March 13, 1981
FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND EXTENSION
Center for Tropical Agriculture
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Social and Cultural Aspects. ...
Economic Development . .
Inter-cropping and Double Cropping
Animal Husbandry . . .
Agricultural Development . .
Traditional Methods/Systems. .
Potential Crops. . . .
Small Farm Management and Research
Tradition and Change . .
Survey and Evaluation of Projects.
Case Studies . . .
Not Catologued . . .
Resource Allocation .
Social and Cultural Aspects
Ali, Abdien Mohammed, The Relationship of Education and Other
Variables to Net Farm Income, Non-land Farm Investment and
Desire to Continue Farming of Small Farmers in Wisconsin and North
Carolina, Ph.D., 1976, University of Wisconsin Madison, 199 pp.,
Dissertation Abstracts International, Vol, 38/01-A, p. 75.
' Aiyer, A.K.Y.N. Village Improvement and Agricultural Extensions.
Bangalore, India: Bangalore Printing and Publishing Company, 1954.
Aiyer has divided the book into four parts. Part I deals with the
matter of irrigation, which is the foundation of the country's
prosperity, and with the various other subjects comprised in village
improvement schemes, such as village sanitation, health, roads, communications,
rural education, cottage industries, and cooperative societies. Part
II deals with the methods of extension of popularizing agricultural
improvements, in all their variety. Part III deals specifically with
the various agricultural improvements which have to be popularized,
comprising, firstly, those which are general and apply to all crops, and
secondly, those which relate to particular crops, of which a few
important ones are dealt with. Part IV deals with the kind of agency -
executive and administrative which has to be made responsible for the
carrying out of the various schemes of village improvement.
Alers-Montalvo, M., "Cultural Change in a Costa Rican Village,"
Human Orq., 15 (4), Winter 1957: 2-7.
A report on an attempt to investigate cultural change in San Juan
Norte, a Costa Rican village of 340 population. Two successfully
introduced practices (use of insecticides and adoption of a new
variety of sugar cane) and an unsuccessfully introduced practice
(intensive cultivation of home vegetable gardens for family consumption)
were selected for study. Guided intensive interviews, one on each
practice, were conducted on a random sample of the population. Crucial
factors in the acceptance or rejection of the practices were:
(1) prevelence of a need; (2) compatability of the practice with the
culture; and (3) objective proof of the efficiency of the practice.
These propositions may have to be modified if applied to large, more
heterogeneous social systems.
Apte, D.P., "Uncertainties in Agriculture and Decisions of the
Cultivators Regarding the Crops to be Cultivated," Indian J. Agric.
Econ., 19(1), January-March 1964: 109-114.
The paper studies the cropping pattern of a sample of
cultivators with a view to finding out the relation between the
crops cultivated and rainfall, prices of agricultural produce, and
certain factors peculiar to individual situations which influence
the decisions of the farmers regarding the crops to be cultivated.
The sample of cultivators showed that their decisions to take different
crops depended upon two main considerations, namely, to achieve,
as far as possible, self-sufficiency in respect of jowar and depending
upon the availability of seed to take ground nut or other cash crops.
Ardener, Edwin, Shirley Ardener and W.A. Warmington. Plantation and
Village in the Cameroons. London: Oxford University Press, Nigerian
Institute of Social and Economic Research, 1960.
This large-scale investigation was initiated by the Cameroons
Development Corporation Worker's Union, and was under the direction
of Professor J.H. Richardson, who contributes the introduction. The
authors are specialists in anthropology, sociology and economics,
respectively, and between them they have provided first-hand information
on working conditions (including sparetime occupations and earnings),
diet, the nature and distribution of the population and the agricultural
situation. The main body of the work is of general interest; more
detailed case studies and specific data are given in appendices.
In Chapter 16, "Land, Agriculture and Subsistence in Victoria
Division," the success of the native banana producers' cooperatives
is discussed (p. 329-332). On page 334 the authors suggest that the
further development of the cooperative movement here would bring
great benefits to indigenous agriculture and to village life in
Bandy, D.; H. Villachica; P.A. Sanchez; J.J. Nicholaides. Continuous
Cropping in the Amazon Jungle, North Carolina State University, Paper
presented at American Society of Agronomy 70th Annual Meeting, Chicago,
Illinois, December 3-8, 1978.
Continuous cultivation is a feasible alternative to the traditional
shifting cultivation in the Amazon jungle. Crop yields on land cleared by
the traditional slash and burn practice have been superior to those cleared
by bulldozer over the last six years. Three crops per year have been
produced for six years on fine loamy, siliceous, isohyperthermic Typic
Paleudults near Yurimaguas, Peru. Corn and soybean yields have been
near 4,000 and 2,550 kg/ha/cropping, respectively, Required per hectare are
4.5 tons lime every three years, 117 kg N, (for non-legumes) 70 kg P, 110
kg K and 45 kg Mg per crop, and 3 kg each of B, Cu, and Zn and 0.3 kg Mo
per year. The use of manures and composts also seems promising. Small
farmers' net profit could increase significantly when this improved soil-
crop management technology is implemented.
Basu, S. K., "On Diffusion and Adoption of Farm Traits," Bull. Cult.
Res. Inst., Calcutta, 3(1), 1964: 47-51.
The author examines the rate of acceptance by farmers of
twelve practices which are recommended in the agricultural extension
program of the State of West Bengal, India. Data were obtained in
1963 from 658 farmers in an area where rice and jute are the main
crops. The use of ammonium sulphate was adopted by 79% of the
farmers; the use of plant protection chemicals by 74.5%; the use of
improved jute seeds by nearly 72%; the use of improved rice seeds
by nearly 41%. The acceptance of the Japanese method of rice culti-
vation was low, viz. 8.5%, owing to the fact that this practice
requires considerable skill and is rather costly. Low acceptance
was also found for some other improved practices, vix., green
manuring, improved poultry raising and artificial insemination.
Batten, T.R. Communities and Their Development: An Introductory
Study with Special Reference to the Tropics. London: Oxford
University Press, 1957.
This book is a detailed study of recent trends in community
development with examples of the various aspects of the work under-
taken by many agencies in tropical countries. Following the intro-
ductory section, the book deals with agencies and people; aims and
approaches; methods and techniques and criteria for better community
The first two chapters of the section on methods and techniques
are devoted to "the school and the community" and "making people
literate". After outlining the role to be played by the school and
the community and defining the relationship of the one to the other,
the author states that "the school and the teacher (are) important
factors in community development provided always that their limita-
tions are recognized...it is unrealistic to expect the school to be
able to shoulder the whole burden of community development... The
prime job of the teacher is to make his school a community school,
well oriented to the school environment in aim, method and curricu-
lum; to win the confidence of the people; and to enlist their help
in the service of their childern". The teacher should help the people
"to see the relation between the teaching of the school, their own
betterment, and the development of their community..."
The beginnings of literacy campaigns and their development are
discussed at some length and several useful conclusions are reached,
among them that "people must be helped to realize how reading can
help them in their daily lives: that people must be provided with
the kind of reading that they really want; and that the first step
in really backward areas must be to create uses for reading by going
ahead with a general development program before the literacy worker
comes in". These principles equally apply to educational broadcasts
and films people "must be helped to understand them and appreciate
them if they are to be influenced by them."
This study which is an outcome of the author's work as Senior
Lecturer and Supervisor of Studies in Community Development at the
University of London Institute of Education contains a bibliography
for each chapter as well as suggestions for further reading in Eng-
Bebarta, P. C., "Social Problems and Technological Change in
Community Reconstruction," A.I.C.C. Econ. Rev., 10(20), February
An innovation, whether a new technique or a new tool or a new
idea, is hard to introduce in a community because of a variety of
types of resistance. In inducing a change, the structural functional
relationships of different institutions, value systems, personality
traits, as they work in the given framework of the culture pattern,
have to be thoroughly comprehended. It is believed that
innovations can be accepted and maintained only if they are institutionalized.
Bedi, I.S., and R. P. Saxena, "Improved Agricultural Practices -
Behaviouristic Pattern of Farmers in Punjab and Uttar Pradesh,"
A.I.C.C. Econ. Rev., 16(22), 1965: 7-11 and 34.
To highlight the main factors leading to, or inhibiting, the
adoption and use of the improved agricultural practices in the states
of Punjab and Uttar Pradesh, six villages in each state were selected
for investigation by the Agro-Economic Research Centre, Delhi, during
1955-1963. The data were supplemented by the farmers' own views on
the adoption of various improved practices, e.g., involving irriga-
tion, seeds, fertilizers and implements, co-operation, land improve-
ment, and the consolidation of holdings. The effect of literacy on
the adoption of improved practices by farmers was also studied. The
factors impeding the adoption of improved practices were identified
as: (a) irregular supply of water and its maldistribution, (b) high
water rates, (c) lack of village leadership and joint action, (d)
of demonstrating improved techniques, (f) the inadequate and untimely
provision of credit, (g) unfavorable prices, (h) the inertia, poverty
and illiteracy of the farmers, and (i) the belief in traditional
practices. Some possible government measures are suggested to enable
farmers to adopt the improved practices. (CIC-AID)
Bjergo, Allen Clifford, A Study of Decision-making in Twenty-one New
York Farm Families, Ph.D., 1970, Cornell University, 186 pp.,
Dissertation Abstracts International, Vol. 31/12-A, p. 6240.
Bohlen, Joe M., THE ADOPTION AND DIFFUSION OF IDEAS IN AGRICULTURE,
Ames, Iowa State University Press: 265-287. 1964. (In James H.
Copp (ed.) Our Changing Rural Society: Perspectives and Trends.).
This section provides a brief summary of research findings regarding
sources of information on adoption and diffusion of ideas, indicates
need research and includes a brief (30 citations) but comprehensive
Bose. Spnti P., "Charicter'stics of Farmers Who Adopt Agricultural
Prict ces in Indian Villages," Rural Sociology, 26(2), June, 1961:
An investigation -as carried out in ten villages to ascertain the
characteristics of farmers -ho adopted the improved practices. It
",as found that of those ',iho adopted them, more belonged to the higher
castes, -ere literate, and had higher participation in community
activities. There w.as some indication that those who owned their
farms adopted slightly more than those who did not own their farms.
- Bose, Santi P., "Peasant Values and Innovation in India," Am. J.
Sociol., 67 (2), March 1962: 552-560.
In Redfield's model of the folk-urban continuum, the peasant
society is considered intermediate between the folk society and
the urban society. In such a society there are some persons who
have the value systems of an urban society. It was postulated
that people with folk value systems would resist change in agri-
cultural techniques and those with urban value systems would
accept it. This was tested by interviewing 80 farm operators in
the Baraset region of West Bengal. Results support the hypothesis
that the value orientation of a people has a relation to technological
change, and that people with tradition-oriented folk-type values
are more resistant to change than people with urban-oriented values.
Bos8 A. B., "Society, Economy and Change in a Desert Village,"
SAnr,.ils Arid Zone, 1(1), December 1962: 1-15.
This is a study of social structure and change in the village
of iakor, new Jodphur, India, in the desert region of Rajasthan.
DaL,: were procured through schedules, interviews, and observation,
Sor the basis of a random sample of the village population. A
br;,'f historical background is delineated regarding ecological-
agricultural factors. Villagers persist in their adherence to
ca'te practices. Kinship and land ties encourage restrictions on
socio-economic mobility. There is evidence that the degree of
Fludity is rising, and kinship, age, and sex determinants of status
.re no'- being modified by education. The traditional joint household
) beginning to show signs of disintegration, but in households where
.randparents take part in the training of children, the traditions hold.
literacy is widespread but attitudes are changing, and there are
positivee inclinations to provide elementary schooling. Twenty-three
er cent of the land is not arable, and 62% is cultivated. Agriculture
s the main source of earning and subsistence, but supplementary
,ccupations are taken which follow traditional caste practices.
'iltivation practices are also traditional, and there is resistance to
new methods. Village organization according to old caste and kinship
is an impediment to democratization of leadership.
Cartano, D.C. -nd E. M. Rogers, "The Role of the Change Agents in
Diffusing New Ideas," Pakistan Acid. Rural Development Journal,
4(2), October 1963: 61-65.
Anyonk who attempts to change things into what he considers
a desirable direction is a "change agent." Change agents may
include: technical-assistance workerss salesmen and dealers,
teachers, etc. The first part of the article deals with the
adoption by change agents of the new ideas themselves. The second
part deals ,r;th what the author calls strategiess for change
agents," or the most effective mens by -hich change agents can
get innovations accepted.
Chauhan, D.S., "Relationship Between Technology and Sociology in
Economic Growth," Econ. Weekly, 11(51/52), December 1959: 1709-1716.
This is an examination of the conditions for accelerating the
rate of growth in the field of agriculture and the relationship
between technology and sociology in the process of growth. It is
argued that the existing level of technology and research may enable
the farmers to increase agricultural production considerably.
That such an increase has not been achieved is an indication that the
real problem lies in the social and organizational spheres. The
importance of the human element in development is emphasized and the
example of China cited where the success of agricultural programs can
be ascribed more to collective effort than to technological reasons.
Economic development, it is argued, should be overall and the pivot
of thinking should be man; experience in India shows that technology
and not man has been the central point of thinking. To achieve higher
yields, several cooperative farms (along with individual farming) in
a village and several cooperative farming societies have been
adovacated. Efficient service cooperatives are also deemed necessary.
More important, however, is the effiecient working of institutions.
Chawdhari, T.P.S. and M.L. Bhardwaj, "A Reconnaissance Study of
Some Socio-Economic Changes in Villages Around Delhi," Agric.
Situation India, 14 (5), August 1959: 452-456.
This article briefly presents the salient features observed in
a socio-economic profile study of eight villages within the Intensive
Cultivation Block area attached to the Indian Agricultural Research
Institute. The study revealed three principal manifestations of the
numerous changes taking place in these villages, viz., (1) a perceptible
urge and visible indications of the desire of the people to improve
their levels of living; (2) technical improvements in farming and home-
living among different classes made possible by such a change in
attitude; (3) the farmers' tendency to accept the need for group
and community efforts for improvement of farming and village life.
Seven tables give data on subject such as communication facilities
and nearest markets, distribution of population according to liveli-
hood classes, improvements in agriculture noticed at the level of
individual farmers, educational facilities, etc.
Desai, M.B., & Mehta, R.S., "Change and its Agencies in Community
Development," Indian J. Agric. Econ., 19(3/4), 1964: 147-66.
