subje- tival Verbal concord


(a) Present Tense; Po' itive'

1. lodimi Ivello22rc lodiwa eak (the tongue of the or is eaten by old people

2. ndlirsi egombe zidiwa n kolo.ame
(the ton fles of the o-:en are eaten '.r old people


(b) Present Tensre: negative:


1. lozimrbo 'alosani.si
2. nzimb( kaziaan gi.si


(the song does not please)
(the songs do not please)


3 214.L


Adjectival Concord


(a) The form of the naal of the plural Adj.C. depends
unon the :or:~ o, the following consonant

(b) If th., adjectival sten co-.-:iences in 1, the 1 > d
under the influence of the nasal of the Adj.C. COf. below.
S. 0lrate lokando (big rib) P. mpate enlando
lozimb3 loloto (good song& nzimbo endoto


o15. Possessive Concord


" 216.


. l].ozi'b8 lwaki (their song) P. nzimbi za',
lodimi. lJweDombe (the tongue ndimi zeo'ombe
of the ox)


Relative Concord


(a) .;hen the substantive qualified is subject of the
relative predicate; e.g.


1. lohoho lolhonga
2. nhoih zihonga
3. loziimbo lozimbvwa
4. nzii-imb z.izimbra


(the wind that is blowing)
(winds that are blowing)
(a song that is sung)
(songs that are sung)


(b) WhIen the substantive qualified is object of the
relative predicate; e.g.


1 lozea loni' na
S. nzea ziniwona
3. lofu lontia
4. imfu zintia


(the horn that I see)
(horns that I see)
(death that I fear)
(deaths that I fear)
/ 21.








- 57 -


GOVA


9 217.


s3. ro.*


P. a


ror0.:


Ot'a--


P: 'I -,


'.ibjectival Verbal Concord


Pst Tense: Positive:


1. rvwa'e ronayara mey-
(th' rivj r is~fY ~6"1 o water;
lit., ... hns been filled ,'ith ..

2. narliare anavara meye
(the r:ever- are fii at'. after:
lit., ...'. have been filled with ...


Adjectival Concord


S. rodimi roro7ouru (big tongue)
royendo rorore (long journey)


P. a indmi ora!kuru
.'ayendo onare


Possessive Concord


S. rodiini ronzovul (tongue of the
elephant)


P. madimi onzovu2


Relative Concord


rela: tive


''hen the substantive qualified
predicate; e.g.


is object of the


1. ro~ada ronamono mno'iimb. rJwadye?
(wi'hose is the kraal that I saw in the villa.'e?)

rnaeaa aanamono rmo.ii.mb adtye?
h'hose are the kraals that I '-f," io. the village?)



OC2O T.TJ


s.v.C. o. V.C.

S. ro.-


P. a.
ze-


Adj .C. Poss.C.


roro-

o ma-
zo.e--


ra-"

a-,
za--


Rel.C. 11num.n C.


ro--


ma-,
(e9?-) "nasal


1. ronzovu < *rTwoonzovu < rw- + (o)ngovu.
2. onzovu <. onzovu < a+ (o)o-nz--vu


1'0-


281.


' 219.


& 220.


g 221.


222.


.V.1-' n. AdJ.Co Pos .C


Re2,C,


rwa-,
:T (?)








- 58 -


3 225.


gubjectival Verbal Concord


1. rokako raro,~anta o'.oepaa
(the shoe is made o. leather)

2. nlkalo 7,arow;anta b-oe-ap_
('fe.shoes3. are made of leather)


224. Adjectiv a! Concord


.S.
roia roroneni
ro:f oru rorone
roto rorok~nyo
rothipa roronFnM


(big thong)
(ne-') knife)
(fat body)
(big vein)
(many shoes)


p.
*'avrovxia onanoni
.n1roforuP, o0ma e
maroto omak nyo
nth.ina 0 z en_ ne
nkako zozengi


Possessive Concord


roto rahoip a
roto roi-orome
rovinga rong, "be


(body of the chief)
(body of the man)
(horn of the ox)


maroto awahomp
maroto owarome
mvinga zongombe


IX. CLASS 7


Y-,I; I


S. 2a--

P. t4o-


GCERJKU

ka-


227. This class generally has a diminutive force in -antu.3
According to Jacottet, it has this force in u'ubia;but, as he
pc'.nts out, there are some Subie nouns in this class which do
noc appear to have ever been diminutive.
When collecting my vocabularies, I wan not aware oQ.:
the force of ka-, and failed, therefore, to give the question
the necessary attention. The limited number of words that I
obtained in this class for each language suggests that it con-
sists mainlyT of the names of objects in cormenon use, with oc-
casional names of animals and parts of the body as well.


/ Y1I
I1 romoromc < -rocomorome < ra -. (o)morome.
2. otaromc < 'oIFrornm < o + (o)tarome.
3. Cf. .Icinhof; GrundzUgo cincr vergleichenden Gramrm.tik der Bantusprecheng
p. 18.
4. Jncotate p. 18.


.7 225.


j 2P6.


3T? IA

ka-

to-


GOVA

ka-


to-







. 59 -


2 228.
of the


This cl :ss presents fev unusual featuress in its use
pref:ixes; e.g.
S. .eora knifef) *P. tofora
kaci (thong) toci
k ahoma (pot) tohoma
oa'opa (bone) tof opa
a awa (net) toaa
Savoi (sp ider) to-ow1


229. In the fol.lorin- cases phonetic changes, have taken
place: keenbe (axe < '-nkaembe; tvwembe (a:ees' < *toembe;
k-o (cracl.ein' < -''aa8" twa8 (cradleskins) < 'toao


S23C0. 'ral-one (firewood) has the. pl.rasi. zenlone.


^ 231. toro (sleep) is- found in the plural only.


