Twenty Year Report
A Series of Studies of Negro Progress qnd
of Developments of Race Relations in .
the United States and Africa '
During the Period, and a
Discussion of the Pres-
JAMES HARDY DILLARD
THOMAS JESSE JONES
CHARLES TEMPLEMAN LORAM
JOSEPH HOULDSWORTH OLDHAM
ANSON PHELPS STOKES
NEW YORK CITY
TWENTY YEAR REPORT
A Series of Studies of Negro Progress and
of Developments of Race Relations in the
United States and Africa during the period,
and a Discussion of the present Outlook.
JAMES HARDY DILLARD
THOMAS JESSE JONES
CHARLES TEMPLEMAN LORAM
JOSEPH HOULDSWORTH OLDHAM
ANSON PHELPS STOKES
THE PHELPS-STOKES FUND
NEW YORK CITY
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EXTRACT FROM THE WILL
CAROLINE PHELPS STOKES
After all bequests and devises heretofore made in this will shall have
been first paid by my executors, I direct that all my residuary estate of
whatever kind and description and wheresoever situated and however
evidenced shall be given by my executors to the following persons or
such of them as may be living at the time of my death whom with their
successors I appoint trustees to hold the same in trust forever to con-
stitute a fund to be known as the Phelps-Stokes Fund, namely: The
Protestant Episcopal Bishop of New York City, for the time being,
the Chancellor of the University of the City of New York, for the time
being, the Reverand Dr. Lyman Abbott of Brooklyn, Olivia Egleston
Phelps Stokes, I. Newton Phelps Stokes, Helen Olivia Phelps
Stokes, F. Louis Slade, Mabel Slade, Caroline M. Phelps Stokes,
Grace H. Dodge and Arthur Curtiss James, to be invested and kept
invested by them and their successors, the interest and net income of
such fund to be used by them and their successors for the erection or
improvement of tenement house dwellings in New York City for the
poor families of New York City and for educational purposes in the
education of Negroes both in Africa and the United States, North
American Indians and needy and deserving white'students.
The seventeenth clause of the will
BOARD OF TRUSTEES, 1931-32
ANSON PHELPS STOKES, President
JAMES H. DILLARD, Vice-President
I. N. PHELPS STOKES, Secretary
FRANCIS LOUIs SLADE, Treasurer
ELMER ELLSWORTH BROWN
Mus. RANSOM SPAFARD HOOKER
JOHN SHERMAN HOYT
RT. REV. WILLIAM T. MANNING
ROBERT R. MOTON
EDWARD W. SHELDON
MIss HELEN PHELPS STOKES
LYMAN ABBOTT, 1910
MABEL SLADE ARBUTHNOT, 1910
CHARLES SUMNER BURCH, 1919-1920
HENRY SLOANE COFFIN, 1916-1923
GRACE H. DODGE, 1910-1915
DAVID HUMMELL GREER, 1910-1919
CAROLINE M. PHELPS STOKES HUNTER,
ARTHUR CURTISS JAMES, 1910
JOHN HENRY MACCRACKEN, 1910-1911
OLIVIA EGLESTON PHELPS STOKES,
ANSON PHELPS STOKES, President
THOMAS JESSE JONES, Educational Director
L. A. Roy, Ofice Secretary
CLERKS OF THE BOARD
JAMES W. MCCULLOCH, Clerk
MARGARET J. BEEN, Assistant Clerk
I. NEWTON PHELPS STOKES, Chairman
MRS. RANSOM SPAFARD HOOKER FRANCIS LOUIS SLADE
JOHN SHERMAN HOYT ANSON PHELPS STOKES
ANSON PHELPS STOKES, Chairman
ELMER ELLSWORTH BROWN THOMAS JESSE JONES
JAMES HARDY DILLARD ROBERT RUSSA MOTON
MRS. RANSOM SPAFARD HOOKER HELEN OLIVIA PHELPS STOKES
I. NEWTON PHELPS STOKES, Chairman
MRS. RANSOM SPAFARD HOOKER JOHN SHERMAN HOYT
FRANCIS LoUIs SLADE
FRANCIS LOUIs SLADE, Chairman
JOHN SHERMAN HOYT EDWARD WRIGHT SHELDON
I. NEWTON PHELPS STOKES
UNITED STATES TRUST COMPANY (New York)
EXTRACT FROM THE WILL OF MISS CAROLINE PHELPS STOKES ....................... 3
BOARD OF TRUSTEES OF THE PHELPS-STOKES FUND ................ ............... 4
ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF AND COMMITTEES ......... ................................ 5
I. TWENTY YEARS WORK OF THE PHELPS-STOKES FUND ........................ 9
Anson Phelps Stokes, President of the Phelps-Stokes Fund
II. TRENDS IN NEGRO EDUCATION (1915-1930) ................................. 32
Thomas Jesse Jones, Educational Director of the Phelps-Stokes Fund
III. PROGRESS OF EDUCATION AND RACE RELATIONS IN THE SOUTH ................. 52
James Hardy Dillard, ex-President of the Jeanes and Slater Funds and
Trustee of the Phelps-Stokes Fund
IV. INTERRACIAL COOPERATION (1911-1931) ................... ............... 55
I. General Summary, Thomas Jesse Jones
II. Chronological Summary, Monroe N. Work, Director of the Depart-
ment of Research and Records of Tuskegee Institute and former
holder of a Fellowship from the Phelps-Stokes Fund
V. DEVELOPMENTS IN THE RELATIONS BETWEEN WHITE AND BLACK IN AFRICA (1911-
1931).. ....................... ..................... ...... .... 76
J. H. Oldham, Secretary of International Missionary Council, member of
the British Colonial Office Committee on Education, and for many years
European Representative of the Phelps-Stokes Fund
VI. NATIVE PROGRESS AND IMPROVEMENT IN RACE RELATIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA
C. T. Loram, Sterling Professor of Education at Yale University, and
formerly member of the Native Affairs Commission of the Union of South
Africa and representative of the Phelps-Stokes Fund in Africa
VII. FINANCIAL REPORT (1911-1931) ................................... .... 93
L. A. Roy, Office Secretary of the Phelps-Stokes Fund
I. 1931 Report.
II. Twenty Year Report.
I. Act of Incorporation...................................................... 115
II. By-Laws.................... ............................................. 119
III. Sketch of Miss Olivia Phelps Stokes, Benefactor of the Phelps-Stokes Fund...... 122
INDEX.... .. ......... ..... .. ....... ...... ... .... .......... 2 125
TWENTY YEARS WORK OF THE PHELPS-STOKES FUND
DR. ANSON PHELPS STOKES
The Trustees published in 1920 "Educational Adaptations-Report of Ten
Years Work of the Phelps-Stokes Fund, 1910-1920." It has seemed to them advis-
able to publish a second Report with special reference to the activities of the past
ten years but including a complete financial summary of the expenditures of the
Fund, as well as certain studies in the development of the Negro and of better race
relations both in Africa and the United States during the twenty year period since
the Trustees began their work. It is planned to publish somewhat similar surveys
every decade and to print biennial financial reports to supplement the annual
financial statement made to the state authorities. This Report is the result of the
above decisions. The Table of Contents shows clearly its scope. The Introduction
will deal briefly with four matters:
Origin and Early History of the Fund
Development of the Fund's Work in the United States
The Fund's major activities during the past ten years in Africa
Some general conclusions
ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY OF THE FUND
The Phelps-Stokes Fund was established by the will of Miss Caroline Phelps
Stokes of New York City, who died April 26, 1909, in Redlands, California. The
Trustees met for preliminary organization April 28, 1910, at the residence of Miss
Stokes' brother, the late Anson Phelps Stokes, 230 Madison Avenue, New York
City. They at that time took steps towards incorporation and were duly incor-
porated by Act of the Legislature of the State May 10, 1911. At a meeting a fort-
night later, May 24, 1911, at the family office in the Woodbridge Building, 100
William Street, the Board was formally organized, and approved the report of its
Committee on Plan and Scope, as follows:
1. That in providing for the establishment of the Phelps-Stokes Fund the testatrix
showed a special, although by no means exclusive, interest in Negro education.
2. That it is wise for this board to dispense its philanthropy as far as possible through
existing institutions of proven experience and of assured stability.
3. That the cooperation of the best white citizens of the South is of prime importance in
solving the problem of Negro education.
4. That the board will be justified in meeting occasionally the whole or a part of the
10 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
expense of securing investigations and reports on educational institutions or problems, when
these are thought to be of great significance.
Jeanes Visiting Teachers
At the Fall meeting in that year the first appropriation was made by the Trus-
tees. The minute reads as follows:
"Rev. Anson Phelps Stokes, Jr., reported for the Committee on Education. After
much discussion, the following votes recommended by the Committee were adopted:
"VOTED: To direct the Treasurer to pay the sum of $2,500 to the Treasurer of the
Jeanes Fund to provide salaries for county supervisors of Negro Schools in the South.
"VOTED: To instruct the Secretary to inform the Jeanes Fund that it is the present
purpose of the Phelps-Stokes Trustees to continue this appropriation if needed annually for
at least three years."
It is worth recording that the Phelps-Stokes Fund has continued its interest in
the Jeanes movement until theqpresent. Dr. Dillard, for so many years President
of the Fund, is a member of our'Board of Trustees and the extension of the Jeanes
Fund movement to Africa has been largely due to the efforts of the Phelps-Stokes
Fund. The plan of having competent visiting teachers who interest themselves
sympathetically in all of the activities of the rural school and of the higher life of the
rural community is one that is applicable to all races and has shown its extraordi-
The second action of the Phelps-Stokes Fund was to appropriate $12,500 for the
establishment of a fellowship at the University of Georgia "for the study of the
Negro." A similar vote was passed with reference to the establishment of a Fellow-
ship at the University of Virginia. The vote passed regarding the former was as
Whereas, Miss Caroline Phelps Stokes in establishing the Phelps-Stokes Fund was
especially solicitous to assist in improving the condition of the Negro, and
Whereas, It is the conviction of the Trustees that one of the best methods of forwarding
this purpose is to provide means to enable Southern youth of broad sympathies to make a
scientific study of the Negro and his adjustment to American civilization:
Resolved, That twelve thousand five hundred dollars ($12,500) be given to the Univer-
sity of Georgia for the permanent endowment of a research fellowship, on the following
1. The University shall appoint annually a Fellow in Sociology for the study of the Negro.
He shall pursue advanced studies under the direction of the Departments of Sociology,
Economics, Education, or History, as may be determined in each case by the Chancellor.
The Fellowship shall yield $500, and shall, after four years, be restricted to graduate students.
2. Each Fellow shall prepare a paper or thesis embodying the results of his investigation,
TWENTY YEARS WORK OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
which shall be published by the University with assistance from the income of the Fund, any
surplus remaining being applicable to other objects incident to the main purpose of the
Fellowship. A copy of these resolutions shall be incorporated in every publication issued
under this foundation.
The right to make all necessary regulations, not inconsistent with the spirit and letter of
these resolutions, is given to the Chancellor and the Faculty, but no changes in the conditions
of the foundation can be made without the mutual consent of both the Trustees of the Uni-
versity and of the Phelps-Stokes Fund.
These Fellowships have proved among the most useful foundations established
by the Board. Were funds available the Trustees would be glad to establish
similar Fellowships at other institutions, such as the University of North Carolina,
Vanderbilt and Tulane. The Fellowships have resulted in training representative
Southern white men and women to study the Negro objectively and have done much
to help transfer the problems of race relations in the South from the realm of senti-
ment and emotion to that of scientific discussion. The researches and published
contributions of the Fellows have been of considerable value, such as those of
Professor Thomas Jackson Woofter, Jr., of the University of North Carolina, Mr.
Walter B. Hill, of the General Education Board, and Professor Snavely, of the
University of Virginia. The total number of Fellowships granted by the Univer-
sity of Virginia and the University of Georgia from 1912 to 1931 has been 27. Of
these 15 have been at the University of Virginia and 12 at the University of Georgia.
Three of the Fellowships were granted to young women, one in Georgia and two in
The scope and character of the researches made by the Phelps-Stokes Fellows are
indicated by the following list of topics on which dissertations have been written
and, in most instances, published by the Universities:
1. University of Georgia
"Negroes of Athens, Georgia"
"Rural Survey of Clarke County, Georgia"
"School Conditions in Clarke County, Georgia"
"Sanitary Conditions among the Negroes of Athens, Georgia"
"Negroes in Clarke County during the Great War"
"The Negro Women of Gainesville, Georgia"
"An Economic Study of Negro Farmers"
"A Study of Ideals, Intelligence and Achievements of Negroes and Whites"
"The Water Supply of the Negro"
2. University of Virginia
j'Rural Land Ownership among Negroes in Virginia"
"The Negro in Virginia Politics 1865-1902"
"The Negroes of Lynchburg, Virginia"
12 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
"The Education and Economic Development of the Negro in Virginia"
""Negro Housing in Certain Virginia Cities"
V"The Negro in Charlottesville and Albemarle County, Virginia"
"A Study of Four Colored Neighborhoods"
"A Study of the Jail Records of Negroes in Charlottesville and Albemarle
"A Socio-Psychiatric Study of Colored Prisoners"
The interesting variety of topics reflects the substantial character of the studies
that have been made during the last twenty years by the young men and women of
these distinguished Southern Universities. Some measure of the reflex influence of
these researches upon the 27 Southern white students in their subsequent services
for interracial coUperation would be of exceptional significance. A recent in-
quiry showed that practically all of them are working directly or indirectly for
justice and friendship in race relationships whether between black and white in
America or between the diverse races of other parts of the world. Most of them
are effective teachers in colleges and universities. Some are continuing their
research of human relationships. Others are in the professions of law and business
and politics, exerting their civic influence in their regular occupations.
George Peabody College for Teachers reports that the income from the somewhat
similar Phelps-Stokes Grant has been used to enable teachers and students to make
special observations of Negro education in Southern communities. This has helped
the College to prepare the large enrolment of students not only for effective service
in the white schools of the South, but also for sympathetic and intelligent under-
standing of the Negro schools.
Negro Education in the United States
The third action of the Trustees, involving an expenditure of money, was taken
at the meeting November 20, 1912, when the Committee authorized the employ-
ment of an "agent" and undertook to make a field study of Negro education.
After many conferences with representative white and Negro educators, Dr.
Thomas Jesse Jones, then statistician in the U. S. Census Bureau, was selected,
and took up his duties January 1, 1913. Dr. Jones was born in Wales, took his
undergraduate work at Washington and Lee and Marietta Colleges, graduated
B.D. at the Union Theological Seminary, and M.A. and Ph.D. in Sociology at
Columbia. After serving for a year as acting Head-Worker of the University
Settlement in New York he went to Hampton Institute where he served for seven
years as Director of the Research Department.
Arrangements were made early in 1913 with the Bureau of Education of the
U. S. Department of the Interior for Dr. Jones, who was a Specialist in Education
in the Bureau, to make with its cooperation a survey of Negro Schools. The
resulting work in two volumes was published by the United States Government as
TWENTY YEARS WORK OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
Bulletin, 1916, No. 38 and No. 39, of the Bureau of Education, Department of the
Interior. It was entitled "Negro Education, a Study of the Private and Higher
Schools for Colored People in the United States." This Report has been generally
recognized by impartial scholars as a fair and thorough study of the field of Negro
education in the United States just prior to the World War. A study of the Table
of Contents will show the systematic and comprehensive character of the Report.
A significant feature was that it was prepared by a group which included the points
of view of the Northern white man, the Southern white man and the Negro, and as
I stated in the Introduction to Volume I:
"The complete harmony of spirit and purpose that has prevailed among the members of
the staff throughout the three years of the investigation, in spite of their differences of birth
and education, is a happy evidence and augury of what is to be expected when men of high
character and purpose trained to investigate facts cooperate in removing the Negro problem
from the realm of the emotions to that of dispassionate study."
Among the influential features of the Report were the following:
1. Its thorough statistical material regarding all Negro schools above elemen-
tary grades and regarding the relative per capital expenditures for white and colored
children in each state on the basis of teachers' salaries. The maps which accom-
panied these statements made it clear to every impartial student that the Negro
schools were receiving only a fraction as much as the white schools. These facts
were the basis of helpful discussion in every Southern legislature.
2. Its clear recognition of the differentiation between, and the importance of
both the elementary training of the rank and file of Negro youth in a way to fit them
for self-support and useful living in their own communities, and the need of adequate
training for Negro leadership in all honorable occupations and professions through
colleges and universities.
3. Its description of every important school and college for the Negroes with
recommendations as to improvements, not only in curricula, but in financial
methods, teaching standards, adaptation to community needs, etc.
The statistical facts in the study have never been seriously questioned. As to
the criticisms of the Report because of its emphasis on the vocational and social
elements of education, it may be said that Dr. Jones has strenuously advocated
the same type of education for the white man, the Indian and all other groups.
As to the criticism of the administration of certain schools, it may be stated that
there has been considerable improvement since the Report was published, and that
now the number of schools in the South under Negro direction conducted on the
best possible basis, has greatly increased.
Perhaps the best evidence of the standing of the Report is that its author was
awarded the Grant Squires Prize by Columbia University, given every fifth year by
the University for "original investigations of a sociological character carried on
during the five years preceding the award." A more recent authoritative estimate
14 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
of the permanent significance of the Report is given by the United States Com-
missioner of Education, Hon. John J. Tigert, in his letter of transmittal in 1928 of
the "Survey of Negro Colleges and Universities": "It is generally acknowledged
that a Report on Negro Education in the United States, published by the Bureau of
Education in 1917, has contributed greatly to the tremendous reconstruction of
schools for Negroes which has taken place during the past ten years." Dr. Jones'
reports are still in much use for reference purposes by government officials, church
boards of education, philanthropic organizations, and students of education and
These earliest activities of the Fund have been outlined because they illustrate
clearly some of the characteristics which have marked the Board's work from the
first both in Africa and the United States. These are:
1. Interest in movements such as the Jeanes Fund which directly relate educa-
tion to the vital daily needs of the people.
2. Interest in such activities as the Phelps-Stokes Fellowships which by helping
the Southern white man to study the Negro at first hand, overcome prejudices of an
earlier day and help to bring about trained white leadership to cooperate with
trained Negro leadership in the solution of the Negro problem.
3. Interest in educational surveys made by competent inter-sectional and inter-
racial groups on the basis of which adequate educational facilities fitted to the
needs of all people from elementary school to university may be provided through
public taxation supplemented by private benevolence.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE FUND'S WORK IN THE UNITED STATES
The development of the Fund's work in the United States during the past twenty
years may be mainly grouped under the following headings:
1. Aid to Negro Schools, Colleges and Universities.
2. Aid to the cause of interracial coOperation.
3. Aid to promising publications and movements in the interest of the Negro.
Aid to Negro Schools, Colleges and Universities
This aid has been given primarily in three ways:
(a) Financial contributions as outlined in Chapter VII. It will be noticed that
during this period the Fund has expended $570,100 for educational activities for
Negroes in the United States. Of this $190,585 has been for Negro schools, colleges
and universities; $49,984 for surveys of Negro education; $25,168 to Negro educa-
tional organizations; $97,803 to organizations for the improvement of race relations.
(b) Cooperation with educational institutions in meeting, their various prob-
lems-educational, financial and otherwise. This has been accomplished partly by
visits of the officers to the field and even more by conferences sought by representa-
TWENTY YEARS WORK OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND 15
tives of educational institutions with the officers of the Fund. The office at 101
Park Avenue, New York City, is visited almost daily by representatives of colleges
and other educational institutions who are seeking to find additional means of sup-
port or suitable members for their faculty, or to get information as to curriculum
changes that might be helpful. The same is true to a limited extent of the branch
office in Washington.
(c) Assistance in making a new study of Negro schools. The Board realized in
1927 that Dr. Jones' survey was ten years old and that consequently many of its
estimates of individual schools needed restatement and that a new study was neces-
sary. It seemed best that this survey should be made under the auspices of the
Association of Negro Colleges. After full discussion the Association requested the
Bureau of Education to make the survey and the Phelps-Stokes Fund made an
appropriation towards its expense. The result was "The Survey of Negro Colleges
and Universities" published in 1928. The Report showed the extraordinary prog-
ress in higher education among Negroes since the first Report published in 1916.
The advance of the Negro race during the last twenty years is presented in the
following table prepared for this Report by Mr. Monroe N. Work of Tuskegee
THE PROGRESS OF THE NEGRO 1910-1930
Per Cent Literate ....................
Pupils in Public Schools ................
Students in Collegiate Courses...........
Students in Professional Courses........
Teachers in all Schools .................
Number of Negro High Schools.........
Annual Expenditures for Negro Education.
Endowment of Schools and Colleges for
Homes Owned .......................
Acres Land Owned ...................
Businesses Conducted .................
Wealth Accumulated .................
Number of Churches ..................
Number of Communicants .............
Number of Sunday Schools ............
Number of Sunday School Pupils........
Value Church Property ................
It is significant that in the above table the only decrease in the twenty year
period under review is in the number of farms owned. This is due mainly to the
16 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
migration of Negroes from the unsatisfactory conditions of rural areas to the better
economic opportunities of urban centers.
Aid to the cause of Interracial Co5peration
This has been a field in which the Phelps-Stokes Fund has been especially inter-
ested. Fortunately the Bureau of Records and Research at Tuskegee has kept
very full information regarding all movements affecting the Negro. At my request,
Mr. Monroe N. Work, the efficient director of this Bureau, has gone over the records
and has brought together chronologically the most important events in the field of
interracial cooperation between whites and Negroes from 1920 to 1930. The result-
ing data are published in full in Chapter IV of this Report. Although only a begin-
ning has been made, the foundations are secure. The facts recorded show that the
progress of cooperation between representative white and colored citizens in the im-
provement of local conditions especially in the South has been remarkably encour-
aging. Some of the specific movements which the Phelps-Stokes Fund has aided
in this field have been the following:
Commission on Interracial Coiperation. Although the Phelps-Stokes Fund's
connection with this movement is not generally known, it is perhaps worth record-
ing that the initiative which brought about this movement was taken by the Educa-
tional Director of the Fund, who arranged in February, 1919, for a conference of
representatives of the leading war-time committees engaged in helping soldiers. It
was his belief that such a conference might help to create conditions which would
tend to promote the welfare of Negro soldiers and prevent friction on their return
from a war "to make the world safe for democracy." This meeting was attended by
representative white and colored people, both of the North and South, and by
officers of the War Work Council of the Y. M. C. A., Y. W. C. A., the War Camp
Community Service, and the War-Time Committee of Churches. The conferees
requested that the Educational Director of the Phelps-Stokes Fund, who was secre-
tary of the last-named committee, should study the situation and arrange for fur-
ther cooperation. After consultations with Dr. Buttrick and Dr. Dillard, a second
meeting was called in Atlanta. This meeting was held in March, 1919, and was
attended by Mr. J. J. Eagan of Atlanta, Georgia; Dr. Buttrick of New York; Dr.
Dillard of Charlottesville, Virginia; Dr. Ashby Jones of Atlanta; Mr. R. H. King
of Atlanta; Dr. Plato Durham of Atlanta; Dr. W. W. Alexander and Dr. Thomas
Jesse Jones, who acted as organizing secretary. This meeting arrived at the follow-
To form a Committee on After-War Cooperation with Mr. Eagan as Chairman and
Thomas Jesse Jones as Secretary, the other members being representatives from the various
To call a meeting of the white representatives in Atlanta about April.
To ask Dr. Moton to call a meeting of the colored representatives at Tuskegee about the
TWENTY YEARS WORK OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
In April, 1919 these two committees of white and colored men on after-war
cooperation met in Atlanta and changed the name to the Interracial Committee.
Mr. R. H. King, then the executive secretary of the Southeastern Department of
the War Work Council, became secretary in place of Dr. Jones, who resigned to
make the educational survey for the Phelps-Stokes Fund in Africa, and Mr. Eagan
became chairman. It is hard to over-emphasize the significance of this movement,
and the Fund has been glad to continue its financial support to it from its origin to
the present. It considers it one of the most important organizations in the interest
of the Negro and of the South. Under the leadership of Dr. W. W. Alexander, who
later became executive secretary, it has become an agency of national, indeed inter-
national, influence. Its work is based on the theory that racial antagonisms can be
eliminated and interracial comity can be brought about through friendly conference
and active cooperation in improving the local conditions affecting the Negro.
University Commission on Race Questions. The Fund continued its support of
the University Commission on Race Questions until it went out of existence in 1925.
This movement, under the wise leadership of Dr. Dillard, did much to create senti-
ment in the South against lynching, in favor of larger financial support to Negro
public schools, the development of interracial cooperation, the elimination of unjust
discrimination against Negroes, and other movements in the interest of colored
Southern Publicity Committee. The work of this Committee, which continued in
existence from 1917 to 1921 is described in the first Report of the Phelps-Stokes
Fund. The influence of this Committee for the improvement of race relations
extended throughout every Southern State.
Aid to Promising Publications and Movements in the Interest of the Negro
The Phelps-Stokes Fund has a relatively small income at its disposal, but by
using discrimination and by seeing the significance of projects or movements, it is
able to make substantial contributions to them. Among those that it has made
possible or helped to make possible during the past decade have been the following:
"The Bibliography of the Negro." This admirable publication by Mr. Monroe
N. Work of Tuskegee was published in 1928. The financial support of the Phelps-
Stokes Fund enabled Mr. Work to make his studies both in American and European
Libraries and also to advance the money necessary for the publication of the volume.
The Study of American Indian Education. The founder of the Phelps-Stokes
Fund was deeply interested in the Indian as well as the Negro and authorized her
Trustees to aid in their education. She had seen the Indian and the Negro study
together for many years at Hampton and realized that these two groups, especially
in rural districts, faced somewhat similar problems. The Fund, although consider-
ing the Negro as representing its major interest, has also from time to time aided
movements which seemed to be of particular significance for the development of the
Indian. For instance, it cooperated with the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial
18 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
in making possible the Indian study published by the Institute for Government
Research in 1928 under the title "The Problem of Indian Administration." Mr.