On the basis of an intensive field study of the working of the
community development block in Padra Taluka of Baroda district in
Gujarat State, the obstacles and achievements of the block were
assessed with a view to suggesting ways of making the program more
effective and useful. The region has fertile land, assured rainfall,
a well-maintained pattern of sustaining soil fertility, and a strong
pressure of population. One of the important findings of the study
contradicts the general belief that the location of the village
in relation to the block headquarters makes considerable difference
in the benefits and effects. Another finding, also contrary to general
belief, is that large sections of the population on the lowest strata
are not overlooked. The small farmer has benefited from the program,
and in some cases it has been found that where certain basic agricultural
overheads were available, the small farmer responded in greater measure
than the big farmer. Furthermore, most of the investments were self-
financed. The village-level worker performed a valuable service in
maintaining the flow of information between program organization
and the farmers, especially as a contact man providing information
on local requirements and relating them to the points of supply.
Economic Commission for Latin America, United Nations, "Rural
Settlement Patterns and Social Change in Latin America: Notes for
a Strategy of Rural Development," Econ. Bull. Latin Amer., 10(1),
March 1965: 1-21.
This paper attempts to present a composite picture of rural
settlement patterns and the influences that are changing them.
Recognizing the diversity that exists in local situations, the
author attempts to generalize the patterns and influences to all
of Latin America. The paper classifies rural settlement types; it
notes the influences of history, geography, and land tenure upon
settlement patterns and local organization; it examines adminis-
trative and political structures and rural settlement patterns; it
analyzes social relationships in the rural nuclei; it notes eco-
nomic functions of the rural nuclei; it examines public policy and
rural settlement patterns; and it comments about research needs.
Fleigel, F.C., "Differences in Prestige Standards and Orientation
to Change in a Traditional Agr cultural Setting," Rural Sociology,
30(3), 1965: ?78-?90.
The study examines the propositions that (1) man desires recognition
and (2) the qualities and types of performance, the standards by which h
recogn tion is me sured and a',irded. are not the same for all groups
or societies at a given point in time. Data were obtained from 142
small farm operators 'n South Bra-'l. The a:m 'w-as to establish an
index of prestige standards that differentiates between an orientation
to o nership ind consumption of goods and services, and an orientatTon
to the giv ng of time, resources and energy. Prestige orientation
based on giving inhibits the seeking information on new 'deas which,
n turn, results in non-adopt'on of modern farm practices. The implication
is that the ends of industrial society must be accepted before means
to those ends we'll be accepted.
Foster, George M. Traditional Cultures: And the Impact of Technological
Change. New York and Evanston: Harper and Row, 1962.
The author discusses the social and psychological aspects of cultural
stability and resistance to change as they affect both the giver and
the receiver of foreign aid. Using many tradition-bound peasant communities
to illustrate the problems, the author explains the nature of cultural
change, and the role and problems of American specialists working in
newly developing countries. Associated with every technical and material
change is a corresponding change in the attitudes, thoughts, values,
beliefs and behavior of the people affected by the material change.
Such changes are more subtle and often overlooked.
Gallin, Bernard, "Social Effects of Land Reform in Taiwan,"
Human Orq., 22(2), Summer 1963: 109-112.
An anthropological study, based on 16 months field work in a
Hokkien agricultural (wet-rice) village in the Chang-hua Country
area of Taiwan. It investigates socio-economic changes brought about
by the Chinese government's land reform program (1949-1953), especially
with reference to the landlord class and its traditional leadership
position in the rural village. Land reform has led many landlords
to withdraw their interest from the village, thus creating a leadership
vacuum and problems of social disorganization. Though the landlords
still form an important class in the rural areas, new developments
do appear to be leading to some equalization in social status, as well
as in economic wealth, in rural Taiwan. Nevertheless, before other
capable villagers can assume leadership roles, there must be a change
in the traditional attitudes of the villagers themselves toward
leadership and authority.
Gebrewold, Mulugeta. "Attitudes of the African Farmer to Modern Agri-
cultural Methods". Empire Cotton Growing Review, 33. April 1956: pp.
A young Ethiopian farmer and agricultural student tells why
Africans are often reluctant to adopt the recommendations of for-
eigners for improving their agricultural methods. These traditional
methods ahve been evolved and adapted over the course of many gener-
ations, and, furthermore, the new methods recommended by Europeans
have not always proved successful. Such failures discredits agricul-
tural technicians generally, and the new peasant farmer becomes sus-
picious of all new ideas. The writer stresses the basic imporatnce
of education, particular in the form of scholarships in agricultural
studies for young Africans.
S Gopalakrishnan, P.K. "Land Relations and Social Change in Africa,"
Contemporary Africa, Bisheshwar Prasad (ed.). London: Asia Publishing
House, 1960, pp. 108-121.
The author confines himself to the socio-economic bearing of land
relations on the utilization of land and the development of production.
Land relations are an integral part of the African social structure
and sometimes non-economic forces have played a more direct role in
modifying land tenure than economic factors. The concept of ownership
is slowly replacing the practice of usufruct. According to custom
land is the property of the community and the individual's rights
extend only to its use. The author briefly summarizes the various
tenure systems in Africa and goes on to discuss the problems of European
versus African ownership. He states that a drastic land reform must
preced all other measures inany plan for economic regeneration of the
tribal societies as these reforms will tend to increase productivity
and will create more and better wants on a mass scale.
Gulliver, P.H. Social Control in an African Society; A Study of the
Arusha: Agricultural Masai of Northern Tanganyika. Boston: Boston
University Press, 1963, (African Research Studies No. 3).
Hagan, Albert Ross, Family Farm Adjustments to Meet the Impacts of
Economic, Technological, and Sociological Changes on Central
Missouri Farms, Ph.D., 1963, Michigan State University, 264 pp.,
Dissertation Abstracts International, Vol. 24/10, p. 4025.
Hanks, L.M. Jr., "Indifference to Modern Education in a Thai Farming
Community," Human Org., 17, Summer 1958: 9-14.
This article discusses attitudes towards education in a rural
Thai village. Emphasis is placed upon the retention of traditional
Hansel, H., "Input Innovations, Producer Credit and Social Differentiation,"
In Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development Vol. 7, Nos. 1 and 2,
1974, p. 109-121.
Author argues that new agricultural technologies often result in a
widening of the income differentials among farmers. Information from several
farm level studies in Ghana is presented to support this argument. Author
feel that credit policies may be a way of reducing these differentials and
proposes that credit granted in the form of physical inputs might be more
easily directed to the rural poor and thus reduce income differentials.
Hobbs, Daryl J., Beal, George M., and Bohlen, Joe M. The Relation of
Farm Operator Values and Attitudes to Their Economic Performance,
Iowa Agricultural and Home Economics Experiment Station Project
1492, Iowa State University of Science and Technology, Department
of Economics and Sociology, Rural Sociology Report No. 33, 177 pp.,
Holmberg, Allan R., and Henry F. Dobyns, "Community and Regional
Development: The Joint Cornell-Peru Experiment, The Process of
Accelarating Community Change," Human Org., 21(2), Summer 1962:
Recognizing community type and relating it to some goal-
community is a first step in accelerating its change. Vicos was a
semi-feudal entity set in a semi-medieval society in 1951 when the
Cornell-Peru Project began modernizing it. The project introduced
an egalitarian fundamental assumption as an alternative to a
previous locally-universal, hierarchical, fundamental assumption about
the nature of man. Formal education has been one operational definition
of the new alternative whose acceptance and internalization (along
with associated values) in the new Indian community was signalized
by a parental lockout of school teachers in 1961 that sought and
secured better-quality administration.
Holmberg, Allan R., "Land Tenure and Planned Social Change: A Case
from Vicos, Peru," Human Org., 18, Spring 1959: 7-10.
This article discusses the experience of the Cornell-Peru
project in initiating social change in a Peruvian hacienda. Emphasis
is placed upon the desireablity of minor changes which have wider
effects. This case is not presented as a solution to all land reform
problems. However, the author states that the experience of the
Cornell-Peru project may be relevant to other areas.
Huddleston, John Solomon, An Analysis of Communication Linkage
Between Research Based Sources of Information and Those
Interpersonal Sources Used as Basic for Decision-making
by Disadvantaged Farm Families, Ed.D., 1973, North Carolina
State University at Raleigh (no abstract).
Hunter, Guy. The New Societies of Tropical Africa: A Selective
Study. London: Oxford University Press, 1962.
Kahlon, A.S., and Johl, S.S., "Nature and Role of Risk and Uncertainty
in Agriculture," Indian J. Aqric. Econ., 19(1), January-March 1964:
The purpose of this study is to examine how the farmers adjust
their crop acreage to the uncertainties of occurrences and make
allowances for their conceptual uncertainties. The study attempts
to: (1) establish the fact and extent of variations in the acreage
of important commercial and food crops in relation to the fact of
variations in yields, prices, and rainfall over their growing periods;
and (2) to examine the fact and extent of risk fund allowances the
farmers make as a result of conceptual uncertainties.
Lane, Gottfried 0., and Martha B. Lang. "Problems of Social and
Economic Change in Sukumaland, Tanganyika." Anthrop. Qtrly. 35
(2), April, 1962: 86-100.
The Basukuma, a cattle herding and agricultural people inhabi-
ting the East Lake Province of Tanganyika, have readily accepted
the introduction of a cotton cooperative marketing federation, but
recently a structurally parallel organization for cattle has dem-
onstrated considerable lethargy. An attempt is made to show how
felt needs and a flexibility of social organization made for easy
acceptance of a cotton cooperative based on the same structure as
the traditional political hierarchy. In the organization of the
cattle cooperative's the same structural form was adopted; yet the
three attempts so far have been relatively unsuccessful. This is
considered due to the absence of felt needs for change, especially
since the advantages of a cattle cooperative had not been demon-
strated, as the benefits of cotton cooperative's have been, and
because cattle "ownership" involved fewer individuals. Secondly,
the relationship of cattle to the social structure, as culturally
valued objects, was different from cotton. Cattle were closely
integrated into the structure of social relationships in an intri-
cate network remifying through kinship, marriage, and territorial
Lane, Gottfird 0.
ties, and in case of famine and hardship were valued as "social
insurance". That is, the social relations involving cattle were
not of a cooperative, nor of a primarily economic, nature. It
is suggested that in the larger social system manifesting greater
cultural complexity, simple appelations as "open-closed" or
"flexible-rigid" are only applicable to specific segments and not
the total society, and that institution's can have parallel struc-
tures and yet serve totally different functions.
Lasswell, Harold D., "Integrating Communities into More Inclusive
Systems", Human Orq., 21, 1962: 116-124.
The author discusses why the Cornell-Peruvian Project (or Vicos
Project) was so successful. Primary emphasis is placed upon the
scientific detachment of the Cornell staff. In conclusion, six suggestions
for future projects are put forth.
Leach, E.R. Pul Eliya, A Village in Ceylon: A Study of Land Tenure
and Kinship. Cambridge: University Press, 1961.
This book presents a very detailed analysis of how land is owned,
used and transmitted to succeeding generations in one of the irrigation-
based communities in the Northern Central Province of Ceylon where a
major civilization flourished between the third century B.C. and the
twelfth century A.D. The main emphasis is placed on the way in which,
in the community, the ties of kinship and marriage are related to
property rights and the practices of land use. The approach to this
question provides a critical test of certain features of the theory and
method of contemporary social anthropology. The book, as scholarly
contribution to social anthropology, is primarily intended for professional
anthropologists, but insofar the particular conditions of the village-
society examined have a certain general significance, it will also be
of interest to sociologists, ethnographers and historians.
Lionberger, H.F. Adoption of New Ideas and Practices. Ames, Iowa:
Iowa State University Press, 1960.
This is a summary of research dealing with the acceptance of
technological change in agriculture and gives suggestions for action
designed to facilitate such change.
Lionberger, Herbert F., ADOPTION OF NEW IDEAS AND PRACTICES, Ames,
Iowa State University Press, 1960.
The bulk of this book is devoted to a review of studies which concern
communication and adoption of ideas and practices. An annotated
bibliography of research studies cited is included as well as a
bibliography of related studies and a third bibliography of general
works on basic ideas and concepts related to practice adoption.
Lionberger, Herbert F., Chang, H.C., COMMUNICATION AND USE OF SCIENTIFIC
FARM INFORMATION BY FARMERS IN TWO TAIWAN AGRICULTURAL VILLAGES,
Columbia, Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station Research
Bulletin 940, 1968.
This publication is concerned with the sources and channels of
scientific farm information used by farmers in their decisions to
adopt new farm practices in Taiwan. A major emphasis was on
interpersonal patterns of communication and influence. This research
is paralleled by studies in two Missouri communities in 1956 and 1966.
This study puts the validity of some of the findings from diffusion
research to test in another culture.
Little, Kenneth. "Applied Anthropology and Social Change in the
Teaching of Anthropology." Brit. J. Sociol, 11(4). December 1960,
Hitherto anthropology has been applied mainly to the adminis-
tration of backward peoples, but it is now employed in business, the
armed forces, medicine, and for other modern purposes. Research
done for governments does not necessarily require that anthropoli-
gist to make recommendations, but if he offers advice it should be
administratively practicable. Advice implies prediction, hence the
importance of a systematic method of interpreting phenomena of social
change. Structural-functionalism is no longer applicable to tribal
areas where social forces extraneous to the indigenous structure
make it impossible nowadays to proceed holistically: evolutionary
schemes imply sociological separations which are unreal. The pro-
blem is not what is indigenous, European, or transition, but what
is significant for social relations regarding the missionary, trader,
and labor recruiter, as well as the chief and the magician, as in-
tegral to the contact situation. In the re-ordering of social re-
lations which change involves, the crucial factor tends to be tech-
nological superiority as demonstrated historically by the ability
of the European to force tribal people into his own monetary economy.
In West Africa, the capitalistic aim was achieved with the aid of
Westernized African, leaving native society more or less intact.
The importance of understanding social change and modern institu-
tions implies that the applied anthropologist's training should
comprise sociological as well as anthropoligical thought and theory,
including the more complex societies of the West. A knowledge of
the social factors involved in racial relations is particularly
relevant to colonial and underdeveloped areas and should constitute
an overlapping course. Methods of social research, including
statistics, should also be taught and supporting subjects, such as
economic history and politics. Finally, apart from the professional
investigator there are the people concerned with practical problems
of administration, community development, public health, etc., whom
anthropology can help gain a clearer insight into their work. For
them the courses given should provide some theoretical appreciation
of the organization and functioning of social groups, the meaning
of alien cultures, and some consideration of so-called social pro-
blems from a sociological angle.
Madigan, Francis C., and S.J. The Farmers Said no: A Study of
Background Fartors Associated with Dispositions to Cooperate with
or be Resistant to Community Development Projects. Quezon City,
Philippines: Community Development Research Council, University
of the Philippines, 1962.