TT13 IA


252. This class presents few
of the prefi.:; e.- ..
3. kahambwe (pot)
1a;lfoli (knife)
kas.a (cord)
kasowa (bowl)
0 ..o (mouth)
ka z o(ches t)
haho (s tenbok)
kh-oka (ant)
S zonee (bird)
!-ao.ricn. (spider


V 2 3.
(s:.a.ll
wat or)


S234.-
ka- in


unu-ual fef-itures in its use

P. tohambwe
tofol.
toswa
to so vra
tog6ili'
tozo'a
toho
t ohoka
to one
toVOWi


jTote the following; kantu (a small. person), tontu
persons), cf. muntu (i person); twenzi (a little
< toenzi, cf. menzi ('rater) < amaenzi


G O\r_\

The majority of nouns in this class take th-.: p'-efix
the singular and to-- in the plural; e.g.
I. .as!iaa_ (veTE.' P. tosipaa
kaonda (roon) toonda
kanyungu (pot) tonyungu
I-p af (rib) topat i
kadirnba (hare) todi roba
kami (axe) twami < toamo

/ 235.







. 59 -


2 228.
of the


This cl :ss presents fev unusual featuress in its use
pref:ixes; e.g.
S. .eora knifef) *P. tofora
kaci (thong) toci
k ahoma (pot) tohoma
oa'opa (bone) tof opa
a awa (net) toaa
Savoi (sp ider) to-ow1


229. In the fol.lorin- cases phonetic changes, have taken
place: keenbe (axe < '-nkaembe; tvwembe (a:ees' < *toembe;
k-o (cracl.ein' < -''aa8" twa8 (cradleskins) < 'toao


S23C0. 'ral-one (firewood) has the. pl.rasi. zenlone.


^ 231. toro (sleep) is- found in the plural only.


TT13 IA


252. This class presents few
of the prefi.:; e.- ..
3. kahambwe (pot)
1a;lfoli (knife)
kas.a (cord)
kasowa (bowl)
0 ..o (mouth)
ka z o(ches t)
haho (s tenbok)
kh-oka (ant)
S zonee (bird)
!-ao.ricn. (spider


V 2 3.
(s:.a.ll
wat or)


S234.-
ka- in


unu-ual fef-itures in its use

P. tohambwe
tofol.
toswa
to so vra
tog6ili'
tozo'a
toho
t ohoka
to one
toVOWi


jTote the following; kantu (a small. person), tontu
persons), cf. muntu (i person); twenzi (a little
< toenzi, cf. menzi ('rater) < amaenzi


G O\r_\

The majority of nouns in this class take th-.: p'-efix
the singular and to-- in the plural; e.g.
I. .as!iaa_ (veTE.' P. tosipaa
kaonda (roon) toonda
kanyungu (pot) tonyungu
I-p af (rib) topat i
kadirnba (hare) todi roba
kami (axe) twami < toamo

/ 235.







. 59 -


2 228.
of the


This cl :ss presents fev unusual featuress in its use
pref:ixes; e.g.
S. .eora knifef) *P. tofora
kaci (thong) toci
k ahoma (pot) tohoma
oa'opa (bone) tof opa
a awa (net) toaa
Savoi (sp ider) to-ow1


229. In the fol.lorin- cases phonetic changes, have taken
place: keenbe (axe < '-nkaembe; tvwembe (a:ees' < *toembe;
k-o (cracl.ein' < -''aa8" twa8 (cradleskins) < 'toao


S23C0. 'ral-one (firewood) has the. pl.rasi. zenlone.


^ 231. toro (sleep) is- found in the plural only.


TT13 IA


252. This class presents few
of the prefi.:; e.- ..
3. kahambwe (pot)
1a;lfoli (knife)
kas.a (cord)
kasowa (bowl)
0 ..o (mouth)
ka z o(ches t)
haho (s tenbok)
kh-oka (ant)
S zonee (bird)
!-ao.ricn. (spider


V 2 3.
(s:.a.ll
wat or)


S234.-
ka- in


unu-ual fef-itures in its use

P. tohambwe
tofol.
toswa
to so vra
tog6ili'
tozo'a
toho
t ohoka
to one
toVOWi


jTote the following; kantu (a small. person), tontu
persons), cf. muntu (i person); twenzi (a little
< toenzi, cf. menzi ('rater) < amaenzi


G O\r_\

The majority of nouns in this class take th-.: p'-efix
the singular and to-- in the plural; e.g.
I. .as!iaa_ (veTE.' P. tosipaa
kaonda (roon) toonda
kanyungu (pot) tonyungu
I-p af (rib) topat i
kadirnba (hare) todi roba
kami (axe) twami < toamo

/ 235.





(0 -..



(a) kacoThIJ (bone. h's the plural ye o-are.;
(b,) a.eb-1T cd) and tahuki (hair) form t-.;heir- pl-'ral bI)-
dro pin ; thc- prci ;:, viz r)u and buti.
(c) tro (. .i.p) occurs in the plural only.
(d 3o:,le ncun- have a coll'octive plural. in o -, e..


3. a hu9 i
Sahu i


(ant)
(h'air)


0o 'hi


(e) ayunra (frog) ha- the alternative pl.urals togura
and hamayura.
(f) T have one example of v:hat :,ay, be regarded as the
diminutive use o.f the pro"i-, ka.a, viz. ral7ekte (infant)


GCO IREKU


S236. Practically a: 1
ka- 'in the :-inulaR- and
S. handimbe
karon a
'-anambe
a kwarnbe
1 akwe zi
k ak uru
1 awowl


nouns in this class ta`e. the prefi::
the prefix to- in the plural; e.g.
(pot) P. tondimbe
(bowl) toronga
(hoas e) to are
(moon) tokwe zi
(owle) to' hurul
(spider) to-~-


237.
(a) toro (sleep) occurs in the plural onlr.
(b) agi&ne (palm-tree), Cslass 5, fonr.s its plural in to-,
viz. t eown.


Table of Concords


23J,


YEE I


S.V.O. OA. I Ad,.C. Poss.C.


3. k
P. to--


kaka--

toto-


ka-

twa--


Rel.C. Num.C.


kako-(?)

tto -((?)