Lewis Meriam served as the technical director of the survey staff. The Educational
Director of the Phelps-Stokes Fund gave a great deal of time in aiding him in plan-
ning for this study and in the selection of personnel.
The Development of the Encyclopedia of the Negro Project. This is one of the most
promising movements ever initiated by the Phelps-Stokes Fund. It was first pro-
posed at a meeting of the Phelps-Stokes Trustees April 27, 1931, when a vote was
passed setting aside the necessary funds for
"the purpose of holding a conference of white and colored scholars and leaders of public
opinion in the fall of 1931, to consider the possibility and advisability of publishing, with the
possible financial help of the Phelps-Stokes Fund and of other Foundations, groups and indi-
viduals who may be interested, an Encyclopedia of the Negro, the amount appropriated, or as
much thereof as may be necessary, to be used to meet traveling, entertainment and other
incidental expenses; with the understanding that if after due consideration the conference is
favorably impressed by the project it will be invited to draft a preliminary plan, covering the
auspices under which the Encyclopedia should be published, as well as its headquarters,
organization of Advisory and Editorial staffs, scope, method of treatment, probable cost,
and all other essential factors, which plan may be considered by the Phelps-Stokes Trustees
at their November meeting."
The ultimate purpose is to provide for the publication by an interracial group of an
Encyclopedia giving full information regarding the Negro. The project was ad-
vanced at a conference called by the Phelps-Stokes Fund at Howard University
November 7, 1931, which was attended by some 20 leaders of Negro education,
white and black, North and South.
A second conference of the same group, with certain additions, was held January
9, 1932, when a memorandum was adopted and the scope of the proposed Encyclo-
pedia was thus outlined:
"It is proposed that the Encyclopedia should be devoted mainly to the American Negro,
but that it should include important related topics regarding the Negro in Africa and else-
where. It is believed that an Encyclopedia of about four volumes of the general type of the
"Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences," each volume containing about 500,000 words, would
be suitable. It should include all important phases of Negro Life and History-anthropo-
logical, ethnographical, biographical, historical, educational, industrial, economic, political,
religious, psychological (including race relations), artistic, etc. It is believed that such an
Encyclopedia as is proposed would fill a great need in providing authoritative information for
scholars, teachers, editors, students, and the public generally. Attention is called to the
entirely inadequate treatment of the Negro in all existing encyclopedias and other works of
general reference, and the frequent calls received by librarians and agencies interested for
authoritative information on various phases of Negro life and history, which cannot be made
available except by much searching. It is proposed that articles should be relatively brief,
with full bibliographies, the method of treatment combining high scholarship, judicial fair-
TWENTY YEARS WORK OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
ness and readableness. It is believed that contributors should be chosen from the standpoint
of expert knowledge and competence. Contributors should aim to give facts authoritatively
and objectively with such interpretations as may be necessary, clearly stating divergent
views on important controversial matters."
The Board of Directors of this project, chosen by the larger conferences of repre-
sentative white and colored men at Howard University, during the past winter, con-
sists of the following:
Dr. William Anthony Aery, Director of School of Education, Hampton Institute,
Dr. W. W. Alexander, Director of the Commission on Interracial Cooperation,
Atlanta, Georgia, and President of Dillard University
Professor Benjamin Brawley, Professor of English, Howard University, Washing-
ton, D. C.
Professor Radcliffe Brown, Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago,
Chicago, Illinois. (Formerly Professor of Social Anthropology, University of
Dr. Otelia Cromwell, Professor of English, Miner Teachers College, Washing-
ton, D. C.
Dr. James H. Dillard, Ex-President of the Jeanes and Slater Funds, Charlottesville,
Dr. W. E. B. DuBois, Director of Publications and Research of the National Associa-
tion for the Advancement of Colored People, New York City
President John Hope, Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia
Mr. Eugene Kinckle Jones, Executive Secretary of the National Urban League, New
Professor Charles S. Johnson, Professor of Sociology, Fisk University, Nashville,
Professor James Weldon Johnson, Professor of Creative Literature, Fisk University,
President Mordecai Johnson, Howard University, Washington, D. C.
Dr. Waldo G. Leland, Permanent Secretary of the American Council of Learned
Societies, Washington, D. C.
Professor C. T. Loram, Sterling Professor of Education, Yale University, New Haven,
Connecticut (Formerly member Native Affairs Commission, South Africa)
Principal Robert Russa Moton, Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Alabama
President Florence Read, Spelman College, Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia
Dr. J. E. Spingarn, former Professor of Comparative Literature at Columbia Univer-
sity, now President of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored
People, New York City
Dr. Anson Phelps Stokes, President of Phelps-Stokes Fund, Washington, D. C.
Mr. Monroe N. Work, Director of Research and Records, Tuskegee Institute, Tuske-
This Board is being incorporated in the District of Columbia.
20 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
It is believed that it would be difficult to find a more representative group.
Owing to the financial situation in the country as a whole, and to the Chairman's
forthcoming absence in Africa as Carnegie Visiting Professor at the Universities, it is
probable that the carrying out of this enterprise may have to be postponed for a
couple of years, but such sound foundations have been laid and the project is so im-
portant that it is hoped and believed that it may be carried through ultimately.
It is proposed that the Encyclopedia be under joint Editors, one Negro and one
white, the Negro member serving as Chairman of the Editorial staff, and the Editors
being selected with the approval of an Advisory Board representing learned
societies, institutions of higher learning for the Negro, and other representative
THE FUND'S MAJOR ACTIVITIES DURING THE PAST TEN YEARS
During the second ten year period, the work of greatest significance which the
Fund has conducted has unquestionably been in connection with Africa.
"Education in Africa"
The Fund published in 1922 its first African Report entitled "Education in
Africa, a study of West, South and Equatorial Africa." The Commission which
made this study consisted of Dr. Thomas Jesse Jones, Chairman; the late James E.
K. Aggrey of the Fanti Tribe of the Gold Coast in West Africa; Dr. Henry Stanley
Hollenbeck, a missionary of the American Board in Angola; Mr. and Mrs. Arthur
W. Wilkie, representatives of the Conference of Missionary Societies of Great
Britain and Ireland; Dr. C. T. Loram of the Native Affairs Commission of South
Africa; Dr. Catherine Mabie of the American Baptist Mission in the Belgian Congo;
Mr. Emory Ross of the American Disciples Mission of Belgian Congo; and Mr. L.
A. Roy, Office Secretary of the Phelps-Stokes Fund, who was Secretary of the Com-
mission. The Commission's Report, in addition to chapters on Africa and Educa-
tion, Adaptations of Education, Organization and Supervision, Education of the
Masses and of Native Leadership, and Co6peration for the Education of Africans,
contained definite educational studies of the following colonies and territories
visited by the Commission: Sierre Leone, the Gold Coast, Nigeria, British South
Africa, Angola, Belgian Congo, and Liberia.
Among the important features of the Report may be mentioned the emphasis
on the economic and sociological backgrounds of each area, description of the educa-
tional conditions observed in Government Schools, Roman Catholic and Protestant
Missions, and constructive recommendations for the improvement of education.
These recommendations varied in each area visited, but generally laid emphasis on
strengthening the Department of Public Education, on the development of coipera-
TWENTY YEARS WORK OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
tion between missions and government and between European and Native leaders,
on the improvement of agricultural training and hygiene, on the development of
teacher-training institutions, and on the importance of making all schools com-
munity centers. The publication of this Report was followed by many conferences
between officers of the Fund, governments and missionary societies with the result
that most of the recommendations were adopted at least in principle.
"Education in East Africa"
This Report was published by the Fund in 1925. The Commission which pre-
pared the Report was, as in the case of the first Commission, under the able leader-
ship of Dr. Jones, and again was interdenominational and intergovernmental,
including both British and American, both white and Negro members as follows:
James E. K. Aggrey, M.A. of the first Commission; James H. Dillard, LL.D., President
of the Jeanes and Slater Funds; Homer Leroy Shantz, Ph.D., Agriculturalist and
Botanist of the U. S. Department of Agriculture; Rev. Garfield Williams, O.B.E.,
M.B., B.S., Educational Secretary of the Church Missionary Society; Major Hanns
Vischer, C.M.E., M.A., F.R.G.S., Secretary and member of the British Advisory
Committee on Native Education; C. T. Loram, B.A., LL.B., Ph.D., a member of the
Native Affairs Commission in South Africa; and James W. C. Dougall, M.A., of
Scotland, who acted as Secretary of the Commission. This Commission had the
services of certain of its members contributed by the U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture, the International Education Board (Rockefeller), the Colonial Office, and
various Missionary Societies. The Report was along much the same general lines
as the first Report, stressing particularly the need of a vital education fitted to help
in the daily life of Native people, and urged the necessity of the cooperation of all
groups and of all agencies in advancing their welfare.
Educational Visits by Educators from Africa
Following the study of West, South and Central Africa by the Phelps-Stokes
Commission in 1920-21, educators in Africa expressed a strong desire to observe the
methods and objectives of Negro education in the United States. The Fund
accordingly made appropriations to supplement the expenses of such tours from
Africa to America. Under this arrangement 224 educators have made visits during
the last ten years. These visitors have represented every phase of educational
effort in Africa. They have come from British, French, Belgian and Portuguese
Colonies; from the Union of South Africa and from Liberia and Abyssinia. They
have included visitors of European, American and Native origin. They have been
governmental directors of colonial education and missionary supervisors and
teachers in mission schools. As missionaries have been the pioneers and the chief
workers in the field of Native education, the majority of the visitors have come from
mission schools conducted by Protestant and Roman Catholic Mission Societies of
22 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
Europe and America. Most of these schools, however, receive grants-in-aid from
the Colonial Governments. This is especially true of the British Colonies and the
Union of South Africa. The total sum expended by the Phelps-Stokes Fund in this
way has been almost $40,000.
The purpose of these visits has been to enable representative educators to study
Negro conditions in the United States with a view to learning both from our suc-
cesses and failures about the development of the Negro and his adjustment to
American life. Owing to the dominantly rural conditions in Africa most visitors
have been particularly keen to observe American experience in relating education
to the needs of the ten million Negroes only seventy years removed from slav-
ery, and, especially, to the conditions of people living in rural areas. The visitors
have been greatly interested in the methods of "Farm Demonstration," "Home
Demonstration" and "Health Movements" maintained by the Federal and State
Governments; in the "Jeanes Visiting Teachers" and "County Training Schools"
encouraged by the Jeanes and Slater Funds; in the Rosenwald Rural Schools; in
Hampton, Tuskegee, Penn and Calhoun Schools for the community education of the
people, in Fisk, Atlanta, and Howard Universities for higher education; and in the
schools and colleges maintained by the Home Mission Societies of America for the
full development of Negro Americans.
Unfortunately the limited space of this Report prevents the listing of all the
able and devoted men and women who have come from every part of Africa. The
following list includes representatives of the various groups of visitors of European
and Native origin.
Officers of Colonial Governments:
Sir Gordon Guggisberg, Governor of the Gold Coast
Dr. C. T. Loram, Member of the Native Affairs Commission of South Africa
H. S. Keigwin, Native Development Department of Southern Rhodesia
D. J. McK. Malcolm, Chief Inspector of Native Education in Natal
Monsieur Marcel Jezouin, Director of Education, French Cameroon
Monsieur Gustave G. Sand, Administrator, Belgian Congo
Madame Anna Wicksell, Mandates Commission, League of Nations
Major and Mrs. Hanns Vischer, British Colonial Office
Mr. Rennie Smith, Member of British Parliament
Madame E. Dardenne, Belgian Red Cross
Mr. and Mrs. A. W. Wilkie, Scottish Mission, Gold Coast
Principal James Henderson, Lovedale Institution, South Africa
Principal Alexander Kerr, Fort Hare Native College, South Africa
Father Bernard Huss
Father Emmanuel Hanish Roman Catholic Missionaries, South Africa
Archdeacon W. E. Owen, Church Missionary Society, Kenya Colony
TWENTY YEARS WORK OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
Miss Mabel Shaw, London Missionary Society, Northern Rhodesia
Miss Susie Kachelhoffer Dutch Reformed Church, South Africa
Miss Lily McGregor
Dr. John W. Arthur
Dr. H. R. A. PhulprScottish Mission, Kenya Colony
Dr. H. R. A. Philp J
Rev. and Mrs. H. M. Grace, Church Missionary Society, Uganda
Mr. and Mrs. William Millman, British Baptist Society, Belgian Congo
Officers of Missionary Agencies:
Dr. J. H. Oldham, International Missionary Council, England
Mr. Hubert Peet Mission Journalists, England
Mr. Edward ShillitoJ
Miss Margaret Wrong, African Literature Committee, England
Miss G. A. Gollock International Missionary Review, London
Miss M. M. Underhill
Mr. Edwin Smith, Author: Aggrey of Africa, "The Golden Stool" and other
Rev. and Mrs. J. W. L. Hofmeyr, Dutch Reformed Mission Society, South
Mr. Basil Mathews, Edinburgh House, London
Educators and Students of Africa:
Dr. D. H. Westermann, Institute of African Languages and Culture, Berlin
Dr. G. G. Cellie, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa
Dr. Edgar H. Brookes, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Dr. J. du Plessis, Dutch Reformed Theological Seminary, South Africa
Native African Educators:
Mr. C. A. E. Macaulay, Assistant Director of Education, Sierra Leone
Mr. Ross F. Lohr, Sierra Leone
Mr. Constant Tuboku Metzger, Sierra Leone
Mr. Samuel Tuboku Metzger, Sierra Leone
Mr. Solomon Taylorr, Sierra Leone
Dr. B. W. Payne, Secretary of Education, Republic of Liberia
Principal John L. Dube, Ohlange Native Institute, South Africa
Miss Eva Mahuma, South Africa
Miss Violet S. Makanya, South Africa
Miss Amelia Njongwana, South Africa
Mr. Ernest B. Kalibala, Uganda
One of the most notable impressions made upon all of the visitors from Africa
has been the remarkable advancement and potentiality shown by Negroes in this
country. Many visitors have independently spoken of this impression. Most of
them had supposed prior to arrival in America, that Negroes of large achievement
almost invariably had white blood. When they find that many of the outstanding
American Negroes, both men and women, are as far as is known, of pure African
24 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
blood, they have been quite amazed. It has given them new hope for the future of
the African Negro. General Smuts, who was the guest at a most important con-
ference with representative American Negroes and white people interested in the
Negro, under the auspices of Howard University and the Phelps-Stokes Fund, is
among the visitors who expressed himself, both in public and in private, as especially
impressed by this fact.
In connection with these and similar visits, the Fund has given in New York
several large "African Dinners" attended by representative white and colored men.
The purpose of these dinners has been to increase the interest of American educators
and leaders in missionary activity in the Natives of Africa, and to create a more
friendly understanding between the people of the United States and the people of
the African continent.
Biography of "Aggrey of Africa" and Other Works
This very stimulating biography by Mr. Edwin W. Smith was undertaken at the
request and expense of the Fund. Although Dr. Aggrey's life was more than half
passed in Africa, his work is of almost equal significance for America, where he
received his higher education. As the sub-title states: It is a "Study in Black and
White," and gives in concrete form the philosophy of cooperation which Dr. Aggrey
always preached in Africa and in the United States, and for which the Phelps-
Stokes Fund stands. It has its classic expression in Dr. Aggrey's statement: "You
can play some sort of a tune on the white keys of the piano; you can play some sort
of a tune on the black keys; but to produce real harmony you must play both the
black and the white keys." This work has had a very large sale in England and in
Africa, a somewhat smaller sale in this country.
Similar works published at the request of the Phelps-Stokes Fund have been
three books by Miss G. A. Gollock, the former Associate Editor of the "Inter-
national Review of Missions," who has worked in helpful cooperation with the Fund
for many years. At its request she has published two volumes showing the poten-
tiality of the African Native. These volumes have been published with the titles
"Eminent Africans" and "Sons of Africa." Miss Gollock has also prepared at her
own suggestion, with some help from the Fund, a book on improving health condi-
tions in Africa, entitled "Heroes of Health" and a book on the women of Africa
entitled "Daughters of Africa."
Aiding African Students in the United States
One of the most difficult problems faced by the Phelps-Stokes Fund has been
that of the African student in the United States. In at least three cases out of four
African students who have come to this country in the past have done so without
any adequate understanding of the expenses involved or of the conditions of living
here. They have also generally had no organization directly responsible for them.
TWENTY YEARS WORK OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
They have been almost always earnest young men who have sincerely desired to
secure advanced education that would fit them for service on their return but in a
large percentage of cases they have found it difficult to adjust themselves to condi-
tions here. The problem has become specially serious as these students when in
difficulty almost invariably turn to the Phelps-Stokes Fund not only for advice but
also for financial help. It would have practically nothing left for its own construc-
tive work if it met all of their financial needs. Under these circumstances, the
Phelps-Stokes Fund, after consultation with the various groups concerned, issued
in 1929 a circular entitled "Information for Africans Planning to Study in the
United States of America." This was sent, with the approval of the State Depart-
ment, to the American Consuls in Africa, and to representative educational leaders
and missionaries, in order to secure the right type of African students for advanced
work in America, and to prevent many of the difficulties, both educational and
financial, which have been met in the past. The Officers of the Fund are convinced
that, generally speaking, the students who can profit most from study in the United
States, whether they be Europeans or Africans, are advanced students, preferably
those who have already had teaching experience. It has been the privilege of the
Fund to aid some of these. The circular referred to is reproduced here for the infor-
mation and advice it contains. It is as follows:
In view of the serious misunderstandings and difficult experiences of many African stu-
dents who have come to the United States, and with the purpose of obviating these in the
future, it is suggested that the following items of information and advice should be given to
Africans who are planning to study in America.
(1) That only students of excellent health, certified to by a competent physician, and of
exceptional capacity and strong moral character should come to America to study.
(2) That only students who have taken advantage of the best educational opportunities
of their own country should be encouraged to seek opportunities in America, and then only
with a view to fitting themselves for larger service in Africa.
(3) That a student should realize in advance that the total annual expenses of attending
school in America range from $500 to $1,000 annually, i.e. from 100 to 200. At the Negro
schools in the Southern States it would approximate the former figure; at the Universities
of the North it would at least equal the latter figure and sometimes exceed it.
(4) That before sailing for America a student should have definite and reliable assurance
of sufficient funds to pay his travelling and school expenses. The former (2nd and 3rd class
to England and 3rd to the U. S.) will approximate 60 each way.
(5) That the opportunities to earn money to pay expenses are quite limited and avail-
able scholarships very few. The Immigration Laws applying to students do not permit, under
ordinary circumstances, students accepting regular remunerative work during term time.
As a result many foreign students, including Africans, without adequate home help, fre-
quently have a difficult time.
(6) That a student should obtain the advice of some missionary or government teacher in
his own country who has visited America, before negotiations or correspondence with Ameri-
can educational institutions are begun.
..- .... .: ....
'.. ...... ...
26 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
(7) That definite arrangements should be made in advance with an American School or
College as to the acceptance of a student, and a formal document under seal of the institi-
tion certifying to such acceptance should be secured. This is necessary under the Immigra-
tion Laws. Without such certificate in due form a foreign student may be deported and is
sure to be subjected to embarrassing delays at the Immigration Station at Ellis Island in
New York Harbor. The letter to the school should state exactly what courses a student has
already completed, and should be accompanied by recommendations:
(a) from a European or American missionary, preferably one engaged in education.
(b) from a government official, preferably in the educational service.
(8) That a passport visa secured from an American Consul in a foreign country is essen-
tial. When possible this should be obtained before leaving Africa. The applicant should
state that he wishes to enter as a student.
(9) That a thoroughly good knowledge of spoken and written English is essential for
effective use of educational opportunities in America. This should be obtained in Africa,
being supplemented when necessary in England.
(10) That a student should read in advance books dealing with the subject of Negro
education and conditions in the United States. Among the recent surveys and studies by
British visitors are "Negro Schools in the Southern States" by Dr. Lance G. E. Jones and
published by the Oxford University Press, and "Aggrey of Africa" by Mr. Edwin W. Smith,
published by the Student Christian Movement, London, and dealing with the education and
work of a noted African both in his own country and in the United States. A school will
generally send a "Circular of Information" or "Annual Catalogue" on request without
(11) That a student should whenever possible carry with him letters of general recom-
mendation, as well as introductions to responsible persons who will be genuinely interested
in his welfare.
(12) That on arrival in New York a student should report to the office of the Mission
Board or educational agency under whose auspices he is coming to America. When a student
comes independently and is without other friends he may call for advice at the Institute of
International Education, 2 West 45th Street, or at the office of the Phelps-Stokes Fund, 101
Park Avenue. These agencies and the Boards are not generally in a position to give any
financial help, but they will do all in their power otherwise to help duly recommended African
students who have complied with the above suggestions.
Aiding Special Movements in the Interest of the Natives
The Phelps-Stokes Fund does not have adequate resources to give much in the
way of financial help to individual institutions in Africa. It has, however, been
interested in aiding certain movements in behalf of Native education, especially
those which have had to do with bringing the government, the missionaries, and the
Natives together in planning work to improve Native conditions. With this object
in mind it was glad to cooperate in financing the important "Conference on the
Christian Mission in Africa" held in Le Zoute, Belgium, in 1926. It has been espe-
cially interested in helping to establish the "Joint Councils" of whites and Natives in
South Africa-corresponding to our American Interracial Committees-in aiding
.... .' -. .
\. :. .*:.:*..
** *:" .. e
"* ... "". ... "..': '"' "
ee *o e
TWENTY YEARS WORK OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
the Jeanes Teacher movement and the highly important work of Mr. Max Yergan,
a Negro American, who is doing so much through the Christian Association to
bridge the gap between the educated white man and the educated Native in South
Africa. It has also taken especial pleasure in establishing at the University of Cape
Town a Lectureship on the following conditions:
(1) That a lectureship on Interracial Problems be specially endowed, the fund to be
administered by the University.
(2) That the lectureship be entitled "Phelps-Stokes Lectureship on Interracial Prob-
lems and matters related thereto."
(3) That the lectures be given every two or three years and published in book form
by the University.
(4) That the lecturer be given a suitable honorarium and a half share of any profit
from the sales of the book (the other half being credited to the lectureship
(5) That a capital sum of at least 2250 be raised by the University towards which the
Phelps-Stokes Fund will contribute 1000.
(6) That a committee of nine members, with power to co-opt, be appointed for the
purpose of nominating lecturers, the committee to consist of (a) the President
and two other representatives of the University and (b) the Minister of Native
Affairs (or a representative appointed by him), a representative of the Phelps-
Stokes Fund, a representative of the Government of Southern Rhodesia, the
President of the S. A. Missionary Conference, Agent-General for the Govern-
ment of India in South Africa, and a representative appointed by the Native
One of the significant services of the Fund to Africa is the use of its office in New
York as a place of work and counsel by returned missionaries, African visitors and
the officers of various missionary and colonization societies. There is scarcely a day
in the office without visitors from Africa or representatives of societies interested in
Africa. Such visitors always find sympathetic advice and help from Dr. Jones,
Mr. Roy and the Office Staff.
Education in Liberia
The Phelps-Stokes Fund Office has been a center of activity for various projects
in the interest of Liberia. The officers realize that this is one of the most difficult
matters which faces any one interested in the Negro in any part of the world. It
must be frankly recognized that Liberia and its government have not yet realized
the expectations of its friends. Pending the improvement of governmental condi-
tions it is not possible to carry out an effective program of education. Under these
conditions the Board has directed its attention mainly to four objects:
(1) The development of intelligent cooperation among various agencies interested in
Liberia both in Liberia and in the United States.
28 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
(2) Coiperation with Missionary and Colonization Societies in maintaining in Liberia
an Educational Adviser-whose efforts have been directed to the improvement of educa-
tional ideals, methods and the school system.
(3) The development of an educational institution at Kakata built on the principles of
Tuskegee Institute and directed mainly to meeting the needs of the indigenous interior
people-a virile stock full of promise.
(4) The founding of the first public library in Liberia, and the aiding of some other
The interest of the Phelps-Stokes Fund in Liberia may be historically traced to
the sewing of the first National Flag of Liberia in the home of Mr. James Stokes,
the Father of Miss Caroline Phelps Stokes whose will created the Phelps-Stokes
Fund. From time to time the Stokes Family made gifts for educational and reli-
gious activities in Liberia, notably an appropriation to found the Stokes Bible.
The Phelps-Stokes Educational Commission visited Liberia in 1920 and included
a chapter of observations and recommendations in the volume on West and South
Africa published in 1922. In accordance with the recommendations of this Report,
ably seconded by Dr. Thomas S. Donohugh of the Methodist Foreign Mission
Society, an Advisory Committee on Education in Liberia was organized in 1923.
This Committee is composed of the representatives of the three Colonization Socie-
ties, the Missionary Boards maintaining work in Liberia, and the Phelps-Stokes
Fund. Each organization contributes annually to the support of the Committee
program and the American headquarters are in the offices of the Phelps-Stokes
In 1925 Mr. James L. Sibley was appointed Educational Adviser by the Com-
mittee. Mr. Sibley proceeded to Liberia in the autumn of 1925 and immediately
put to good use the extensive educational experience which he had acquired in the
Philippine Islands and in Negro education in the Southern States. While he was
on leave in America during 1926-27 the Phelps-Stokes Fund assisted him finan-
cially to organize a Conference on Liberia at Hampton Institute and provided
office facilities for his numerous activities. In the summer of 1927 the Chairman
arranged for Dr. Moton, Bishop Clair and Mr. Sibley to meet with him in Washing-
ton to prepare plans for the organization of a Liberian school modelled after Tuske-
gee Institute. These plans were submitted to Miss Olivia Phelps Stokes and to the
Methodist Foreign Mission Board as the basis of an appeal for financial aid. As
Miss Stokes had long been interested in such an institution and had agreed to
cooperate with Dr. Booker T. Washington in the project, she promised $25,000 on
condition that the Methodist Foreign Mission Board would grant the equivalent of
From these beginnings the Booker Washington Agricultural and Industrial
Institute was developed. The Liberian Government granted a Charter to the
Institution in 1928 and also promised one thousand acres of land and $5,000
TWENTY YEARS WORK OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
annually for ten years. In her will Miss Stokes left $50,000 to Dr. Stokes and Dr.