A Volume in five Chapters, regarding a 1958-1960 study of 23
variables believed to be associated with receptivity to community-
development innovations. Chapter (1) The Problem explains how
sets of hypotheses regarding each variable were tested in 3.5
villages (barrios) of Cagayan de Oro City (equivalent in area to
a sub-province) of northern Mindanao, the Philippines. Chapter
(2) The Research Design Thurstone and Likert scales were devel-
oped to measure receptivity to innovation, democratic leadership
preference, and degree of authorization personality. Scales con-
structed by the Thurstone method but then scored by the Likert
technique proved more useful. A fixed-question schedule was used,
in which each item was supported by focused-interview type probes.
Chapter (3) The Scene of Research Inland Barrio, which consisted
of 1.5 contiguous villages, was surveyed completely while 33% of
the households in Coastal Barrio, and 62% in Mountain Barrio, were
designated by random sampling numbers from a list prepared by a
Madigan, Francis C.
field canvas. Complete interviews were obtained from 96% of the
subject (i.e., 519 interviews). Chapter (4) The Results highest
school grade completed, and preference for democratic over autocra-
tic task leadership, were found to be variables most associated
with receptivity. Other variabls found significantly varied with
receptivity (at beyond .05) were: income, occupation, literacy,
holding office inthe barrio organization, clique popularity, leader-
ship in clique, personal health and energy, social class position,
and the size of farm. Variables found not significantly varied with
receptivity were: Barrio isolation, rating of farm (for care), num-
ber of children, tenancy, migration status, and authoritarian per-
sonality score. (5) Evaluation and Use of Results Part 1 -
analyzing the data for general factors makes relative social status
stand forth as the most important general variable. Receptive sub-
jects are typically literate, have above average education in the
barrio, have above average income, own or are tenants on farms of
five hectares or larger, and have been chosen to hold barrio office.
The second general factor is a personal syndrome including prefer-
ence for democratic task-group leadership and clique popularity.
Madigan, Francis C.
Part II a method for use of these results by community development
workers is presented. Appendix (A) summarizes the results of statis-
tical tests based on Likert scoring, which are compared in Appendix
(B) with the same tests, based on Thurstone scoring. Appendix (C)
contains the Interview Guide and the Interview Schedule. Five maps
and twenty-seven tables.
Mandal, G.C. (ed). Seminar on Human Factor in the Growth of Rural
Economy. Santiniketan: 1963. (Proceedings of Conferences 7).
This seminar was the seventh in the series of conferences held
at Santiniketan during 1961-62 to commemorate the centenary of the
birth of Rabindranath Tagore. The purpose of the seminar was to
bring into bold relief the tutal man in his totality. In addition
to containing the welcome address by S.R. Das, opening address by
S.C. Chaudhri, and the inaugural address by S.R. Sen, the volume
deals with the ideas of Radindranath and social framework, which
are discussed in 13 papers. The first part dealing with coopera-
tion, education and extension contains the following papers: (1)
Tagore's reflections on India's rural problems by B.N. Ganguli, (2)
Community and cooperation by D.G. Karve, (3) Tagore and cooperation
by P.K. Ray, (4) Three villages: a view of the impact of Sriniketan
by G.C. Mandan and (5) Agro-economic research and agricultural ex-
tension by G.V. Chalam and K.S. Rao. The second part dealing with
the social framework discusses the problems of small farms, agricul-
tural labor and land reforms. Under the latter are the following:
(1) Class relations in Bengal villages by K.P. Chattopadhyay, (2)
Role of social factors in the consumption pattern of handicraft
products by Suraj Bandyopadhyay and Kumarananda Chattopadhyay, (3)
The role of small farms in agriculture and social reconstruction of
India by P.K. Sen, (4) A note on family farming by B.K. Chowdhury,
(5) Agricultural labour in south India by G. Parthasarathy, (6) Pro-
blem of agricultural workers restated by C.H. Shah, (7) Land reforms
--present stage and future possibilities by V.M. Jakhade, and (8)
Some aspects of land reform measures in India by Priyatosh Maitra.
Nair, Kussum. Blossoms in the Dust: The Human Element in Indian
Development. London: Gerald Duckworth and Company, Ltd., 1961.
The author, who recently travelled all over India investigated
what modern economic and agricultural developments mean to the lives of
the men, women and children who are supposed to benefit from them.
She gives a detailed picture of the daily work and the mental attitude
of the villagers.
Nair, S. P., "Social Factors in the Acceptance of Improved Practices,"
A.I.C.C. Econ. Rev., 15(13), December 1963: 35-39.
This article is a review of the work done elsewhere in the
world on methods and processes of adopting improved technology and
farm practices and the relevant factors associated with them.
Traditionally accepted values and practices are challenged by the
new element of change sought to be introduced. Adoption of a new
technique is not a single act, but a process w'th a series of stages
in adoption. The most important of these are: awareness, infor-
mation or interest, application or evaluation, trial adoption.
Research studies in various countries focus on the importance of the
farmers' social characteristics in the adoption or rejection of
directed change, sponsored by external agencies. The basic factors
that influence the farmer's age, education, farm ownership, farm size,
and finally participation in formal groups.
Nash, Manning. The Golden Road to Modernity: Village Life in
Contemporary Burma. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1965.
This study describes the tradition from traditional life to
modern life in Burma. Microanalytical in method, the work is the
result of first-hand observation, 'ith considerable emphasis on the
description of variation in social structure.
Pearsall, Marion. "A Model for the Analysis of Cross-Cultural
Action Programs". Human Org., 19(4), Winter 1960-61: pp. 212-215.
Action research in cultural change needs a clearer conceptual
distinction between (1) analysis of underlying cultural conditions
and (2) analysis of programs designed to alter those conditions
than traditional approaches to acculturation allow. It needs a gen-
eral framework to analyze both cultural systems per se and the
actions of change agents in an inter-cultural network of roles--
concepts of changing to supplement concepts of change, such a model
is proposed: First as a two-dimensional view of two (or more) cul-
tural systems in contact, and second as a three-dimensional view
focusing on the actors in such cross-cultural situations. The same
conceptual variables are relevant to both parts of the model: (a)
cultural, (b) sociological, (c) psychological, (d) physiological,
and (e) physical environmental. The model is used in a study of
the utilization of health resources in a rural Kentucky county where
the cultural systems are: (1) a folklike systems of medicine relying
heavily on home remedies, patent medicines, and magico-religious
practices in setting controlled by the patent and his family, and
(2) a sophisticated systems of medicine based on scientific knowledge
and practiced in settings controlled by specialized professionals.
The model provides a general map for locating major frontiers of con-
tact and change between the systems and a device for analyzing factors
thus identified as they operate in situations where professional health
personnel seek to alter the behavior of individuals, families, or
larger groupings. As presented, the model is aheuristic device with
potential for the formulation and testing of hypotheses during the
concepts and methods of any of the behavioral sciences.
Pemberton, Carlisle Alexander, Goals and Aspirations and the Low
Income Farm Problem, Ph.D., 1976, The University of Manitoba
(Canada), Dissertation Abstracts International, Vol, 37/11-A,
"Planned Chage: A Symposium". Human Org., 18 (1), Spring, 1959.
An introduction by John W. Bennett indicates that planned changes
can be understood as a concept of a society which exists, changes, and
can be changed by human will. It is also a phase in the development
of Whitehead's "persuasive institutions"--social entities based on a
consciously held ideal and devoted to serving a particular end, a pro-
cess which attempts to reconcile two value systems, one concerned with
self-effacement and cooperation, the other with individualism and com-
petition. Whitehead articulated the paradox of planned change: "It
may be impossible to conceive a reorganization of society adequate for
the removal of some admitted evil without destroying the social order".
Julian Steward's "Predicting and Planning in Culture Change", contends
that predictable cultural changes are inevitable and not amenable to
social manipulation. Acculturation trends and the emergence of sub-
cultural types stem from the interaction of three factors: (1) tradi-
tional, or base culture; (2) the world industrial culture; and (3) the
specific regional context of the area where change is occurring. Cer-
tain sub-cultures are the result of large contexts within which these
processes operate. For example, Japan because of primogenture and in-
dependence has produced a more socially mobile people than has either
"Planned Change" A Symposium". Human Org.
Malaya or Kenya which are foreign dominated and whose natives cannot
compete with the resident foreign middle class. Experts are effective
in helping to accelerate change that is implicit in its own context,
but they cannot change its direction. Allen Holmberg in "Land Tenure
and Planned Social Change: A Case from Vicos, Peru", reports on the
Cornell-Peru project which conducted a research and development pro-
gram on the modernization process. It was found that fundamental al-
ternations in the patterns of land tenure and work produced signifi-
cant culture changes. The natives had been part of a hacienda system
in which the renter of land exploited their labor for his own profit.
During the time that the project leased the land the people were
taught new methods of agriculture and were introduced to the credit
system. When control of the hacienda was turned over to be natives,
collective potato production rose 600% and production on individual
plots of land rose 100%. The Vicos experiment represents an attempt
to maximize cultural change through the introduction of a few signi-
ficant innovations that can exert greatest influence on the culture
and will lead to a dynamic self-propelling system. Kurt H. Wolff
presents, "Comment on Bennett, Steward, and Holberg". "Planning in
"Planned Change: A Symposium". Human Or9.
Higher Education: Some Notes on Patterns and Problems" by David Reis-
man, describes the organizational basis of planned change in educa-
tional institutions, and comments on the dialectic of educational
philosophy which stresses both relevance to a national constituency
and adherence to the demands of scholarship. In "Voluntary Associa-
tions: Instruments andObjects of Change: David Sills states the
maintaining membership interest and preserving organizational goals
are the most important problems of voluntary associations. In examples
from the United States, Southern Italy, and West Africa these problems
are discussed as related to specific associations. The fact that
voluntary associations are instruments of change makes it unlikely
that they could be used successfully as instruments for rational poli-
tical change. Sol Tax, "Residential Integration: The CAse of Hyde
Park in Chicago", reports on the successful effort of a group of resi-
dents in a predominantly white neighborhood to racially integrate and
stabilize their area, while resolving some moral questions in planned
social change. Melvin Tumin writes a "Comment on Papers by Riesman,
Sills, and Tax".
Putney,Snell and Gladys J. Putney, "Radical Innovation and
Prestige," Amer. Socio. Rev., 27 (4), August 1962: 548-551.
This is a revision of Barnett's theory on innovation in the
of research conducted in a Mexican community. According to Barnett,
a reputation is an obligation to conform and it permits little
freedom in advocating novel ideas; also radical departures must be
advocated at the risk of prestige loss. A questionnaire administered
to all heads of households in this community of 1,000 asked the
respondents to name the "Most important people" in the village, the
"real leaders," "their own best friends," those people of whom they
"most often sought advice," and those whom they "most often visited."
The analysis of the data revealed the existence of a tightly knit
clique of five men, which stood at the apex of the prestige hierarchy.
All of them were also radical innovators in the matters of social
life, religion, literacy, etc. Although they had little or nothing to
do with economic innovations in the village, it would be inaccurate
to say that the prestige of the clique members had "survived" their
radical nonconformity. In fact, their prestige actually derived
from their reputation for innovating broadly and radically. Those
Putney, Snell and Gladys J. Putney.
who were suffering prestige loss were the prominent men who had
upheld tradition most firmly. Barnett's contention is probably not
so much false as partial. It may be generally applicable to social
systems in equilibrium or disintegration, but it is inappropriate
and misleading when applied to societies undergoing transformation.
Rahim, S.A. Diffusion and Adoption of Agricultural Practices: A
Study in a Village in East Pakistan. Comilla, Pakistan: Pakistan
Academy for Rural Development, 1961, (Pakistan Academy for Village
Development Technical Publication 7).
One of several recent studies of the Pakistan Academy for Village
Development in East Pakistan, this study is based upon interviews with 63
land owners in an agricultural village and deals with the adoption of four
newly introduced practices and the patterns of informal communication
among the villagers. The four practices studied are: line sowing of
rice (a part of the Japanese method of rice cultivation), use of insect-
icides, use of chemical fertilizer, and growing wheat. Cumulative rates
of awareness and adoption of the first three practices disclose the
usual S-shaped curves. Factors influencing the choice of persons sought
for information about agricultural matters are analyzed. This study of
communication patterns indicates that the villagers are influenced more
by the better farmers and by friends than by relatives. However, contrary
to the author's conclusions, data presented on the 'lineage' groups of
persons selected for agricultural information suggest that kinship does
influence leadership in agricultural matters.
Rogers, Everett M., BIBLIOGRAPHY ON THE DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS
Columbus, Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station Mimeo Bulletin,
This publication contains 489 citations categorized into one of six
major research traditions.
Rogers, Everett M, CATEGORIZING THE ADOPTERS OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES,
Rural Sociology 23:345-354, 1958.
A method is suggested by which the adopters of agricultural practices
may be classified into the five adopter categories of innovators.
Saint, Jr., William Staver. The Social Organization of Crop Pro-
duction: Cassava, Tobacco and Citrus in Bahai, Brazil, Development
Sociology Department, Ph.D. Dissertation, New York State College of
Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, 1977.
An understanding of organizational and institutional arrangements
inherent in crop production systems is necessary to develop agro-
technologies which will not increase inequality. To gain such under-
standing, a methodology for the study of small farm agriculture was
elaborated based on a combination of eco-logical and Marxian perspec-
tives, the study of traditional agriculture, an understanding of
limiting factors, and the creation of problem-specific typologies.
In this context, a farmer's choice of crops is viewed as a major
technological decision which has social, organizational and institu-
tional ramifications. Therefore, crop production systems were de-
fined on the basis of the farm's predominant crop in terms of arable
The study was conducted in the Bahian Reconcavo area of North-
east Brazil and was based on 182 interviews from a stratified random
sample of samll farmers grouped according to crop production system.
Saint, Jr., William Staver.
Three major crop production systems were identified: cassava--a sub-
sistence crop, tobacco--an export crop, and citrus--a cash crop for
domestic urban consumption.
Three hypotheses guided the study: (1) different crop produc-
tion systems, as differentiated by the predominant crop, will be
characterized by different modes of agricultural production, (2)
differences in quality of life will exist among crop production systems,
and (3) some crop production systems will display higher rates of
emigration than others. All three hypotheses were confirmed by the
Social organization of crop production, also called the mode of
agricultural production, was defined to include organizational and
institutional arrangements contained in four relationships: producer-
crop, producer-producer, producer-community, and producer-state.
Producer-crop relations refer to each crop's requirements for labor,
land, capital and technology as well as the various means employed
to gain access to these factors. Producer-producer relation entail
the social division of labor and the organization of work.
. .. . . .
Saint, Jr., William Staver.
Producer-community relations comprise both marketing systems and
community social structure. Producer-state relations are reflected
in the agricultural policies for each crop as they pertain to research,
credit. extension, provision of inputs, marketing and processing.
Marked differences in each of these relationships were observed
among the three crop production systems studied.