3 59. Sub-jectival Verbal Concord

(a)' Present Tenne: ,Positive

Sahoma katevunja waI;ezi
(the :--pot --e.'o-ig-roT- '"byr thieves)

(b) Past :'ense, Positive,

1. kaforo komotanze k atatovra iet.hipi yeengi
(the hunter-'s nife as maeo~ sTrong iron)

2. kahoma komoko;rokaze katavunja koimopunde omoianga
(tjhe oman. pot was broken by their d-oct-o-r's child)

3. twembe twavarwanete totabora %anyana awenji
(the as oT "l warrior e h _v eT d many imen)
/ 240.


ka-.





(0 -..



(a) kacoThIJ (bone. h's the plural ye o-are.;
(b,) a.eb-1T cd) and tahuki (hair) form t-.;heir- pl-'ral bI)-
dro pin ; thc- prci ;:, viz r)u and buti.
(c) tro (. .i.p) occurs in the plural only.
(d 3o:,le ncun- have a coll'octive plural. in o -, e..


3. a hu9 i
Sahu i


(ant)
(h'air)


0o 'hi


(e) ayunra (frog) ha- the alternative pl.urals togura
and hamayura.
(f) T have one example of v:hat :,ay, be regarded as the
diminutive use o.f the pro"i-, ka.a, viz. ral7ekte (infant)


GCO IREKU


S236. Practically a: 1
ka- 'in the :-inulaR- and
S. handimbe
karon a
'-anambe
a kwarnbe
1 akwe zi
k ak uru
1 awowl


nouns in this class ta`e. the prefi::
the prefix to- in the plural; e.g.
(pot) P. tondimbe
(bowl) toronga
(hoas e) to are
(moon) tokwe zi
(owle) to' hurul
(spider) to-~-


237.
(a) toro (sleep) occurs in the plural onlr.
(b) agi&ne (palm-tree), Cslass 5, fonr.s its plural in to-,
viz. t eown.


Table of Concords


23J,


YEE I


S.V.O. OA. I Ad,.C. Poss.C.


3. k
P. to--


kaka--

toto-


ka-

twa--


Rel.C. Num.C.


kako-(?)

tto -((?)


3 59. Sub-jectival Verbal Concord

(a)' Present Tenne: ,Positive

Sahoma katevunja waI;ezi
(the :--pot --e.'o-ig-roT- '"byr thieves)

(b) Past :'ense, Positive,

1. kaforo komotanze k atatovra iet.hipi yeengi
(the hunter-'s nife as maeo~ sTrong iron)

2. kahoma komoko;rokaze katavunja koimopunde omoianga
(tjhe oman. pot was broken by their d-oct-o-r's child)

3. twembe twavarwanete totabora %anyana awenji
(the as oT "l warrior e h _v eT d many imen)
/ 240.


ka-.








- 61 -


S.
k.foro a! ari ia
klahoe a O! n'a o r,
.hoa e 1-'1 po%)
k-e enbe t'akaghoro


.Adjectival Concord


(new knife)
(heavy pot)
(light pot'
(blunt ar-e)


to:'oro totopia
tohoma totoreno
tohoms-a toto:iOra
twembe totohoro


Pois scsive oncord


a.aforo 'xan.^a
. .ee-...o Iro.-o anze
keeche l:olotanze"


(my knife)
(axe of the
hunter)
(bones of the
lion


toforo twange
twembe tvwawtatanze

tofopa tondavu2


Relative Concord


relative


"'hen the -:bs native qualified
predict


is object of the


1. kshoma kakrondatakopa ko.ero7e kagja nanyena
(te pttt at I gave yol at 3erovre is very: ine'

2. tohom:. totondatakopa koleroie toqe nanvena
(the nots that I rave .ou. at 3erove are very fine)

3. keer.ib.be tl:aondatadega papo Mikoko 'tomoti kataiiwa
(the a e ,vhich T le-ft beside the tree W 7as stolen

4. twrenbe totondatadea papo 5ikoko Tomoti t-iataiiwa
(the axes which I left beside the tree we:.e stolen)



243. 3T'TIA

3.V.C. O.V.C. Ad. C. Poss.O. .Rel. Nui C.


P. to--


to-


ka-

to


t C, -.


E"U TPLU


Subjectival Verbal Concord


(a) Present Tense: "ositivc:


1. zonee 01kaolok
2. tozone tooloka


(the bird is flying)
(the birds are flying)


/(b) Tast

1. komot-a tnz *kaoiotenze < ta + (o)rotanzc-.

2. tondevu f twv onde vu < twE + onda vu .


S240.


., 241.


, 242.


j 2, ..










(b) PTa ', use; *osit 1 ive:

1. taho:; t,:,aon.-e kot'w:i ':tango
(*the '. ait my aar &,

2. t0ho1^ ,',aco e kot','i k1.an"c


5. Wh ,b,,e !2,o^ k:p-t;it a
(,orn pot b'-ca!-ie b.'ohoenT

4. tohamriet twai>6 tapat 06.a
(yoi.Lr pots ca::s : ro' .7


' 245. Qectival conco::


af olo ;-oaan o ..
1aho1e 'la-V -ondo
kaha abhwve 'anini


('~i.; ant)
(~!r:a:V mct)\


r .
tohfolo totlandoi
toi hok.:; to!-andoi
t.o.. h ',,-,'e tonini


Po':- cs ive Concord


k~ff 0.0' 1- nc


(mry 1nife)
(your pot)


to :olo twan go
toham'iwe tLa!- o


S247. relativee onco:,d

(a) "'Then the substa.ntive qualified is subject of the
relative predicJt~c-, e.g.


( the bi.d t-. hat iVn flying)
(birds that are I1jing)


1. ton toaoloh-ete
2. tozono toolor-ete


(b) 4When the substantive c-.aliified Ji object of the
relative nredicate, e.g.


1. i:ahaubwe k:anisaka
2. tohanmbwve tonisaka


(the pot that I "iant'
(the pots th.t T vtant'


G0OVA


'.V.J. O.V.O. Ad o.C. Pos-aC.


:3. ka--

p. -to-,


249.


koka--

toto--


k a--

twa.-


Re .C. Nu C.

aka-- 0o--


oto--


.Subj ec-tival- Verbal Concord
..... cc" vi.