Moton in trust for education in Liberia. The interest on this fund is being used
to supplement the $25,000 already granted by Miss Stokes for the Washington
Institute. Miss Helen Phelps Stokes later assigned to the Phelps-Stokes Fund
$12,500 in trust for the Washington Institute. This amount had been granted to
Miss Helen Phelps Stokes in her Aunt's will for charitable purposes. These gifts,
with the generous financial cooperation of the Methodist Board, made it possible
for Mr. Sibley to proceed with the organization of the Washington Institute.
On March 17, 1929 the Institute was founded and dedicated at Kakata, a
village forty-five miles inland from Monrovia. With the help of Mr. R. R. Taylor,
Vice-Principal of Tuskegee Institute, who had gone to Liberia to advise Mr. Sibley
as to the construction and program, the building plans were formulated and the
institution was definitely launched. The founding of the Booker Washington
Agricultural and Industrial Institute was the last important contribution made by
Mr. James L. Sibley to Liberia. On June 28, 1929 he died from yellow fever. On
his deathbed he directed that $5,000 of his estate should be given to the Phelps-
Stokes Fund in trust for the Institute. In 1931 the Board of Trustees of the Booker
Washington Agricultural and Industrial Institute in Liberia was incorporated under
the laws of the State of New York, and the Board held its first meeting November
18, 1931. The officers and members of the Board of Trustees are:
Mr. Henry L. West, President; American Colonization Society of Washington, D. C.
Dr. Thomas S. Donohugh, Vice-President; Board of Foreign Missions of the Metho-
dist Episcopal Church in U. S. A.
Dr. R. R. Moton, Vice-President; Tuskegee Institute
Dr. Anson Phelps Stokes, Vice-President; Phelps-Stokes Fund
Dr. Thomas Jesse Jones, Secretary; Phelps-Stokes Fund
Rev. A. B. Parson, Treasurer; Board of Foreign Missions of the Protestant Episcopal
Church in U. S. A.
Mr. Jackson Davis; New York State Colonization Society
Dr. J. E. East; Board of Foreign Missions of the National Baptist Convention
Mr. Harvey S. Firestone, Jr.; Firestone Plantations Company
Mr. George G. Wolkins; Trustees of Donations for Education in Liberia
Assisting Various Important Educational Projects
The services of Dr. Jones, the Educational Director of the Fund, have been in
great demand for educational surveys in various parts of the world. The Fund has
been asked to conduct such surveys, or to cooperate in them, in the Near East, India,
Haiti, the Virgin Islands, Mexico, the Philippines, and other places. Under its
charter, however, it has been determined by legal counsel that it must restrict
its activities to the United States and Africa. It did, however, loan Dr. Jones to
the Near East Foundation for an important survey of educational needs and condi-
30 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
tions in that section, the results being published in 1929 in a report entitled "The
Near East and American Philanthropy."
SOME GENERAL CONCLUSIONS
In surveying the developments affecting the Negro in the United States and in
Africa during the past twenty years, and the part, necessarily small although signifi-
cant, which the Phelps-Stokes Fund has been able to play in these developments,
certain facts stand out which are applicable to both regions, although it mustbe
recognized that the Negro American is several generations ahead of his distant
African cousin, having reached in considerable numbers the ideals and standards
characteristic of the best of the white group.
(a) The American Negro and the civilized African Native have been passing
during this period through a transformation hardly paralleled in history. It has
carried with it enormous advances in education and improvement in economic and
living conditions. With these have come inevitably certain extremely difficult
problems of readjustment.
(b) The drawing of the American Negro and of the civilized African Native in
constantly increasing numbers from rural regions to urban centers has resulted in
some new opportunities, especially in the field of education and economic status,
and at the same time, in certain very grave dangers, especially of a moral character.
(c) The most encouraging single factor in race relations during the period has
been the formation of interracial groups for study and action in various localities.
These have brought some of the highly educated white group in contact with the
highly educated Negro group to the advantage of both. As a result we have seen
the beginning of constructive planning on many important problems affecting
(d) The greatest improvement noticeable in the period in race relations has
been in the southern section of the United States, where a group of younger white
men born since slavery and with the best background of family and education are
entering in increasing numbers into the movement to cooperate with the best
Negro group in improving conditions.
(e) The progress in the field of education has been almost everywhere remark-
able. The period has seen the rapid improvement throughout the United States
and in most parts of Africa, of educational facilities for the masses of Negroes.
This education based largely on the experience of Hampton, Tuskegee and Penn
School has been increasingly related to the actual needs of daily living in relation to
family and community life. At the same time there have been emerging worthy
institutions of higher learning to train the necessary leaders for the Negro people.
Twenty years ago there was nothing even approaching a university specially
designed for colored youth. Today in the United States we have Howard, Fisk,
and Atlanta, with Dillard as a promising fourth. In Africa we have Fourah Bay
TWENTY YEARS WORK OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
College in Sierra Leone and Fort Hare College in South Africa; also Lovedale Insti-
tution in South Africa, Achimota in the Gold Coast and several other effective
institutions of secondary and junior college grade.
(f) The awakening interest in recent years of the educated Negro both in the
United States and in Africa in his cultural background is a matter for real rejoicing.
The socialization of tribal life at its best, Negro art, the "spirituals," the traditions
of worthy leaders in the past-these all deserve the attention they are increasingly
receiving. Racial pride, when it does not carry with it unfair attitudes towards
other races, is always to be encouraged.
(g) The most significant single transformation of twenty years in public opinion
is that no man can now command any thoughtful hearing who tries to draw a
barrier to progress and say "thus far and no further" as far as Negro potentiality is
concerned. That potentiality has been proved beyond question. Given the right
educational opportunity and the right environment the individual Negro of talent
has proven himself capable of high achievement in every field of effort, whether it
be art, or literature, or education, or religion, or medicine, or science.
(h) The question of civil rights of the black population is increasingly to the
fore and will not down. It is realized that just as Abraham Lincoln was right in
stating that this nation could not endure "half slave and half free," so those are right
who maintain that this nation and every other democratic nation that wishes to
survive must make its tests of citizenship objective and applicable to all who can
meet them, irrespective of religion or race. There should be no disfranchisement
or abrogation of other civic rights based on a man's birth alone.
In bringing this report to a close, I wish to express special appreciation of the
highly intelligent and constructive leadership which the Fund has had during most
of its history from Dr. Thomas Jesse Jones, its Educational Director, and of the
very loyal and effective cooperation of Mr. L. A. Roy, its Office Secretary. While
some educators do not agree with Dr. Jones' emphasis on the economic and social
elements of education, no one who knows him can fail to appreciate the important
service he has rendered to education in America, Africa, and other parts of the
world. Dr. C. T. Loram in South Africa, now Sterling Professor of Education
at Yale, and Mr. J. H. Oldham, Editor of The Missionary Review of the World,
have also been most constructive in their work for the Fund in Africa and Europe
respectively. They have also made important contributions to this Report. The
Board can never feel too grateful to the late Dr. Aggrey, who for so many years
was also its representative in Africa. His work and his ideals will long be an inspi-
ration to us, especially his insistence on the importance of cooperation between
black and white people. Miss Gollock in London and Monsieur Anet in Belgium
have also been valued collaborators. Indeed I feel that in providing the office staff
in New York and in securing the active cooperation of its "representatives" in Europe
and Africa, the Phelps-Stokes Fund is rendering one of its most important services.
TRENDS IN NEGRO EDUCATION (1915-1930)
DR. THOMAS JESSE JONES
"The increase in Negro education by all measurements has been a little less
than marvelous." This emphatic observation by Dr. DuBois, keen critic and
ardent champion of Negro rights, is a very significant evaluation of the changes
in Negro education during the last twenty years. These changes are not only
increases but also decided improvements in the equipment, methods, standards
and general effectiveness. School buildings have been improved and school terms
have been extended. The salaries are higher and the general budgets are larger.
The teachers are better qualified and the curriculum is more nearly that of the
standard of the white schools. Most important of all there is a substantial
strengthening of private and public interest in the educational advancement of
Notwithstanding all this progress Negro education is decidedly behind white
education in almost every respect. The most depressing fact is that almost
1,000,000 Negro children of school age are still out of school. In view of the extent
of poverty, ill-health and ignorance yet prevailing among the Negro tenth of Ameri-
can population, it is most lamentable that more than one-fourth of the children
of school age should not have the benefit of even the simplest forms of education.
Though the salaries of Negro teachers have been approximately trebled during the
last fifteen years, they are still only about one third of the salaries paid to white
teachers. Fifteen years ago the per capital expenditures for Negro education
approximated about 20 per cent of that expended on white education. Though
the total expenditures on both white and Negro education have greatly increased,
the per capital costs of Negro education are still only about 25 per cent of those
for white education.
The extraordinary expansion in secondary and higher education is most grati-
fying. The number of secondary pupils has increased from about 25,000 in 1916
to more than 100,000 in four year high schools, and to probably 200,000 if schools
of less than four year courses are included. College and professional students
have increased from about 2,200 in 1916 to about 25,000 in 1930. As an indication
of trends these figures are very significant, but as a measure of needs it is necessary
to note that for every 10,000 of the Negro population there were only 17 Negro
TRENDS IN NEGRO EDUCATION
college students, whereas for every 10,000 of the white population there were 92
college students. It must also be noted that despite the remarkable progress in
secondary and higher education the increases in elementary school attendance
have barely kept up with the increases in Negro population.
The general movement of Negro education as regards standards, methods and
objectives is now decidedly in the direction of that prevailing in white education.
This is natural and inevitable. The Negro tenth of the population must almost of
necessity determine its modes and measures by those of the white nine-tenths. The
ever extending influence of teachers colleges and the increasing control by Govern-
ment Departments of Education are insisting more and more on standards and
methods of teaching, not only for the white schools, but also for the Negro schools.
Thus the Negro schools are sharing both the achievements and the limitations of
educational trends in America. Though it is inevitable and probably best on the
long view that Negro education shall share the trends of white education, students
of education cannot be indifferent to the persistent inquiry as to "what the school
is for?" Both the methods and objectives of education for all people are now sub-
jects of considerable doubt. With full appreciation of the services of all education,
there is a strengthening conviction that school activities for white and colored
are not effectively related to the problems of life-economic, social and cultural.
So long as Negro education was more or less segregated from that of white educa-
tion there were possibilities of both serious errors and distinguished achievements.
At present it would appear that, for good or for ill, changes in Negro education
can as a rule be brought about only as they are realized in white education.
In this evaluation of trends in Negro education it is interesting to note some of
the influences and conditions which have brought about the changes. The first
fact to be noted is that increases in Negro education have been a part of the general
wave, indeed of the tidal wave, of education throughout America. Negro educa-
tion on its lower levels has kept moving onwards and upwards, but always in the
same general direction as that of white education. The second factor bringing
about this onward movement has been the determination of the Negro people to
acquire an education. Out of their poverty they have given with impressive
liberality. A third factor has been the ever enlarging expenditures of State and
Federal Governments. Even though Negro schools have not received their pro-
portionate share of funds, the expenditures have gradually but certainly increased.
Still another factor almost of prime importance in initial efforts has been the expendi-
tures of philanthropic foundations and agencies. The largest of these and the most
diverse in its influence is the General Education Board and associated Rockefeller
funds. The influence of this Board cannot be adequately described within the
limitations of this statement. The Jeanes and Slater Funds and especially the
statesmanship of their Director James H. Dillard have stimulated changes of
34 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
profound significance both in Negro education and interracial relationships.
Possibly the most available measurement of the cooperative value of wisely adminis-
tered philanthropy is that of the Julius Rosenwald Fund in the construction of
5,295 Negro rural schools in the period between 1913 and July 1, 1931. The
cooperative significance of this undertaking is indicated by the fact that the Rosen-
wald Fund contributed $4,273,927, the whites $1,179,229, the Negroes $4,683,012
and the State and County Governments $17,511,663. Thus a total of $27,647,831
was raised through the cooperative activities of Negroes, whites and Governments,
all stimulated by the $4,273,927 given by the Rosenwald Fund. These philan-
thropic contributions to Negro education are an impressive illustration of inter-
racial cooperation. Thus religious missions, philanthropic foundations and thou-
sands of white and colored citizens have combined with Federal, State, County and
City Governments for the advancement of the Negro people of America.
The overwhelming importance of the elementary schools in Negro education
is indicated by the fact that they provide education for approximately 2,200,000
children in the eighteen Southern States. At the maximum enrolment the high
schools have only 200,000 and the colleges and professional schools approximately
25,000. The elemental welfareof the Negro people obviously largely depends upon
the condition and progress of the lower schools. Elementary school attendance
of the Negro children is probably the most searching test of Negro education.
According to available statistics it appears that of 3,200,000 Negro children of
school age (5 to 17 years) in the Southern States, only 70 per cent or approximately
2,200,000 are attending school. The proportion of school attendance has increased
but slightly during the last ten years, and has hardly kept up with the increase of
the population. In contrast with the 3S per cent of white children out of school,
25 per cent of Negro children presents an educational responsibility of first magni-
tude. This serious condition is reflected in the condition of school buildings,
length of school terms, and the training and salaries of teachers.
The most definite measure of the inadequacy of Negro education in the Southern
States is in a comparison of expenditures for white and Negro schools. The current
expenditures (McCuistion, Financing Schools in the South, 1930) in the fourteen
Southern States for 1929-30 are reported to be $216,718,000 for whites and
$23,462,000 for Negroes. This is an average per pupil enrolled of $44.31 for each
white pupil enrolled and $12.57 for each Negro pupil. As an indication of the
trends during the last twenty years the following table, prepared by Dr. T. J.
Woofter, Jr. of the University of North Carolina, presents the per capital amounts
expended per child from 6 to 14 years of age for teachers' salaries in white and
Negro public schools:
TRENDS IN NEGRO EDUCATION
1911-12 9.41 1.78
Alabama .................................. 1921-22 22.43 4.31
1927-28 28.70 6.31
1910-11 11.50 2.64
Florida ................................. 1922-23 37.88 6.27
1927-28 31.89 13.05
1911-12 9.58 1.76
Georgia...................................... 1921-22 23.68 5.54
1927-28 27.41 5.80
1911-12 5.27 2.02
North Carolina ............................ 1921-22 26.74 10.03
1927-28 31.89 13.05
1911-12 10.00 1.44
South Carolina ............................. 1921-22 30.28 3.63
1927-28 42.03 6.57
1911-12, 9.64 2.74
Virginia ................................... 1921-22 28.65 9.07
1927-28 31.12 12.82
1911-12 10.57 2.06
Average ................................... 1921-22 26.90. 6.37
1927-28 33.13 8.86
The teachers salaries as reported by the State Superintendents and the United
States Census Returns for children of school age are used as the basis of this compu-
tation because they are the most definite available indication of school population
and school expenditures. The more significant deductions from this table may be
summarized as follows:
1. That the increases for both white and Negro education during the last
twenty years are impressively large. The average per capital for whites increased
from $10.57 in 1911-12 to $33.13 in 1927-28; for Negroes from $2.06 in 1911-12 to
$8.86 in 1927-28. The average annual salary for North Carolina has increased for
whites from $197 in 1912 to $1,046 in 1930; for Negroes from $119 in 1912 to $465
in 1930. In South Carolina the annual average salary for whites was in 1912
$333 and in 1930 $1,047; for Negroes $111 in 1912 and $316 in 1930. In Virginia
for whites $322 in 1912 and $795 in 1930; and for Negroes $173 in 1912 and $434
36 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
2. While the increases in per capital expenditures for white and colored have
been large, the divergences between these salaries have changed but slightly. In
1912 the per capital expenditures for Negroes were about 20 per cent of those for
the white youth, whereas in 1927-28 they were about 25 per cent. In other words
the annual salaries for Negro teachers in 1928 were about the same as those of white
teachers in 1912.
Such divergences in expenditures appear in every provision for Negro educa-
tion. The value1 of the 24,100 school buildings is about $57,143,000. Of this
amount $25,342,000 or 44 per cent is in 5,000 Rosenwald rural schools. Eliminat-
ing the value of the Rosenwald schools from the total sum there remains only
about $31,800,000 as the value of 19,110 schools, or approximately $1,660 a build-
ing. Estimating the average value of the 1,585 urban schools at $5,000 each, the
total is $7,925,000. Eliminating the value of both the urban and Rosenwald
schools the average value of the 17,500 rural schools would be approximately
$1,360. Obviously the large majority of Negro rural schools are very inadequate
structures. Studies of school buildings in many of the Southern Counties indicate
that conditions are far worse than those reflected by the above averages. A recent
study2 of about 570 schools in typical Southern Counties showed that almost two-
thirds of them were unsatisfactory even in such simple necessities as heating,
lighting, seating, blackboards and general repair.
Possibly the most striking improvement in the elementary education of the
colored people is in the training of teachers. In 1915 the available statistics
indicated that about 70 per cent of the Negro teachers had less than six elementary
grades of education. In his study of the "South's Teaching Force" Mr. McCuistion
presents the following analysis of the preparation of Negro teachers in 1930:
1. That 18,130 teachers or 38 per cent had less than high school training.
2. That 9,431 teachers or 20 per cent had more than high school training but
less than two years college.
3. That 15,443 teachers had two years college or the equivalent.
4. That 4,422 had the B.S. Degree or the equivalent.
These facts are very impressive evidence of the substantial progress that has
been made during the last twenty years. However, a special test3 recently made of
about 300 Alabama teachers, over 80 per cent of whom were reported to have had
more than high school education, showed an ability in reading and arithmetic
equal only to that expected of eighth grade pupils. It seems probable that irregu-
larity and carelessness in the grading of Negro teachers partly accounts for the very
favorable figures of progress presented above. With full allowance for the actual
progress made, it must be noted that more than half of the elementary school teach-
1 McCuistion, "The South's Negro Teaching Force."
2 Clark Foreman, Rosenwald Study of Negro Elementary Schools.
SClark Foreman, Rosenwald Study of Negro Elementary Schools.
TRENDS IN NEGRO EDUCATION
ers have less training than the minimum now required by most of the Departments
of Education in the Southern States.
Another measure of school facilities is the length of school terms. Negro
education has been drastically limited by the few school days in each session.
According to a recent bulletin of the Federal Office of Education, the length of the
school sessions in sixteen Southern States is as follows:
1. In 1920 the sessions of the white schools were 145 days, whereas those of the
Negro were 120 days.
2. In 1928 the white schools were 161 days and the Negro schools were 131 days.
3. In 1920 the white session in South Carolina was 139 days and the Negro 84
days. In 1928 the white session was 169 days and the Negro 116 days. In 1920
the white schools in North Carolina had 137 days and the Negro schools 127 days.
In 1928 the white schools had 154 days and the Negro 138. Thus it appears that
the Negro school session in 1928 advanced to that of the white school session in
1920, but that it is still about a month less than the present white standard.
The following description4 of a typical rural Negro teacher and her school
vividly summarizes the present conditions of Negro elementary education:
"From facts and estimates given later in this study it appears that the typical rural
Negro teacher of the South is a woman of rural heritage about 27 years of age. She has
completed high school and had ten weeks in summer schools. She teaches 47 children
through six grades for a term of six months, remaining about two years in the same school.
Her annual salary is $360, or $1 a day, and she teaches for about five years."
The condition thus described is obviously a substantial improvement over that of
twenty years or even ten years ago. The trends are all hopeful, but the fact remains
that elementary schools for Negro children in the Southern States are still far
below the standards of elementary education in the United States. Through the
cotiperation of the State and Federal Governments with such philanthropic agencies
as the General Education Board, the Jeanes Fund, the Julius Rosenwald Fund
and Church Schools, there is every reason to believe that the elementary education
of the Negro people in the Southern States will continue to advance until normal
standards are attained.
The very rapid advance of provisions for the secondary education of the Negroes
in the Southern States is very difficult to measure. In 19155 there were about
70 public high schools of which 45 offered four year courses. These schools had a
total attendance of about 30,000, of whom only 9,000 were of high school grade.
The number of teachers for both elementary and secondary pupils was about 485.
In addition there were about 200 schools enrolling a few pupils above the
4 McCuistion, "The South's Negro Teaching Force."
6 Negro Education, Bureau of Education, Bulletin, 1916, Number 88.
38 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
elementary grades. There were also 216 private schools maintaining secondary
classes, of which 106 offered four year courses. The total number of colored second-
ary pupils in the Southern States was approximately 25,000, of whom 12,000 were
in private schools, 9,000 in public high schools and 4,000 in state and Federal
institutions. At that time in proportion to population there were ten times as
many white pupils in public high schools as colored pupils. The inclusion of the
private school attendance for both races changes the ratio so that the proportion of
white secondary pupils was five times that of the colored pupils.
According to the Negro Year Book for 1931-32 there are about 1,000 public
high schools for Negroes in the Southern States. In addition there are about 160
private high schools and academies with a total enrolment of about 33,000, of whom
11,000 are in high school classes. The estimated enrolment of Negro pupils of
secondary grade in all types of schools is probably about 200,000. Unfortunately
it is not possible to give an accurate evaluation of secondary instruction offered in
these schools of varying grades and standards. It is important to note that the
1,000 high schools reported by the Negro Year Book include both city and county
schools, the latter commonly designated as County Training Schools-the schools
for which the Slater Fund has done so much, and also that no differentiation has
been made between high schools of junior and senior grade. Some idea of the extent
and quality of secondary education may be obtained from statistics presented by
the U. S. Office of Education for 508 high schools reporting in 1927-28. Of these
schools 272 reported fourth year classes with a total of 7,100 graduates, of whom
2,360 were boys and 4,740 were girls. In the 508 schools there were 3,285 teachers,
of whom 1,846 were in regular high schools, 76 in senior high schools, 987 in junior-
senior high schools, and 376 in junior high schools. The Federal Office also reported
almost 95,000 pupils in the four year high schools of the eighteen Southern States.
These schools had a total of about 4,000 teachers, of whom 2,300 were women.
The public high schools including both senior and junior were reported to have
165,000 of whom 103,000 were girls. The private high schools reported in the same
bulletin had an enrolment of about 10,000 pupils. The total number of secondary
teachers in the Negro high schools of the eighteen Southern States according to
Federal statistics were reported to be about 5,000, of whom over 4,000 were in
public high schools and about 700 in private schools.
Comparing these rather unsatisfactory statistics for both 1915 and 1930 the
extent of progress may be approximated as follows:
1. That the number of Negro high schools of all types and grades in the Southern
States has increased from less than 100 in 1915 to about 1,000 in 1930.
2. That the pupil enrolment has increased from about 25,000 in 1915 to more
than 200,000 in 1930.
3. That the increases along all lines have been almost exclusively in public
high school facilities. The number of secondary pupils in private schools seems
to have decreased from about 15,000 in 1915 to about 10,000 in 1930, whereas the
TRENDS IN NEGRO EDUCATION
number of secondary pupils in public high schools has increased from less than
10,000 to more than 175,000.
4. That the actual increase and improvement in secondary education for
Negroes in the Southern States are somewhat exaggerated by the available statis-
tics presented above. It is especially important to note that despite the remarkable
advancement less than 5 per cent of the Negro school enrolment in the Southern
States is of high school grade, whereas the percentage of white secondary pupils is
about 15 per cent. In view of the importance of secondary education in the training
of teachers and in the general community development of the Negro pupil, it is
most important that every effort should be made to continue the remarkable
progress of the last fifteen years.
The impressive advance of facilities for the college education of the Negroes in
the Southern States is in many respects quite similar to that of secondary education.
The striking difference is in the fact that the advance in college facilities is more
largely due to philanthropy and private initiative than in the case of secondary
education. The best available comparisons are presented in reports of the U. S.
Office of Education made in 1916 and 1928. The following table presents the more
significant figures from these two reports:
Number of institutions offering college work.................... 31 77
College enrolment ................................. ......... 2,132 13,860
Annual income. ............ ............ ................. $2,283,000 $8,560,000
Productive endowment ..................................... 7,225,000 20,713,000
Value of plants............. .......................... 15,720,000 38,680,000
The enrolment of Negro students in colleges is variously reported for 1930. All
figures agree that the total number is more than 20,000. The Federal Office of
Education reports in 1928 a total of 19,639 college students in higher schools for
Negroes in the South and border states. Of this number 10,658 are women and
8,981 are men. Estimates for 1930 place the total enrolment of Negro college stu-
dents at 25,000. Of these 16,500 are in the Southern States, 5,000 are in the Negro
colleges of the border states and over 3,500 in white institutions of the North and
West. All these figures reflect the extraordinary extension of facilities for the col-
lege education of the Negro youth. The Negro college enrolment of less than 2,500
in 1915 has increased to approximately 25,000 in 1930. The annual income of the
colleges was $2,250,000 in 1915 and $8,500,000 in 1926. The value of physical
plants was $15,720,000 in 1915 and $38,750,000 in 1926. Productive endowment
was $7,225,000 in 1915 and $20,713,000 in 1926. Financial statistics for 1930 would
doubtless indicate a still further increase in the financial resources. These amazing
40 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
increases in financial resources, equipment and especially in college student enrol-
ment are most reassuring evidence of a genuine appreciation of the college education
of the Negroes. They reflect not only the determination of the Negroes themselves
to secure a college education, but also the increasing interest of both Government
and philanthropy to aid the Negroes in this laudable desire. With full apprecia-
tion of these significant trends and achievements it is important to submit the
following quotation from the Survey of Negro Colleges and Universities made in
1928 by the Federal Office of Education: "For every 10,000 whites in the seventeen
Southern States and District of Columbia there were 92 white students attending
colleges and for every 10,000 Negroes there were 17 students attending college."