The process of structural change in local agriculture was analyzed
to determine its causes and possible future trends. Major causes were
identified as government social welfare policy, introduction of a
new forage grass, government agricultural policy, decreased isolation,
and major changes in fertilizer supply. Some factors created a dis-
equilibrium in the social relations and ecological balance of the
traditional production system whereas other factors provided strong
incentives for change once these weaknesses appeared. Present ex-
pansion of modern commercial agriculture has effected a shift in
political power from rural landowning elites to urban commercial groups.
Concurrently, local patron-client relations are being replaced by
state patronism. In the future, it is expected that the tobacco ex-
port sector will become more capital intensive. On small farms;
increased specialization of both labor and production is likely.
As the above favorable conditions continue to stimulate the expansion
of commercial agriculture, further proletarianization and land con-
centration seem probable.
Warner, Paul D., and Peter F. Korsching. The Use of Paraprofessionals
as an Approach to Community Development. San Fransisco, CA. Paper
presented to the Annual Meeting of the Rural Sociological Society,
This paper discussed some of the unique strengths and weaknesses
in the use of paraprofessionals in two programs: The Appalachian
Community Impact Project, and another project in Eastern Kentucky
funded through the Emergency Employment Act. The experiences in these
two programs indicate that paraprofessional community development work-
ers can be effective agents in helping the local community.
Sasaki, Tom T., "Situational Changes and the Fruitland Navaho,"
J. Soc. Issues, 14(4), 1958: 17-24.
This is a discussion of the impact of steady wage work intro-
duced by a natural gas extracting company upon Navaho life, investi-
gating: (1) the antecedent socio-economic conditions in the community
which predisposed the farmers to reorient some facets of their way
of-life from the Navaho to the Anglo way, (2) the situational changes
which made this possible for these Indians, and (3) some of the social
consequences of these changes. After the dislocation caused by World
Wa r II and the return of the soldiers, some sentiment existed for the
adoption of new ways. Thus, with the introduction of the new company,
almost all Fruitlanders became involved in the wage economy. This
resulted in decreased interest in farming and a general lack of interest
in working cooperatively with each other and with the government.
The solidarity of the old social organization was weakened; shifts
in the statuses of different types of families occurred, producing
a strengthening of nuclear families. But behavior is changing, not
only because of the objective change situations, but also because
alternative definitions of the situation are being made available
through the continued development of the resources of the region.
Abada, Jorge C., The Agricultural Guarantee Program in the Philippines.
Unpublished paper, Land Bank of the Philippines, Manila, Philippines,
Oct. 1975, 9 p.
Discusses the composition and coverage of a major loan guarantee
program in the Philippines. The main objective of the program is to induce
banks to lend more money to land reform participants and other small farmers.
The guarantee fund is administered by the Land Bank and reimburses 85
percent of qualified loans which are not repaid. Author also outlines some
of the strengths and weaknesses of the program.
Abercrombie, K.C. "Subsistence Production and Economic Development".
Mon. Bull. Agri. Econ. Statistics, 14(5), pp. 1-8, 1965.
Subsistence production is here defined as "that part of agricul-
tural production which is not marketing but is used directly by the
producers and their families." Difficulties in determining the real
extent and importance of subsistence production arise from such bor-
derline cases as barter transactions and wages paid in kind, and also
where production is collectively organized (.eg., on kolkhozy, sovk-
hozy, and communes in the USSR, East Europe, and mainland China). In
most developing countries only sales of agricultural products on or-
ganized markets are known with much accuracy. There are also concep-
tual problems in the valuation of production that is not sold, and
any method of making such a valuation is necessarily arbitrary. It
is, however, convenient to value subsistence production at producer
prices on the production side of the national accounts and at retail
prices on the consumption side, with the corresponding imputed value
of household services shown as a separate item on the production side.
On this basis, tabulated estimates of the imputed value of subsistence
production are given as percentage of the total value of agricultural
production. Most of the limited data for developing countries relate
to Africa, where the share of subsistence in total production is usu-
ally assumed to be greatest, ranging rom 20% in Rhodesia to about 80%
in Ethiopia. For Taiwan the figure is 63%; for the Philippines 28%;
and for India 63-81% (for different grains). In the developed coun-
tries, subsistence production has fallen to 1% (United Kingdom) 3%
(U.S.), and 5% in Canada where it was as high as 14% only in 1926.
For Japan, the decline has also been rapid, viz., from 32% in 1950-
1954 to 21% in 1960-1963, and though data for the USSR are 60% in
1940, 55% in 1953, and 48% in 1958-62. Someof the changes suggested
that a dual approach is needed in the agricultural policies of the
developing countries. The expansion of agricultural production for
the market, bringing decline in the share of subsistence production,
is a basic aspect of development, but in addition to the measures
needed to increase market productions, steps must also be taken to
improve subsistence agriculture itself since it'is likely to continue
to play its large role not only in the production of food supplies
for millions of people but also in their whole livelihood. Subsis-
tence farming need not itself be regarded as a sign of backwardness,
rather can it play an important part in ensuring continuous social
stability in times of rapid change while becoming itself more effic-
ient and providing the necessary training ground for the adoption of
new techniques that eventual market production would require.
Abercrombie, K. C., "The Transition from Subsistence to Market
Agriculture in Africa South of the Sahara," Mon. Bull. Aqr. Econ.
and Statist.,l10, February 1961.
The transition to market agriculture is one of the major changes
taking place in the present phase of the economic development of
Africa. The limited available data indicate that, in all except a
few areas where export production is very highly developed, well
over half of the region's total agricultural production is for
subsistence and does not enter the market. After summarizing the
main characteristics of subsistence agriculture and the available
statistical information on the relative importance of subsistence
production in the region, this article attempts to identify, first,
certain preconditions for the development of market agriculture
and, secondly, the more important fields in which government action
appears to be necessary to assist this evolution.
.`- 0 --
Adams, Dale W. and J.L. Tommy. "Financing Small Farms: The Bra-
zilian Experience 1965-69". Agricultural Finance Review, Vol 35,
pp. 36-41, 1974.
Reports on changes in credit use among a sample of 338 farmers
in Southern Brazil between 1965 and 1969. About three-quarters of
these farmer's owned less than 30 hectares of land. Despite a more
than doubling in the real amount of formal credit available to these
farmers, there was very little spread of this credit to new formal
borrowers. Eleven of the largest farms absorbed almost two-thirds
of the increase in institutional loans to the entire group of farmers.
Authors conclude that loans were concentrated in the hands of rela-
tively few farmers because of the concessional interest rates applied
to formal loans.
Adams, Dale W. and others, "Is Inexpensive Credit a Bargain for Small Farmers?
The Recent Brazilian Experience," in Inter-American Economic Affairs
Vol. 26, No. 1, Summer 1972, p. 47-58.
Authors focus on the supply of formal agricultural credit for small
farmers in Brazil. They argue that because of concessional interest rate
policies, formal lenders are unwilling to supply credit to borrowers of
small amounts. Agricultural loan information for the 1960's is presented
to support their argument. Authors conclude that higher interest rates on
agricultural loans would increase the amount lent to the rural poor.
Agarwal, N.L. and R. K. Kumawat, "Potentialities of Increasing Farm Incomes
Through Credit and New Technology," in Agricultural Situation in India
Vol. 29, NO. 7, Oct. 1974, p. 489-493.
Examines the returns from new technology and additional credit use
among representative semi-arid farms in Rajastan. Study is based on interview'
with 60 farmers covering the 1971-72 crop year. Through the use of linear
programming, authors estimate farm incomes under various technology and credit
availability assumptions. They conclude that most farmers are short of
credit and that the average household's income could be increased by 73
percent if new technologies were applied and adequate credit was available.
Ames, Glenn Clifford Webster, Ryots' Reward: A Study of Production Credit
Repament Problems of Small Farmers in Mysore State, India. Contract No.
AID/csd-1927. 1973, 219 p. Research supported in part by an AID 21(d)
Grant. Doctoral dissertation, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37916.
This study reports on loan repayments among 136 farmer-member-
borrowers of 35 primary agricultural credit cooperatives in Mysore State,
India. The relationship between repayment and various socioeconomic
variables is tested. The author found that defaulters had fewer assets
than nondefaulters, and that repayment problems were closely tied to
Andrew, C.O. "Incongruent Performance Criteria For Small Farm Eco-
nomic Development". University of Florida: Food and Resource Eco-
nomics Department, Staff paper 67. 1977.
Performance criteria imposed by those working with small farm
development vary greatly at the government, industry, and farm tech-
nical assistance levels. In specifying relevant performance goals,
a return to basic values, belief and felt needs of those farmers is
essential, followed by adaptation of theory, conventional wisdom
and traditional research and development organizations to more spe-
cifically address those felt needs. Research and training programs
must both understand the aspiration of small farmers and provide
for the changes possible within their given resource environment
while identifying opportunities for improving that environment.
Andrew, C.O. "Agricultural Policy Formation Applied to Small Farm
Credit Concerns". University of Florida: Food and Resource Econo-
mics Department, Staff Paper No. 51, p 39, 1977.
This publication explains agricultural policy formation as a pro-
cess which has 5 stages: goal specification, problem identification,
policy determination, program implementation and policy and program
evaluation. The process also includes three flows relating directly
to these stages, which include: communication to a goal-problem con-
census; research, design, evaluation and rejection or selection; a
final evaluation after implementation with feed back to the goal-pro-
blem consensus flow activity. The basic components of this process
and their interrelationships are presented in a conceptual framework
for training and policy evaluation with specific application to the
credit policy area. Agricultural credit policy and programming is a
complex set of interactions and concerns extending from the national
policy level down to the individual small farmer in his management
decisions. The paper attempts to illustrate the complexity and order
in the policy formation process.
Arriaza de Gonzalez, Ana Obdulia and others, Programas de Asistencia
Tecnica y Crediticia para el Pequeno y Mediano Agricultor dentro del
Marco del Plan Nacional de Desarrollo en la Republica de Guatemala C.A.
Unpublished paper, Banco Nacional de Desarrollo, Guatemala City,
Guatemala, Feb. 1976, 28p.
to some credit
formal agircultural credit activities in Guatemala during
Information is also provided on technical assistance tied
(ACRS-I I I)
Atwar, Hussain, A.F. "The Comilla Co-operative Experiment." Review
International Cooperation, 57 (2). 1964, pp. 66-83.
The pilot project in Comilla, East Pakistan, is nearly three
years old. The progress achieved by the co-operatives has been un-
even, but judged by the performance of co-operatives in the past,
even the least successful of the co-operatives at Comilla should be
considered successful. The peasants had previously struggled with
small holdings; all the land which could be farmed has been farmed.
Nevertheless, half the time the land remained uncultivated because
of the low winter rainfall. With cooperation, all product on fac-
tors except land were pooled; these included planning, capital,
machinery, irrigation, and human skill. The Comilla Central Co-op-
erative Association and its member co-operatives are now self-support-
ing institutions. The Thana Training Center is financed by govern-
ment aid; here the organizers of the village groups attend adult school
once a week. The project has been successful not merely because em-
phasis has been placed on supervised credit, but because it is part
of a comprehensive program of rural development covering not only
modernization of agriculture, but improvement of local administration,
of education, and of the status of women. The Comilla Central Cooper-
ative Association decided in 1961-62 to undertake banking functions.
Atwar, Hussain, A.F.
Rural credit is now obtained from a commercial bank. The sound system
of rural credit is based on the following principles: Regular thrift
deposits, group planning, adoption of improved methods, and productive
investments. Members are also encouraged to save in kind. Currently,
the number of co-operatives has increased to 131 with a total member-
ship of nearly 4,500.
Baker, C.B. and Vinay K. Bhargava, "Financing Small-Farm Development in
India," in Australian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 18, No.2,
Aug. 1974, p. 101-118.
This article focuses on liquidity management by small farmers.
The authors argue that credit if reliable, versatile, and easily accessible,
provides a good source of liquidity. A linear programming model is applied
to a typical Indian small farm to show the importance of liquidity
management. The conclusion is that many formal credit programs for
small farmers fail because they do not provide dependable liquidity to
the rural household.
Bessell, J.E., "Appraisal of Credit Worthiness of Emergent-Commercial Farmers
in Developing Agricuture," in Agricultural Administration, Vol, 2, No. 4,
1975, p. 249-262.
Presents a technique of estimating credit worthiness using a minimum of
information. Technique is largely based on measurement of the borrower's
past economic performance and budgets of what the farmer might earn with new
technology. An example from Zambia is presented to illustrate the
Bhargave, Vinay Kumar, Effects of Publicly Supported Credit Programs on
Economic Growth of Small Farmers in District Budaun (India).
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, 1974, 120 p.
Uses information collected in 1969-70 from 42 farm households in India
to study liquidity management questions. Uses regression analysis as well
as linear programming to evaluate the effects of publicly supported credit
programs on small farm growth. A major question asked is, why don't more
small farmers participate in these public credit programs? Author concludes
that the problem may be due to the fact that small farmers view their public
credit agencies as only temporary sources of liquidity.
Bottrall, A.F., Financing Small Farmers: A Range of Strategies.
Paper presented at the Second International Seminar on Change in
Agriculture, Reading University, Reading, England, Sept. 1974, 13 p.
The author reviews recent literature on small farmer credit and
savings. He concludes that cheap credit may not be justified, that
substantial voluntary savings capacities may exist among the rural poor,
that informal credit markets provide a valuable function, and that
financial activities in agricultural cooperatives can be successful.
: '" --~~~~~~~.. . . ..'' ':-'.. . . : ;
. . . . . . . .r-;
Bouman, F.J.A. Planification Agricole Regionale Le Kef: Evaluation
des Institutions et des Programmes Actuels de Developpement Agricole.
Oct. 10, 1974, 11 p. State Agricultural University, Wageningen,
Salverdaplein 10, The Netherlands.
Reports on credit use and default problems among farmers in one
region of Tunisia. The author concludes that default records of small
farmers are no worse than those of big farmers, and that default is
closely related to the agricultural development potential of the areas
where farmers operate. The author also notes that administrative confusion
over who is responsible for loan collection adds to default problems.
J., Supervised Credit and the Venezuelan Farmer:
Unpublished paper, AID/Washington, Aug. 1965, 19p.
Reports on case studies
participants in a supervised
author discusses some of the
supervised credit program.
of six families in Venezuela who were
credit program in the mid-1960's. The
overall benefits realized from the
Browson, P.A., The Impact of Agricultural Credit on the Subsistence
Farmer. Unpublished paper, AID/Washington, Aug. 1965, 19 p.
This paper was prepared at the end of a five year development
program to assess the impact that the credit component of the Chikwawa
Cotten Development Project had on local farmers. The project was financed
by the Agency for International Development. A systematic sample of 174
farmers purchasing machines on credit was used. The effects of credit,
farmers' saving and spending patterns were analyzed. A pilot savings program
was introduced as a result of the study.