(a) Prcsent Tense. Positive

1. k 1a*o k anakkoyea s, etondo
(the, ar'e is cu tti i' the" t ree.

2. totungwezi tonakwesa se koa ow.iko ono
(the s tars are very^bright to-ni gh
,/(b) Past


, 246.


G 2-8.G


to -




- 65 3


(b) Pa-t Tene Posi-tive:

1. '"andimbe kanayara o'arwa
(t1-e n0o-t i. full o^ b-.acr
1t., ... hs. been -filled with .

2. to.~i t ona-ara o.arwa
(the pots are fnll. o. b"er
lit.. ... hve been fil ed with ...


id.j e c t v oncord


kancdimbine ..-.oj-aku ?"'
kano kokst be t
cf aokira 1okaur 1


(bicf pot)
(shi"r a-re)
(big 'one)


tondi'mbe toto!;or'u
tVamo tot otve
yveok5ra :yoyek!:u m


Poss'crieive conco'm1


an i:Tbe ka l.o::: "e
S _.'o k. 'o:.o' ].


(pot o- th:. womn)
(a:e of the i'an)


tondij. b twvamo k, ze
t-wamo tao------ro.
twiaio tv/"anlO rOnE:


J 252.


relative Concord


(. 'hen the abetantive qualified is subject of. the
relative predicate,' e.g.

1. ta.'ee ,:a':anabodira on kafLumni
(the inf ant vwho is crying there belongs to the
chief)'

2. to'e-':e ototona-o!rira kon6 twafumu
(the infants who a-_e cryin-; there belong to the
chief) *


(b) ,hen the substantive qualified is object of the
relative predicate. e.g.

kandimbe akanamon6 no'oiobo haeorire
(te pot, that I saw was borv:'ht for a goat)

2: tondi nb e otonamnono no-oi-b8 hataorire
(the Cot that T sa' ere bought for a goat'



2, 55. GC ...TC


S3,V.. .V.CA. Adj .. Poss.C.


Rel.C. C TuC.


3- Iko-
(? ka-)


1ko-a--


toto-


p '0,,
piJLS


- 254.


laa-


Subjectival Verbal Concord

(a) Present Tense: Positive (.orm 1):

: andimbd komokaze konaira ilarovu
(the woman's pot is full o-f beer
/(b) Present


( 250.


, 251.


ka-


to--












(b) Preselnti Conse Ponitijve (qorn 2)

1. :kaC:.' ezLi ':ona-o'7o:na
(tih: 'c.OOn is ,.*ihininr1,)

Gtclb1e t:onatsi c,. iiaee
t(he ho-rses a:.:e ruinn.in-' ay. :T'ro; the lion)


' 255. Adjectival Conco a. .


k~aiumibe__ ko1':vio

i;an 3irbe 1_ol:n31?


(fine horse)
(ceep sleep)
(big pot)


.?.*
tokas;ibe totowa
to:'o toton;l!e
tonrdim'n:e to to nn.


Pos0seC)i3 e c ordco


Lancdimbioe konokazel


(pot of' the

(the chie',
horses)


tohndirm' toiahom:
topambe twahomp!a ,


S'57.


-,. %-. oc--

P. an.-- an


X. CTIA 1 8


0- VO-...


Olfo-, 0o-


r)'-. VO-


ma


,283. Phis cl.Eas contains (a) a nu, iber o" abstract nouns
having no plural fori., and (b' a :iacellaneonIs group of
no- ., including some nanes of'cor:-i!on objects, living" be-.
in '3, trees, etc., which clo have a plural forn.



-, -m-

,. Q. "h-"e .. wfor,, o e..,- ama..; occ0,.-.!' fairly coim:i ,only, e.g..
3. ooto (canoe" P. eniuto
o ro (bed' a'.be r
,oz (te (tft ") a ]a z e


'26C. In t!he, 'Lowi-7 caes the ste:n is vocalic, com nencini
in a which has -":ispla ed the e in':. vollel o: the ufiLx;
P-


Sar
O'O'L:?,-


(beer') - medicineine ) <


No* 3
o. 1o Carra
So.0 ani a


ai _anga


Sa;"'a rni a


/3 261.
l koinpoz -. <. "Iao10okz e <: ks "- (o)moks e.
.0 to.ok.z "... tu:' omok ze <. t or ) o okc 2 e ze
3. Cf. UrABe3tu l"'T (Bour'uin, ?. 240).
4. Of 0p ngC (doct-or) ond Ur-Bu-tu -i'-: medicinee m-.u) (.Sjo, p. 248),


: 256.


Y _T












(b) Preselnti Conse Ponitijve (qorn 2)

1. :kaC:.' ezLi ':ona-o'7o:na
(tih: 'c.OOn is ,.*ihininr1,)

Gtclb1e t:onatsi c,. iiaee
t(he ho-rses a:.:e ruinn.in-' ay. :T'ro; the lion)


' 255. Adjectival Conco a. .


k~aiumibe__ ko1':vio

i;an 3irbe 1_ol:n31?


(fine horse)
(ceep sleep)
(big pot)


.?.*
tokas;ibe totowa
to:'o toton;l!e
tonrdim'n:e to to nn.


Pos0seC)i3 e c ordco


Lancdimbioe konokazel


(pot of' the

(the chie',
horses)


tohndirm' toiahom:
topambe twahomp!a ,


S'57.


-,. %-. oc--

P. an.-- an


X. CTIA 1 8


0- VO-...


Olfo-, 0o-


r)'-. VO-


ma


,283. Phis cl.Eas contains (a) a nu, iber o" abstract nouns
having no plural fori., and (b' a :iacellaneonIs group of
no- ., including some nanes of'cor:-i!on objects, living" be-.
in '3, trees, etc., which clo have a plural forn.