Thus it appears that even with the extraordinary progress already made, facilities
for the college education of the Negroes are far behind those for the white youth
RURAL EXTENSION AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
Probably the most unique educational trend of the last twenty years is the devel-
opment of rural extension services and vocational training for both white and
colored people. The early origins of the movements are related to the Federal
Land Grant Acts of 1862 which made possible the organization of the Agricultural
and Mechanical Colleges throughout the United States and special institutions for
Negroes in the Southern States. For many years the Negro institutions were little
more than high schools supplementing the very inadequate public school systems
of the South. In recent years these colleges have made remarkable improvements
in the quality of their work and especially in their special responsibility for agri-
cultural and industrial training.
The effective advocacy and demonstration of rural service and vocational edu-
cation was begun by Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute about 1870 and
continued to the present time. This influence was deepened and extended by Dr.
Booker T. Washington who founded Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute
in 1881. From these early beginnings there developed during the decade 1900-10
a series of educational conferences and cooperative movements in the South under
the leadership of such personalities as Dr. H. B. Frissell of Hampton Institute,
Dr. Wallace Buttrick of the Rockefeller General Education Board, Robert C. Ogden
of the Southern Education Board, George Foster Peabody of Georgia and New
York, Dr. Walter Page of North Carolina and Dr. Seaman A. Knapp. founder of
the rural demonstration method.
The national activities, now known as "farm demonstration," "home demon-
stration" and "vocational education" are largely traceable to the personalities and
movements above mentioned. Their chief interest was in the development of the
South and especially in constructive relationship of white and colored peoples of
that section. From 1905 to 1914 the financial support for these varied forms of
rural service and industrial training was given mainly by the General Education
TRENDS IN NEGRO EDUCATION
Board. When the value of the work was thoroughly demonstrated, the United
States Congress passed several Acts providing appropriations for financial codpera-
tion with State Governments desiring to establish activities for rural extension and
vocational education. The more important of these Acts are summarized herewith:
1. "The Smith-Lever Appropriation for Agricultural Extension," passed in
1913. According to this Act each state receives grants from the Federal Govern-
ment on the following conditions:
(a) That the appropriation shall be equalled by contributions from state,
local government or private sources.
(b) That the amount shall be in the proportion which the rural population of
the state bears to the rural population of all states.
2. "Smith-Hughes Appropriation for Vocational Education," passed in 1917.
According to this Act the Federal Government grants appropriations on the follow-
(a) That the Federal appropriation shall be equalled by appropriations from
state or local community.
(b) For agricultural education the sum given shall be in the proportion which
the state's rural population bears to the total rural population.
(c) For the salaries of teachers of trades, home economics and industries the
sum given shall be in the proportion which the state's urban population bears to
the total urban population.
(d) For teacher training the sum shall be in the proportion which the State's
population bears to the total population of the nation.
Obviously it is exceedingly important to ascertain the influence of these extra-
ordinary Acts of Federal and State Governments on the trends of Negro education
during the last fifteen years. In the brief compass of this article only a few of the
more significant facts can be mentioned. Fortunately a recent study6 by Walter
B. Hill of the General Education Board presents an accurate statement of the
Negro personnel now employed in the Southern States under the provisions of the
Federal Acts in cooperation with state and local governments.
Farm Extension Work
Farm demonstration in the South began in 1904. The first Negro farm agent
was appointed in 1905, and the first Negro women in home demonstration was
employed in 1912. When the Smith-Lever Act began to function in 1914 there
were about 100 Negro men and women working as farm and home demonstrators
in eleven Southern States. Their financial support was largely from philanthropic
funds provided by the Rockefeller General Education Board. The U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture in 1931 reported a total of 335 Negro extension agents and
supervisors of whom 171 were men farm demonstrators, 128 women home demon-
6 Walter B. Hill, Present Status of Vocational Training for Negroes in the Southern States, 1931.
42 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
strators, 28 supervisors and 4 in charge of movable schools. In addition to the
effective services of these Negro men and women for the education and advance-
ment of the Negro rural population of the South, credit must be given to many of
the white agents for their service to the colored farm population especially in the
counties without Negro agents. The present status of the work is briefly sum-
marized in the following excerpt from a letter by C. W. Warburton, U. S. Director
of Rural Extension:
"The Negro extension agents and supervisors are rendering invaluable services to
thousands of Negro farmers and home makers. Negro extension work is a definite part
of our system of extension work in the South. The white people of the South realize that
Negro extension work is vital to the progress of that section of the country. This splendid
sentiment in favor of Negro extension is amply verified in the fact that, notwithstanding
the serious drought in some of the Southern States in 1930 and the general agricultural
depression, the States have discontinued the Negro extension agent only in rare instances,
although in.many instances it has been difficult to find the local funds to pay the agents'
salaries. In some cases we have been able to retain the agents with the amount of Federal
funds allotted to certain counties."
"During 1930 a movement was inaugurated to provide a more effective personnel
among Negro extension workers. In cooperation with the Julius Rosenwald Foundation,
the Negro land grant colleges and the directors of extension work in the South, this service
organized five special summer schools for Negro extension workers. Three of these schools
were held in 1930 and two in 1931. The movement is to be continued for another year or
two. The aim is to set up at the Negro land grant colleges a program of training for prospec-
tive extension workers, as well as for the agents now in the Service."
With all appreciation of this rapid development of the farm extension services
for the 3,000,000 Negro farm population (10 years of age and over) in the seventeen
Southern States, analysis of the needs of this population shows that much more
needs to be done. In his study of the vocational training of Negroes in the seven-
teen Southern States, Mr. Hill has compiled statistics which reveal the follow-
1. That the number of rural counties with 1,000 Negro males is 549.
2. That the number of Negro farm demonstration agents in these counties
was 176 in 1929.
3. Assuming that one agent is required for each of the counties with 1,000 Negro
males, these states require 373 additional agents.
4. The shortage of Negro farm demonstrators is further shown by the fact
that the average number of white male population on farms to each white agent
was 3,256 whereas the average number of Negro male farmers to each Negro agent
Mr. Hill's statistics for home demonstration reveals the need for Negro women
agents to be as follows:
TRENDS IN NEGRO EDUCATION
1. That the number of rural counties with 1,000 females (10 years and over)
2. That the number of Negro women demonstrators was 126.
3. Assuming that one agent is required for each county with 1,000 Negro
females, these states require 423 additional home demonstrators.
4. That the average number of white females on farms to each white agent was
4,951, whereas the average number of Negro females to each Negro agent was
The Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 provides funds cooperatively with the state and
local Government for the education of boys in agriculture, of girls in home eco-
nomics, of urban boys in trades and of those who are to be teachers of the above
subjects. During the last fifteen years an elaborate arrangement of cooperative
activities has been developed for the vocational education of American youth.
Mr. Hill's study gives some idea of the extent of these provisions for the Negro
youth of the seventeen Southern States. As the expenditures are practically all
for the teachers and supervisors of vocational subjects Mr. Hill's statistics are
concerned exclusively with the number of teachers now employed and the ratio of
the teaching personnel to the school population requiring the different types of
vocational education. On the basis of these statistics the more important facts
may be summarized as follows:
NUMBER OF NEGRO TEACHERS EMPLOYED
Vocational Agriculture............................................... 458
H ome Econom ics ................ ................................... 550
Urban Trades ........................................ ... ............. 285
PUPILS IN TRADE SCHOOLS
Urban Evening Classes .................................. 30,964 3,040
Part-time Trade Extension ............................... 3,019 298
Part-time Trade Preparation............................... 1,852 136
Part-time General Continuation............................. 18,886 209
Unit Trade Day Classes .................................. 6,771 2,727
While these figures are gratifying evidences of the important educational influ-
ence already achieved by the Smith-Hughes Acts, it is desirable that the progress
shall be considered in relation to the extensive vocational needs of the Negro youth.
Some measure of these needs appears in the following observations based on tables
prepared by Mr. Hill:
44 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
Vocational Agriculture: According to specialists in agricultural education the
satisfactory preparation of the Negro youth for farm service would require that
about 110,000 pupils should be taking a two year course in agriculture. The
number of teachers for that number would be about 2,700. The number of Negro
teachers now employed is 458. The average number of white youth requiring
vocational agriculture to each white teacher is 76 and the average number of Negro
youth to each Negro teacher is 118.
Urban Trade and Industrial Education: The number of Negro boys between
the age of 14 and 20 years in the cities and towns of the South is estimated to be
about 150,000. The number of trade teachers required for them would be about
5,000. The number of teachers employed in 1930 was 285. The average number
of white youth to each available white teacher is 240 and average number of Negro
youth to each teacher is 520.
Home Economics: The estimated number of Negro girls between 14 and 20
years of age in urban and rural areas is 690,000. For that number about 14,000
teachers of home economics would be required. In 1930 about 550 teachers were
employed under the Smith-Hughes Act in cooperation with the states, counties
and local government.
Thus it appears that the cooperation of the Federal Government, through the
Smith-Hughes and Smith-Lever Acts, with the states and local Governments is
making possible the employment of almost 1,700 rural extension workers and
vocational teachers for the advancement of the Negro people of the Southern
States. In addition to this staff there are other agencies, governmental and philan-
thropic, that are giving substantial aid in vocational education and rural service.
Some are teachers in the regular public schools and colleges. Others are special
workers and teachers in schools maintained by religious boards and philanthropic
contributions from educational funds and individuals.
Nevertheless the need for more and better facilities for vocational education
is still very large. In a sense the progress to date is little more than a good begin-
ning. More funds are required to prepare more teachers and to maintain them on
an effective basis. To this end there is need for a more intelligent appreciation of
the vital place of rural activities and vocational skill in the economic and social
life of the nation. This is essential to both white and colored people, but it is
acutely necessary to those who are specially concerned in the welfare of the Negro
people of America.
CHURCH BOARDS AND INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS
Church organizations and private boards of trustees are continuing their sub-
stantial contributions to Negro education. Amidst the impressive increase of
appropriations by governments and educational funds, the vital services of church
schools and private institutions have too frequently been overlooked. In some
respects these schools still hold first rank, especially in the higher education of the
TRENDS IN NEGRO EDUCATION
Negro youth. Unfortunately it is not possible to present an exact statement of
the progress made during the last fifteen years. The advance of college education,
already presented, is to a considerable extent an indication of the continuing interest
of religious and philanthropic individuals and institutions.
The activities of the white church boards of education since 1915 are especially
significant. The Negro Year Book for 1931-32 lists twenty of these Boards as
still active in 1930. The following comparison of the schools maintained by the
nine larger white church denominations in 1915 and 1930 shows the extent of their
contribution to Negro education:
1. In 1915 these Boards maintained 340 schools of which 150 were large and
190 were small; in 1930 there were 240 schools of which 99 were large and 141 were
small. The decrease reflects the church policy of turning over their lower schools
to the expanding public school system.
2. In 1915 the pupil enrolment of these schools was approximately 50,000, of
whom about 700 were in college classes and 7,000 in secondary; in 1930 the total
attendance was 41,000, of whom 6,850 were collegiate and 10,500 were secondary.
Thus the church schools are entering more and more into the field of higher
3. In 1915 the income for current expenses was $1,500,000 and the value of
property $13,500,000; in 1930 the annual expenditure was $1,703,000 and the value
of property $20,390,000.
Four Negro Church Boards are also maintaining about 150 schools of which
about 50 are large institutions rendering valuable educational services, including
17 colleges recognized by the U. S. Office of Education Survey in 1926. The annual
income of these 17 colleges was reported to be $1,070,000 and the value of their
property $6,370,000. These financial facts for the 17 colleges in 1926 mark a very
remarkable advance since 1916, when the annual income of the 153 schools of all
types was only $381,000 and the property value $2,305,000. It is important to
note that the financial support of these Negro church schools is almost entirely
from the Negro people. The Negro Year Book estimates that a total of $3,500,000
is raised annually by the Negroes for the support of all types of schools.
The institutions maintained by independent boards of trustees include the
highest and many of the most effective schools for the Negro people. In 1916
there were 119 independent schools of which 47 were large and 72 small. Their
enrolment was 16,250 pupils, of whom 1,740 were collegiate and 2,240 were second-
ary. Their annual income was $1,272,000 and their property value was $14,127,000.
As statistics for all these schools in 1930 are not available, the only measures of
progress are the facts in the Survey of Negro Colleges published in 1928. In this
Survey the following institutions are classed as independent: Atlanta University
Fisk University, Hampton Institute, Howard University, Lincoln University,
Lincoln Institute, Morgan College, Spelman College and Tuskegee Institute. The
total annual income of these institutions in 1927 was $2,350,000. Of this amount
46 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
$851,000 was interest on endowment, $705,000 gifts, $460,000 student fees, $226,000
Federal appropriations. The value of their plants and endowments was $24,724,000.
The following comparison of the status of these nine independent colleges and
universities in 1916 and 1927 shows the remarkable progress of these institutions
in the ten year period.
1. In 1916 the nine institutions had an enrolment of 6,037, of whom 2,203
were secondary and 1,400 were collegiate; in 1927 the college enrolment alone
2. In 1916 their annual income was $956,460; in 1927 the income was $2,350,000.
3. In 1916 their property and endowment was valued at $12,765,000; in 1927
this value had increased to $24,724,000.
Such substantial values and extraordinary progress reflect the prime importance
of these institutions in the education of the Negro people. With increased endow-
ment, equipment and teaching staff they are destined to be to the Negro race what
Harvard, Yale and the Boston School of Technology are to the American people.
Undoubtedly the most effective agencies in the stimulation and organization
of Negro education during the last fifteen years have been the activities and appro-
priations of philanthropic foundations. The most notable of these are the Rocke-
feller General Education Board, the Jeanes and Slater Funds and the Julius Rosen-
wa~Ia ndii- It -is probable that no educational influence in all history has equalled
the effectiveness which these foundations have realized in their educational services
to the Negro people of the Southern States. The undertaking has involved far
more than.the:usual school jobs of curricula, buildings, books and teachers. Even
these responsibilities were made exceedingly difficult by the fact that the South
with a low per capital wealth was supporting two systems of schools. Beyond and
beneath all this, however, the helping of Negro education in the South has included
the perplexing problems of adapting education to the prevailing rural conditions
and .also.the adjustment of persistent and deep-rooted misunderstandings and
prejudices of interracial relations.
Under these circumstances the methods used by these foundations and the
extent and quality of the results achieved are of extraordinary significance not
only to those concerned in the advancement of the South, both white and colored;
they have also a deep meaning to those who would find the "way out" of similar
conditions wherever interracial differences, ignorance, and poverty are threatening
the peace of the world.
Simple and obvious as the means and methods used have been in their good sense
and statesmanship, they have usually been overlooked in whole or in part by
organizations endeavoring to help peoples and improve conditions in other parts of
the world. What, then, have been the essential elements of the methods so
successfully applied? The origin of these methods has been outlined in the begin-
TRENDS IN NEGRO EDUCATION
ning paragraphs of the section on Rural Extension. In the order of their applica-
tion the methods may be summarized as follows:
1. Comprehensive and genuine understanding of the economic and sociological
conditions by careful observation supplemented and corrected b the method of
"leiariing bydoing." This differs vitally from the present orgy of "fact-finding"
surveys and social research usually ending in the futilities of statistical tables and
voluminous reports destined for library shelves. The researches of the late Dr.
Wallace Buttrick and his associates of the General Education Board included long
and intimate association with the white and colored people of the South, followed
by carefully planned experiments and demonstrations to test the soundness both of
the observations and the remedial measures proposed. The organization of the
"farm and home demonstration" already described is a notable example of Dr.
Buttrick's method of "learning by doing." Though Dr. Dillard would probably
deny with vehemence the charge of "researching" in his preparation for the organi-
zation of the Jeanes and Slater Fund activities, students of his work know full
well that he and Dr. Buttrick used practically the same methods. Furthermore,
Dr. Dillard's Southern origin gave him a heritage of intuitions, experiences and
knowledge which ordinary social research entirely lacks. While the late Julius
Rosenwald could not personally devote the extent of time possible to Dr. Buttrick
and Dr. Dillard for local studies, his extraordinary sympathy and wisdom impelled
him to base his philanthropic policies on the vast knowledge of Dr. Booker T.
Washington, Dr. Dillard, Dr. Buttrick and others whom he trusted.
2. The second policy of those foundations has been personal cooperation with
local governments and local commu nitie, white and colored, through foundation
representatives selected for their knowledge of and experience with the local peoples.
This policy was the natural outgrowth of the comprehensive understanding result-
ing from the first policy. The outstanding representatives of the General Educa-
tion Board in the South have been the State Agents for Negro Schools. The first
of these was appointed in 1910 by the Peabody Educational Fund and the Southern
Education Board. The next year the General Education Board took over the
support of the agents. By 1919 all Southern States had agents appointed by the
State Deparjments of Edlucationi and maintained jointly by the Board and.the.
States. These able and devoted men have had a remarkable influence on Negro
education. Natives of their respective states and recognized for their educational
abiyand constructive attitudes, they have been the coordinating personalities
around whom practically all governmental and philanthropic activities have
fiintioned. First of all they have stimulated and guided state and county authori-
fies to their utmost for Negro schools. They have assisted the'Federal officers in
tieir use of the large resources of the Smith-Lever and Smith-Hughes appropria-
tions and also in their direction of the Land Grant Colleges. They have encouraged
and aided the trustees and staffs of the institutions supporte~fiv churches and
private philanthropy. Most of all they have been the chief advisers and helpful
i C>V A
48 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
representatives ofall..the. foundations and especially of the Jeanes and Slater
Funds and of the Rosenwald philanthropies.
While the Jeanes and Slater Funds have had only three representatives, Dr.
Dillard and Dr. Caldwell, two Southern white men and Dr. W. T. B. Williams, a
colored man, these three have travelled almost constantly and wielded a profound
influence throughout the South. Even more important for local influence are the
Jeanes Visiting Teacher plan and the County Training School system. The 328
Jeanes Teachers are in a sense representatives of the Jeanes Fund in 328 counties
in fourteen Southern States. So also are the principals and staffs of the 368 county
training schools representatives of the Slater Fund. These effective and devoted
colored teachers, supported jointly by county governments and appropriations
from the Jeanes and Slater Funds, have had an amazing influence on Negro educa-
tion and interracial relations.
The Rosenwald Fund has three Southern representatives thoroughly acquainted
by heritage, education and experience with conditions in that section. Through
intimate cooperation with the representatives of the General Education Board,
the Jeanes and Slater officers and teachers, as well as with the state and county
officials, the Rosenwald philanthropies have been effectively represented in the
South. Furthermore, every teacher of the more than 5,000 Rosenwald schools is
in a very real sense a representative of the method and spirit of Mr. Rosenwald's
3. The third element in the constructive programs of these foundations has been
their substantial appropriations estimated to be approximately $34,000,000, of
which more than 75 per cent has been spent during the last fifteen years. With
full appreciation of these large gifts to Negro education, their values have been
largely increased in actual cash by the wise requirements that foundation appro-
priations should be only a part of the total sums to be shared by governments
and by white and colored citizens. It is not possible to estimate the large expendi-
tures for Negro education thus stimulated. The following illustrations present
some idea of the financial trends:
(1) The General Education Board impressed by the limitations of State and
Land-Grant Colleges arranged a study of their equipment and teachers in 1923-24.
On the basis of this study and of facts previously known, appropriations amounting
to almost $2,000,000 were made to these institutions between 1916 and 1930. The
extent of the development stimulated directly and indirectly by these gifts is indi-
cated by the following figures:
Number of Institutions Value of Plant Total Income
1912-1913 18 $2,707,000 $483,000
1927-1928 28 10,443,000 2,302,000
TRENDS IN NEGRO EDUCATION
(2) The appropriations of the General Education Board to eleven Negro col-
leges amounting to $5,375,000 have undoubtedly had a large influence in stimulating
the increase of Negro college incomes from $2,283,000 in 1915 to $8,560,000 in
1926, and the value of college plants from $15,720,000 in 1915 to $38,680,000 in 1926.
(3) The same method has been successfully used by the Slater and Jeanes
Funds. In 1927 the Slater Fund appropriated $106,000 toward the support of
806 countyitriing schools that received $1,689,000 from all sources including
$1,105,000 from public funds. In 1928 the Jeanes Fund contributed $115,000
anidle hfijblic school authorities paid $282,000 for the salaries of 324 Jeanes Visiting
Teachers who raised $52,000 for school improvement. These sums paid year after
year in increasing amounts by the state and county governments and in decreasing
sums by the Slater and Jeanes Funds are impressive evidence of the financial value
of the cooperative methods in philanthropy.
(4) For the year ending June 30th, 1931, the Julius Rosenwald Fund cooperated
in the construction of 256 building projects including 177 schools, 14 teachers'
omes4 vocational buildings and 31 school additions. The total cost of these
projects was $2,328,000, of which the Rosenwald Fund gave 14 per cent, the Negroes
9 per cent, the whites 5 per cent and-.the.public school authorities 72 per. ent.
Since 1913 wise generosity of the late Julius Rosenwald has expended $4,274,000,
resulting in the construction of 5,295 excellent rural schools at a total cost of
These, then, are the answers to the question as to what have been the essential
elements of the effective services of the General Education Board, the Jeanes
and Slater Funds and the Julius Rosenwald philanthropies to Negro education:
Firsi,g'geuine knowledge and appreciation of conditions; second, per onal participa-
tion through cooperation with local communities and governments; third, financial
cooperation with local agencies willing to share in the initial expenditures and in
the continuing support of tie educational undertakings. The General Education
Broa'rd has expended more than $,21,000,00( since 19602. The Rosenwald Fund
and Mr. Rosenwalpeald ersolly have given approximately $8,000,000 since 1913.
The Slater and Jeanes Funds have appropriated about $5,000,000. The total
from-, these phlafiintropic sources "is ~probably $:34,000),000. This amount has
stimulated at least $100,000,000 more from governments and private gifts for the
advancement of every phase of Negro education. The results in interracial under-
st inding and good-will have been quite equal to if not greater than the educational
values to the white and colored people of the Southern States and America. Obvi-
ously such methods and such achievements deserve the careful consideration of
those who are perplexed by the world-wide threats to peace and progress of
THE FUTURE OUTLOOK
What of the future of Negro education in America? The following trends
seem to be clearly implied in the brief summaries that have been presented:
50 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
1. That "the increase in Negro education by all measurements has been a little
less than marvelous." During the last fifteen years every type of Negro school
from the little rural school to the colleges, universities and professional institutions
has improved in quantity and in quality. Surely there is ample reason to believe
that the progress will continue until the quantity and quality of Negro education
will attain to the prevailing American standards.
2. Much remains to be done in every phase of education and especially in the
elementary schools whose increases have hardly more than kept pace with the
increase of population, leaving almost a million Negro children still out of school.
Here more effort must be made, more money spent and better facilities provided.
Strenuous efforts have been made by philanthropic foundations. Local govern-
ments have aided materially, but public opinion of white and colored people has
not yet fully grasped the serious implications of the fact that more than 25 per cent
of Negro children of school age are still out of school. It is difficult to foretell
when public opinion will become aware of this serious lack. Progress in all move-
ments has been usually by the staggering progress. The earlier stresses were on
the elementary and practical phases of education. Latterly the effort has been to
supply the lamentable lack of secondary schools and colleges. Amazing progress
has been made. More remains to be done. Possibly a stage of "diminishing
returns" may be attained in the not distant future of higher education and public
opinion will turn again to the elementary schools.
3. The trends of Negro schools as regards methods and objectives of education
are more and more in the direction of the current requirements of the state educa-
tional departments and teacher training colleges. The religious emphasis of
missionary schools and the adaptations of many private institutions are being
supplanted by the conventional courses of the public school system. The gains
and the losses in this change are difficult to evaluate. It is doubtless inevitable
and best that Negro schools shall be an integral part of the American school system
rather than segregated units with all the possibilities and in many cases the certainty
of unfair discrimination. However, there are undoubted losses in the change. The
pioneers of Negro education were men and women of extraordinary ability and
vision. They saw and understood the failures of the ordinary processes of Ameri-
can education. At present the persistent and wide-spread criticism of American
schools is giving emphatic confirmation to the views of those far-seeing pioneers.
The day will come when the white schools will adopt the principles and methods of
these educational prophets. Already progressive schools for the white youth are
being organized on exactly their fundamental lines. It is unfortunate but probably
certain that Negro education must for a time, and possibly for a long time, give up
the objectives and methods of the pioneers who served the Negro people better
than current opinion can possibly understand. When white education has moved
on to the standards of the early organizers of Negro schools, Negro education as an
integral unit of the American system will again regain the heritage which was lost.
TRENDS IN NEGRO EDUCATION
4. Another interesting and important trend in Negro schools is the steady
increase in the proportion of Negro teachers. In the early years the proportion
of white teachers was considerable. Now the number of white teachers is almost
negligible. The primary reason for this change is the rapid increase in the number
of well-qualified Negro teachers ready to undertake all types of responsibilities
in Negro schools. Here again it seems to be an inevitable trend. As an indication
of the effectiveness of Negro education the change is emphatic evidence. Unless
there are well-qualified white teachers who can work sincerely with rather than for
Negro teachers and Negro pupils, the change is in all respects a gain for Negro
education. However, it must be recognized that the elimination of white teachers
is a segregation process which decreases many fruitful contacts of white and colored
people. The hope is that other contacts may be developing as compensation for
the loss of former associations still vivid in the memories of many white and colored
teachers whose ability and devotion were united in effective service to their
5. Possibly the most significant of all trends for the future of Negro education
is the increasing development of cooperation for the advancement and improve-
ment of Negro schools. Every section of this summary of trends during the last
fifteen years has given evidence of the reality of effective cooperation. Federal,
state, county and local governments have combined not only with each other,
but also with philanthropic funds and religious boards. White and colored citizens
have cooperated heartily in the building and support of Negro schools. The activi-
ties of the larger educational foundations have been especially effective in the stimu-
lation of all forms of cooperative activities. The extraordinary results already
achieved not only in the significant increases and improvements of Negro education,
but also in extending and deepening interracial good-will and genuine cooperation
are substantial guarantees that the Negro people are more and more entering into
the full responsibilities and opportunities and rights of American citizenship.
PROGRESS OF EDUCATION AND RACE RELATIONS IN
DR. JAMES HARDY DILLARD
In the life of a people two decades seem but a short time for measurement.