Vol. 20, No. 4,
"The Multiplication of Social Ties: The Strategy of Credit
East Nepal," in Economic Development and Cultural Change,
July 1972, p. 691-702.
The implications of multipurpose social ties for the provision and
servicing of credit in small-scale societies in four settlements in Nepal
are discussed. To meet consumption needs, landowners borrow by pledging
land. Often, in the lieu of interest, borrowers give the creditor farming
rights. Prospective tenants compete for the right by offering loans.
~~~~~~ ~ ., ....- -.. ., ., .... -. : -. o ,l l -, .. .. ,
---~r~ -_-- --:,r~ca~~F;
-----' ---- -F~ ~-- ~- .-"1.
Capo, Enrico. Les Communautes Rurales Haitiennes Face au Developpment
Economique. Rapport de la Mission, project de la plaine de Gonaives et
du Nord-Oest, Javier-Novembre 1966. Port-au-Prince: FAO pp. 40.
Carey, J. P. C., and A. C. Carey, "The Two Developing Worlds of
Morocco. A Case Study in Economic Development and Planning,"
Middle East J., 16(4), 1962: 457-475.
Nearly three-quarters of the Moroccan people work the soil, but
they receive less than a third of the national income. Cultivation
methods are still traditional and most plots are pitifully small
owing to the division of land by inheritance. The government is
developing irrigation of dry areas and tries to modernize the old
pattern of agriculture, but it is difficult to teach the peasants
to co-operate. The mining of phosphates and manganese are the country's
second greatest source of riches, but most of the products are exported
in raw form and do not benefit the starved soil at home. Industry,
too, is torn by the conflict between a deep reluctance to give up
antiquated methods and modern planning. Better general education,
stimulation of private industry and planned economic development may
show some effect. Although new forces are at work, only careful
overall planning and agreement on policies within the government will
set Morocco on the way to reconcile the dual drives in her society.
Carroll, T.F. "Group Credit for Small Farmers" Dev. Dig. Wash.,D.C.
12/2 (3-14) 1974.
Group lending to farmers' associations, rather than to individual
farmers, can reduce administrative costs and risks, and increase the
efficiency of loan administration. A review of many different group
credit schemes indicates several common factors in successful projects:
homogeneity of the group served, group responsibility for loans, outstanding
leadership, marketing arrangements tied to credit schemes and the provision
of technical service. (From author's summary).
(TA 1975 7500098)
Chinn, Dennis L. "Rural Poverty and the Structure of Farm Household
Incomes in Developing Countries: Evidence from Taiwan"
Economic Development and Cultural Change.
-'. ,- 'r
Clayton, Eric S., "Economic and Technical Optima in Peasant Agri-
culture," J. Aqric. Econ., 14(3), May 1961: 337-347.
The reforms now taking place in Kenya rest on twin pillars --
the consolidations and enclosure of scattered fragments and the
introduction of sound farming systems on these consolidated holdings.
This paper determines the level of returns which optimal resource
allocation would provide on a particular holding under different sets
of assumptions, using an actual holding situated in the Kagere sub-
location of Othaya Division, Nyeri District, Central Province as an
example. Linear programming was used to make this comparison and in
the process of applying this technique, certain interesting relation-
ships were thrown up which cast new light on some of the peasant
farming problems of Kenya. Although the discussion relates to one
situation and one holding only, nevertheless, it is a precise and
quantitative discussion upon which policy decisions may be more
Comptroller General of the United States, Report to the Congress,
Some Problems Impeding Economic Improvement of Small-Farm Operations:
What the Department of Agriculture Could Do, (GAO), 31 pp., Aug.
Cook, H. L., "The New Agrarian Reform Law and Economic Development
in Venezuela," Land Economics (Madison, Wis.), 37(1), February
Early in 1960, the new government of Venezuela adopted an agrarian
reform law. This paper aims to describe some of the bases for social
unrest, some facets of the development problem, and some of the
important respects in which the economy may differ from that found
in many underdeveloped countries. The chief provisions of the new
agrarian reform act, which appear to establish a ten-point program are
listed. The agrarian reform seems to be aimed at the needs of the
squatters, share tenants, and farm laborers, as well as small owners
and also the landless in general who may not be on farms. Some tenure
and productivity data are supplied. The results which may be expected
from the Agrarian Reform Law are given and there is a summary of its
Common Wealth Bureau of
No. 1(E). pp. 43, 1975.
Agricultural Economics. South America:
North. Oxford, UK: Annoted Bibliography
This bibliography, the first in a series covers: Colombia,
Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Surinam, and Venezuela. It covers
the period 1968 to 1974 and includes abstracts on agricultural pol-
icy, trade, agrarian reform, primary products, finance, and rural
social problems. Author and subject indexes are included.
Credit Union National Association Inc. (CUNA), Assessment Report on the
Haiti Small Farmer Project and the Bureau de Credit Agricole. Unpublished
report by CUNA, Washington, D.C., Nov. 15, 1976, 193 p.
Evaluates the credit activities in a small farmer coffee improvement
project in Haiti initiated in 1974 and largely financed by a $5 million
dollar A.I.D. loan. The project focuses on increasing coffee production on
small farms through use of chemical fertilizer financed through formal credit.
Credit and fertilizer is distributed to groups with membership of about 15
farmers. Discusses reasons why disbursements under the loans have been slower
than expected and lists recommended changes in the program.
Daines, Samuel R., Guatemala: Analysis of the Impact of Small Farmer
Credit on Income, Employment and Food Production; Executive Summary.
May 1975, 40 p. In English and Spanish. Sector Analysis Division, Office
of Development Resources, Bureau for Latin America, Agency for International
Development, Washington, D.C. 20523.
Reports on the impact of credit use among 800 farmers in Guatemala
on food production, small farmer income, and rural employment. Data from
an additional 800 nonborrowers is also analyzed. The study found that
credit users increased putput more rapidly than noncredit users, that credit
allocation does influence income distribution, and that credit use was
associated with more labor extensive crop mixes.
Daines, Samuel and others, Anal sis del Impacto del Credito de Fincas
Pequenas sobre Ingres, Empleo, y Produccion Agropecuaria, Vol's II, III,
and IV. Latin American Bureau, AID/Washington, June 1976, 64 p., 76p.,
Reports on the economics of credit use among 1600 farmers in Guatemala.
Half used credit, and half did not. Emphasis was placed on evaluating the
impact of credit on food production, small farmer income, and increasing
rural development. Authors conclude that credit use is closely associated
with substantial improvement in the economic well-being of users.
Dalton, George. "Economic Theory and Primitive Society." American
Anthropologist, 63 (1). February, 1961. pp. 1-25.
This is a discussion of the reasons why economic theory cannot
be fruitfully applied to the study of primitive communities, pre-
senting an "alternative approach to analytical treatment of primitive
economy". The method and content of economic theory are seen as
having been shaped "by two central features of nineteenth century
Britain: Factory industrialism and market organization." It is sug-
gested that the misleading assumptions that there is universal scar-
city and that formal economic theory has relevance to all economies
stem from an erroneous linking of two different meanings of the con-
cept "economic". (1) "In the substantive sense, economic refers to
the provision of material goods which satisfy biological and social
wants," and (2) as denoting "a special set of rules designed to maxi-
mize the achievement of some end or to minimize the expenditure of
some means". In market-organized industrialism both meanings of
economy are relevant. But "that every society must have substantive
economic organization to provide material means of existence does
not mean that each must have that special set of market exchange in-
stitutions for the analysis of which formal economic theory was uni-
quely designed". The fact that the United States is prevasively
market-organized and industrialized while the Trobriands is neither
"makes the differences in economic organization and processes be-
tween the two more important than the similarities." Thus, "economic
mechanisms, practices, and processes common to both primitive and
Western economies are institutionalized differently and often function
in different ways and for different purposes". It is concluded that
for the stydy of primitive economy "one must start from ethno-economic
analysis--with Malinowski, not Ricardo--in order to choose those trans-
formation paths to industrialization which entail only the unavoidable
L.H. Foreign Aid
to the Small Farmer: The El Salvador Exper-
InterAmerica Economic Affairs 29(1). pp.
The El Salvador experience demonstrates that outside help in
sectoral analysis and planning ensures essential continiuty by in-
volving all parties in a long term commitment. In 1973, USAID
authorized a $6.5 million credit for marketing reform storage and
distribution of grain from small farmers. Small farmers here bene-
fited greatly from this project. Hybrid maize production increased
from 17.6 cwt in 1968 to over 44.0 cwt in 1972. This seed is now
being sold to farmers at the lowest per unit price in Central Amer-
ica. Fertilizer consumption is increasing. El Salvador's per ha.
grain yields are among the highest in the hemisphere. Wholesale
maize prices per 100lbs of maize was $2.76 in 1971-72 compared with
3.33 in Honduras, 3.89 in Nicaragua and 4.99 in Costa Rica.
Desai, B.M. Formal vis-a-vis Informal Credit Supply Spices in
Tribal Areas: A Case of Dharampur Taluka. Unpublished paper,
Indian Institute of Management, Vastrapur, Ahmedabad, India:
pp. 26, 1976.
Describes the main features of formal and informal sources of
credit in one area of Gujarat State in the mid 1970's. The author
points out that informal credit is used to maintain household con-
sumption levels during periods when the small tenant and the land-
less have very little employment. The informal lender recovers his
loan in cash, grain or in the form of labor. Currently the formal
credit sources in the area provide little financial service to the
rural poor. Author argues that formal credit will only compete with
the informal lender when the fornal credit is integrated with pro-
gram to generate employment and to create a marketing network.
Donald, Gordon, Credit for Small Farmers in
1976, 286 p. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.
Distills much of the material presented in A.I.D.'s 1972/73
Spring REview of Small Farmer Credit. Major sections in the book treat
A.I.D.'s experience with credit programs, the overall role of credit, credit
institutions and policies, other institutions and policies related to credit,
and strategies for small farmer credit programs. A useful credit
bibliography is also included.
Economic Commission for Latin America, United Nations, "An Agri-
cultural Policy to Expedite the Economic Development of Latin
America," Econ. Bull. Latin Amer., 6(2), October 1961: 1-11.
This is an analysis of the problems of Latin American agri-
culture and the means by which they might be overcome. Latin
American development cannot be achieved unless a development pro-
gram is formulated for each specific case and programming machinery
is established on a continuous and permanent basis. If any measure
can be considered a prerequisite to the success of others, it is
land reform. Investments in rural public works and in the improve-
ment of the rural infrastructure would not require a high input of
capital and would provide full employment to rural workers who are
unable to find immediate employment in agriculture proper.
FAO. Agricultural Credit in Africa. Report of the Seminar on Agri-
cultural Credit for Small Farmers in African Countries held at Accra,
Ghara, 3-14 Dec. Rome, Italy: pp. 103, 1974.
The agricultural credit institutions and policies of the coun-
tries represented were explained and reviewed. Needs for the esta-
blishment of institutions designed to meet the requirements of small
farmers were identified. The more controversial problems related to
the implementation of agricultural credit services were examined by
working groups and in plenary sessions. Credit needs for specific
production purposes were examined with reference to links between
credit and marketing. These are easiest to operate for crops which
need further processing or which are sold through monopoly market-
ing channels. Central banks should be closely concerned with formu-
lation of policies and coordination between government and credit
institutions as well as supply of funds for agricultural lending.
Establishment of an effective branch network of either an agricul-
tural bank or cooperative system is essential if smaller farmers
are to be served. Easy access to credit without elaborate procedures
is more important to farmers than low interest charges. Collaboration
between cooperatives and other types of local farmer groups on the one
hand and agricultural/development banks on the other hand, could make
credit available to a large number of small farmers. Domestic savings
form the bulk of resources for agricultural credit operations. Mea-
sures to mobilize rural savings should concentrate on safety of de-
posits, on providing agency unaccessibility, on making rates of in-
terest attractive, and in indicating that savings are associated
with future benefits, such as obtaining loans.
Feder, Ernest, "Feudalism and Agricultural Development: The Role
of Controlled Credit in Chile's Agriculture," Land Economics
(Madison, Wis.), 36(1), February 1960: 92-108.
The author considers that the basic reason underlying the failure
of Chilean agriculture to keep up with its present growing needs should
be sought in its semi-feudal structure. The Chilean government has
attempted, through the organization of a controlled "development credit"
system, to spark the country's agriculture into a higher gear of activity.
It is, however, doubtful whether the program is adequate to achieve
its proposed objective within the structure of Chile's agriculture.
The topic of this inquiry is the implementation of the credit program
and more specifically, the manner in which credit has been allocated
among farmers. It was found that this allocation is highly "un-equal".
Larger estate owners have succeeded in obtaining the lion share of
the benefits while medium-sized and small farmers operate under
severe disadvantages as far as agricultural credit is concerned.
The author feels that the experience with development credit may
well turn out to be another indication that the present-day farm
ownership and management pattern seriously hinders agricultural
development in Chile.
Firth, Raymond W. and B.S. Yamey (eds.). Capital Saving and Credit
in Peasant Societies. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co., 1964.
This book has been planned to present detailed studies, drawn
from a variety of peasant societies to illustrate the interaction
between social and economic factors. It is also planned to show the
interest and significance of such anthropological studies for students of
the economies of developing countries. One of the editors, Firth,
begins with an extended outline discussion of the main problems and
issues. Some of the topics considered are: an examination of a credit
system in a non-monetary media side by side; capital and investment
problems among a money-using folk who still practice pastoral nomadism;
studies of capital and its management among traditional Asian peasantry;
aspects of rural savings and credit associations; and com parative
economic performance in situations of ethnic diversity. Th3 other
editor, Yamey, ends the volume with some comments and questions from
an economist's point of view.
Fledderjohn, D. "Regional Cooperatives in Guatemala", Dev. Dig.
Washington, D,C., 4:2 (15-23) 1974.
Improving the lot of the widely scattered small farmers in the
Guatemalan highlands is the purpose of a new regional cooperative project.
The steps involved in setting up the programme and the pitfalls inherent
in such an effort are described by the project director. (From author's
(TA 1975 7500097)
Ganewatta, P., Socio-Economic Factors in Rural Indebtedness? A Case
Study in Tract 2 Kagama Kattiyawewa Special Project, North Central Province.
Occasional Publication Series No. 7. 1974, 23 p. Agrarian Research and
Training Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Studies the debt situation of 90 farmers in a settlement scheme in
Sri Lanka in 1971. Notes that a number of debts are incurred for weddings
and rituals. Farmers seldom repay government loans because these loans
are viewed as grants by the farmers.