-, -m-

,. Q. "h-"e .. wfor,, o e..,- ama..; occ0,.-.!' fairly coim:i ,only, e.g..
3. ooto (canoe" P. eniuto
o ro (bed' a'.be r
,oz (te (tft ") a ]a z e


'26C. In t!he, 'Lowi-7 caes the ste:n is vocalic, com nencini
in a which has -":ispla ed the e in':. vollel o: the ufiLx;
P-


Sar
O'O'L:?,-


(beer') - medicineine ) <


No* 3
o. 1o Carra
So.0 ani a


ai _anga


Sa;"'a rni a


/3 261.
l koinpoz -. <. "Iao10okz e <: ks "- (o)moks e.
.0 to.ok.z "... tu:' omok ze <. t or ) o okc 2 e ze
3. Cf. UrABe3tu l"'T (Bour'uin, ?. 240).
4. Of 0p ngC (doct-or) ond Ur-Bu-tu -i'-: medicinee m-.u) (.Sjo, p. 248),


: 256.


Y _T






S65


> 261. rh^ shorter .o:-i. 0-- :.,n- :n_


O luriz (-. i1 Ij. c
o2ei 6ct a--el --t


.,. j .

O~S :" ., ( ,'0.'
r (.... .
o^. ('1 nzo '
c
o0 ri :- (-,ovc

0 i (b
0.0 (''aOce)


o: :C foul' chi.el1." wv.th

P. inar': a

naln- e



:1aei J.
:iaeii


, 262. .-b-tr' ct no'-n-, :on'n in the cing -.... on... have
the ;ue:7-i o- c. oco>o-i (.i-'o) oe (inv.ooe,
olrhuru.': home 'i ol"' .e oti-'a (lazine s).


I-. '7

DVrKi.


.i'-: Ire.i:: O-- i,: u.ec. a :.lso ';o :.o: collective
:i.b1.h n"'': o0f. v.a'-rio'. 0 other' cl::..3 "; e e.g.
ien 01. 5 ( P. o a
.. 1 5 n o. :.,;_o P,
ro' di ,01. 6 ( s, eeT.-eecl, oIsdi
1po.- 01.. 1 (anto) opok


2 4. To e:::a:.rle e.re:-'e obtained i'ith a .singular ]?refi'i
00-o viI..
;3. oo!ol (.1o'!~1tao. tree)1 P. imaumo
ooh:.'-o (o o.'o o )
Co., i0 r o-b-T17 o: n :. .t.r nc. Late stage between oo' and 0-.


5 255. :-:--.pl
8. olo o
'. 10 e t3 o

+ Ceo
-'"531


o' nounr.- other than abstract nouns:
(:d) P. :.alo
(canoe) manto
()e act) alonfy
( .-a ce I..Iaso
(ni-ht) ase!:o


' 256. -:r'a;-i,: l.esr o- l 's tract
Slural): olo:i ( tchcr "f t)
(lonelrthne) .. o di ( n,"?)
(birth)


nouns (these n.ouna h:ve no
joTv.ele (sick'nes3s), P ozonzo
vro.:aC;o (str ? enrgt is woZalo


GOVA

; 267. The prc:i:: o0. .:ith .it final vovel o.lidedl i7 found
wi- th a :'e':: n o'n.- e.g.
3. oato -.. "oaoCto (canoe) P. i:to < "aato
oa? ,'angaT < *o oJgEn medicinene) :Ia nga
A 2 .3.

1. These c the Tscwa'1i eq-.iv lcnts; I Ess un:blc to scGacrtfin tle English
or scientific naces of the trees in question.
3. C:fo 270 bColo;:


\_ ^






S65


> 261. rh^ shorter .o:-i. 0-- :.,n- :n_


O luriz (-. i1 Ij. c
o2ei 6ct a--el --t


.,. j .

O~S :" ., ( ,'0.'
r (.... .
o^. ('1 nzo '
c
o0 ri :- (-,ovc

0 i (b
0.0 (''aOce)


o: :C foul' chi.el1." wv.th

P. inar': a

naln- e



:1aei J.
:iaeii


, 262. .-b-tr' ct no'-n-, :on'n in the cing -.... on... have
the ;ue:7-i o- c. oco>o-i (.i-'o) oe (inv.ooe,
olrhuru.': home 'i ol"' .e oti-'a (lazine s).


I-. '7

DVrKi.


.i'-: Ire.i:: O-- i,: u.ec. a :.lso ';o :.o: collective
:i.b1.h n"'': o0f. v.a'-rio'. 0 other' cl::..3 "; e e.g.
ien 01. 5 ( P. o a
.. 1 5 n o. :.,;_o P,
ro' di ,01. 6 ( s, eeT.-eecl, oIsdi
1po.- 01.. 1 (anto) opok


2 4. To e:::a:.rle e.re:-'e obtained i'ith a .singular ]?refi'i
00-o viI..
;3. oo!ol (.1o'!~1tao. tree)1 P. imaumo
ooh:.'-o (o o.'o o )
Co., i0 r o-b-T17 o: n :. .t.r nc. Late stage between oo' and 0-.


5 255. :-:--.pl
8. olo o
'. 10 e t3 o

+ Ceo
-'"531


o' nounr.- other than abstract nouns:
(:d) P. :.alo
(canoe) manto
()e act) alonfy
( .-a ce I..Iaso
(ni-ht) ase!:o


' 256. -:r'a;-i,: l.esr o- l 's tract
Slural): olo:i ( tchcr "f t)
(lonelrthne) .. o di ( n,"?)
(birth)


nouns (these n.ouna h:ve no
joTv.ele (sick'nes3s), P ozonzo
vro.:aC;o (str ? enrgt is woZalo


GOVA

; 267. The prc:i:: o0. .:ith .it final vovel o.lidedl i7 found
wi- th a :'e':: n o'n.- e.g.
3. oato -.. "oaoCto (canoe) P. i:to < "aato
oa?
,'angaT < *o oJgEn medicinene) :Ia nga
A 2 .3.

1. These c the Tscwa'1i eq-.iv lcnts; I Ess un:blc to scGacrtfin tle English
or scientific naces of the trees in question.
3. C:fo 270 bColo;:


\_ ^












, 253. Ch... -hor, o::-
3:. odiai
r.. -- -!
o0 k ll
l':?' T',


(bed) P. mc'id
(1ij ht ) v. 1.!
(^"in o i'.-~ ,) "ia *.'T!um.