Yet these decades from 1912 to 1932 mark a long forward march for the Negro
people of America. Grant what may be said in the way of dissatisfaction with
things as they still are, the statement holds true. I think we may go farther
and say that it would be quite difficult to find a parallel in history to so notable
advance by any people in so brief a time as twenty years.
This progress has been due for the most part to the people themselves-to
their own aspiration and initiative. Statistics will never show what the Negro
people of the South have given, what sacrifices they have made, for their general
advancement and education. There is no complete account of the schools which
they established after the Civil War through their religious denominations, and also
through the efforts of energetic individuals. Perhaps a majority, certainly a large
number, of such schools have now been turned over to counties and become public
schools, but this foundation work was deeply influential for the later advance in
Help came, as it generally comes, to those who are determined to help them-
selves. There came help from religious people and boards in the North. Earnest
workers came and established schools. As far back as 1865 certain colleges were
founded. Fisk, Shaw, and Virginia Union were established in that year. More-
house and Talladega began in 1867; Atlanta and Tougaloo in 1869. Hampton
was established in 1868, and Tuskegee in 1881. In all these, as well as in other
colleges and schools, the last twenty years have shown remarkable development in
buildings and equipment and in the quantity and quality of advanced work.
Much assistance has come from Education Funds. The Slater Fund dates
back to 1882. It has exerted large influence both through appropriations for ade-
quate salaries in various schools and colleges, and perhaps most of all by its fur-
therance of public secondary education in cooperation with States and counties.
The Negro Rural School Fund, better known as the Jeanes Fund, was established
in 1907 and the Phelps-Stokes Fund in 1911, both destined to do notable work
in the field of Negro education. The Jeanes Fund devoted its resources to the
improvement of small rural schools by supplying, in cooperation with public
school officials, a trained supervising teacher for the county. The Phelps-Stokes
Fund has not only made direct appropriations to schools, but has performed fine
EDUCATION AND RACE RELATIONS IN SOUTH
service in many directions. In the early critical days it may be said to have saved
the work of the Jeanes Fund, until the General Education Board and the counties
themselves assumed the larger part of the task. It was a long step forward when
the General Education Board, with its larger resources, began to help in a telling
way in Negro education, and soon became the greatest of all financial aids. It had
already been assisting various Institutions. In due time came another great aid.
Workers in the field saw the crying need for better school-houses. In a feeble way
the Jeanes Fund and the Phelps-Stokes Fund had helped a little. Then came the
Rosenwald Fund to do its wide-spread work of aiding and stimulating the building
of better school-houses. Never was help more timely. In this work, as also in
other ways such as school libraries, this Fund has done remarkable service. In
this brief sketch only an outline of the activity of these Funds can be given. All
of them publish reports in which full information is obtainable.
More important, however, than any of the outside Funds has been the growing
approach to just apportionment of public funds and the increasing interest of
State and county officials. The stimulating appropriations of the Funds have been
more than duplicated by the appropriations from public funds. A potent influence
in this direction has been that of the State Agents for Negro Education who,
through the cooperation of the General Education Board, have been active in
fifteen States as members of the staff of the State Superintendents. For higher
education State Institutions have been established, some of them as far back as
the seventies and eighties. These are sometimes called Land-Grant Colleges.
They receive federal aid through the so-called Morrill Act. Beginning as mainly
mechanical, agricultural, and industrial schools they have now, following in the line
of Hampton and Tuskegee, advanced into college work. With the increased
demand for well educated teachers this development was inevitable.
Increase of demand for college work, as well as the recognized need in counties
for schools reaching beyond the lower grades, led to the development of secondary
education. The private and denominational high-schools were not sufficient,
especially as many colleges were dropping high-school departments. While the
supply is still inadequate there has been remarkable increase in twenty years of
the number of public high-schools for Negro boys and girls. The Freshman classes
of the colleges get now most of their students from public high-schools. The
so-called County Training Schools, beginning twenty years ago through the Slater
Fund have already become, or are becoming, regular high-schools, supported mainly
by public funds. In their beginnings they have enjoyed the cooperation, not only
of the Funds mentioned above but of the Carnegie Corporation, which in the
early years contributed $120,000 to their support.
I'have alluded to the increased facilities for advanced education. There are a
number of excellent institutions giving full college courses. A few are independent.
Most of them are connected with the several Methodist Boards, with Baptist
Associations or the Baptist Home Missions Board, with the American Missionary
54 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
Association of the Congregational Churches, or with some other religious body.
In fact there are so many colleges that movements have arisen for cooperation
where proximity makes this possible, or for merging of certain institutions, or in
some cases for elimination. In due time a few institutions, as the signs are evident,
will emerge into universities where graduate work and professional training may
be offered. Beginnings have already been made. Negro scholarship in science
and the arts will keep pace with the achievements in literature.
Outside the immediate field of school and college it should be noted that among
marked advances is the growing attention paid to Negro writers and the recogni-
tion of their work as an integral part of the literary productions of the country.
Several years ago a volume of selections from Negro poets was published under the
editorship of two professors in leading Southern white colleges. A pamphlet
entitled "A Decade of Negro Self-Expression," published three years ago, was well
received by readers of both races in the South. Other instances as well as these
could be given. And it may be added that economic achievements, such as are
mentioned in meetings of the Negro Business League, are welcomed and applauded.
Furthermore the important fact should be noted that educational and economic
advances at the top mean also certainly some upward pull from the bottom.
Accompanying a general progress and the advances that have come from prog-
ress in education-education in the broader sense of the word as well as in its
definite sense-there have been specific efforts for interracial good-will. The
Southern Sociological Congress in 1912, by establishing an interracial section, made
the beginning of bringing together representatives of both races. In the same
year the University Commission was formed for the purpose of eliciting the
interest of college people, especially at that time of white college people. In a
number of white and colored colleges it held meetings in which members of both
races took part. It had no special fund or paid official. The expenses of the meet-
ings were met by appropriations from the Phelps-Stokes Fund. Then came the
larger, well organized Commission for Interracial Cooperation formed for the pur-
pose of promoting healthy public sentiment, and for dealing with local conditions
through local committees. Not the least of its services has been the publication
in the Southern press of instances of happy relations as a balance to instances of
unhappy occurrences that are reported.
After all is said, there has been growth in fuller understanding and an advance
in convictions of justness. Education has spread. Helpful agencies have appeared
just about as they were needed. And back of all special agencies there are the
silent influences of time and the commonsense of plain people who see that the
way of justice is the right way, and therefore the sensible way. It is comforting
to have faith that along with the progress of education and the efforts to lift unjust
burdens there are quiet influences for good which are more potent than the forces
of evil. In the meantime I think we see more and more clearly that in the daily
contacts of the two races there are mutual obligations, with demands for charitable
allowances and generous judgments on both sides.
PART I. GENERAL SUMMARY
DR. THOMAS JESSE JONES
Interracial cooperation is the effective "way out" in the adjustment of racial
groups differing in economic, educational, political and social status. The increas-
ing cooperation between the Negro tenth-now numbering 12,000,000-and the
white nine-tenths-111,000,000, constitutes one of the most significant chapters of
American history during the last seventy years. The objectives of these efforts
have included practically every phase of community life, but the major objective
has been the improvement of Negro education. In the building of schools and the
advancement of education, white and colored people, government, religious organi-
zations and philanthropy have learned to work together.
Historically, interracial cooperation since the Civil War falls naturally into
The first stage extended roughly from the Civil War to 1900. During this period
cooperation was largely between individuals of the two races, and between the
Negro people and the teachers and schools representing the religious and philan-
thropic interest of Northern people. Southern men of large vision and generous
spirit proclaimed the necessity of mutual understanding. White and colored
neighbors in countless cases helped one another in the common tasks of the com-
mon day. The most notable example of such friendly exchanges are those of white
people who assisted their colored neighbors to purchase land and homes in every
The outstanding cooperative event of this period is vividly described by Dr.
Moton in his inaugural address as the successor of Dr. Booker T. Washington, the
founder and principal of Tuskegee Institute:
"Here in 1881 met the three elements that must be taken into account in any genuinely
satisfactory adjustment of race relationships. Here met Mr. Campbell, the former slave
owner; General Armstrong, the Northern soldier and founder of Hampton Institute, and
Dr. Washington, the former slave, to begin a form of cooperation, the scope and effective-
ness of which were destined to command the respect and admiration, not only of this nation,
but also of the entire civilized world."
56 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
From time to time such Southern statesmen as Haygood, Curry, Vance and Northen
urged the wisdom and necessity of economic and educational opportunity for
the Negro people. Bishop Haygood of the Southern Methodist Church in 1885
gave the following significant testimony to President Ware, the founder of Atlanta
"Very small encouragement do workers in this field get from us of the white race in the
Southern States, although next to the Negro race, we are of all men on earth most concerned
in the success of your work and most concerned because we have most at stake."
The cooperation of Northern Church Boards and Northern philanthropy began
as early as 1862 to send devoted and able teachers and substantial sums of money
for the founding and maintenance of Negro schools in the Southern States. These
schools were the foundations of all Negro education in America and their effective
influence continues to the present time.
The second stage of interracial cooperation began about 1900 and continued
until the United States became concerned in the Great War about 1915. Dur-
ing this period interest in improved race relations became organized so that it
showed itself not only in many states, but also in groups of states in the South and
in the North. During the earlier years of the period, the conferences did not
usually include the Negroes. The interest, while very genuinely for the Negro
did not provide adequately for work with the Negro.
The initial move in this period was the Virginia Capon Springs Conference in
1901, when white men of the North and South met to discuss the fundamental
problems of the Southern States. From this beginning there developed the Con-
ference for Education in the South and the Southern Education Board. These
remarkable conferences were vitally aided by the General Education Board, the
Peabody Fund and many philanthropists deeply interested in interracial relations.
The subjects considered and the movements aided included health and sanitation,
agriculture and rural life, all phases of education and the general welfare of both
white and colored people in the South.
Some of the concrete results of these conferences were the methods of Farm
Demonstration, Home Demonstration, Health Agents, Jeanes Visiting Teachers,
County Training Schools and several other activities that have advanced the
Negro people and improved the relationship of the races. Possibly the most
important of all the results was the appointment of State Agents for Negro Schools
made possible by the cooperation of the General Education Board and the Southern
State Departments of Education. Closely related to all these effective arrange-
ments and very directly the result of the deepening interest in Negro education was
the Rosenwald School Movement initiated by Mr. Julius Rosenwald at the sug-
gestion of Dr. Booker T. Washington.
Toward the end of this period of interracial activities, several important organi-
zations were initiated. In 1912 the Southern University Race Commission was
appointed. This Commission met annually to consider the results of inquiries
made during the year. Its purpose is well expressed by the following statement
issued at the first meeting:
"Such a Commission should consult with leading men in both races, should endeavor to
keep informed in regard to the relations existing between the races, and should aim especially
to influence Southern college men to approach the subject with intelligent information and
with sympathetic interest."
The Southern Sociological Congress begun in 1912 had a very important section
on Race Relations in 1913. In numerous ways this Congress made a real advance
in racial adjustment. The pioneering services of Dr. W. D. Weatherford of the
Southern Students Y. M. C. A. were of extraordinary value in stimulating Southern
white students to a realization of their responsibilities for interracial cooperation.
The work of the Phelps-Stokes Fund began in 1912 with appropriations for
various forms of racial adjustment and advancement. The more important of
these were the founding of the Phelps-Stokes Fellowships at the University of
Virginia and the University of Georgia; appropriations for the University Race
Commission and the Southern Publicity Committee to encourage the distribution
of truthful and constructive news about Negroes; and finally in 1913 the organiza-
tion of the Study of Negro Schools. This study was done under the auspices of
the U. S. Bureau of Education and the results were published in two substantial
volumes in 1916.
Another notable advance during this period was the formation of several
organizations administered by colored men and women for the improvement of
the Negro people and their relations to the white people. The more important
of these are the Colored Branches of the Y. M. C. A. and the Y. W. C. A., the
National Urban League and the National Association for the Advancement of
the Colored People. The last two were organized in 1911. All of them have
rendered valuable service in their respective fields of endeavor.
The outstanding advances of the period from 1900 to 1915 may be summarized
1. That a large number of Southern people were aroused to a genuine interest
in the welfare of the Negro people and to a sincere desire to advance cooperative
activities with them especially for better schools.
2. That influential Southern men such as Governor Aycock, Walter Page,
Wickliffe Rose, Bruce Payne, Philander P. Claxton, Samuel C. Mitchell, Charles W.
Dabney and many others joined actively in movements for interracial cooperation.
3. That Southern States appointed State Agents and other paid employees,
white and colored, to give special attention to the educational needs of the Negro
people. Among the first of these were Jackson Davis, N. C. Newbold of North
Carolina and the late J. L. Sibley of Alabama.
58 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
4. That educational funds such as the Jeanes and Slater Funds and the Julius
Rosenwald philanthropies selected Southern men to conduct their activities.
Among these have been J. H. Dillard, B. C. Caldwell, Jackson Davis, Leo Favrot,
S. L. Smith, Arthur D. Wright and W. T. B. Williams of Tuskegee Institute.
5. That organizations and schools for colored people were increasingly staffed
and administered by colored officers and teachers.
6. That the colored people aided by white friends, organized various movements
in the interest of Negro welfare, on whose boards of directors both races were
The third period in racial relations began during 1915-1918 when the people of
the United States were concerned in the Great War. The acute social needs and
upheavals of the War stimulated all social efforts. Government, philanthropy
and churches became exceedingly active in the development of committees and
movements to enlist the services of the Negro people. These activities were such
as raising the quotas for Liberty Loans, War Saving Stamps, Red Cross Work,
Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. service-all stimulating the patriotism of the people.
The general rule of the South was that each local Council of Defense formed a
Negro Auxiliary Committee. White and colored people met together and alto-
gether more interracial contacts developed than the South had ever known.
In 1917 the first conference for Negro women ever called by the white women of
the South was held in the City of Tuscaloosa, Alabama under the auspices of the
Southern Presbyterian Church. Since then similar conferences with an attendance
of about 500 women have met annually in almost all the Southern States. Thus
for several days, usually a week, the conferences have been taught by the best
available white and colored teachers. Similar meetings were begun by the South-
ern Methodist Church. The Missionary Centenary Program of the Methodist
Church included the raising of a million dollars for the religious welfare of the
Negroes. Early in 1918 the National War Work Council of the Southeast Depart-
ment of the Y. M. C. A. initiated a plan for promoting better race relations through-
out all the Southern States. This included training courses for white and colored
All these almost hectic movements of the War Period prepared the way for the
more permanent organizations acutely needed to deal with the confusion of demo-
bilization and after-war reactions. The great migration of Negroes to the indus-
trial cities of the North as well as rural-to-urban movement of the South developed
a state of anxiety in the South as to the extensive rural areas of the Southern States.
The conditions and trends presented grave responsibilities and extraordinary
opportunities for those concerned in the welfare of the Negro people and especially
in the preservation of the splendid beginnings of interracial cooperation.
These were the threatening circumstances and favorable trends that prepared
the way for the organization of the Commission on Interracial Coiperation. The
Educational Director of the Phelps-Stokes Fund arranged for a conference of the
representatives of all war-working organizations to consider the cooperative
measures necessary to deal with the situation. This conference, held in February,
1919, requested the War-Time Committee of Churches to arrange for further
cooperation. As the Educational Director was the Secretary of that Committee,
he arranged for another meeting of war-working organizations in Atlanta, Georgia.
This second conference in March, 1919, elected Mr. J. J. Eagan of Atlanta to be
Chairman, and decided to form a Committee composed of white and colored repre-
sentatives from all the Southern States. Through the financial aid of the War-
Work Council of the Y. M. C. A. the Commission was formally launched in April,
1919. During the last twelve years this Commission has rendered outstanding
services in the promotion of interracial cooperation. Committees of white and
colored citizens have been formed in practically all the Southern States. The
essence of their method is to bring together the influential leaders of the white and
colored communities to formulate and execute plans relating to such essential
community needs as health, economic welfare, housing, recreation and education.
Dr. W. W. Alexander of Atlanta and Dr. Robert R. Moton of Tuskegee have been
outstanding leaders in this movement.
In the urban areas and especially in the large cities of the North to which
Negroes have migrated in almost overwhelming numbers, the National Urban
League has conducted organized activities of very great value in the alleviation of
conditions that threatened the welfare of the Negro people and the peace of the
cities. Similarly the Colored Branches of the Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. in both
Northern and Southern cities and also in the Negro colleges have been of estimable
value in every phase of Negro life as well as of racial adjustment with their white
Another organization of great importance during the upheavals and rapid
readjustments of the after war reactions is the National Association for the Ad-
vancement of Colored People. This Association-which owes much to the
leadership of Dr. W. E. B. DuBois-has kept careful watch of the rights of the
Negroes. Through legal action and vigorous attack it has stimulated the American
people to a realization of their duties in dealing with a large minority group of vital
importance to the progress and peace of our country.
In 1923 the Federal Council of Churches appointed a Commission on "The
Church and Race Relations." This organization, under the leadership of Dr.
George E. Haynes, has rendered important services, namely,
To assert the sufficiency of Christianity as the solution of race relations in
America and the duty of the churches and all their organizations to give the most
careful attention to this question.
To promote mutual confidence and acquaintance, both nationally and locally,
between the white and Negro churches, especially by state and local conferences,
60 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
between white and Negro ministers, Christian educators and other leaders, for the
consideration of their common problems.
To make more widely known in the churches the work and principles of the
Commission on Interracial Coiperation, and especially its efforts to establish local
The significant advances of the period from 1915 to 1931 are suggested by the
1. That the method of working with colored people rather than for them was
more and more recognized and adopted.
2. That provisions for interracial cooperation were made by an increasing num-
ber of organizations: religious, community, educational, economic and legislative.
3. That cooperative relationships were established wherever colored people
resided in considerable numbers both in the North and in the South.
4. That educational cooperation in the Southern States has continued in in-
creasing measure, realizing important advances in Negro education and uniting
public and private effort of white and colored people for the general progress and
peace of America.
PART II. CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY OF INTERRACIAL
MONROE N. WORK
Director of the Department of Research and Records of Tuskegee Institute and former
Holder of a Fellowship from the Phelps-Stokes Fund
The following record of interracial incidents arranged chronologically presents
a vivid account of the numerous and varied activities of the last ten years:
The Commission on Race Relations of the Conference on the Christian Way of
Life, began the promotion of the discussion of the nature of relations between
different racial and national groups in America in order to discover methods for
conserving good will, averting friction, and securing better adjustment.
A joint committee of representative women of both races was appointed by the
National Board of the Young Women's Christian Association to study the history
of the colored race and the present day problems.
Through the efforts of the Commission on Interracial Co5peration, the Federal
Council of Churches, Women's Missionary Society and other agencies, a nation-
wide popular study of the Negro and race relations was carried on through Mission
study classes and other study groups beginning this year and lasting two years.
To aid in this study the following books were published:
"The Magic Box," by Anita B. Ferris; "The Trend of the Races," by Dr. G. H.
Haynes; "The Handicapped Winners," by Sarah Estelle Haskins; "The Stories of
Black Folk for Little Folk," by Bessie Landrum; "A Boy's Life of Booker T.
Washington," by W. C. Jackson; "Race, Grit, Adventures on the Border Land of
Liberty," by Coe Haynes; "The Negro Boy and Girl, Study Book for Juniors,"
by S. J. Fisher; "Wanted-Leaders, a Study of Negro Development," by Theodore
D. Bratton; "In the Vanguard of a Race," by L. H. Hammond; "Of One Blood, a
Short Story of the Race Problem," by Robert E. Speer; "Christianity and the
Race Problem," by J. H. Oldham; and "The Gift of Black Folk," by W. E. B.
Messages on Interracial Relations were issued by the Bishops of the Colored
Methodist Episcopal Church and the Methodist Episcopal Church South.
At the ninth Student Volunteer Convention at Indianapolis different sides of
problems of race relations and plans for the preservation of peace were presented.
Groups of white women in the South issued vigorous declarations against
lynching and for the promotion of better race relations.
The editors of leading daily papers in six Southern States united in a signed
statement asking for mutual helpfulness and cooperation between white and
colored races in the South, for adequate educational advantages for colored people,
for equality before the law, and for abatement of mob violence.
Maryland Legislature authorized the appointment of an unpaid Commission
on Race Relations. The Governor appointed a mixed Commission of twenty-one
persons, white and colored.
At Blue Ridge, North Carolina, a special Conference of 75 Professors from
Southern schools met for the study of Race Problems. The immediate outcome
was putting the introduction of the study of race problems into the regular curricu-
lum of a large number of Southern universities as part of the work in Sociology.
National Interracial Conference. Two hundred and fifty white and colored
representatives of local and national organizations actively at work to improve
interracial relations, from seventeen Northern and Southern States, attended the
National Interracial Conference held in Cincinnati, Ohio, March 25-27, under the
auspices of the Commission on Race Relation of the Federal Council of Churches
and the Commission on Interracial Coiperation.
At the Universal Christian Conference on Life Work, Stockholm, Sweden, on
September 2nd, the question of race relations occupied much attention. Dr.
William Bell of New York spoke for the colored race. In his speech he declared:
62 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
"We are entering upon a new era of racial relations in America. We refuse to be con-
sidered as an inferior race that cannot be trusted after dark. We do not desire racial
amalgamation and are just as anxious to preserve our racial integrity."
The Louisiana State Committee on Race Relations in session in New Orleans
during April, set the following objectives for the coming year: "Efforts to secure a
state normal school for Negroes and a reformatory for delinquent Negro boys, the
creation of a state housing commission, the organization of local interracial com-
mittees in a number of centers, and continuance of a campaign of educational
Annual Progress Report on Interracial Relationship to Dr. Ellen C. Potter,
Secretary of Welfare, Pennsylvania, through the interracial program of the Depart-
ment of Welfare. Thirty-two interracial meetings covering most sections of the
state have been arranged and successfully conducted. Negro and white civic,
social and religious organizations have conferred with Welfare Representative on
vital interracial questions. Conferences with State and National leaders and social
workers have been held to discuss the best methods toward creating a better under-
standing between the races and to develop Negro race consciousness and pride, and
a sense of responsibility along wise lines. Through this program of race cooperation
there is fast developing in Pennsylvania a new attitude which seeks the true facts
and then evaluates them in the light of a broad minded Christian Democracy.
The National Association of Presbyterian Students at Ann Arbor, Michigan,
with nearly 500 delegates present, adopted strong resolutions on the race problem,
beginning: "We recognize that Christ's attitude towards his fellow men drew no
line of race or color, and that we as Christians, have not followed his teachings to
the full extent of our knowledge."
The Mississippi Woman's Committee on Race Relations pledged themselves to
the most progressive program of Interracial justice ever adopted by any group in
this state. Beginning with a broadside against lynching and mob violence, they
promised to seek better school advantages for the colored people of the state,
offered their cooperation to the Negro club women in their efforts for a home for
delinquent boys, and then gave proof of their sincerity by inviting the Negro women
of the State to membership on their committee. Among the specific improvements
in school conditions to which they pledged themselves were better facilities for
teacher training, better school buildings, and a more equitable distribution of school
Human Relations Institute at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill,
North Carolina:--Race relations, industry and international affairs received the
attention of the faculty and student body of the University for an entire week,
during the recent First Quadrennial Institute on Human Relations, sponsored by
the college Y. M. C. A., and led by outstanding authorities on the several subjects.
The speakers on race relations were W. W. Alexander, Director, Commission on
Interracial Cooperation, Professor N. C. Newbold, Supervisor of Negro Schools in
North Carolina, Professor W. C. Jackson, Chairman, State Interracial Committee,
and J. Weldon Johnson, nationally known Negro poet and composer. The insti-
tute was considered highly successful.
The Negro-Caucasian Club of the University of Michigan announced the
"The aim of the Negro-Caucasian Club is to make a careful study of the problems of
relations between the races, to take such action as will encourage a spirit of sympathy and
friendship, and to work for the eventual elimination of any discrimination against Negroes."
The Interracial Discussion Group of the University of Chicago, exists not only
for "discussion" but for social purposes as well. A white member writes:
"We do not intend to make any compromises. We cannot presume to wipe out preju-
dice in so short a time, but we do intend to stand up for the rights of every student on the
campus. If any injustice can be shown, then it is aired fully in the meetings. That is
usually enough to stop it, unless it is something the institution does, like the women's
dormitories. Of course we have no power there, except to object to the policy."
A student Conference for the State of Tennessee was held in Chattanooga, in
which white and colored students sat together and shared the program. Professor
L. S. Cottrell of Vanderbilt had charge of the arrangements for this conference.
Several hundred persons attended the sessions of the Seventh Annual State
Interracial Conference in Louisville, Kentucky. Among the goals which the
Commission set before itself for the ensuing year were equality of accommodations
in railroad trains, buses and stations; the establishment by the State of an institu-
tion for feeble minded colored children, and the placing of a Negro physician on the
staff of the State Board of Health.
The Women's Missionary Council of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, in
annual session in Raleigh, North Carolina, gave prominent place to the question
of race relations. The report of the Council's Race Relations Commission brought
out the fact that a standard interracial program has been formulated providing for
committees on this subject in all local auxiliaries which number about 6,000 and
have a total membership of 250,000 women.
Race Relations Sunday, February 11th, was largely observed in Chicago, Illinois.
Churches pledged aid to Race Relations. Fifty-five agreed to exchange ministers
and over one hundred had special programs.
For the first time since the Pulitzer awards were created, a Georgia editor was
honored. Julian Harris, of the Columbus Enquirer-Sun was awarded the gold
medal for the most disinterested and meritorious public service rendered by an
American newspaper during 1925. The judges announced that the award was
made for the paper's "brave and energetic fight against the Klu Klux Klan, against
64 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
the enactment of a law barring the teaching of evolution, against dishonest and
incompetent public officials, against lynching and for justice to the Negro."
Four Texas sheriffs and a constable who have saved Negroes from mobs were
awarded bronze medals on November 7th by the Commission on Interracial Co-
iperation in session in Houston.