Gardner, Bruce L. Measuring the Income of Rural Families: Results
of a Survey of Sampson County, North Carolina, North Carolina
State University, Department of Economics, Economic Research
Report 20, 25 pp., Feb. 1972 (HD1775-N8N6).
Groenewald, J. A., "Book Review--Economic Planning in Peasant
Agriculture, By Eric Clayton," South African Journal of Economics
32(4), 1964: 283-293.
Linear programming as used to obtain optimum combinations of
enterprises in six peasant farms in Kenya. Optimum plans were drawn
up for conditions with and without mechanization. Within a certain
range, net farm incomes were increased by employing hired labor. In
ranges with too little labor, mechanization offers some advantages,
which decline and eventually disappear with increased labor inputs.
Addition of mechanization did not have any effect on either optimum
organization or income in ranges where labor is not restricted. These
results raise some doubts as to the correctness of the author's model
and, hence, some of his results. These results are used for discussions
of national agricultural policy. In our opinion, the sample is too
small for this purpose. A large variation in goals is also likely to
exist. It is concluded that the marginal value product of labor is
in excess of wage rates. Therefore, more labor should be employed in
agriculture. These conclusions seem to be quite plausible, notwith-
standing the above criticism. The results also show that mechaniza-
tion of seedbed preparation is financially advantageous if done in
times of peak labor demands. The author left the size of holdings--
potentially an important factor--out in his policy discussions.
Groenewald, J. A.
In the last chapter, linear programming as used to estimate a norma-
tive supply surve of coffee in Kenya. The validity of the underlying
assumptions of this supply curve is questioned, and thus also its
validity. The main value of this book may be that it challenges
the notion that disguised underemployment of labor is an inevitable
phenomenon in an underdeveloped economy.
Hadiwigeno, Soetatwo S., Potential Effects of Modification in the Credit
Program for Small Farms in East Java, Indonesia. Unpublished doctoral
dissertation, University of Illinois, 1974, 241 p.
Reports on the economics of credit use in four villages in East Java.
Data from 200 farmers for the year 1972-73 were used in the analysis.
Author uses linear programming to test the potential farm level effects of
various modifications in credit policies in a development program in
Indonesia (BEMIS). Concludes that farmers could pay much higher interest
rates on their formal loans without affecting production decisions.
(ACRS-I I I)
Harrison, Alan, Agricultural Credit in Botswana. Development Studies No.
4, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of REading, Dec. 1967,
Reports on an evaluation of a small revolving loan fund which provided
credit to small progressive African farmers in Botswana. The credit
was extended to less than one percent of the farmers in the country. All
borrowers were associated with an extension program. The paper also
reviews agricultural conditions in the country, presents data on loan
repayment problems and makes suggestions for strengthening the credit
Harvey, Charles, "Rural
Development and Change,
Credit In Zambia: Access and Exit,"
Vol. 6, No. 2, 1975, p. 89-105.
Reviews the growth in the formal agricultural credit system in Zambia
since 1964, noting that, despite heavy government emphasis, small farmers have
little access to formal credit. Explains how in remote areas it may
be impossible to provide credit to small farmers, and suggests that state
farms in remote areas may provide more economic opportunities for the rural
poor than credit programs.
Howse, C.J., "Agricultural Development Without Credit," in Agricultural
Administration, Vol. 1, No. 4, Oct. 1974, p. 259-262.
Argues that credit for low-income people in rural areas is neither
warranted nor generally possible. Rather, the author feels that extension
activities and savings clubs should be organized to increase small farmers'
income, and encourage them to save part of their surplus. Experience
with savings clubs in Rhodesia, Lesotho, Zambia, and Malawi are cited as
Haswell, M.R., Tropical Farming Economics, Tropical Agricultural
Series, UK: Loayman, 1973. 198p. (EN) graphs, photos, tables, refs.
This book deals with the problems of the small farmers in the
tropics, and reference is made to field studies made by the author in
Africa, S. and S.E. Asia, and Mexico, as well as to numerous other
studies. The problems related to agricultural technology are discussed
in detail, but main attention is paid to the problem caused by the
poverty of the farm families. The book is divided into 3 parts:
(1) Rural "settlers" in urban (small town) settings; (2) Farming for
survival; and (3) Farming for profit. In the first part attention is
focused, among other things, on the role of the small town as debt
generator. The second part discusses the various stages of agricultural
development, from shifting cultivation to use of industrial inputs,
as well as such topics as the incentive effects of consumption
priviledge. The third part deals with transport, employment, trade,
(ATA 2(3) 07478)
Humeida Ahmed, Ahmed, A Case Study of Agricultural Credit in the
Gezira Scheme, Unpublished masters thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, University
of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan, June 1975, 164 p.
Study is based on interviews in 1974 with a random sample of 120 tenant
farmers in the Gezira region of Sudan. Twenty-one informal money-lenders
were also interviewed. The main objective of the study was to describe how
the tenants obtained credit and to determine how informal money-lenders
operate. A description of the various organizations which provide formal
credit is presented. Also discussed is the "sheil" system, a special kind
of informal credit system under which the tenant gets credit by pledging his
unharvested crop to a money-lender in return for a loan.
Jolly, Arthur Leonard, "Social Aspects of Different Community and
Farm Structures." Rehovoth Conference on Comprehensive Planning of
Agriculture in Developing Countires Proceedings. Rehovoth: August 1963.
The paper emphasizes that it is primarily people that create
economic development. The non-material motivations are discussed under
the headings: leisure, social status, social environment, cultural and
political identity, and religious beliefs. The conclusion is that non-
material motivations of individuals must be taken into account in planning
economic development. It is noted that the democratic society is not
the type of community structure most compatible with rapid economic
development. It is not necessarily desireable in the initial stages of
development for the farmer to own and control all resources himself.
Khan, Ali Akhtar and J.M. Gunadasa, Small Farmer Credit: A Case Study of
Edanduwawa and Talqamuwa Attapitiya Grama Sevaka Divisions in the
Arti Field Laboratory, Bemenuwalte, Kegalle District. Research Study
Series No. 3. Feb. 1974, 81 p. Agrarian Research and Training Institute,
P.O. Box 1522, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Focuses on agricultural credit repayment problems in Sri Lanka.
Conclusions are based on data drawn from interviews with 170 farmers in
1973. The authors conclude that the payoffs from credit use among many of
the borrowers interviewed were low. This was the main repayment problem
Lele, Uma J., The Roles of Credit and Marketing in Agricultural Development.
Paper presented at the Conference on the Place of Agriculture in the
Developing Countries sponsored by the International Economic Association
Bad Godesberg, West Germany, Aug. 26-Sept. 4, 1972. 27 p.
Credit and marketing problems in agricultural development are described.
The author calls for policies aimed primarily at small farmers. She
emphasizes flexibility and timeliness in lending, alliance of credit with
extension and marketing, and effective collection. Commercial banks and
the private marketing system are cited as channels for credit. Marketing
systems, the author argues, should emphasize local capital, initiative
and management. i '
Long, Millard F., Economics of a Credit Program for Small Scale Farmers in
Rainfed Areas. Unpublished paper prepared for AID/Washington, July 20,
1976, 49 p.
Provides information on projected loan demand and costs of granting
credit for a proposed credit program in Pakistan. Stresses the need for
better data which will clearly show the payoffs to credit use. Also
stresses interest rate policies, savings mobilization and need for further
Lovorn, John M., Assessment of Existing Institutions Serving Barani Farmers
and Recommendations for Establishing a Barani Farmers Lending Program.
Unpublished paper prepared for USAID/Islamabad, Pakistan, Aug. 26, 1976,
Recommends a new agricultural credit program aimed at rainfed areas of
Pakistan where farmers currently receive very little formal credit. The
main elements of the new program involve a village-oriented credit delivery
system, with local individuals employed to act as village lending agents.
These, plus other recommendations, are aimed at reducing the costs of lending
as well as the costs of borrowing.
Malton, Peter Joseph. The Size Distribution, Structure, and Deter-
minants of Personal Income Among Farmers in the North of Nigeria.
Agricultural Economics Department, Ph.D. Dissertation. New York
State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University,
Widening income disparities between the rich and poor in many
low income countries during the past two decades has emerged as a
major concern to development planners. The most recent National
Development Plan of Nigeria reflects this concern by assigning
priority to growth in the agricultural sector within the broader
objectices of inter-regional and inter-personal equity. The in-
clusion of the equity objective in the design of production or-
iented agricultural policies has been constrained by lack of
knowledge both regarding the dimensions of the rural income dis-
tribution and regarding the characteristics of the rural poor.
This study provides a detailed profile of incomes for a sample
of farmers in the north of Nigeria and identifies the determi-
nants of income differentials.
The analysis is based upon data collected during a twelve-
month period in 1974-75 from a sample of 140 farming households
in three villages of Kano State. It is found that among the sam-
Malton, Peter Joseph.
pled villages the distribution of income is decidedly equitable rela-
tive to international standards and compared to Nigeria as a whole.
The high degree of equity is attributed primarily to: available sur-
plus land, an egalitarian land tenure system, inheritance practices
which limit the accumulation of land and other fixed assets between
generations, and the limited profitability of the generally tradi-
tional farming systems of the area.
Despite the narrow range of incomes, an econometric analysis
identifies differences in the efficiency of land and labor utiliza-
tion in farm production as the most important determinants of in-
come variation. Differences in management underlying these efficiency
differentials are examined through budgeting and production function
analysis. It is found that low use of fertilizer combined with gen-
erally low levels of management skills account for the inefficient
use of land and labor resources among poor farmers.
A set of poverty-trap relationships deposited on a cash short-
age observed among the poorest households is examined. These include:
need for and cost of credit, choice of crop mix, timing of crop sales,
Malton, Peter Joseph
selection of off-farm occupations, and access to government exten-
sion programs. Individual components of the poverty-trap are veri-
fied, but their cumulative impact is insufficient alone to prohibit
the upward mobility of even the poorest households.
It is concluded that the current distribution of income in
areas typical of the survey villages is not a problem of sufficient
magnitude to justify corrective government action. Evidence is pre-
sented, however, which
Manners, Robert A. "Land Use, Labor, and the Growth of Market-Economy
in Kipsigis Country". Markets in Africa, Paul Bohannan and George
Dalton (eds). Evanston, 111: Northwestern University Press, 1962.
During the past 30 years the Kipsigis of Western Kenya have
moved from a condition of land communalism to total individual
ownership of all land in the reserve; during the past 60 years
they have moved from a complete absence of markets, work for wages,
'and production of agricultural commodities for cash sale to an
economy in which these features are commonplace and essential. The
creation of markets under British rule is seen as one of the more
important devices utilized by the colonizers to provide labor. In
the long run, markets appear to have been the most effective spur
to Kipsigis. Simultaneous restrictions on the peasant cultivation
of most cash crops further stimulated the move into the wage sector
of the economy. Thus, excitation of new wants was communicated
through the establishment of markets. The first Kipsigis-owned
shop was established in 1925-26. By 1958 there were 58 market
places in the Kipsigis reserve with some 450 Kipsigis owned and
operated shops. There were 154 licensed produce buyers and 23
licensed stock traders in the reserve. There were four major
trading centers in the reserve, each with its quota of Kipsigis
Manners, Robert A
owned and Asian owned shops and several large towns within and on the
borders of the reserve with their total of some 200 Asian owned shops.
Many of the large farms and all the tea estates surrounding the re-
serve have their own shops. The peasant production of cash crops,
i.e., tea and coffee may ultimately surpass wage labor as a source of
`: "" c~
Mears, Leon A. and Teresa L. Anden, "Who Beneftis from the Post-Harvest
Rice Price Rise?" in Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 9, No. 4, Mar. 1972,
Some students of c~velopment have argued that because farmers lack finance,
they are forced to sell their crops at harvest time for very low prices.
Middlemen who buy and store the crops are thought to make substantial
profits. Authors analyze data for 1957-58 to 1968-69 in the Philippines
to test this argument. They focus on holding costs and price variations in
rice. They conclude that because of high holding costs and substantial
price fluctuations only the most astute trader can expect to make a profit
in most years.
Miller, Leonard F., Present and Potential Use of Credit by Small Maize and
Rice Farmers in Western and Kwara States, Nigeria. Technical Report
AETR/75.3, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University
of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, Mar. 1975, 54 p.
Describes various aspects of credit use among 399 farm households in
Western Nigeria in 1973. Approximately three-quarters of the households used
credit, but the amounts borrowed were quite small. Almost all of the credit
came from informal sources. Author describes uses made of credit, terms
of the loans, farmers' interests in obtaining more credit, and several
policy implications of the research.
(ACRS- I I I)
Mongkolsmai, Dow. Distributional Effects and Reimbursement Analysis
of an Irrigation Project in Thailand. Economics Department, Ph,D.
Dissertation, New York State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences,
Cornell University, 1977.
The main emphasis of this study is the distributional impacts of
public projects. Such impacts become important when the problem of
income distribution is considered as one of the multiple policy ob-
jectives. In Thailand, one of the most important projects affecting
the agricultural sector is the Chao Phya Irrigation Project in the
Central Plain. Recent economic analyses suggest that the project
achieved the efficiency objective in bringing about a substantial
increase in rice production in the project area. No attempt, however,
has been made to evaluate the distributional effects of the project
costs and benefits among beneficiaries. Thus, the first purpose of
this study is to examine how the different farm size groups have gained
from the project in relation to one another. The data used for the
analyses are secondary data obtained from Thai government departments
in the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives and their published
The project benefits in the form of incremental net production
values that accrued because of the project are estimated for each farm
size class by comparing the project area with the with-out project
area. The project costs are distributed among classes according to
their relative tax burden. The annual costs and benefits of the pro-
ject allocated to each class are then discounted over a 25 year time
horizon (1951-1975) at two alternative rates of interest (7% and 10%).
The resulting benefit-cost ratios are high due to a small share of
the project costs borne by the farmers in the project area relative
to that of the rest of the taxpayers in the country. Among the clas-
ses, however, the distribution of project net benefits is skewed to-
ward large farms, thereby keeping their position unchanged relative
to the income distribution of the farmers in the Central Plain in 1963.
While total rice production has increased significantly since project
completion, the small and medium size farms which account for more than
half of the total number of farms in the area received only a small
percentage of the benefits.
The Chao Phya Project is now in the state of implementing land
consolidation to improve water control in the area so that dry season
cropping would be possible. It is, however, required that land con-
solidation costs be reimbursed by project beneficiaries. The second
purpose of this study is analyze and evaluate the various possible
methods of reimbursement that could be employed. The direct methods
can be based either on the project costs or on the value of project
benefits. On the benefit basis, the linear programming model was
used to derive the optimal residual return to land that is expected
to result at full development of the project. The maximum repayment
ability of each cropping pattern assumed for each farm size class is
than estimated as the difference between the optimal residual return
to land with and without the project. The annual chargeable amount
is below this maximum repayment ability by some specified margin in
order to allow risks and to provide incentives to farmers. The in-
direct methods include the increase in rice premium and commodity
group tax burdens that result from the project. The various methods
are then evaluated according to the criteria of efficiency, equity,
administrative feasibility, incentive and acceptability to farmers,
and revenue production.