259. ..bstb_'ac. no-n- pr. .. e. -:. o.l.enro (heat
!^ ,uuthzu.. (strength); ; ;o .. (Tn;c.), ao Z (.i t' hc' ".


270. The iniria". vowel o' o-"a (er) is somel,
elided- third re.-.t.s in a fo0:- O 'a2. wi..th p1. nafarwa.





* 271. ..here e hr. e 'or.oc o' t .in ..nla' pre:.. ,. vi.',
(a') o o--: e. o lo.- (c,. noe' < "o eto 'l. <-tp -
.na. to.
(b) ,,o c. e g :. bo cd), (1. ..... aor. otai o ( ni cht ;,
51l. in*at c'.; .
,c 0 -.-. c. ,. on 0.o,10gora (gumi) pi. ran-on:or.a.

72 'b ....._. ..... .. .. -*
S27 Ab.t. ...., non : usu l have the pre.i jo.., e. .
vov to d tr-- tn!;-.,
oito (icstrengt, orodzi ("iitchcrat). o Qgoara longer ;
oera sicnee. t :. o0eno (heat).


, ) 273. -jo .e
0-, for; the


non ni i.n t ,his Car13R wi7th "the in:.lo-n: prefi. .
piral by usine: la a a preprea.fi.: e.g.
ora (nea) P. imaotora
(ant) r!aowa


Table of j oncords


* 274.


$3.V.. c L., Pos0 ..


a00-
aka--i


:tra

A..


Rel.0.. I,.C.

wo-- O.-

aa-- a--


ii(bj7.ctiv--v V\Sebal, Concord


(a) Present e s. ptositiive (9or I1 :

cldy:o taoe':a;i ote"rasa a.a, o 'ake
(tie ancer .-: the. chief frighten his people)

/(b) Pr.--sent


0j o-'

P.


275.


- 66












, 253. Ch... -hor, o::-
3:. odiai
r.. -- -!
o0 k ll
l':?' T',


(bed) P. mc'id
(1ij ht ) v. 1.!
(^"in o i'.-~ ,) "ia *.'T!um.


259. ..bstb_'ac. no-n- pr. .. e. -:. o.l.enro (heat
!^ ,uuthzu.. (strength); ; ;o .. (Tn;c.), ao Z (.i t' hc' ".


270. The iniria". vowel o' o-"a (er) is somel,
elided- third re.-.t.s in a fo0:- O 'a2. wi..th p1. nafarwa.





* 271. ..here e hr. e 'or.oc o' t .in ..nla' pre:.. ,. vi.',
(a') o o--: e. o lo.- (c,. noe' < "o eto 'l. <-tp -
.na. to.
(b) ,,o c. e g :. bo cd), (1. ..... aor. otai o ( ni cht ;,
51l. in*at c'.; .
,c 0 -.-. c. ,. on 0.o,10gora (gumi) pi. ran-on:or.a.

72 'b ....._. ..... .. .. -*
S27 Ab.t. ...., non : usu l have the pre.i jo.., e. .
vov to d tr-- tn!;-.,
oito (icstrengt, orodzi ("iitchcrat). o Qgoara longer ;
oera sicnee. t :. o0eno (heat).


, ) 273. -jo .e
0-, for; the


non ni i.n t ,his Car13R wi7th "the in:.lo-n: prefi. .
piral by usine: la a a preprea.fi.: e.g.
ora (nea) P. imaotora
(ant) r!aowa


Table of j oncords


* 274.


$3.V.. c L., Pos0 ..


a00-
aka--i


:tra

A..


Rel.0.. I,.C.

wo-- O.-

aa-- a--


ii(bj7.ctiv--v V\Sebal, Concord


(a) Present e s. ptositiive (9or I1 :

cldy:o taoe':a;i ote"rasa a.a, o 'ake
(tie ancer .-: the. chief frighten his people)

/(b) Pr.--sent


0j o-'

P.


275.


- 66







- 67


(b) Present Tense ; Positive (lPorm S2):

1. o.ara wa^aRwa otshatsha nanyena
(the beer o? the T3aTawana is very tasty)

2. am]ate awaYeei awyia ii-mopani
(the canoes of the Yeei are made of mophane wood)

3. oworo omonlboya ow7ia .iiotshodzo
(t'he Bushnan'6 bed is made o- grass)


Adjectival Concord


3.
o ekati ooggqudi
odekati oonceni
oworo oopia
i oworo ookando


S277


owoto vanga
1-----N --r
owara vanga
odyo waekati


oloro o:'o-boyjgc


(big kingdom)
(smial. kingdom)
(new bed)
(big bed)


Possessive Concord

(mTr canoe)
(my beer)
(the anger of the
chief)
canoes of the Yeei)
the bed of the Bush-
man )


P.


amaro amapia
ama ro amaIkando


a-.iato anga
amaro _anga


amato avaYeei


278.


Relative Concord


'When the Substantive qualified is subject of the
relative predicate:

1. c0oto wotetendera podooro diciodomo ogqudi nanyena
(the canoe that .s travellin,- through the river is
very large)

2. a;:ato aatetendera podooro dinor.omo magqudi nanyena
(the canoes that are travelling through the river
are very large)

3. oe1ekati wowareongwa.ebetwane wamana
(the kingdom that belonged to Sebetwane was destroyed)


SUBIA


S.V.C. O.V.C. Adj.C. Poss.C

3. o- -o- Sa-2
-% N 2*


P. a--


ma -


Rel.C Num. C.

wo-_ *o--


/ XAMPLTS

1. oumoMboya < *wt omolboys < via + (o)moMboys.

2. Jacottet (p. 36) gives a form bvr.


276.


S979.





*R 8 "Q


(a) n.. s. a. "0' 9e ..
(ra) P ,,q .on ,j';,nsQ ".'-o ,i ..."" e" .