For saving Joe Hardy, a Negro prisoner from a mob, Sheriff U. T. Downs and
Jailor W. G. Penny, of Alexandria, Louisiana, were awarded bronze medals pro-
vided by the Commission on Interracial Cooperation.
A delegation of forty white property owners lodged a protest with the Park
Board against condemning sixty-two Negro homes in order to create a park which
will join Troost Lake and Spring Valley Parks in Kansas City, Missouri.
The Commission on Interracial Co6peration instituted a series of prize contests
in colleges and high schools. The subject for the College essay was "Justice and
Race Relations," the prizes being $100, $65 and $35. The subject in the high
Schools was announced as "Negro Progress since the Civil War."
The Pope in his Encyclical letter distributed to Bishops throughout the world,
urged the equality of white and Negro missionaries.
The Inquiry-an organization in New York City, of which Mr. Edward Carter
was Executive Secretary, began the publication of its series of occasional papers
on various race problems. Its purpose particularly was to stimulate thought and
to test present interracial attitudes.
The American Interracial Peace Committee established in Philadelphia, is
fostered by the American Friends organization. The Committee stated that its
purpose is to present to the nation and to the world those talents and accomplish-
ments of Negroes that may serve the cause of peace. It will seek for them the
open door of fraternal cooperation with all those agencies, industrial, social, reli-
gious and political, devoted to the cause of peace. The Committee will also teach
the fundamental equality of all races.
Interracial Conference of Church Women held at Eagles Mere, Pennsylvania,
under auspices of the Commission on the Church and Race Relations of the Federal
Council of Churches in cooperation with the Council of Women for Home Missions
and the National Board of the Young Women's Christian Association. Eighteen
Negro women delegates and thirty-two white women attended from all over the
country. Their findings were afterwards published and subsequent meetings held
in 1928 and 1930.
Will W. Alexander, Atlanta, Georgia, Director, Commission on Interracial
Cooperation, awarded the Harmon gold medal and $500 for his outstanding con-
tribution toward improving relations between the two races.
Woodland, Georgia, August 12th. More than 2,000 Negroes who live in the
Northern part of Talbot County, or who formerly resided here, met today at what
is believed to be the first Negro home-coming ever given by the white citizens to
Negroes. This meeting was sponsored by the Woodland Ad Club and by the
farmers and peach growers. Several speeches were made by white persons and
Negroes. A bountiful barbecue was served to the Negroes.
A colored man, Lawrence Oxley, is to sit at the council table of the North
Carolina Department of the American Legion. Lieutenant Oxley was recently
elected to the post of Vice-Commander in charge of Section B composed of Negro
members, reports the Winston-Salem (N. C.) Journal. "The North Carolina
Department is, so far as is known, the only one that has thus given such high official
representation to the Negro service men and women. The election of Lieutenant
Oxley to a position on the Executive Committee is a long step toward rendering the
benefits of the Legion available to Negroes. It is also an interesting example of
racial cooperation, and one that should prove fruitful with worthwhile results."
On February 18th, 19th and 20th one of the most interesting interracial con-
ferences in the history of North Carolina was held at Elon College, a white institu-
Sheriff L. M. Hiers, of Hillsborough County, (Tampa) Florida, was awarded a
bronze medal by the Commission on Interracial Co6peration for his heroic stand in
defense of his jail May 30th and 31st.
Sheriff P. R. Brown of Graves County, Kentucky, was awarded a medal by the
Commission on Interracial Coiperation for saving a Negro prisoner from a mob.
Thirty College Professors, representing twenty of the principal universities and
colleges of Texas, spent a day making plans to forward the study of race relations
in the colleges of the state.
James H. Dillard, Charlottesville, Virginia, President of the Anna T. Jeanes
Foundation and the John F. Slater Fund, was awarded the Harmon gold medal
and $500 for his success in increasing county training schools for Negroes from four
to more than three hundred, with increased public appropriations from a little
more than $3,000 to $1,000,000 annually.
Julius Rosenwald, Chicago, was given a supplemental award of a gold medal for
his generous and successful efforts to improve rural school facilities for Negroes and
the extension of the colored Y. M. C. A. work.
The annual seminar on the church and race relations held under the aus-
pices of the Department of Social Relations of the National Council of Congrega-
tional Churches, met in a four-day session in Chicago.
A meeting was held on December 3 of the Interracial Commission of Maryland
appointed by Governor Albert Ritchie under an act of the Legislature.
The Interracial Committee of the American Friends Service Committee with
headquarters in Philadelphia, sponsored an interracial conference in the Asheboro
Street Friends Church, Greensboro, North Carolina. This conference came as
66 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
the culmination of a tour of Negro colleges in the South by a group of Friends from
the North. The invitation to hold the conference in Greensboro came from the
Committee on Interracial Good-will of North Carolina Yearly Meeting of Friends.
The American Interracial Peace Committee launched its nation-wide campaign
at a mass-meeting at Broad Street Theatre in Philadelphia.
The Commission on Interracial Coiperation awarded to Sheriff John C. Greer,
of Union County, South Carolina, a bronze medal for frustrating a mob that at-
tempted to lynch a prisoner at Union on July 30th, 1927.
A second National Interracial Conference was held at Washington. The
Conference was sponsored by the following organizations:
American Friends Service Committee, Interracial Section
American Social Hygiene Association
Commission on Interracial Co6peration
Council of Women for Home Missions
Federal Council of Churches, Commission on the Church and Race Relations
Fellowship of Reconciliation
Home Missions Council
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
National Board, Young Women's Christian Association
National Council, Young Men's Christian Association
National Urban League
National Federation of Settlements
Protestant Episcopal Church, Department of Christian Social Service
The information secured through the careful research which preceded this
conference and from the papers and discussions at the conference were edited by
the Research Secretary of the Conference, Professor Charles S. Johnson, and
published in 1930 under the title "The Negro in American Civilization."
Seven Negro citizens of Cuthbert, Georgia, contributed $300 to the campaign
for the Andrew Junior College (white) in that place, creating an excellent impression
in the interest of interracial cooperation.
The Chamber of Commerce and the Negro Business League are cooperating
in mutually helpful relations in Columbia, South Carolina; Mobile, Albama; New
Orleans, Louisiana; Memphis, Tennessee and other cities.
Cornell University held "Negro Week." It was arranged for and sponsored
by the University's United Religious Work Committee.
Student members of the Interracial Commission of East Tennessee met at
Knoxville College in the Administration Building Monday afternoon, November
4th. Forty representatives were present from Morristown Agricultural and
Industrial College, Maryville College (white) and Knoxville College.
The Hi-Y Congress of the State of Tennessee, held in Knoxville, January 17-20,
was a history-making event in that for the first time the state congress represented
all the Hi-Y organizations of the state irrespective of race or color.
Two hundred women delegates, white and Negro from the Protestant Churches
of New York, met at the Marble Collegiate Church, Fifth Avenue and Twenty-
Ninth Street, to discuss interracial problems and to take steps for the formation of
a permanent body of church women which would attempt to bring the two races
into a more charitable understanding of one another. This new body is especially
concerned with the question of economic opportunities for Negro women and girls
in New York.
The seventh annual observance of Race Relations Sunday was celebrated
February 15th throughout Chicago by an interchange of pulpits of different Race
groups. Various talks, exercises and programs were held by the visiting ministers
and members of their congregations.
The Contest of the Commission on Interracial Coiperation in high schools was
participated in by 160 schools in 35 states, and 500 selected papers were submitted
to the Commission. The subject was "America's Tenth Man." 40,000 copies of a
5,000 word pamphlet on the subject were sent to 2,000 teachers and principals.
Robert R. Moton, Principal, Tuskegee Institute, awarded the Harmon gold
medal and $1,000 for his work in education, in the interracial activities of the
Young Men's Christian Association and on the Commission on Interracial Coipera-
tion as well as for his recent book "What the Negro Thinks."
Establishment of a Chair of Human Relations at Emory University, Atlanta,
Georgia, in memory of the late Dr. Plato Durham, was announced as the aim of
Dr. Willis A. Sutton, Superintendent of Atlanta schools. It is stated that such
a chair to promote the study of social and interracial relations, as well as personnel
problems, would give Emory the distinction of being the first university in the
South to provide this branch of education.
The first Interracial Girls Reserve Conference to be held in Washington, D. C.
was sponsored by the Seventeenth and K Streets Young Women's Christian Associa-
tions, assisted by the Phyllis Wheatley Young Women's Christian Association.
Of the 250 girls attending the conference, 47 were colored and represented girl
reserves in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and
General Jan Christian Smuts, former Prime Minister of the Union of South
Africa, conferred for two hours with a group of twenty white and colored Americans
at Howard University, Washington, on the progress and condition of the Negro and
on the interracial problems in America. The conference was arranged by the
Phelps-Stokes Fund and President Mordecai W. Johnson. General Smuts
stated that it was one of the most interesting and helpful half-days spent during his
68 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
New York, September 20th. Announcement was made of the formation of the
American Interracial Seminar by a representative group interested in the improve-
ment of race relations in the United States. The first session of the Seminar was
held at various points in the South, November 9-21, upon the topic "Negro
Progress in the South." Professor Herbert A. Miller of Ohio State University is
the Chairman of the Seminar. The Executive Director is Hubert G. Herring.
Over fifty persons accepted membership on the Committee of sponsors.
From June 20th to 22nd Oberlin College, Ohio, was the host to the Third
General Interracial Conference of Church Women, held under the auspices of
the Commission on Race Relations of the Federal Council of Churches. The
conference brought together representatives from the majority of twenty-six
denominations affiliated with the Federal Council of Churches for the special
purpose of considering what church women can do to bring about more Christian
attitudes in regard to race relations.
The Commission on Interracial Cooperation appointed a special group to make
a study of lynching under the title The Southern Commission on the Study of
Lynching. The members of the Commission are: Julian Harris, News Director
of the Atlanta Constitution; John Hope, President of Atlanta University; Benjamin
F. Hubert, President of Georgia State College; Charles S. Johnson, Department
of Social Science, Fisk University; George Fort Milton, President and Editor of
the Chattanooga News; W. P. King, Book Editor of the M. E. Church, South; W.
J. McGlothlin, President of Furman University and of the Southern Baptist Con-
vention; R. R. Moton, Principal of Tuskegee Institute; Howard W. Odum of the
University of North Carolina; Alex W. Spence, lawyer, of Dallas, Texas; Monroe
N. Work, Department of Records and Research, Tuskegee Institute; W. C.
Jackson, Vice-President of North Carolina College for Women, and Chairman of
the Commission on Interracial Cooperation, and W. W. Alexander, Executive
Director of the Commission on Interracial Cooperation.
Among other phases of the general lynching problem, which the Commission has
undertaken to study has been that of its legal aspects. For this purpose a special
section has been set up with an advisory committee of Southern law school deans.
The specific study for this Commission of Law School Deans is being made by the
University of North Carolina School of Law, with James H. Chadbourn, as Re-
search Secretary working under the immediate supervision of Dean Van Hecks
and his faculty.
At a conference held at Atlanta under the auspices of the Commission on Inter-
racial Cooperation which has its headquarters in that city, 21 white women active
in the religious, educational and social life of eight Southern states put themselves
on record against lynching "in every form and under all circumstances."
The General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church South authorized
appointment of a Commission to meet with a like Commission from the Colored
Methodist Episcopal Church for the purpose of studying the challenge to further
interracial and inter-church cooperation.
The following list summarizes the legislation and court decisions relating to
race relations from 1995 to 1930.
1. Legislative Acts and Court Decisions as to Marriage, Public Conveyances, Public
Places and Lynching
In 1924 the Virginia General Assembly passed a racial integrity law. At each
meeting of the Assembly between 1924 and 1930 bills were proposed to amend
weaknesses in the act of 1924, which turned primarily on the definition of a "colored
1925 to 1930
Efforts to pass marriage laws forbidding Negroes to marry persons of other races
failed in the following states: Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts,
Michigan, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Wisconsin and the
District of Columbia. The following states attempted to amend their existing
laws on intermarriage of Negroes: Colorado, Mississippi and Oregon.
The following states have laws making intermarriage of Negroes and whites
illegal: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida,
Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri,
Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon,
South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia,
Legislation proposed for the separation of races in public conveyances but not
enacted as follows: Indiana Legislature, segregation on all railroads and street
cars in the state; Kentucky Legislature, segregation on street cars in the state;
United States Senate, segregation on street cars in the District of Columbia.
The Virginia General Assembly enacted a law requiring that any place of public
entertainment or public assemblage which is attended by both white and colored
persons shall have seats set apart and designated for colored persons and for white
persons. This law was aimed against Hampton Institute because of the established
custom of seating all persons attending entertainments given there without dis-
crimination because of color.
The Delaware and Nebraska Legislatures passed anti-lynching laws.
Georgia amended its racial integrity law but failed to make appropriation for
enforcing the same.
70 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
Virginia General Assembly passed an anti-lynching law.
The North Carolina Supreme Court handed down a decision that bus lines as
common carriers must carry Negro inter-state passengers. In 1928 the transporta-
tion committee of the North Carolina Commission on Interracial Coiperation
petitioned the state corporation commission to make rules in accordance with its
authority over bus operators and bus stations providing for equal and separate
accommodation for Negro passengers. It had been the custom of the bus lines
not to carry Negro passengers. The corporation commission held that the
Legislature had not declared bus operators common carriers and therefore the
commission was without power of authority to declare them to be such. The
Interracial Commission's Committee filed a bill of exceptions which the corpora-
tion overruled. The case was carried to the superior court which held with the
committee. The corporation committee appealed from the court's decision. In
the meantime the General Assembly of the State in 1929 had the bus operation
law amended to provide that bus operators who announced themselves to be
carriers of white and colored passengers must provide equal but separate accommo-
dations for the two races. This was restricted by a provision that "nothing
contained in this act or the law amended hereby shall be construed to declare
operators of buses or taxicabs, common carriers." The Supreme Court ruled
2. Legislative Acts and Court Decisions as to Education
Ohio Supreme Court refused to review a suit brought against the Board of
Education of the Woodlawn rural school district of Hamilton County to compel
the Board to discontinue special classes for Negro children on the ground that the
method of segregation constituted discrimination.
New Mexico Legislature passed a school segregation measure requiring that
pupils of African descent and pupils of Caucasian descent be taught in separate
rooms, provided the accommodations for each are the same.
The Arizona Legislature passed a school segregation bill calling for separate
schools for whites and Negroes in the state.
The New Jersey Supreme Court issued a writ directing officers of the Pennsyl-
vania Avenue School, Atlantic City, to admit Negro children or show cause.
School authorities had attempted to make colored children attend the segregated
Indiana Avenue School where they arrived exhausted and often late because of the
great distance they had to go.
West Virginia Supreme Court affirmed the right of Negroes to joint use with
white citizens of the Charleston Public Library.
3. Legislative Acts and Court Decisions as to Political Status
The United States Circuit Court of Appeals rendered a decision which put an
end to litigation begun in 1924 over the right of Negroes to register and vote in
Okfuskee County, Oklahoma.
St. Paul, Minnesota, June 9th. Litigation over the right of Negroes to register
and vote in Okfuskee County, Oklahoma, was finally ended June 1st, when the U. S.
Circuit Court of Appeals, St. Paul, Minnesota, dismissed the appeal taken from
the U. S. District Court rendered at Tulsa, Oklahoma, against the election board
of Okfuskee County and the State Election Board of Oklahoma commanding the
registrars to enroll the names of more than 1,000 qualified voters of the Negro
The United States Supreme Court held that the law barring Negroes from
voting in Democratic primary elections in Texas was unconstitutional.
Washington, March 12th. The Texas "white" primary election law denying
the right to Negroes to vote in Democratic primary elections, was held unconstitu-
tional by the United States Supreme Court in a unanimous opinion delivered
Monday, deciding the case of Dr. L. A. Nixon, a resident and qualified voter of
El Paso, brought against Champ Clark Herndon and Charles Porras, El Paso
County election officials. The lower court dismissed the case, sustaining the
motion of defendants, who contended that the subject matter of the suit is political
and not within the jurisdiction of the court and that no violations of the fourteenth
and fifteenth amendments to the constitution were shown. A writ of error was
taken to the United States Supreme Court.
The Southern Texas United States District Court and the Western Texas
United States District Court each refused to grant injunctions to restrain the
Democratic organizations from barring Negroes from the Democratic primary in
Texas. Appeals from the decision were taken.
The judge of the Circuit Court of Little Rock, Arkansas, issued a temporary
order restraining judges and clerks in the city primary election of Little Rock
from denying Negroes the ballot. In 1929 the Chancery Court dismissed the suit
72 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
on the ground that no question of the validity of Arkansas election laws was in-
volved in the litigation. An Appeal to the Arkansas Surpeme Court was taken.
In 1930 this court denied the appeal. An appeal to the United States Supreme
Court was immediately made.
Rules of the Democratic party in Arkansas were held in conflict with a decision
of the United States Supreme Court in so far as the barring of Negroes from pri-
maries is concerned, when Judge Mann of Second Division Circuit Court, acting
as chancellor, yesterday issued a temporary order restraining judges and clerks
in the city primary from denying Negroes the ballot.
The Law and Equity Court of Richmond, Virginia, ruled that Negro Demo-
crats were not eligible to vote in the Democratic primary election. The United
States District Court of the Eastern District of Virginia ruled that the Virginia
primary law was in contradiction to the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments
of the Constitution of the United States. An appeal from this decision was made
by the Democratic party of Virginia.
Asheville, North Carolina, June 13th. The United States Circuit Court of
Appeals today ruled that the Democratic party of Virginia had no right to bar
"Negroes and other races" from its primary. The ruling was contained in the
Court's opinion affirming a decision of the district court at Richmond, Virginia, in
the case of James O. West, Negro, vs. A. C. Bailey, William Boltz and William
Richer. The three defendants were Democratic judges in the precinct in which
the Negro lived in Richmond. West was refused the right to participate in the
Democratic primaries for selection of nominees as city officials of Richmond on
April 3, 1928, on the grounds that the plan of the Democratic party, adopted
June 11th, 1924, limited the right to participate in its primaries to white people.
The opinion was written by Judge Elliott Northcutt of Huntington, West Virginia.
"If all the political parties in the state of Virginia incorporated the same qualifications
in their rules and regulations as did the Democratic party," he wrote, "Nobody would
participate in the primary except white persons and other persons would be deprived of a
material right guaranteed to them under the constitution as amended: That is the right
to participate in the selection of candidates to be voted for in the election."
On September 13th, 1930, the sixty 'days time limit for noting an appeal to the
United States Supreme Court expired. On September 16th it was reported from
Richmond that election officials in local primaries will be instructed by the city
electoral board to allow Negroes to vote who satisfy the officials that they are
Democrats under the condition applying to white voters. Thus it would appear
that the Negroes of Virginia have established their right to participate in the
Democratic primary in that state.
The Federal Court of El Paso, Texas, dismissed injunction proceedings to pre-
vent Democratic officials from barring Negroes from the Democratic primary.
An appeal to the United States Supreme Court was taken.
4. Legislative Acts and Court decision as to Residential Segregation
Louisiana Supreme Court sustained the validity of the New Orleans ordinance
designed to protect white residential neighborhoods against invasion by Negro
residents and to protect Negro neighborhoods against similar invasion by white
residents. This ordinance was authorized by a state law passed in 1924.
The Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia again upheld residential
segregation in Washington when it handed down a decision in 1925 holding valid
a covenant among property owners not to sell to Negroes.
The United States Supreme Court handed down a decision which declared that
the court finds nothing in the Fifth, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments
to the Constitution to sustain the contention that the constitutional rights of
colored people had been invaded by the established practice of owners of property
in white neighborhoods in the District of Columbia who agreed among themselves
not to sell or lease their property to persons of African descent. In spite of the
United States Supreme Court's decision, the validity of covenants binding property
owners not to permit their property to be sold to or occupied by colored persons,
continued to be attacked in the courts.
Justice A. A. Hoehling of the Supreme Bench of the District of Columbia
granted a temporary injunction restraining the sale of property affected by a
restrictive covenant to colored people.
Declaring the residential segregation ordinance passed recently by the City
of Norfolk invalid and without effect, Judge Spindle of the police court ruled
against efforts to herd the Negroes of Norfolk in restricted areas.
Rendering the decision that the segregation ordinance passed a few months
ago by the City Council is repugnant to the Fourteenth Amendment, Judge John
M. Hart, Judge of the Hustings Court for the City of Roanoke, Virginia, dismissed
the appeal case of Doctor George E. Moore, in Hustings Court on July 19th. Four
or five similar cases of colored persons charged with violating the segregation ordi-
nance also were dismissed.
There were five suits pending in District of Columbia Supreme Court involving
the ownership and occupancy of property by colored persons.
The Texas Legislature passed an act relative to white and Negro communities
in municipalities to foster a separation of white and Negro residence communities
in the interest of peace, safety and welfare.
74 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
Washington, March 14th. Negroes won another victory in the United States
Supreme Court today when the tribunal ruled that property owners have no au-
thority under the Constitution to pass laws which bar Negroes from living in white
communities. The Louisiana segregation law, under which white and Negro
communities were established was held invalid by the high court reversing an
opinion of the Louisiana Supreme Court.
Detroit, July 21st. All charges against Dr. Ossian H. Sweet, his wife and eight
other Negroes concerning the killing of Leon Breiner during a race riot staged in
front of the Sweet home on September 5th, 1925, were nolle pressed today. The
Negroes were brought to trial on charges of homicide and conspiracy to kill Breiner
after rioting which resulted from opposition to the Sweet family's moving into a
part of the city where they were the only Negro family. The jury disagreed after
forty-six hours and a new trial was ordered. Instead of proceeding with a second
trial with all the defendants together, Henry Sweet, a brother, was then tried and
New York. Samuel A. Browne, a Negro postman of Staten Island, has won
his three year fight to stay in his home.
Salem, Oregon, February 12th. In the last election the people were asked to
drop from the Constitution the unconstitutional section prohibiting Negroes from
taking up their residence in Oregon; the measure was adopted by an overwhelming
New Orleans, Louisiana, March 28th. The State Supreme Court has ordered
the mandate of the United States Supreme Court in the segregation suit of Joseph
Tyler against Ben Harmon put into effect by the Civil District Court and a final
judgment rendered in favor of Harmon.
In February the Richmond, Virginia Common Council passed a residential
In April a petition was filed in the United States District Court to restrain the
city from enforcing the segregation ordinance. The court declared the ordinances
unconstitutional. The United States Court of Appeals affirmed the decision of
the District Court. The City of Richmond took an appeal to the United States
Supreme Court. This court on May 19th, 1930, affirmed the decision of the lower
Federal courts. On May 25th, 1930, the City of Richmond failed in its attempt
to have the United States Supreme Court reconsider its action and re-open the case.
In June the United States Supreme Court refused to review two cases involving
the constitutionality of residential segregation agreements of property owners which
had been held legal by the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia.
In July a suit was brought in the Court of Appeals in the District of Columbia
in which it was charged that the covenants against the ownership of property by
colored persons are in restraint of alienation and also in restraint of trade and
against the public policy of the United States.
In November, West Virginia Supreme Court ruled against restrictive deed
clauses based on color.
In December the Texas Supreme Court declared invalid the act relating to
white and Negro communities in municipalities.
Austin, Texas, January 17th. Texas cities are powerless to enforce race
segregation ordinances, according to the Supreme Court of Texas in a decision last
Wednesday. The court denied a rehearing to the City of Dallas in a proceeding
against the Liberty Annex Corporation, owner of a colored subdivision. The city
ordinance was held to be contrary to the due process of the law section of the
Fourteenth Amendment to the Federal Constitution.
The United States Circuit Court of Appeals at Richmond, Virginia has affirmed
the recent decision by Judge Groner of the United States District Court of the
Eastern District of Virginia, who declared the recently enacted segregation ordi-
nance passed by the City Council of Richmond to be unconstitutional, the decision
of the Court of Appeals resulting from an appeal by the City of Richmond from
Judge Groner's decision rendered by Circuit Judges Parker and Northcott and
District Judge McDowell.
5. Court Decisions as to Secret Societies
United States Supreme Court handed down a decision in which the right of
Negroes of the Ancient Egyptian Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine
to use similar name and titles, emblems and regalia of the white Shriners was
upheld. This suit was begun in 1918 at Houston, Texas and was carried through
the courts of Texas and after eleven years of litigation the United States Supreme
Court decision was handed down.
DEVELOPMENTS IN THE RELATIONS BETWEEN WHITE
AND BLACK IN AFRICA (1911-1931)
DR. J. H. OLDHAM'
The outstanding event in the last twenty years in the history of Africa as of the
rest of the world was the War. Large numbers of Africans were brought to Europe
either to take part in the actual fighting with the French armies, or, in the case of
the British armies, to assist as labourers in connection with transport. Many
thousands of Africans were also engaged on both sides in the fighting in Eastern
and Central Africa. These experiences widened the horizon of those who took
part in them and demonstrated the inseparable connection between Africa and
the rest of the world.
THE PRINCIPLE OF TRUSTEESHIP
As a result of the War the territories in Africa belonging to Germany were
transferred to the Associated and Allied Powers and were assigned by them to
various powers under mandate. There was thus introduced into the public law of
Europe the important conception that in the government of subject races "there
should be applied the principle that the well-being and development of such
peoples form a sacred trust of civilization." The Treaty of Versailles further
provided that "securities for the performance of this trust" should be embodied in
the Covenant of the League of Nations.
As a means of giving effect to this principle the mandates for the territories in
Africa include provisions that the mandatory power shall 'undertake to promote
to the utmost the material and moral well-being and the social progress' of the
inhabitants of the territory; that it shall provide for the eventual emancipation of
the slaves and for a speedy elimination of domestic and other slavery as social
conditions will allow; that it shall suppress all forms of slave trade; that it shall
prohibit all forms of forced or compulsory labour except for essential public works
and services; that it shall protect the natives from abuse and measures of fraud
and force by the careful supervision of labour contracts and the recruiting of labour,
I Dr. Oldham has been for many years the representative of the Phelps-Stokes Fund in Europe.