The results of the analysis suggest that either cost of benefit
based charge would be effective in recovering the costs, since charges
based on project costs do not seem to be excessive in comparison with
farmer's repayment ability. While the annual charges should be based
on project benefits, the total reimbursement should not exceed the
project costs. The relative contributions of each farm size class
should also be in line with its share of the project net benefits.
Mooy, A., Credit Needs for Small Farming, Small Industries and Handicrafts
and Mobilization of Rural Savings-Achievements and Shortcomings in
Indonesia. Aug. 28, 1974, 18 p. Economic Commission for Asia and
the Far East, Bangkok, Thailand.
Presents a description of the rural credit system in Indonesia. The
latter part of the paper has a discussion of various savings mobilization
programs in Indonesia. Several of these programs have been quite successful
in mobilizing large amounts of voluntary financial savings. Attractive
interest rates on deposits appear to have been an important factor in
Mukerji, K.M. and A.K. Gupta. An
(Diqnagar Village: West Bengal).
Visva-Bharati University, 1964.
Appraisal of the Package Program
Studies Series No. 3 West Bengal:
This appraisal of the Intensive Agricultural District Program which
is a new approach to economic development in agriculture in India is
based on the survey undertaken in this village in January 1964. The
comparison between the performance in the package and non-package crop
lands of the selected farmers did not show any significant departure from
the traditional methods of cultivation. The farm production plans worked
out by the village worker and agricultural extension officer were designed
only to estimate the amount of credit to be supplied to the farmers for
the purchase of inputs. The present method of including only a fraction
of crop land of a selected farmer in the plans should be given up.
Instead, a farmer with all his resources should be the unit of planning.
(CIC -AID II)
Niederstucke, K.H., A Socio- Economic Evaluation of the Smallholder Credit
Scheme: Kericho, Kenya. Unpublished paper presented at Eastern Africa
Agricultural Economics Society Meeting in Lusaka, May 1974, 19 p.
Evaluates the performance of small dairy farmers in one area of Kenya
who have received loans under a German sponsored program begun in 1969.
Repayment under the program has been satisfactory with only 13 percent of the
loans being in arrears at the time of the study. Concludes that
economic changes at the farm level appear to justify the project costs.
Opoku-Owusu, Kwame, Preparatory Assistance to the Liberian Credit Institution.
Unpublished report prepared for UNDP/FAO, Agricultural Development Bank,
Accra, Ghana, Mar. 1976, 138 p.
Provides suggestions on the formulation of a new credit institution
to provide financial services to the rural poor in Liberia. Author reviews
historical development of agricultural credit services in Liberia and suggests
the formation of a new Agricultural and Co-operative Development Bank which
would service small farmers and rural cooperatives. Includes projections on
the proposed structure and activities of this new bank.
Pattison, Robert Vaughn, Small Farmer Credit: A Case Study of Four
Villages Near Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
University of Colorado, 1973, 213 p.
Reports on formal and informal credit use by 44 small farmers in
four Mexican villages in 1969-1970, emphasizing the competitiveness of
financial markets in each of the four villages, Although the villages were
located relatively close to each other, the author found that credit market
conditions varied widely. Informal capital flows between villages were nearly
non-existent. Concludes that credit use and borrowing costs are largely
related to credit market characteristics and not to characteristics of
borrowers or potential borrowers.
Rask, Norman and others, "Credito Agricola e Subsidios a Producao
Instrumentos Para o Desenvolvimento da Agriucltural Brasiliera,"
in Revista Brasiliera de Economia, Vol. 28, No.1, Jan.-Mar. 1974,
The role of credit in recent agricultural policy in Brazil is
reviewed in this article. The authors conclude that concesssionally
priced credit has increased the use of modern inputs. However, only
a few farmers receive most of the credit, and the marginal returns from
credit use in farming may be rather low.
Rask, Norman. Farm Size and Income: An Economic Study of Small Farm
Agriculture in Southern Brasil. Land Tenure Center Reprint #16.
University of Wisconsin. pp. 33, 1964.
The reasons for land or Agrarian reform are both economic and social.
Programs dealing with such reforms cite gains in productivity and indivi-
dual income, democratic citizenship and flexible basis for further econo-
mic development, as rationalization for division of land into medium-
sized farms. But such division will be productive only if previous condi-
tions tend themselves to fissioning. Plantation economy does not always
do so--a small unit is not the most efficient way. This paper deals with
the practical question of what is the minimum size farm that will provide
people with benefits and yet provide land for as many people as possible.
To answer this question author states need to determine the income situ-
ation on farms of varying size and to determine paths for improvement in
productivity on small farms if 1) a minimum of 10 ha. is cultivated and
2) if the levels of producvity are improved. To do this, many farms
would have to be consolidated to reach the 10 ha. minimum and this would
mean out-migration. Suggests that ratio of tillable land to non-tillable
land should be 2:1.
Roy, Ewell P., Bordelon, Floyd J., ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE LOW INCOME -
LIMITED RESOURCE PROBLEM IN LOUISIANA, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
State University Center for Agricultural Sciences and Rural
Development DAE Research Report No. 467, 1974.
This publication analyzes the nature and scope of the limited-resource
or poverty problem in Louisiana and offers suggestions for the
possible alleviation of this problem. A bibliography of available
research literature relating to low-income problems is included.
Schults, T. W. Economic Crises in World Agriculture. Ann Arbor;
University of Michigan Press, 1965.
The author postulates that there is a juncture in economic devel-
opment when a stagnant and depressed agriculture causes a crisis, and
that country after country has reached this juncture. The first three
chapters are devoted to the issue of what is to be done about agri-
culture at this critical point. Programs, the aim of which is to
modernize traditional agriculture, must break the long-standing
economic desequilibrium that characterizes farming in so many poor
countries, and it is considered in detail how this can be accomplished.
The price of increasing the capacity of traditional agriculture, under
present conditions, is high. A set of hypotheses to guide the analysis
indicates that the land, reproducible material, capital and labor at
the disposal of farmers in the poor countries are allocated quite
efficiently more so than in modern agriculture. Another hypothesis
indicates that the rate of return to investment in traditional agri-
culture is low, which means that the incentive to expand production
is weak. There are two basic explanations of the failure of farmers
who are bound by traditional agriculture to increase production sub-
statially over a period of time. One makes it a matter of preference
Schults, T. W.
and the other is based on production possibilities. It is contended
that farm people in traditional societies are not indifferent to
earnings from work and to rates of return from investment, and that
accordingly there is a role for economic analysis. The evidence on
production possibilities consists of: (1) the supply response of
farmers in traditional agriculture; (2) the comparative efficiency
with which they allocate the agricultural resources at their disposal
and (3) the low marginal rates of return to investment when it
is undetaken to increase the capacity of agriculture. With few
exceptions all the inputs that farmers in poor countries can produce
for themselves are low pay-off sources, while virtually all agricultural
inputs that hold real promise must come from outside agriculture.
The high pay-off sources are predominantly improvements in the quality
of agric-ltural inputs. It is shown that United States agricultural
aid programs have not achieved the success hoped for, primarily
because no profitable regarding new agricultural inputs have been
available to farmers which they could adopt and use. The concept of
economic growth which underlies this analysis indicates that the
programs to modernize agriculture successfully must be based on:
(1) new agricultural inputs that have a relatively high pay-off;
(2) a supply of these inputs available to farmers; (3) teaching the
farmers how to use the new inputs efficiently as they adopt them. In
his analysis of modern agriculture the author examines (1) the sources
of the gains in agricultural productivity in the United States; (2)
the cause of the USSR's inability to develop these sources of producti-
vity; (3) the basis for re-distributing the "losses" borne by farm
people as a consequence of these gains in productivity; (4) the
reasons for farm people failing to share in many of the social services
of the welfare state in the United States.
Geertz, Clifford. Agricultural
Ecological Change in Indonesia.
Association of Asian Studies by
Involution. The Processes of
Berkeley:Published for the
University of California Press, 1963.
This study uses an ecological and interdisciplinary approach to
the problem of economic development in Indonesia. The period analyzed
is from pre-colonial days to the present. Methods of agriculture,
land tenure, and the culture system are also discussed.
(CIC AID II)
Scobie, Grant M. and others, An Evaluation of the Role of Supervised
Credit Programs to Accelerate Adoption of New Agricultural Technology.
June 1975, 32 p. Unpublished paper, Centro Internacional de Agricultura
Tropical, Cali, Colombia.
A general framework for examining the social benefits derived from
supervised credit programs is presented. This method is applied to credit
and fertilizer use among 100 farmers in Guatemala. The authors conclude
that farmers should be allowed to choose the amount of of inputs they want
to use in credit programs.
Singh, Gurbachan, Farm Level Determinants of Credit Allocation and Use in
Southern Brazil 1965-1969. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio State
University, Columbus, OH, 1974, 164 p.
Reports on credit use among two groups of farmers in southern Brazil
interviewed in 1965 and 1969. Despite the large amounts of formal credit in
Brazil, about one-third of the farmers did not use credit. Author also found
that credit use was closely associated with farm size and size of economic
operations. He questions the desirability of using concessionally priced
credit as a way of helping the rural poor.
Sinha, S. P., and R. P. Verma, "Co-operative Finance and Agricultural
Development: A Case Study," A.I.C.C. Econ. Rev., 17(7), 1965: 17-
20 and 40.
This is a case study of the working of Agricultural Co-operative
Society at Bariarpur in the Distrcit of Champaran, Bihar, to test how
far finance is an inhibiting factor in agricultural development and
also to examine why available funds are not being fully utilized. It
appears that debt is incurred not for enterprise or development of
production but for physical and social survival. In the absence of
other necessary conditions, easy or liberal credit does not neces-
sarily lead to investment. This is limited by the small and
scattered nature of the holdings, and risk element involved and only
economically better off groups have benefited from co-operative
credit. In the case of small farmers, co-operative efforts are
needed to mobilize available labor resources rather than co-operative
Sonachalam, K. S., "Economics of Peasant and Tenant Farming," Asian
Econ. Rev., 3(3), May 1961: 285-301.
Based on a case study, this article compares in quantitative
terms the productivity per acre of lands under peasant and tenant
farming and attempts to examine the various financial consequences
that would follow farm a conversion of tenant farms into peasant
farms. The study revealed significant differences in the two classes
in respect of the percentage of earning members, cost of hired labor,
owned bullock labor, owned manure, seed input, cost of maintenance of
livestock, interest charges on productive loans and value of bullocks
and implements. The farms business expenditure of the peasant farmers
was 15.9% more than that of the tenant farmers, owing to the higher
value of the inputs made by the farmer. The net income of peasant
farmers exceeded that of the tenants by 6.3%. It is concluded on the
basis of the study that a change in the legal status of tenants
should be followed up by a generous supply of finance to them so as
to increase their productivity.
Smith, E. J. Economic Profile of Limited Resource Farmers,
Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1972.
Smith, E.J. Interrelationship Between Rural Economic Development and
Low-income Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic
Research Service, 1971.
Stickley, Thomas, The Agricultural Credit System in Tunisia: Some
Observations and Recommendations. Unpublished paper, Department of Agriculture
and Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, July 1976, 29 p.
Describes the agricultural credit system in Tunisia, and outlines how
that system has performed recently. Author notes that the rural poor have
very limited access to formal credit. He suggests that formal credit might
be channelled through local informal lenders in order to reach the rural poor.
Strickland, Cecil L., and Soliman, Mostafa Nonprofessional Aides in
Agriculture: An Evaluation of a Program in Cooperative
Extension Education for Small-Farm Families, Prairie View A&M
University, Bulletin 1165 (PV) map., Tables, Jan. 1976 (100T 31S).
Sturgeon, R.M., Group Loans to Small Farmers. Unpublished paper
prepared for the FAO/Finland Regional Seminar on Agricultural Credit for
Africa, Accra, Ghana, Dec. 3-14, 1973, 7 p.
Reviews the strengths and weaknesses of group lending programs for
small farmers and reports on recent group lending programs in Lesotho.
Concludes that group lending can only be successful when it is integrated
with other services and activities.
Sullivan, G.D., and Stech, C.G. "The Low-income Farmer and his
Uses of Credit," Louisiana Aqriculture 13(1): 10-11, Fall 1969
Sullivan, Gene D., Stech, Curby G., AVAILABILITY AND USE OF CREDIT
ON SMALL COMMERCIAL FARMS IN SOUTH CENTRAL LOUISIANA, Baton,
Rouge, Louisiana State University Agricultural Experiment Station
DAE Research Report No. 386, 1968.
The major objectives of this study were to determine the amount of
credit used by small commercial farmers, the sources and relative
importance of each source, the degree of knowledge farmers possess
concerning existing credit sources, farmers' attitudes and
experiences with respect to their use of credit, and the potential
for borrowing additional capital.
Tendler, Judith, A.I.D. and Small Farmer Organizations: Lessons of the
Ecuadorian Experience. July 1975, 401 p. Prepared for the Office of
Development Programs, Bureau for Latin America, Agency for International
Development, Washington, D.C. 20523
This study evaluates A.I.D.'s assistance to various types of rural
cooperatives in Ecuador over the past couple of decades. This includes
credit unions, the Cooperative Bank of Ecuador, rice cooperatives, and a
land sale guarantee program. The author finds a limited amount of success
among these cooperatives in serving small farmer needs.
Tendler, Judith, "Inter-Country Evaluation of Small Farmer Organizations:
Final Report, and evaluation report prepared for the Office of Development
Programs, Latin American Bureau, AID/Washington, Nov. 1976, 52 p.
Reports on a study of nine small farmer organizations inEcuador and
Honduras which were supported by the Agency for International Development
(AID). A number of these organizations provided financial services to rural
people. The author critiques the major activities carreid out by these
organizations and suggests changes in AID policies which might improve the
performance of the organizations. The study identifies a number of general
issues which may relate to formation and strengthening of small farm
Thirsk, Wayne R., Rural Credit and Income Distribution in Colombia.
Contract No. AID/csd-3302. Program Discussion Paper No. 51. Summer 1974,
27 p. Prepared for the Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination, AID/
Washinton by the Program of Development Studies, Rice University,
Houston, TX 77001.
This study attempts to measure productivity of credit use on 2,900
small to medium-sized Colombian farms which received supervised credit
in 1969. The author points out a number of the methodological problems
associated with this type of analysis. He concludes that marginal productivity
of credit use on small farms was higher than on large farms.