(the canoe i,- seen)
(the clanoe are eern)


1. oato v0o,.inT a ,
I. ma to R. ...a
.C ,_.' ,-, O P. "


(b) Past Tense: Positive,

1. /oato .,)oholw zina (the cane o as sol yC,.t rla
2. maato aiaolrwa zona (the canoeao vweree rOl ,e-:strl,. ay)


JAd jectivaia. C:oncocd


Wol'o. 0wokndo


jolwele wiasem~ene

wo at c vr, e, avene


(big bed)
(bijg 3orcer )-


(sj.c'-knes of the
chief)
(canoe of the
chief)


nlo ianl:andoc


nmoa to as eciwene


'..,C. eI lative Concord

(a) hen the substantive qualified ii subject of the
relative predictt, e.g.

1.. ol on ,.o 'josaklwa (the bead that is wanted)
2. ialongo asatwa (the beads that are wanted)

(b) '.':hen the substantive qualified is object of the
relative pridicate, e.g.

1, lolonro W-onisa k? (the bead that I want)
2. imalo ania:a (thae b eads that I wnt)


! L,84


COVA


3* 0o-


P. a- oria- a -. '-


EXAITL ,.

2 3 5, ` i.val -Verbal Concord

Present Tense: P positive,

1. oiato onakoyenda moorware
(the canoe is travelling in the river

2. mato anakeyenda morware
(the canoes are travelling in the river'

3. orozi onakonaa hana ohendi
wit chcraft kills m-any IThidren)
/ ;286.


281.


2 082.


?os3essive ~oncord


3.--- o.Y.cl. A Pos C. C Rel. C Ju ,..





- 69 -


236.

odidi oo't;-r'u
odiCdi oopia
of' mu o oko:oto


j 287.


ovato ,'aga.oo
opata %afu.mu
x.arva wn--ge
warwa wane


5 2680.


Adjectival Concord

(biA bed)
- (new bed))
(strong kingdom)


Pos aes ive Concord

(canoe of the Yeei)
(anger of the chief)
(my beer)


Relative Concord


madidi omaruru
m'adidi omapia


mato a'a.Too


(a) 'ihen the ,u.bsta.,tive qualified is
relative predicate, e.g.


subject of the


S1. ,arwa omokcindiimbe haSubia hanootende
(the t beer "-woh if- ItiTai--c~ s -ide by the
Snbia)

2. 'na.arwa amotondimrbe ha3ubia hanaatende
(the different lots of bee' which are in the
pots were made by the Subia)


(b) Then the substantive qualified is object of' the
relative predicate;, e.g.

1. oWato oonakomona ,,adye?
(whose is the canoe that I see?)

2. mawato aanakomona aadye?
whosee are the canoes that I see?)


9 289.


GCOEREKFI


3.V. C OC.V.C. Adj .. Poss.C.


3. -.

P. ma-, a--


290.


Jot~o -

a ~i -*


wa -

a-


Rel.C. C Nu.C.

WO-

ma-


3ub j ectival Verbal Concord

(a) Present .,ense; Positive (_Porm 1).

1. worodzi odipa vganto
( tchcraf t kill, people)

2. marodzi iadipa ,ranto
(wi tco ras k1ill people)

3. oato koyrenda pakat'i lo;gna
(the canoe- travels through r-he water)


/(b) Present


EXAITS 3





- 70 -


(b). Present Tense; Positive (Foirm 2)

lriato anavend- akcats i kome8'ma
(the canoes travel t-hrogh t6ie afterr )

(c) Past T.ense: Positive:

1. o*wa onatiumu padiiwoo 5 diande
(the ant bit my had and

2, maodwa anatumiu padilok8l diande
(Ythe. nnts bit mny hand)


S291.


worori 1xowonne
wo rocl 'woronenf
wrodito .o ..n ni


292.


owato wah omla
o ara Iahompa


Adjectiva. Concord


(new bed)
(big witchcraft)
(great strength)


Possessive Concord

(the chief's canoe'
(the chief's anger)


P.
macro jan2e

mnadito e.ian^ne


mato ahompa
maogara owahompal


XI. CLASS 9(a)


YEE I


S. ko--


SUB IA

ko-


294. Thi: class consists of verbal nouns, i.e. of verb in-
finitives used a. no-,ns. Such nouns have no plural.

, 295. YEEI. kosona (to love), kogara (to pay, payment)
koyira (to desire), koieda (lightning[)


S296. 3SJBIA. kosona (to love); kolala (to sleep), koyereza
(to desire), koenda to travel).

' 297, GOVA. kohemaa (love), kofa (death), kogenda (to
travel, a journey).

2 298. G-CRE I. koh8ra (love), kofa (death), koieka (wealth),
kongarana (assembly) ,


/Table


1; or'homla < .0ojohomip. < + (o))ahompa


S 293.


GOVA

ko--


(-CEREhKU

ko--





- 70 -


(b). Present Tense; Positive (Foirm 2)

lriato anavend- akcats i kome8'ma
(the canoes travel t-hrogh t6ie afterr )

(c) Past T.ense: Positive:

1. o*wa onatiumu padiiwoo 5 diande
(the ant bit my had and

2, maodwa anatumiu padilok8l diande
(Ythe. nnts bit mny hand)


S291.


worori 1xowonne
wo rocl 'woronenf
wrodito .o ..n ni


292.


owato wah omla
o ara Iahompa


Adjectiva. Concord


(new bed)
(big witchcraft)
(great strength)


Possessive Concord

(the chief's canoe'
(the chief's anger)


P.
macro jan2e

mnadito e.ian^ne


mato ahompa
maogara owahompal


XI. CLASS 9(a)


YEE I


S. ko--


SUB IA

ko-


294. Thi: class consists of verbal nouns, i.e. of verb in-
finitives used a. no-,ns. Such nouns have no plural.

, 295. YEEI. kosona (to love), kogara (to pay, payment)
koyira (to desire), koieda (lightning[)


S296. 3SJBIA. kosona (to love); kolala (to sleep), koyereza
(to desire), koenda to travel).

' 297, GOVA. kohemaa (love), kofa (death), kogenda (to
travel, a journey).