He is the author of "Christianity and the Race Problem" and other books. He is a member of the
Advisory Committee on Education of the Colonial Office and Administrative Director of the Board of
the International Institute of African Languages and Cultures. He is Secretary of the International
Missionary Council and served on the recent government commission which investigated conditions in
RACE RELATIONS IN AFRICA
and that in the forming of laws relating to the trading or transfer of land it shall
take into consideration native laws and customs and respect the rights and safe-
guard the interests of the Native population. In order to ensure that effect is
given to these provisions it is stipulated that the mandatory power must submit
annually to the League of Nations a report on the way in which the administration
of such territories has been conducted during the previous year, and there has been
set up for the purpose of examining these reports a Permanent Mandates Com-
mission. By this means there is being made increasingly available a body of knowl-
edge regarding the conditions of life among African peoples, and the policy and
methods of colonial powers entrusted with the administration of mandated terri-
tories are subjected to public scrutiny and the criticism of informed public opinion.
SLAVERY AND FORCED LABOUR
As part of the general settlement following upon the War, a Convention
revising the Acts of Berlin (1885) and Brussels (1890) was agreed upon by a Con-
ference of Plenipotentiaries of the leading powers and signed at St. Germain-en-
Laye in 1919. This Convention relates to the regions forming the basin of the
Congo, and includes within its scope a large part of Central Africa. In this Con-
vention the signatory powers undertake 'to watch over the preservation of the
Native population and to supervise the improvement of the conditions of their
moral and material well-being.' In particular they pledge themselves to 'endeavour
to secure the complete suppression of slavery in all its forms and of the slave trade
by land and sea.'
The question of slavery was followed up by the appointment in 1924 by the
League of Nations of a Committee to investigate the subject and as the result of its
report a Convention was adopted and approved by the League in 1926 which by
1930 had been ratified by thirty-three states, including the United States of America.
In this Convention the powers bind themselves to bring about "progressively and
as soon as possible the complete abolition of slavery in all its forms." They also
undertake to take all necessary measures to prevent compulsory or forced labour
from developing into conditions analogous to slavery. It is laid down that forced
labour, except so far as transitory arrangements are concerned, may only be
exacted for public purposes. Where transitory conditions are necessary compul-
sory labour for other than public purposes shall be of an exceptional nature, shall
receive adequate remuneration and shall not involve the removal of the labourers
from their usual place of residence. In 1930 the conference of the International
Labour Organization on Forced Labour prepared a draft convention by which the
States who ratify it undertake to suppress the use of forced or compulsory labour
in all its forms. The convention further provides guarantees and safeguards to
cover the transitional period during which compulsory labour for public purposes
may be required. This is now before the states members of the International
Labour Organization for ratification.
78 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
LAND AND LABOUR
The two fundamental questions affecting the rights and interests of the Native
populations of Africa are those of land and labour. The question of Native rights
in land has been a major question in the political life of South Africa since General
Hertzog introduced his Native bills in 1927. The distribution of land between white
and black in Southern Rhodesia was the subject of investigation by a Commission
which issued an important report in 1925. In Kenya the acuteness of the land
question led to the introduction of a new land ordinance in 1927. Though its
professed object was to provide that certain areas of crown land should be created
Native Reserves and it was stated that these areas "are reserved and set aside for
the use and benefit of the native tribes of the Colony forever," some of its provisions
met with strong opposition in England as insufficiently safeguarding Native interests
and the Secretary of State insisted on the adoption of certain amendments before
it was finally enacted in 1931.
On the subject of labour an important report was issued in 1925 by a repre-
sentative and influential Belgian Commission appointed by the Government, and a
further report in 1928 by a second committee under the presidency of the Prime
Minister. These two reports which deal thoroughly with the problem of the re-
cruiting of labour in the Belgian Congo were issued under the title La Problkme
de la Main-D'Oeuvre au Congo Belge. The question of Native labour has also figured
largely in the controversies relating to East Africa to which reference is made in
later paragraphs. In Tanganyika the Government established a Labour Depart-
ment under the able direction of Major Orde-Brown whose annual reports shed
much valuable light on the subject. He is at present engaged in writing an impor-
tant volume on Labour in Africa for the International Institute of African Lan-
guages and Cultures.
MINING PROBLEMS IN SOUTH AFRICA, RHODESIA AND THE CONGO
The large mining developments in prospect in Northern Rhodesia will increase
the large aggregation of Natives in mining centres, such as already exist in the
Union of South Africa and the Belgian Congo. The growing demands for labour
in the mines affect the life of almost every village in the southern half of the African
continent. A large human problem is created which needs to be envisaged and
dealt with in a comprehensive way. It has engaged the attention of the Department
of Social and Industrial Research and Counsel recently set up by the International
Missionary Council at Geneva. The formation of this new Department in 1930
is in itself a significant contribution to the betterment of racial relations. The
Department proposes to undertake as its first major task an investigation of the
religious and social conditions of the populations, both white and black, in the
mining areas of the Union of South Africa, the Rhodesias and the Belgian Congo.
For the carrying out of this investigation a generous grant has been received from
the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Mr. Merle Davis, the Director of the
RACE RELATIONS IN AFRICA
new Department, has visited the territories in question for the purpose of obtaining
the advice of those on the spot and it is hoped that the proposed investigation will
be carried out in 1932.
A considerable stir was created early in 1931 by the publication of the report
of a commission sent to Liberia at the suggestion of the Liberian Government,
under the auspices of the League of Nations, to enquire into the existence of slavery
and forced labour. The report showed a very unsatisfactory situation and it was
clear that conditions of compulsion scarcely distinguishable from slave-raiding
and slave-trading had been tolerated by the republic. The President and several
high officials resigned and in the summer of 1931 the League of Nations sent out
a further commission of three experts-on finance, general administration and
health-to study the situation and make concrete proposals.
RACIAL RELATIONS IN BRITISH EAST AFRICA
Racial relations in the British territories in Eastern and Central Africa and in
particular in the colony of Kenya have given rise to much public discussion in
recent years. The question was forced to the front in consequence of the conflict-
ing claims in regard to the political and other rights of the immigrant European
and Indian communities in Kenya. Various attempts to adjust the rival claims
resulted in the issue in 1923 of a memorandum by the Duke of Devonshire in which
a number of decisions were reached, and it was laid down that "in the administra-
tion of Kenya His Majesty's Government regard themselves as exercising a trust
on behalf of the African population and they are unable to delegate or share this
trust, the object of which may be defined as the protection and advancement of
the Native races;" and that "as in the Uganda Protectorate so in Kenya Colony
the principle of trusteeship for the Natives, no less than in the mandated territory
of Tanganyika, is unassailable." Questions relating to East Africa continued to
engage public attention, and in 1924 a Parliamentary Commission visited East
Africa under the chairmanship of Major Ormsby-Gore. This was followed by the
sending out in 1927 of a further commission presided over by Sir Edward Hilton-
Young, M.P., to consider the question of the closer union of the six British terri-
tories in Eastern and Central Africa. The report of this commission dealt very
fully with general questions of Native policy and with the problem of the political
relations between different racial communities in a "mixed state." The report
of the commission gave rise to renewed discussion, and Sir Samuel Wilson, the per-
manent head of the Colonial Office, was sent out to discuss the proposals of the
report with the Governments and communities in East Africa.
Following on the report of Sir Samuel Wilson, a memorandum embodying
proposals for closer union and another on Native policy were issued by the late
Labour Government. These were referred to a Joint Select Committee of the two
80 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
Houses of Parliament, composed of ten members of the House of Lords and ten
members of the House of Commons. A very significant feature of the proceedings
of the Committee was the evidence given by African delegates from Uganda, Kenya
and Tanganyika. The self-possession and ability of these witnesses made a deep
impression on theCommittee and on public opinion. The report of this committee,
issued in November 1931, brings to a conclusion one long stage in the consideration
of the problems of British East Africa. The Committee reaffirm the principle
that the trusteeship of the Natives must remain the function of His Majesty's
Government, and that it is the mission of Great Britain to work continuously for
the training and education of the Africans towards a higher intellectual, moral
and economic level. They make a number of important proposals regarding the
steps to be taken for the realization of these ends.
The foregoing declaration regarding the responsibility of working for the train-
ing and education of the African peoples is a reminder that the obligations of
trusteeship are not discharged merely by protecting these peoples from injustice
and exploitation but that there is a positive duty of promoting in every possible
way their material and moral well-being.
In connection with the important subject of education it may be noted that
in 1917 there was published the first comprehensive survey of Native education
in the Union of South Africa, by Dr. C. T. Loram, which lifted the problems of
African education to a new level of discussion.
In 1920-21 a visit was made to West and South Africa by the Phelps-Stokes Com-
mission under the Chairmanship of Dr. Thomas Jesse Jones, and this was followed
by a further visit to East, Central and South Africa of a second Commission in
1923-24. The Reports of these two Commissions came at a time when both the
governments and the missionary bodies in Africa were becoming increasingly alive
to the importance of education and were looking for guidance. The help furnished
by the Reports of the Commissions was eagerly welcomed in many quarters. The
British Government gave an official dinner in honour of Dr. Jones as a token of
their appreciation of his services. The Reports of the Phelps-Stokes Commissions
formed part of the material on which a Belgian Commission based its recommenda-
tions regarding educational policy in the Congo. The Reports also attracted
attention in the French Colonies.
Not least among the services rendered to Africa by the Phelps-Stokes Com-
missions was the inclusion as a member of the Commission of Dr. J. E. Kwegyir
Aggrey, a Native of the Gold Coast. He was animated by a passionate belief in
the necessity and value of cooperation between black and white for the good of
Africa and possessed a unique gift of interpreting one race to the other. His
influence was felt all over Africa and has been perpetuated by the publication in
1929 of a biography by the Rev. E. W. Smith under the title Aggrey of Africa.
RACE RELATIONS IN AFRICA
As the result of representations made by the missionary societies, and with the
help and stimulus afforded by the Reports of the Phelps-Stokes Commission, the
Secretary of State for the Colonies in London set up in 1923 an Advisory Committee
on Native Education in Tropical Africa. This action was due largely to the
enthusiasm and initiative of the Hon. W. Ormsby-Gore, who was at that time
Under Secretary of State for the Colonies. The membership of the Committee
included such distinguished educationists as Sir Michael Sadler, Sir Percy Nunn,
Dr. Spens, now Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University, Miss Burstall, and Miss
Whitelaw, as well as members of Parliament, eminent administrators such as
Lord Lugard, and representatives of the missionary societies, Protestant and Roman
Catholic, who are at the present time responsible for the greater part of African
education. It is thus evident that the British Government, realising the immense
importance of its educational responsibilities for African peoples, has resolved to
call to its aid the best educational insight and experience that it can command.
As the result of the new interest in African education great advances have been
made in education in most of the British territories in Africa, while departments of
education have for the first time been set up in Uganda (1924) Nyasaland (1926)
and Northern Rhodesia (1927).
Owing to the enthusiasm of the late Sir Gordon Guggisberg and his profound
belief in education, measures were taken to set up in the Prince of Wales' College
at Achimota in the Gold Coast an institution which is intended to develop into a
West African university. The Rev. A. G. Fraser was appointed as the first Princi-
pal in 1924 with Dr. Aggrey as his colleague. It has much the largest staff of any
educational institution for Africans in the continent of Africa. Other advances
in higher education are the starting of the Government College at Makerere in
Uganda (1922), the combined effort by the Protestant missionary societies in the
establishment of a High School in Kenya (the Alliance High School, opened in 1926)
and the formation of plans for opening colleges in both Southern and Northern
The Belgian Government has also in recent years devoted much attention to
the question of the education of the Natives in the Congo. The Projet d'Organiza-
tion de l'Enseignement libre au Congo (1925) which was the result of the work of
the commission referred to above, lays broad and wise foundations for the develop-
ment of education. The policy of the Belgian Government is to rely in carrying
out the educational task mainly on voluntary agencies and substantial state sup-
port is accorded to 'national' missions, among which are included one Protestant
mission. The curriculum and principles of education proposed in the Projet are
in full accord with the ideals of the old-established Protestant missions in the Congo,
many of which are already working on these lines.
Portuguese Governments in East and West Africa also show a development of
interest in the education of the Natives. New regulations in Portuguese East
Africa in 1930, though at first they raised difficulties for the missions, have in the
82 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
course of development brought about a new cooperation between Protestant mis-
sions and the Government in education.
THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AFRICAN LANGUAGES AND
Discussions which took place at a missionary conference held at High Leigh
near London, resulted in the formation in 1926 of the International Institute of
African Languages and Cultures. The establishment of the Institute was greatly
assisted by a grant from the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial of $5,000 a year
for a period of five years. The Institute has been successful in securing the adhesion
as members of its Governing Body of all the principal institutions and societies
interested in African research. It thus represents a combined international effort
to achieve a better understanding of African society and its institutions. The
Chairman of the Institute is the Rt. Hon. Lord Lugard, and its two Directors are
Professor Diedrich Westermann of Berlin and Professor H. Labouret of Paris.
The Secretary-General is Major Hanns Vischer, the Secretary of the Advisory
Committee on Education at the Colonial Office, and the writer of this article has
just been appointed Administrative Director.
The Institute has issued an orthography of African languages, established a
quarterly journal entitled Africa, published several volumes relating to the study
of African peoples, and stimulated African authorship by the offer of prizes for
the best works in the various languages of Africa. It has recently obtained a
substantial grant from the Rockefeller Foundation for the development of its
programme of sociological research and with the help of leading anthropologists,
administrators, educationalists and missionaries had decided upon a programme
directed especially to the study of the forces of cohesion in African society, the ways
in which these are being affected by the new influences from without, and the new
social groupings and bonds which are coming into existence. A serious and con-
certed effort is being made in this way to consider a question that is of vital impor-
tance for the future of the African race.
THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH AND RACIAL RELATIONS
This survey may be brought to a close by reference to the endeavours of the
Christian forces collectively to bring about understanding and cooperation between
In 1926 an International Conference on the Christian Mission in Africa was
held at Le Zoute in Belgium. It was attended not only by missionary administra-
tors from Europe and America and missionaries from all parts of Africa, but also
by a number of government officials, British and Belgian, such well-known leaders
in inter-racial work in the United States as Dr. James H. Dillard and Dr. Anson
Phelps Stokes, and by distinguished representatives of the Negro community in
America and of the peoples of Africa, such as Dr. John Hope, Mr. John Dube and
RACE RELATIONS IN AFRICA
The Conference passed a number of resolutions which have done much to guide
missionary policy in such matters as education, the production of literature and
Native health and welfare. It also passed emphatic resolutions on the necessity
of guaranteeing to African peoples that the tenure of their land is absolutely
secure, on the inadmissibility of forced labour for private enterprise, and on the
desirability of thorough enquiry into the effect on the life of African peoples of
demands for labour involving prolonged absence from home.
In 1928 a meeting of the International Missionary Council was held at Jeru-
salem, attended by representatives not only of the Western Churches in Europe
and Asia but of the younger Churches in Asia and Africa. The latter continent
was represented by Professor Tengo Jabavu and Mr. Max Yergan from South Africa,
Omw. Sirwano Kulubya from Uganda and Bishop A. W. Howells from Nigeria.
The Report of its proceedings was published in eight volumes, one of which deals
with the subject of 'Missions and Race Conflicts.' In addition to papers on the
situation in the United States by President Hope and Dr. Woofter, and on South
Africa by Dr. Dexter Taylor, the Report contains a series of important resolutions on
the whole range of racial relations, too comprehensive in their scope for summary
The Lambeth Conference of Bishops of the Anglican Communion, meeting in
1930, included in its resolutions two pronouncements on the subject of race, which
are important as defining the official attitude of that communion on the subject.
The first affirms that the principle of trusteeship "cannot be duly applied in practice
without full recognition of the fact that partnership must eventually follow as
soon as two races can show an equal standard of civilisation. Accordingly, the
Conference affirms that the ruling of one race by another can only be justified
from the Christian standpoint when the highest welfare of the subject race is the
constant aim of government, and when admission to an increasing share in the
government of the country is an objective steadfastly pursued. To this end equal
opportunity and impartial justice must be assured."
Secondly, the Conference affirmed its conviction that "all communicants with-
out distinction of race or colour should have access in any church to the Holy
Table of the Lord, and that no one should be excluded from worship in any church
on account of colour or race. Further, it urges that where, owing to diversity of
language or custom, Christians of different races normally worship apart, special
occasions should be sought for united services and corporate communion in order
to witness to the unity of the Body of Christ."
NATIVE PROGRESS AND IMPROVEMENT IN RACE
RELATIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA
PROFESSOR CHARLES T. LORAM
In Native affairs, as in most other progressing activities, it is the looker on
who sees most of the game. The official and the close student often become
enmeshed in details and thus fail to see fully the changes that have taken place.
If we are wise enough to pause from time to time and to compare what is with what
was, we get a better idea of progress. There is then real wisdom as well as cause
for encouragement-in spite of some recent reactionary tendencies which are to
be deplored-in comparing the position of South African Natives today with that
of twenty years ago, and if we believe that progress is to be measured not only by
where a people are but by how far they have come, the progress of the Native people
of South Africa in the last two decades will appear to be remarkable. Piquancy
is lent to the comparison today because the South African Union was established
in 1910, so that the following survey begins at the birth of South Africa as a Domin-
ion and concludes at its coming of age.
SECTION 1. LAND QUESTION
Inasmuch as South Africa has embarked upon the policy of the territorial
segregation of the races the Native Question is today the land question. The
amount of usable land in South Africa is limited. The land reserves or locations
which the white man set aside for the black from fifty to a hundred years ago have
become crowded, and the Natives have overflowed on to the farms and into the
towns. One of the reasons which brought about the Union in 1910 was the desire
to adopt a common policy with regard to the encroachment of Natives on what
were regarded as European areas. The Natives in tribes or syndicates, or even as
individuals, began to buy or lease land outside the Reserves, so the Natives Land
Act was passed in 1913 to prevent Natives from buying land from Europeans except
in areas to be subsequently determined by Parliament. It is significant that
those areas have never yet been determined, though General Hertzog, the Prime
Minister, has had certain proposals before the country for several years. It is
believed, however, that he will not proceed with his land proposals until the Cape
Native has been deprived of his present franchise rights. No piece of legislation
ever passed by the white man's government has raised greater resentment among
the Natives than this Land Act of 1913, and the only way in which it can be
regarded as a sign of progress is that it has drawn the attention of both races to the
NATIVE PROGRESS IN SOUTH AFRICA
fact that the land in South Africa is limited and has made the Native realise clearly
that he must make better use of the small portion that he already has.
In the Native land areas some progress has been made with the survey of land
into small allotments and the granting of a form of individual title but for the most
part the land is held communally. A large portion of the Transkeian Territories'
has been surveyed and quite recently certain of the Native Mission Reserves in
Natal have been cut up into ten or twelve acre lots for sugar cane growing. The
Natives ardently desire an extension of this system but it has received a check
recently, partly because of the expense of survey, and partly because under an
individual survey system there would be many thousands of Natives for whom
land could not be found. It is apparent, however, that the check is merely
temporary, and that in course of time the European system of the individual
ownership of land will replace the Natives own system of communal ownership.
SECTION 2. AGRICULTURE
Twenty years ago the late Mr. Maurice Evans could speak of the Native as the
worst agriculturist in the world. Today, that is no longer true. On all sides, and
particularly in those areas where Natives have individual ownership of land, prog-
ress in agriculture has been most marked. Whereas in former years selling mealies
(maize) to Natives was a most profitable undertaking for the white man, today,
the Natives in the Transkeian Territories produce and sell sufficient mealies to
feed themselves, while their annual wool clip amounts to hundreds of thousands
of pounds of good saleable wool. Similar signs of progress are seen in the irrigated
land allotments on the Tugela and Mooi River Native settlements in Natal
where Natives make a good living on lots as small as an acre. Progress in other
Native areas is not so marked, but wherever the Native owns land matters are
much better than they were twenty years ago. It is only among the Native
tenants on European-owned farms that there has been little or no progress. That
is not to be wondered at, since the Native has no security of tenure and is often
called off to do his landlord's cultivation when he would wish to be attending to
his own. The progress in Native agriculture has been chiefly due to the work of
the Native farm demonstrators (see Section 3).
The establishment of Native Credit Societies for loans to approved Natives
for the purchase of stock or implements has been a remarkable feature in connection
with agricultural developments. The proposal had been before the Government
for a good many years but little was done until the Rev. Father Bernard Huss of
Mariannhill Mission put the scheme into operation on his own initiative. Today,
there are over thirty of these societies in the Transkei, some of which have accu-
mulated considerable funds. It is interesting to note that Father Bernard Huss
1 The Transkeian Territories is the large Native Reserve between the Cape and Natal. It has a
population of almost a million Natives and is generally regarded as the most prosperous and best ad-
ministered part of Black South Africa.
86 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
has been helped in his work among Natives by a subsidy for travelling from the
SECTION 3. EMPLOYMENT AND WAGES
Native wages have not kept pace with the increased cost of living since the War,
but there has been a general increase all 'round. The increase has been greatest
in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth where the Natives are engaged as daily paid
labourers. A substantial increase has, however, taken place in all the towns,
and even on the European-owned farms certain slight increases have been made
although these are governed strictly by the law of supply and demand. Native
teachers have benefited very considerably since 1925 by the introduction of a
uniform scale of salaries for Native teachers throughout the Union.
As regards labour opportunities for natives the position has also improved.
Owing largely to increased wants the Natives have left their reserves and locations
to seek work on the mines and in the towns where they have readily found employ-
ment. The present unemployment among Europeans has however given an impe-
tus to the "white labour policy" of the present government and recently large
numbers of Native labourers in government and municipal employ have been
dismissed to make way for Europeans. The supply of farm labour is still unsatis-
factory, but the position can hardly improve until a better rate of wages is paid.
Even then, it will not be easy to retain the Natives on the land in the face of the
lure of the towns.
It is satisfactory to note that an increasingly large number of Natives are
entering into Government employment. Certain branches of the Civil Service
in the Transkei have been thrown open to Natives. Recently a number of health
assistants to assist in the eradication of malaria have been given appointments,
and throughout the Union now there are openings for farm demonstrators.
These latter are educated young men who have been trained in the agricultural
schools of the Transkei, whence after completing two years' training in practical
agriculture they proceed to Native areas and instruct the Native farmers in im-
proved methods of cultivation. More and more the position is being accepted that
where Native tax money is being expended the Natives themselves have a strong
claim for consideration when appointments are made. Much of the improvement
in the opportunities for employment of Natives has been offset by the action of the
Legislature in introducing a "colour bar" into the "MINES AND WORKS ACT." Not
only are Natives debarred from the handling of machinery in certain occupations
but power is given to the Government to declare that a certain occupation is
restricted to Europeans and "Coloureds" (i.e. mulattoes) only. This power has
not yet been exercised but it hangs over the heads of the Natives like the sword of
Damocles and is the cause of much resentment and suspicion.
NATIVE PROGRESS IN SOUTH AFRICA
SECTION 4. GOVERNMENT
During the period under consideration two measures of outstanding importance
affecting the government of Natives have been introduced. The first was the Native
Affairs Act of 1920 which brought into existence the Native Affairs Commission
and also provided for the extension of the council system of government which
had operated so successfully in the Transkei. The second was the Native Adminis-
tration Act of 1927 which consolidated and improved the system of Native adminis-
tration in the Union. The most striking features of this legislation are the appoint-
ment of the Governor General as supreme chief of all the Natives of the Union
thus centralising in him the powers possessed by hereditary Native chiefs, and
the recognition of Native Law and Custom in the courts. This act is regarded
by Europeans and Natives alike as a very important step in the progress of the
Native people towards nationhood.
The Native Council system of the Transkei, which gives the control of certain
local matters to a Native council presided over by white magistrates is being gradu-
ally extended with certain modifications to the other provinces. The Native
hereditary chiefs now take a greater share in the working of these councils and
provision for the education of Native chiefs in the arts of government and adminis-
tration has been made at a special school in Zululand. The amalgamation of the
Native General Councils of the Transkei and Pondoland has been a step towards
the creation of a General Native Council for the whole of the Union. The other
side of the picture as regards Native government is the attempt which is now being
made by the Union Government to take away or seriously limit the franchise
privileges which the Native people of the Cape have hitherto enjoyed in common
with the Europeans. None of the suggested substitutes for the franchise has found
favour with the Natives, who fear that any separation from the European in
franchise matters will lead to a loss of their power to modify legislation affecting
SECTION 5. URBAN CONDITIONS
The improvement in the condition of urban Natives since the passing of the
Natives Urban Areas Act in 1923 has been most marked. This Act has thrown
upon municipalities the obligation to house and control the Natives in the towns,
and the municipalities have on the whole risen splendidly to their obligations. A
sum considerably over two million pounds has been spent in improving housing
accommodation, and while the position is by no means ideal, it is infinitely better
than it was. In addition, a scheme of modified local self-government by means of
Native Advisory Boards has been instituted and has proved a great success. A
problem constantly before the Natives and their well-wishers is the provision of
adequate facilities for recreation. A great deal has been done by the mines, certain
municipalities and many individuals, but the legitimate demand greatly outweighs
the supply. Satan still finds mischief for idle hands to do, and many a young
88 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
Native could be saved from the police court and the jail if he had had sport or
some other recreation to occupy his leisure time.
SECTION 6. IMPROVED RACE RELATIONSHIP
In spite of the race bitterness aroused by the Government's proposals regarding
the franchise, the actual relationships between individual whites and individual
blacks appear to have improved. To her honour it should be said that South
Africa has never descended to lynching, and on the whole the Natives have been
treated with justice in the superior Courts, though the scales are often weighted
against the black in some of the inferior courts. A case occurred two or three
years ago when a white man actually received imprisonment and lashes for the
homicide of a Native. The attitude of the press towards Natives has on the whole
been just and even considerate. Certain papers have been outstanding in advo-
cating better treatment for Natives and no single case has come under the writer's
observation of a newspaper advocating violence or ill treatment of Natives. In-
deed, the press of South Africa is considerably in advance of general public opinion
on Native matters.