Biggs and Ronald L.
AID 211 (d) Grant.
Collins, CO 80523.
L., "Credit for Small Farmers," in Huntley H.
Tinnermeier (eds.), Small Farm Agricultural Development
No. AID/csd-2460. Research partially supported by an
1974, p. 97-116. Colorado State University, Fort
Discusses the role of credit in small farmer development. The
author argues that credit should be extended mainly on the basis of its
potential to increase farm output. He concludes that new technology and
reduction of production risks are necessary as preconditions for successful
small farmer credit programs.
Von Pischke, J.D., Credit Use and Development on Nineteen Murang'a
Farms, 1969-1973. Jan. 15, 1974, 274 p. Unpublished paper, Institute for
Development Studies, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
Reports on credit use and farm development by 19 small credit users
in a rural area of Kenya. All of these borrowers had defaulted at some
point on their loans. The author found that economic performance on
the farm has almost no statistical relationship to the borrowers repayment
performance. Borrowers with the highest level of off-farm jobs tended
to be the worst repayers.
Wharton, Clifton, R., Jr., "The Nature of Technical Assistance for
Economic Development," Econ. Devel. Cult. Change, 6, 1958: 109-128.
"The purpose of this paper is to describe the conceptual
character of technical assistance, to delineate its scope as
representatively found on the Latin American scene, and to analyze
its attributes," The following attributes of technical assistance
are discussed: a cooperative venture, a flexible tool, a satisfied
of un-met needs, an inexpensive seeding operation, and a new
.~~~~~~ ~ 4*. ~ ::
-. .' -' .. *. .
Inter-Cropping and Double Cropping
Abalu, George 0. I. A Note
in Northern Nigeria.
on Crop Mixtures Under Indigenous Conditions
Journal of Development Studies 12(3):212-220,
Adegbola, A.A. and B. Onayinka. The Production and Management of Grass/
Legume Mixtures at Agege. Nigerian Agricultural Journal 3(2). pp. 84-
Field trials conducted in Nigeria over 18 consecutive months with
8 different tropical grass/legume mixtures showed that the combination
of Andropogon gayanus and Centrosema pubescens substantially outyielded
all other mixtures, irrespective of season and cutting interval. High-
est dry matter yields of over 6 tons/ha. were obtained in the wet sea-
son at cutting intervals of 12 weeks. Under the same cutting regime the
dry matter yield amounted to 5 tons/ha. in the dry season. No fertili-
zers were applied.
Agboola, A.A., and A.A. Fayemi. Preliminary Trials on the Intercropping
of Maize with Different Tropical Legumes in Western Nigeria. Journal of
Agricultural Science, 77(2). Department of Agronomy, Ibadan: pp. 219-
225, 1971. Nigeria.
In field trials in 1965-67 in which various legumes were inter-
planted in maize plots, Phaseolus lunatus and Mucuna utilis signifi-
cantly reduced yields of maize grain; Calopogonium mucunoides, Vigna
sinensis and P. aureus had much less effect on maize grain yields and
were themselves tolerant of the shade from maize plants. Maize showed
a significant response to fertilizer (26 lb N + 9 lb P + 50 Ib K/ac at
sowing + 26 lb N at tasselling) only in plots containing no legumes.
High yields of maize were maintained for 4 growing seasons in both
fertilized plots without legumes and in those interplanted with legumes
without fertilizer. In plots with neither legumes nor fertilizer,
yields decreased to 50% of that in the Ist crop. Yields of maize were
similar whether grown with the legumes or after the legumes had been
harvested. Competition between legumes and maize occurred during the
late,season; maize yields were not seriously affected by this, but
legume yields were significantly reduced by maize shade.
Ahmed, S.; H.P.M. Gunasena. PORR- A Methodology For Selecting Treatment
Rates in Coordinated Studies, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, and Universit'
of Sri Lanka, Peradeniya campus, Paper presented at American Society of
Agronomy 70th Annual Meeting, Chicago, Illinois, December 3-8, 1978.
Coordinated field studies were conducted under the INPUTS project of
the East- West Center during 1975 78 to evaluate alternative management
practices such as slow-release fertilizers, placement methods and intercropping
for their contribution to increased N use efficiency. Test crops included
rice, wheat and maize-legume intercrops. Since the varieties selected varied
from place to place due to agroclimatic conditions, N rates used also differed.
To provide a basis for comparing results, N rates were selected as Percentages
Of the locally Recommended Rates for the test crops, rather than curves
were developed by selecting N levels corresponding to 0%, 30%, 60% and 100%
of the recommended rates, and comparing these to slow-release fertilizers
at the 60% level. REsults of over 50 such experiments confirm the workability
of this method by making statistical analysis of the pooled data possible.
The method requires an a prior knowledge of the locally recommended rate
for the crop being tested.
Akhade, M.N.; Singh, M.; Bhambhani, B.J. Grow Potato as Intercrop in
Sugarcane. Indian Farming 25(l):3-4, 28. April, 1978.
Ali, M. Studies on Mixed Cropping in Tara: Region Under Unirrigated
Conditions Wheat, Barley, Chickpeas, Linseed, Brassiec iuncea,
Mustard. Indian Journal of Agronomy 20(4):365-368. Dec., 1975.
Allen L.H., Jr., T.R. Sinclair and E.R. Lemon. Radiation and Microcli-
mate Relationships in Multiple Cropping Systems. USDA, ARS. University
of Florida and Cornell University. A paper presented to the Annual Meet-
ing of the Society of Agronomy. Knoxville, TN, 1975.
The spectral distribution of incoming solar radiation is relatively
constant except near sunrise and sunset. However, the source geometry
(directbeam or diffuse skylight) varies widely with solar elevation
angle and cloudiness or atmospheric turbidity. The irradiance in most
plant canopies under clear sky conditions shows a bimodal distribution
with high irradiance sunflecks and low irradiance shadows. Near in-
fared radiation (NIR) penetrates plant canopies to a greater extent
than photo synthetically active radiation (PAR), which results in a
relative enrichment with depth of 730/660 nm radiation. This relative
enrichment has implications in photo-morphogenic processes. Depletion
of PAR with depth into canopies leaves less energy available for photo-
synthesis and transpiration in understory vegetation. Wind movement
of leaves influences the spatial fluctuation of irradiance. The basic
concepts and implications of radiation climate for photosynthesis, 730/
660 nm radiation ratios, and transpiration are developed for the growth
cycle of double-cropped systems and for intercropped systems.
.. 5'.i -
' -.2 2- *
Altieri, M.A., J. Doll and A. van Schoonhoven. Insect/Weed Interac-
tions in Maize/Bean Mono- and Polyculture Systems. Revista Comalfi
4(4). pp. 171-208, 1977.
Tropical agroecosystems constitute diversified systems with crops
arranged in polyculture patterns. Weeds are important components of
these systems and condition insect diversity and stability. In an at-
tempt to gather experimental evidence as a basis for tropical pest
management strategies, 9 field and 2 laboratory experiments were con-
ducted at CIAT (Palmira, Colombia). Two ecological strategies were
proposed to change monoculture maize and bean pest susceptibility:
polycultures and monocultures diversified with weeds. Weeds reduced
adult nymph leafhopper (Empoasca kraemeri) populations 40 and 53%,
respectively, Similarly, a maize/bean polyculture had 26% fewer adult
leafhoppers than beans in monoculture. Weeds also decreased cutworm
(Spodoptera frugiperda) damage to maize by 68%, while beans gave 38%
reduction. The population of all armyworm larvae was not affect by
weeds but was reduced 23% in polycultures. Date of planting is an im-
portant factor affecting these interactions in polycultural systems.
for example, maize planted 30 and 20 days before beans, reduced leaf-
hoppers on beans by 66%; however, bean yields were low due mainly to
light competition. Fall armyworm damage in maize was reduced 88% when
beans were planted 40 to 20 days earlier. Maize yields were similar
in all systems. Diabrotica balteata, a polyphagous bean pest, had 55%
higher populations in weedy monoculture plots but 45% less in polycul-
tural systems. Grass weed species (Leptochloa filiformis and Eleusine
indica) were more effective in reducing the adult leafhopper popula-
tions (94%) than broad-leafed species (75%). D. balteata showed a
similar but less marked response. Beans grown inside a 1-m wide grassy
weed border showed 50 to 67% reduction of leafhopper adults and nymphs,
respectively. Spraying infested bean plants with solutions of E. in-
dica or L. filiformis repelled 68% of the leafhoppers, suggesting the
presence of a chemical effect. Laboratory observations showed that 80%
of a leafhopper population preferred to feed on bean leaves alone and
20% fed on bean leaves in the presence of grassy weed leaves. In all
trials, weed populations were managed to avoid competitive interfer-
ence and obtain acceptable crop yields. The main regulatory action on
leafhoppers was obtained in grass weed diversified systems in which
repellent and/or masking chemical stimuli were present, reducing the
colonization, feeding and reproduction efficiency of these insects,
suggesting that low levels or borders of some weed species should be
incorporated into pest management schemes. Diversified of monocul-
tural systems with other crops and weeds seems to be an effective
strategy in tropical pest management. In these systems as associated
resistance operates as a result of optical, chemical, biological and
microclimatic complexity, which under proper circumstances (i.e.,
plant associations) can function as antiherbivore resources.
Alvim, R. and Alvim P. De T. The Effect of Plant Density on Utili-
zation of Solar Energy by Maize and Beans in Monoculture or in
Association. Turrialba 19(3). pp. 389-393, 1969.
This study proposed to measure the primary productivity or rate
of dry matter production of maize and beans, grown under tropical con-
ditions in pure stands and as mixed crops at different planting densi-
ties (6.25, 12.5, 25, and 100 plants/m2). Primary productivity in-
creased in proportion to the planing densities, reaching a maximum
value of 57.7 g/m2/day in the case of 100 maize plants/m2. This figure
corresponded to a photosynthetic efficiency or conversion of visible
solar energy of 10.5% for the Ist mo of growth, this being one of the
highest figures recorded in literature. At all densities, beans showed
only about 1/3 of the productivity and photosynthetic efficiency of
maize. When intercropped, the rates of productivity of the stands
were usually higher than the means for the 2 monocultures, thus indi-
cating that the decrease in assimilation rate of beans due to shading
by maize was out weighed by the increase in assimilation rate of the
latter as a result of reduced self-shading in the mixed stands.
Anderson, E., and L.O. Williams. Maize and Sorghum as a mixed crop in
Honduras. Ann. of the Missouri Botan. Gardens, 41(2). pp. 213-215,
Maize and sorghum are planted simultaneously but harvested at dif-
ferent times in vast areas of Central America. Observations made in
Central Honduras. An outline of the cultural practices employed. In-
terplanting of maize and shorghum speeds the labour and harvest over
a longer period and is particularly valuable in years of insufficient
rainfall. The sorghum is exceedingly variable (in height as well as
in tassel type).
Andrade, M.A. De, Ramalho, M.A.P. and Andrade, M.J.B. De.
Cropping Beans with Maize Cultivars of Different Heights.
4(2). pp. 23-30, 1974.
An experiment was conducted at the Escola Superior de Agri-
cultura de Lavras (Brazil) from 1972-74 to study the effect of
intercropping beans with maize cultivars of different hdights.
Piramex (normal height) or Piranao (dwarf type) and beans from
the Parana group were planted in monoculture and intercropped
(in different rows or within the same row). Maize yields were
not affected by cropping system or plant height. Bean yields/
area were not affected by maize plant height, but better yields
were obtained when beans were intercropped within rows rather
than between maize rows. Intercropping-especially within rows-
gave a better return on capital.
Andrews, D.J. Responses of Sorghum Varieties to Intercropping.
Experimental Agriculture 10(l):57-63. Jan, 1974.
Andrews, D.J. Intercropping with Sorghum in Nigeria. Experimental
Agriculture, 8(2). pp. 139-150, 1972.
Trials at Samaru (wet season duration 180-200 days) in 1967-79
to find the most effective method of utilizing the wet season for rain-
fed crops, especially the main crop of long-duration sorghum, are de-
scribed. In 1970 a final trial composed (a) sorghum as a sole crop,
(b) relay cropping, early millet (Pennisetum typhoides [ = P. ameri-
canum]) followed by cow peas; intercropping 1 row of sorghum with (c)
1 or (d) 2 rows of (b) or (e) intercropping 2 rows of sorghum of two
rows of (b). In (c), (d), and (e), grain yields of sorghum were in-
creased 46.1-86.5% compared with (a), and those of millet 36.0-55.5%
compared with (b). Compared with (a), methods (b) and the average of
(c), (d) and (e) gave 59 and 80%, respectively, greater returns/ac.
Andrews, P.J. and A.H. Kassam. The Importance of Multiple Cropping in
Increasing World Food Supplies. ICRISAT, Hyderabad, India: A paper
presented to the Annual Meeting of the Society of Agronomy, Knoxville,
Multiple cropping warmer climates produced more yield than one
sole crop through better use of space and/or time. Among six defined
multiple cropping patterns two principles are recognized: a) simul-
taneous cropping: 1) mixed, 2) inter-and 3) strip copping; b) succes-
sive cropping: 4) double (and triple) etc., 5) relay and 6) ratoon
cropping. Multiple cropping is in common use by farmers at all tech-
nology levels but could be more widely and intensively used. Apart
from utilizing resources more efficiently, multiple cropping offers
more reliability than one sole crop, and all patterns show various
capabilities of utilizing normal production inputs. Successive pat-
terns show various capabilities of utilizing normal production inputs.
Successive patterns show various capabilities of utilizing normal pro-
duction inputs. Successibe patterns can more readily accept improved
sole crop technology but it is the "low level equilibrium" dryland
farming areas which are more vulnerable to bad seasons when failure
to meet basic production requirements in poor years taxes available
food reserves more. In these vast problem areas better soil and
water management must parallel advances in food production possible
when utilizing new varieties, new crops, fertilizer and chemicals in
well-managed crop mixtures.
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Anthony, K.R.M. and S.G. Willimott. Cotton Interplanting Experiments
in the South-West Sudan. Empire Journal of Experiment Agriculture,
25(97). pp. 29-36, 1957.
Aragzeb, S.N.H. Inter-Cropping of Comilla Cotton. Pakistan Cotton.
10(4). pp. 172-176. 1976.
Alternatives to jhum cultivation (shifting cultivation) of comilla
cotton (a short-stalk, coarse type of Grossypium arboreum) were inves-
tigated. For the red laterile soils of the Dacca district, mixed crops
of cotton with summer rice or maize are recommended in preference to
pure stands. Yields were higher when the cotton was sown in rows 2 ft.
apart with 2 rows of rice between, than broadcast. For the lowland
tracts of the Chittagong Hills, cotton is recommended in preference to
either summer rice or mixed cotton/rice crops.