2 298. G-CRE I. koh8ra (love), kofa (death), koieka (wealth),
kongarana (assembly) ,


/Table


1; or'homla < .0ojohomip. < + (o))ahompa


S 293.


GOVA

ko--


(-CEREhKU

ko--





- 70 -


(b). Present Tense; Positive (Foirm 2)

lriato anavend- akcats i kome8'ma
(the canoes travel t-hrogh t6ie afterr )

(c) Past T.ense: Positive:

1. o*wa onatiumu padiiwoo 5 diande
(the ant bit my had and

2, maodwa anatumiu padilok8l diande
(Ythe. nnts bit mny hand)


S291.


worori 1xowonne
wo rocl 'woronenf
wrodito .o ..n ni


292.


owato wah omla
o ara Iahompa


Adjectiva. Concord


(new bed)
(big witchcraft)
(great strength)


Possessive Concord

(the chief's canoe'
(the chief's anger)


P.
macro jan2e

mnadito e.ian^ne


mato ahompa
maogara owahompal


XI. CLASS 9(a)


YEE I


S. ko--


SUB IA

ko-


294. Thi: class consists of verbal nouns, i.e. of verb in-
finitives used a. no-,ns. Such nouns have no plural.

, 295. YEEI. kosona (to love), kogara (to pay, payment)
koyira (to desire), koieda (lightning[)


S296. 3SJBIA. kosona (to love); kolala (to sleep), koyereza
(to desire), koenda to travel).

' 297, GOVA. kohemaa (love), kofa (death), kogenda (to
travel, a journey).

2 298. G-CRE I. koh8ra (love), kofa (death), koieka (wealth),
kongarana (assembly) ,


/Table


1; or'homla < .0ojohomip. < + (o))ahompa


S 293.


GOVA

ko--


(-CEREhKU

ko--





ReT... Num.C,

1ko-(,) ko..-.


koko -


kwa -


p,;e.en Tense; p, sitive;

o---q.t.v.q i -oti.p. omonto maimo mabi
(.T7-.Tn:.nn, -:- ,0 .- .1 -n'ln b'tch.v,- 'badly)
1Adectlval C o nco

_Adjectival Concord


kosona ko! 1:r'oa 1xokn eni.


*o.sona 1:t'je kati
l osona h. ekat "


(great love)
(. i.:lJ. love)


(my love)
(the chief's love)


, 2CC.


Relative Concord


',hen the substantive qualified is object of the rela-
tive predicate:

kosona l:o1l:inarasete pombwa ake kware koggudi
(the love that' he had. for his dog was great)


) 304,. IBIA

S.V.C. .V.C. Ad i. C. Poss.C. Rel.C. Num.. .


s. rko-


' 305.


ko-


iwa-


ko-


ko-


,oubjectival Verbal QoQcor


'- rcl.-:l T' otezel:a


(sickness is :feared)


(b) r..sen iense: e te .ve

.:DlJala k:-.etoze-!:i (sickn,.-- is not feared)


/ 306.


8. ko-


T-: I- I


y 00.


: 301.


K; S .C3


sl:1 ,e ,?.r 'oncor',~
e I C.4 ,.


Snbi ectival Verbal Concord


L


g w .l


8.V.O.. o f3i'.i i Pq-a,0.,


p-o 's ,sz iv, .oncord


(a 're eat enre P osi ive:






- 72 -


,idject .v:l Concord


kofoira ':01: nldo
;:orotq 1-0" 0 1


(excellent hecolth)
(good teaching)


307.


Possessijve c oncord


kolwala kwasemrwene (the sickness of t.i l chief? "
kosonoa jvakwe (his love)


308.


rol,.tive Concord


(a) 'heni the substantive qi!alified is subject of tiie
relative predicate, e.g.


(b) -Jhen the ststa.ative qrlif.ie is ob;5ect o: t,'e
relative, .predioatep e.g.


(siclrness th:.it I fear)
(love that I ::no-')


809.


(OOVA


. r, i.C. Poss, ,

ko-- k ,oko, .o. ...a .


3, 1,0.


ko.-.


.ub)j c tivl Vei'bnl. Concord


pre_ -' -un t Ten se tiv e

k heria.- kwafumu h-ino konakohima
(the o6ve 'of the oi e- pl ea ses 1 he people)

AdJec tiva QConcord


:l.oenda akokokkuru
kohemhnaa. okokouru


(a big journey)
(great love)


Possessive Conoord


kof a kwahfurmu
kohenaa kwafumu


3U3.


3. _u-


(death of the chief)
chief'ss love)


G.I.REKU .

O.V.c. Pos a.C.

koko- kwa-


1. konizi <' honiti


306,


S 31L.


3 510.


ko-.


I I P


~---~ ''


(sI:c'ness tht- kills)


kolwale kolhayI


l:olwlaa .konitia
kosona konizl






* 1V0 w


S51-4.
S i


Subijctival Verbal Concord


Presen- Tense: Positive.


1. kohira koayikita wannthu kohora
(lovem K E- people rienc.ly)

2. rohSra kotoware
(love is .wee9 T


Adjiectival Concord


6 315.


c1:ohira ko3-on-nj
.oSQra !kokonen


(great love)
(great sickness)


Possessive Concord


kohrcia hkoahoimpa
of a kwahop3.


(love of the chief'
(death of: the chief


XII. CLASS 9(ba )

3J I A GOVA

ko- ko--


*mka-.


j 513. This cla-;s3
:-~-,.arentl-- dcoe- not
"arts f 'te o3i v.


;tj o
Moti


"' U2C.


koolo
ko0oko
,, Vi-


whi-chz on the information available to me
occur in rcere.u, contains nouns denoting
It has- a plural prefix nma_.


YEEI
Y EI

(ear)


3tIT


(leg)
(arm)
(ear).


P.
naa ti


maolo
maok o
maatwi


S321.


Rooru
kotwi
ko to mbuuru
..r O'


(leg)
(ear)
(thigh)
(armt'


rnaoru
ma tvi
rnatomibuuru
raoko


/Table

1. kwokio < *kooko


S315.


;, 617.




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