The Joint Council movement, which corresponds with the Inter-racial Com-
mittees of America, has increased in numbers and in usefulness. The movement
appears to have been started in Cape Town well over thirty years ago, but the
genesis of the present system of councils is to be sought in the Native Affairs Reform
Association started by Mr. Maurice Evans in Durban over twenty years ago.
This association did a great deal of good work, but it was not until the Natives
were admitted to full membership that the strength of the movement asserted
itself. The proposal to make the organisation a Joint Council of Europeans and
Natives rather than a society of Europeans interested in Native welfare came
from Dr. Thomas Jesse Jones and Dr. J. E. K. Aggrey of the Phelps-Stokes Fund
when they visited South Africa in 1921. Dr. Aggrey was particularly successful
in demonstrating to both races the need for joint action. The Joint Council
Movement was fostered by Dr. C. T. Loram, Mr. J. D. Rheinallt Jones, Mr.
Howard Pim and a number of others, so that today it has spread to over thirty
towns and cities. A remarkable conference of Joint Councils was held in Cape
Town in 1928 succeeding certain conferences called by the Dutch Reformed
Church which has shewn an increasing interest in the problem of race relations.
In 1929 the South African Institute of Race Relations was established with the
present writer as chairman, and Mr. Rheinallt Jones as secretary and adviser.
Mr. Rheinallt Jones has been indefatigable in developing the work of the institute
and in fostering the activities of Joint Councils. In marshalling Native opinion
for the presentation of its views to the recent Native Economic Commission, Mr.
Jones has done invaluable service. The most recent instance of the progress
towards improved race relations was the European-Bantu Student Conference
held at Fort Hare College in July 1930. Mr. Max Yergan, an American Negro,
NATIVE PROGRESS IN SOUTH AFRICA
who has done excellent service in the South African colleges gathered together over
200 students, European and Native, for a week's conference. This association of
Native and European students attracted considerable attention and has helped
to make the study of race relations prominent in student discussion clubs.
SECTION 7. CHRISTIANITY AND SOCIAL ACTIVITIES
It may safely be said today that Christianity has been brought within the reach
of practically all the Natives of South Africa. This does not, of course, mean that
the work of evangelisation is over, but rather that the second stage in mission work
has been reached. This is the stage when the European missionary is able to
become a superintendent or director of missions and to leave the active work of
evangelising mainly to the Natives themselves. In many Native churches and
Native sections of European churches the Native people have taken over a large
measure of control and while there are the unavoidable disappointments in some
cases, the movement as a whole has been a success. During the twenty years under
consideration there has been a development of the Native Separatist Church Move-
ment and today there are over 100 Native denominations in the Union, ranging
from strong Native churches like the African Methodist Episcopal Church to small
mushroom organizations which spring up in the back streets of our cities and
perish overnight. Although this movement is disappointing to many well-wishers
of the Natives it in itself represents in some ways an advance since the Native
people feel that in church matters they can walk by themselves.
There have been many developments of social work in connection with the
churches in South Africa. Native Boy Scouts and Girl Guides known in South
Africa as Pathfinders and Wayfarers respectively, flourish. The Bantu Men's
Social Centre in Johannesburg and the clubs for Native boys and girls in the
cities have grown in strength, and the gospel of what has been called social Christi-
anity is being accepted by most of the churches.
The South African General Missionary Conference has become more active
of recent years and looks as if it might develop into a Christian Council for South
Africa on the lines of the successful councils in other parts of the world. In spite
of a lack of adequate Government support, Mission hospitals have sprung up
in many parts and are well patronized by the Natives.
SECTION 8. EDUCATION
It is, however, in education that the greatest advance among the Natives
can be seen. The general standard of education in South Africa is relatively high
because all sections of the community realise its importance. The Native people,
in particular, see that in education more than in anything else lies their hope for
the future. There was a time when the missionaries had almost to thrust educa-
tion upon the Natives, but today the position is that not only the missionaries,
but even the government itself, cannot cope with the demand for education on the
90 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
part of the Natives. A volume could be written on this subject but limitations of
space compel us to refer only to the following outstanding developments:
(a) Enrolment and Financial Support: The following figures show the relative positions
in 1910 and 1929 and indicate more eloquently than words the great advance that has been
Province Year Schools Enrolment Govenment
Ca .............................. 1910 1,662* 103,551* 82,000
................................1929 1,706 131,300 335,213
Natal 1910 175 13,452 10,431
N .................................. 191 71 39,440 100,778
1929 714 39,440 100,778
Transvaal.......................... 1910 236 12,839 10,979
S 1929 597 67,254 92,929
Orange Free State....................... 1910 ? 9,945 2,000
1929 212 22,314 40,100
Including "Coloured"-i.e., Mulattoes and Malays.
(b) Higher standard of work: Not only has the enrolment increased so markedly but the
children are staying longer at school. While it is still the case that more than half the chil-
dren leave school with less than three years of schooling, the numbers in the upper classes are
very much greater today than they were twenty years ago. The training colleges are full
and the recently created high schools are overcrowded. It is unfortunate that much of this
zeal for higher education is prompted mainly by a desire for academic certificates, but signs
are not wanting that the importance of technical training, especially in agricultural matters,
is being appreciated.
(c) Improved organisation: In 1910 Native education was the child, or as the Natives
averred, the step-child of the Education Department, but today all the Colonial Prov-
inces have separate sub-departments dealing with Native education. The officers in
the sub-departments are intensely devoted to their work, and most of them have special
knowledge of Native languages and customs. Recently at the instigation of the Native
Affairs Commission the Provincial Education Departments have appointed Natives as super-
visors of schools. This is but a step towards giving the Natives a much greater part in
the development of their own education.
(d) Teachers' Salaries: A very considerable increase in the salaries paid to Native
Teachers has resulted from the creation of a Native Education and Development Fund under
the Native Affairs Department of the Union. To this fund the Union Government makes
a block grant of 340,000 and also adds one-fifth of the amount collected from Natives in
direct taxation. Although this amount is not nearly sufficient for the needs of the country,
and although the salaries paid to Native Teachers today are not adequate, the figures below
reflect the changed conditions in the Province of Natal and show how great an improve-
ment has taken place.
NATIVE PROGRESS IN SOUTH AFRICA 91
Old Scale New Scale
Men Women Men Women
Uncertificated.. ..................... 18 18 36 30
Grade III ............................ 42 30 42 36
Grade II ............................ 48 36 54 42
Grade I.............................. 60 48 66 54
Uncertificated........................ 18 18 36 30
Grade III.......................... 24 24 42 36
Grade II............................. 30 30 54 42
Grade I............................. 48 36 66 54
Plus a Cost of Living Allowance of 6 per annum for single teachers (men and women), and 12
per annum for married men teachers. Under the new scale Head Teachers receive in addition an
allowance of from 6 to 24 per annum based on average attendance.
(e) Improved curricula: The curricula in use in Native Schools have been very consider-
ably improved. In 1910 they were for the most part dim copies of the European syllabus,
but as a result of policies largely based on the views of the Phelps-Stokes Fund, emphasis
has been laid on "adaptation" in education, so that today the curricula of Native Schools
more closely meet the needs of the Native people than those of any other section of the
community. Emphasis has been laid on mother tongue instruction, the learning of both
official languages, theoretical and practical agriculture, and domestic science.
(f) Vacation Courses: The improvement of teachers actually in practice has been under-
taken by a long series of vacation courses. These have been enthusiastically supported
by the teachers with the result that very great improvements in their work have taken
place. The general policy of adaptation has been preached and in particular the attitude
of the well known Jeanes Teachers of the United States has been aimed at. These vaca-
tion courses have been supported by the various Governments and recently the Carnegie
Corporation of New York has made a special appropriation so that annual courses on Jeanes
Teacher lines open to selected superior teachers, both European and Native, from all parts
of Southern Africa have been instituted. A report on the work of one of these courses
appeared in "School and Society" on January 17, 1931.
(g) South African Native College: As a result of a long sustained agitation for higher
education for Natives which began as far back as 1880, the South African Native College
was opened at Fort Hare on February 8, 1916, with an enrolment of twenty students.
The enrolment is today 142 students. When the College was opened the students were
preparing for the matriculation examination, but today, more than a third of the present
enrolment have passed that examination and are reading for the degrees of the University
of South Africa. More than a dozen students have taken the B.A. degree and two are today
candidates for the M.A. degree. In 1916 the entrance qualification was generally a Teacher's
Certificate, but now with the growth of High Schools in all the Provinces the Junior Certifi-
cate Examination of the University is the entrance qualification.
92 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
In 1927, the average annual cost per student was 85, but this cost has since been
reduced. The total amount of fees paid by students averages well over 2,500. For the
Native people to be able to raise this sum of money for higher education indicates their strong
belief in education as a factor in their development.
SECTION 9. GENERAL INDICATIONS OF PROGRESS
Besides the signs of Native progress summarised in the preceding pages, the
following evidence is worthy of inclusion in any account of Native progress:
(a) Bantu studies in the Universities: In 1910, there was practically no systematised
study of Native affairs in South Africa, but today there are flourishing departments of
African studies in all the universities and in some of the university colleges. South Africa
is making contributions of great importance in the philology and ethnology of Africa, and
among the contributors are several Natives.
(b) Vernacular Literature: There has been of recent years a steady output of vernacular
literature written by Natives on a great variety of subjects, and in addition, the quality of
of the work done has improved enormously. No longer is this work confined to transla-
tions and religious books, but novels, plays, technical books, songs and educational works
are beginning to appear. The International Institute of African Languages and Cultures
is fostering this movement very successfully.
(c) Native Trades Union: Of recent years a very decided move towards the formation
of a trades union among Natives has taken place. Unfortunately, the affairs of this
organisation were badly mismanaged and at present the movement is under a cloud, but
signs are not wanting that it will emerge in a purer and better form.
(d) Overseas interest in South African Native Affairs: Apart from the political interest
which the race situation in South Africa is arousing all over the world, there are certain
philanthropic organizations which have identified themselves closely though not exclusively
with Native matters. The first of these was the Phelps-Stokes Fund which for the last
ten years has done a great deal for the Natives in South Africa, not only by making contribu-
tions to existing works, but also by enabling missionaries and other workers in South Africa
to see the best examples of similar work in the United States. These visits have proved
specially helpful in opening the eyes of representative South Africans to the potentiality of
the Negro, and in giving him concrete suggestions based on the work of such educational
institutions as Tuskegee Institute and such activities as the Extension Division of the
U. S. Department of Agriculture, the Jeanes Teachers, and the Commission on Race
The Carnegie Corporation of New York has set aside for Native studies a certain
amount of the 100,000 Grant, which it made to projects in this country. These grants
range from research grants, to enable scientists to investigate philological and ethnographic
matters, to contributions towards a mission printing press, vacation courses, and the
South African Institute of Race Relations.
Recently the Rockefeller Foundation has made South Africa a conditional offer of
70,000 to enable it to open a school for the training of Natives in medicine and public
health. The financial condition of South Africa and certain questions of policy have up
to the present prevented the country from accepting this offer, but there are indications
that as soon as the position improves some form of medical education for Natives in South
Africa will be undertaken.
TWENTY YEAR FINANCIAL REPORT OF THE PHELPS-
To the President and Trustees of the Phelps-Stokes Fund:
In accordance with your instructions I have prepared and submit herewith the
following financial statements of the Phelps-Stokes Fund:
Statement of Receipts and Disbursements for the fiscal year ended.November
15, 1931, with Balance Sheet and Schedule of Securities as at that date. The
accounts and records from which this statement was prepared have been duly
examined by Messrs. Lybrand, Ross Bros. and Montgomery, Accountants and
Auditors, and a copy of their certificate is appended hereto. The income for the
year, available for appropriations and expenses, amounted to $73,325.59, and the
expenditures from current income amounted to $69,794.34. Additional expendi-
tures amounting to $80,000.00 were made from Accumulated Income.
Statement of Receipts and Disbursements of the Phelps-Stokes Fund for the
period of approximately twenty years since the date of founding in 1911, to
the close of the fiscal year, November 15, 1981. During the preparation of this
statement practically every voucher of the Fund was inspected and classified
according to the purpose for which the expenditure was made. The total income of
the Fund from all sources for the twenty year period has amounted to $1,384,049.45,
and the total expenditures for all purposes for the same period have amounted to
The disbursements during the past twenty years indicate two definite methods
of advancing the various causes in which the Founder of the Fund, Miss Caroline
Phelps Stokes, was especially interested, and also that during those years the
Trustees have been able to give financial assistance toward every purpose men-
tioned in Miss Stokes' will as the objectives of the Fund. The two methods of
aiding these causes have been as follows:
1. Expenditures for projects and activities organized, supervised and conducted
by the Officers and Staff of the Fund and,
94 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
2. Appropriations to institutions, organizations and individuals without any
supervision by the Fund.
These activities have been presented by Dr. Anson Phelps Stokes in Chapter I
of this Report. Among the more important projects undertaken by the Officers
and Staff of the Fund are the following:
Survey of Negro Education in the United States, 1913-16. The Report covering
this Survey was published in two volumes by the U. S. Bureau of Education in 1916.
Survey of Education in West, South and Equatorial Africa, 1920-21. The
Report was published under the title: EDUCATION IN AFRICA, in 1922.
Survey of Education in East, South and Central Africa, 1924-25. The Report
was published under the title: EDUCATION IN EAST AFRICA, in 1925.
Each of these surveys has been followed by cooperative activities, in association
with organizations and individuals at work on the field, for the improvement of
education in the sections studied. The Fund has also cooperated in movements for
the education of American Indians and assisted a few schools for white youth. The
Officers and Staff have been especially interested in the encouragement of interracial
movements and has initiated several organizations concerned in interracial
Under the leadership of Mr. I. N. Phelps Stokes, the Trustees' Committee on
Housing in New York City has organized important demonstrations of housing
facilities. In 1922 this Committee initiated and directed the construction of a
"Model Tenement" house at 52/58 East 97th Street between Madison and Park
Avenues in New York City. Architects were invited to submit plans and specifi-
cations for a tenement house which should not only meet all of the requirements of
the Tenement House Laws of New York but also improve upon those requirements in
such matters as the size of rooms, width of courts, light and air space and protection
against fire hazards. While it was stipulated that only sound and approved materials
and methods of construction would be acceptable, it was urged that the cost should
be held within a figure which would permit a return of six per cent on the investment
at a rental of approximately $10.00 per room a month. Prizes were offered for the
most acceptable plans and the sum of $8,400 was awarded in prizes to several
architects whose plans, in the opinion of the Committee, most nearly met the condi-
tions laid down for the type of building they had in mind. The total cost of the
building was $322,839. In 1925 the building was sold to the City and Suburban
Homes Company at cost less $10,000 depreciation. The item of $124,100.17, appear-
ing on both sides of the Housing Account represents the investment of Accumu-
lated Income in the project-the balance of the cost being paid from Principal.
The amount was returned to the Housing Committee Account when the building
Appropriations to institutions, organizations and individuals without any super-
vision by the Officers of the Fund are presented in detail in the financial statement
under the following headings:
TWENTY YEAR FINANCIAL REPORT
Education of Negroes and Interracial Activities in the United States
Education of Africans and Race Relations in Africa
Education and Welfare of Indians in the United States
Education of Whites in the United States
Housing in New York City
As reference has already been made in Chapter I to the more important educa-
tional institutions and organizations assisted by the Fund, I shall deal here only
with those affecting Housing in New York City. In 1927 the Trustees arranged
to loan $100,000 to the Association to Promote Proper Housing for Girls, Incor-
porated, to enable that Association to found the "Club Caroline" in Harlem as a
home for colored working girls in New York City. As a contribution from the
Phelps-Stokes Fund toward this project it was agreed that no interest would be
charged on the loan and that it should run for twenty years. $50,000 of this loan
was provided from the accumulated balance in the Housing Fund income account
and $50,000 from Principal Funds, the Housing Committee having agreed to pay
to the general income account of the Fund interest at six per cent per annum on the
amount loaned from Principal Funds. This item represents a prior charge against
the Accumulated Income of the Housing Committee Account. Should this ar-
rangement continue for the whole twenty year period it will represent a total con-
tribution toward the project on the part of the Phelps-Stokes Fund of approxi-
mately $120,000 in interest. As security for the principal of the loan the Fund
accepted a second mortgage on the premises with the understanding that when
the present first mortgages are paid off this second mortgage shall become a first
mortgage. The "Club Caroline" was named in honor of Miss Caroline Phelps
Stokes and occupies two well arranged and furnished buildings on opposite sides
of the street at 260/4 and 271/5 West 127th Street in Harlem.
Upon the recommendations of the Housing Committee, the Fund has made
substantial contributions to the Young Men's and Young Women's Christian
Associations for housing in connection with the Branches of the Associations in
New York City for colored men and women. The contributions toward the dormi-
tories of the Colored Men's Branch in Harlem have been exceptionally large for a
foundation with such limited resources as the Phelps-Stokes Fund. The Trustees
regard this contribution as fully justified by the acute need for rooming facilities in
the Harlem district and by the effective services of the organization.
INCOME AND INVESTMENTS
The principal source of income has been from the investments. Some of the
securities now held by the Trustees were handed over to them by the Executors of
the Estate of Miss Caroline Phelps Stokes and are carried on the books of the
Fund at the value placed upon them at that time. The proceeds of such securities
as have been sold were reinvested in securities which are carried at cost. The
total net income from investments for the twenty years has been $1,181,907.74.
96 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
The book value of all securities held at November 15, 1931 was $1,179,551.87
(market value approximately $1,428,910.50) of which $1,023,784.38 was Principal
and $155,767.49 Accumulated Income which must be considered as only temporarily
invested. Excluding the loan of $100,000 to the Association to Promote Proper
Housing for Girls, which was not made as an investment, the productive investments
of the Fund amount to $1,079,551.87 (book value). The rate of income on this
total for the fiscal year ended November 15, 1931 was approximately 6.76 per cent.
In addition to the income from investments, the Fund has received from time to
time contributions from other boards and individuals for special purposes. Among
the more important contributions thus received are the following:
1. In 1928 the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Foundation appropriated
to the Phelps-Stokes Fund, for one year only, the sum of $35,000 to be used in
developing the Fund's program for work in Africa. Of this amount $22,950.38
2. During 1924-25 the International Education Board contributed a total of
$9,500 towards certain African activities directed by the Phelps-Stokes Fund.
3. During 1924-25-26 the United Free Church of Scotland paid to the Fund
the sum of $3,100 toward the educational expenses of two Native African students
from the Gold Coast, West Africa.
4. In 1925 the Near East Relief refunded to the Fund the amount of Dr. Jones'
salary for the time spent by him in the Near East in connection with his observa-
tions of their educational and social work. This was necessary because the Near
East does not come within the geographical areas designated by the charter of
5. In 1927 the New York State Colonization Society contributed $600 toward
a conference on Education in Liberia which was held at Hampton Institute under
the direction of the late James L. Sibley. The Fund also appropriated $750 toward
the same conference.
6. In 1927 the Liberian Government matched an original appropriation of
$500 made by the Phelps-Stokes Fund for the purchase of books for the Govern-
ment Library at Monrovia. Subsequently the Fund appropriated additional
smaller sums for the same purpose.
As indicated in some of the above items, the Phelps-Stokes Fund has in nearly
all cases supplemented these special gifts from other organizations and individuals.
Separate accounts have been kept showing all of the expenditures from these special
funds but for the purposes of this Report it has seemed best to include all such
expenditures in the general totals under the proper headings. Various other small
sums have been received from a large number of sources to be expended in accord-
ance with the directions of the person or organization from whom they were re-
ceived. A few of these items have passed through the books of the Fund but the
large majority have been carried in special accounts and paid directly to the persons
or firms for whom they were intended. Among these have been sums ranging
TWENTY YEAR FINANCIAL REPORT 97
from $100 to $500 contributed by Mr. George Foster Peabody towards the expenses
of African students, educators from Africa and for other purposes. The total of
these items for the fiscal year ended November 15, 1931, is shown in the statement
for that year under "Miscellaneous Funds Received for the Accommodation of
Others." The total of all such items for the twenty year period amounts to
approximately $48,000.00, none of which is included in the financial statement.
In closing I wish to express my appreciation of the valuable assistance given to
me by Mr. McCulloch and Miss Breen of the Treasurer's Office and particularly
for the availability of the facts in their books and records.
L. A. Roy,
FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF THE PHELPS-STOKES FUND FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED NOVEMBER 15, 1931
NOVEMBER 15, 1931
Principal Funds ..................................................
Stocks and Bonds (Book Value).......................$844,551.87
(Market Value November 15, 1931, approximately
Mortgages Receivable................................ 179,232.51
Accumulated Income............... .............................
Cash in Banks.. ................................ ........................
Miscellaneous Accounts Receivable........................................
Trust Funds .................. ................... ....................
Principal-Residuary Estate of Miss Caroline Phelps Stokes and
increments subsequently realized on Securities ........... $922,034.38
Gift from Miss Olivia Egleston Phelps Stokes............... 64,750.00
Funds derived from the Estate of Miss Olivia Egleston Phelps
Booker Washington Agricultural and Industrial Institute
of Liberia ....................................... 25,000.00
Annuity in favor of Michael Lowe........................ 12,000.00
Unexpended Income-accumulated since date of Founding .......................
Educational Account..................................... $26,986.30
Housing Account ........................................ 144,183.21
Michael Lowe Annuity Account ........................... 232.00
Miscellaneous Accounts Payable................ .. .....................
FINANCIAL REPORT 1931 99
STATEMENT OF CASH RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED NOVEMBER 15, 1931
CASH ON HAND NOVEMBER 16, 1930 .......................... .. ........... $41,258.52
Available for Appropriations and Expenses .................................. 73,325.59
Dividends and Interest on Investments ....................... $73,045.46
Stocks and Bonds............................ $61,295.46
Mortgages Receivable....................... 11,750.00
Interest on Bank Balances .................... .......... 240.38
Receipts from sale of Reports on Africa ........................ 39.75
Michael Lowe Annuity Fund ...................................... ....... 462.00
For Principal Account-Proceeds of sale of Securities ........................... 31,084.00
Miscellaneous Funds Received for Accommodation of Others .................... 5,075.66
I. Administrative Expenses and Investment Services........................... $8,596.14
II. Appropriations for Education and Race Relations in U. S. A.:
Educational Services of Staff....................................... .... 16,756.23
*Salaries and Honoraria ............................. $10,802.78
*Educational Office Expenses......................... 5,953.45
Scholarships to American Negro Students............................ 1,850.69
Appropriations to Schools and Colleges for the Education of Negroes in
U S. A .............. .. ................... .................. 14,090.00
Atlanta School of Social Service...................... $100.00
Atlanta University........................... .. ....... 500.00
Beaufort County (S. C.) Training School............... 100.00
Bennett College for Women ......................... 500.00
Bettis Academy ................ .. .......... 350.00
Calhoun Colored School.............................. 1,400.00
**Calhoun Colored School, Establishing the Charlotte
Thorn Fund.................... ................ 5,000.00
Fisk University................ ......... ........... 750.00
Fort Valley High and Industrial School ................ 300.00
Lincoln University (Pa.) .......................... .250.00
Livingstone College (N. C.) ........................... 50.00
National Training School for Women and Girls.......... 250.00
Palmer Memorial Institute ........................... 50.00
Penn Normal, Industrial and Agricultural School....... 430.00
Peoples Village School ................. ........... 100.00
Snow Hill Normal and Industrial Institute............. 1,600.00
Talladega College ................................ 1,000.00
Tuskegee Institute (Principal's Account) .............. 500.00
Voorhees Normal and Industrial School ............... 200.00
Jeanes Teacher, Wilcox Co., (Alabama) ................ 460.00
Carried forward ............................... $41,293.06
Portion chargeable to Educational Services. Part is included in Administrative Expenses.
** From Accumulated Income Account.
100 TWENTY YEAR REPORT OF PHELPS-STOKES FUND
Brought forward........................................ $41,293.06
Appropriations to Organizations for Race Relations, Etc., in U. S. A..... 5,551.08
Commission on Interracial Coiperation ................ $3,000.00
Federal Council of Churches for Committee on Race
Relations ........................................ 100.00
National Urban League.............................. 150.00
National Probation Association for Negro Work........ 500.00
Student Volunteer Movement for Interracial Work..... 200.00
Girl Scouts of America for Colored Girls Work......... 100.00
Y. M. C. A. for Colored Men's Department............ 250.00
Student Interracial Conference at Duke University..... 75.00
University of North Carolina, Y. M. C. A., for Student
Interracial Conference............................. 500.00
Conferences on Proposed "Encyclopedia of the Negro".. 476.08
Harlem Community Camp for Negro Boys............. 100.00
Unemployment Relief in Harlem ..................... 100.00
Appropriations for Indians in U. S. A ................................ 450.00
American Indian Institute........................... $50.00
Scholarship to Indian Student ........................ 100.00
Indian Rights Association............................ 200.00
Missionary Education Movement for Book on Indians... 100.00
III. Appropriations for Education and Race Relations in Africa:
Study of Education and Race Relations in South Africa, 1981........... 7,582.16
Studies of American Education by Educators from Africa ............... 2,816.88
Scholarships to African Students studying at American Schools and
Appropriations for African Education and Race Relations.............. 12,260.00
Honoraria to Representatives (including travel)........ $3,760.00
International Missionary Council.................... 1,500.00
Study of Nigeria.................... $500.00
Study of Rhodesia .................. 500.00
African Literature .................. 500.00
International Agricultural Missions Foundation for work
in Africa ........... ...... ......................... 1,000.00
Edinburgh House Press Bureau....................... 250.00
South African Institute of Race Relations ............. 2,000.00
Jeanes School at Kambini (Portugese East)............ 1,500.00
Father Bernard Huss for Agricultural Extension
Services....... .................................. 250.00
Fort Hare Native College, Extension Services.......... 950.00
Old Umtali Mission for Agricultural Equipment........ 500.00
Advisory Committee on Education in Liberia.......... 1,250.00
Carried forward................................. $72,294.34