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Fungicidal control of cigar-tobacco diseases
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073378/00003
 Material Information
Title: Fungicidal control of cigar-tobacco diseases
Series Title: North Florida Station mimeo report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: North Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station.
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Creation Date: 1967
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Tobacco -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
General Note: Description based on: 1964/1965; title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1968.
Funding: NFES mimeo rpt.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 76789236
lccn - 2006229105
System ID: UF00073378:00003

Full Text





/6 3 r NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
,// 5 ( ,9 Quincy, Florida
December 1, 1967



NFES Mimeo Report 68-4 ..

FUNGICIDAL CONTROL OF CIGAR-TOBACCO DISEASES, 19672

by R. R. Kincaid/

SI.F.I.S.-Uni. oi
INTRODUCTION

Fungicidal control of blue mold (Peronospora tabacina) in tobacco beds and fields is
practiced in the shade-tobacco area of North Florida. Diseases amenable to fungicidal
control include also soil-borne diseases (principally Phytophthora parasitica var.
nicotianae and Pythium spp.). Project 1274 was initiated to investigate control of these
parasitic diseases and possibly also weather fleck (ozone injury).

Tests conducted with fungicides in 1964-1966 were reported in North Florida Station
Mimeo Reports NFS 66-2 and 67-3. Further tests were conducted in the spring and summer of
1967, as reported herein.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The following materials were included in one or more tests:

Captan, n-(trichloromethyl)thio)-4-cyclohexene-l,2-dicarboximide (Stauffer)
Cap-Cop-Ter, 3:4:2 mixture of Captan 50%, tribasic copper sulfate, and Terraclor 75%
Chemagro 4497, bis(l,2,2-trichloroethyl) sulfoxide (Chemagro)
Daconil 2787, tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (Diamond Alkali)
D-D, chlorinated C3 hydrocarbons (Shell)
Demosan, 1,4-dichloro-2,5-dimethoxybenzene (Du Pont)
Dexon, p-dimethylamino benzenediazo sodium sulfonate (Chemagro)
Di-Syston, o,o-diethyl s-2-(ethylthio)ethyl phosphorodithioate (Chemagro)
Dithane M-45, coordination product of zinc ion and maneb (Rohm and Haas)
Dithane Z-78, zineb (Rohm and Haas)
Dyrene, 2,4-dichloro-6-(o-chloroanalino)-s-triazine (Chemagro)
EP-216, zinc methyl dithiocarbamate (Morton)
Fermate, ferban (Du Pont)
Morsodren, 2.2% methylmercury dicyandiamide (Morton)
Mylone, 3,5-dimethyltetrahydro-l,3,5-thiodiazine-2-thione (Union Carbide)
Nia. 10242, 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl 7-benzofuranyl n-methyl carbamate (Niagara)
Polyram, (ethylenebis(dithiocarbamato)) zinc and ((dithiobis) (thiocarbonyl)
iminoethylene))bis(dithiocarbamato)) zinc (Niagara)
Temik, 2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde O-(methylcarbamoyl)oxime (Niagara)
Tribasic copper sulfate (Tennessee)
Vorlex, 20% methyl isothiocyanate and 80% chlorinated C3 hydrocarbons (Morton)

All rates of application are given in terms of pounds (or pints) per acre of the
formulation used.

Test varieties used in these experiments were Connecticut B (moderately susceptible
to black shank) and Florida 15 (resistant).

Plant Pathologist, North Florida Experiment Station, uincy.
Plant Pathologist, North Florida Experiment Station, fuincy.











All experiments were arranged in randomized complete blocks, in plant bed, under
artificial shade, or in open field as indicated.

Conclusions from the plant bed experiment were based on cumulative yields of seedlings
suitable for transplanting and on incidence of blue mold, which was the only disease to
appear in the plots.

Conclusions from soil fungicide experiments in the field were based (1) on survival;
(2) on visual growth rating or on yield, grade index, and crop index; and (3) on root-
disease indexes for black shank, root knot (none in these experiments), and coarse root
(nematode root rot). In contrast to the three previous seasons, soil temperatures were
high enough (750 F. at 8 inches).for black shank as well as for Pythium rot from the
beginning of the 1967 season. Since the two diseased are hot readily distinguishable in
the field, the "black-shank index" reflects the incidence of both diseases.

Conclusions from the foliar fungicide experiment in the field were based on foliar
disease (blue mold and weather fleck) incidence, yield, grade index, crop index, and root-
disease indexes. The soil had been fumigated with Vorlex.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

Table 1. Bed foliar dust and spray treatments in 1967 were applied to 3 x 5-foot plots
of Connecticut B sowed January 23. Fungicide concentrates diluted with pecan-shell flour
were applied three times a week for 13 applications February 27 through March 27. Dust
rates ranged from 15 to 35 pounds per acre at each application, depending on size of plants.
The total amount of each dust applied was 307 pounds per acre. Sprays were applied on the
same schedule as were the dusts.

Lowest disease indexes and highest seedling yields were obtained with Polyram, which is
recommended for grower use in plant beds in 1968.

Zineb spray gave no better blue mold control or seedling yields with the addition of
DM30, in contrast to results of a previous test.

Table 2. Field foliar dust treatments were applied to plots 16 feet (4 rows) wide and
30 feet long, transplanted to Florida 15 March 23, 1967. The two rows in the middle of
each plot were used for record. All plots were dusted twice a week, for a total of 24
applications. The total amounts of dust applied were from 527 to 561 pounds per acre.

Blue mold scores for Dithane M-45 and Polyram were significantly lower than for the
untreated check.

Fleck incidence was very low, and was not recorded.

Dithane M-45 and Fermate gave highest yield, grade index, and crop index.

Table 3. Shade broadcast treatments were applied February 16 to plots 8 feet wide and
38 feet long (30 feet net). The materials were broadcast and rototilled to a depth of
about 6 inches. The variety Connecticut B was transplanted March 24. The row in the
middle of each plot was used for record.


Mylone treatments were significantly better than check.





Table 4. Shade hill (plastic) treatments were applied in transplanting water to plants
of the variety Connecticut B transplanted Match 24 through 3-inch holes in l1-mil black
plastic mulch. Water was applied with a dipper at the rate of 1/3 pint per plant, 450
gallons per acre. Since no plowing or hoeing was required, there was little chance of
recontamination of the treated soil around the plants.

The best results under these conditions were obtained with Polyram. Others signi-
ficantly better than check included Daconil 2787 + Captan, Dexon, Dithane M-45, tribasic
copper sulfate, and Cap-Cop-Ter.

Table 5. Shade fumigation (mulch) treatments were incorporated or injected in bands
4 feet wide and 4 feet apart and covered with 1-mil black plastic mulch 5 feet wide
February 16, 1967. Therefore, the fumigants were concentrated in the bands to twice the
acre rate shown in the table. Fertilizer, either part-organic or all-inorganic, was
applied to split plots just before treatment. Each mulched band accommodated two rows of
Florida 15 transplanted March 23.

Mylone treatment with organic fertilizer gave results, including estimated net return
(Table 6), significantly better than did D-D without mulch.

Table 7. Field broadcast treatments were applied and rototilled to a depth of about
6 inches March 3. Connecticut B was transplanted March 29, 1967.

Mylone gave the best survival, disease control, and growth rating. Others giving
significantly better survival and disease control than check were Chemagro 4497, Dexon,
Temik, Daconil 2787, and Di-Syston.

Table 8. Field hill treatments were.applied in transplanting water, 1/3 pint per
plant, 450 gallons per acre, immediately after transplanting Connecticut B March 29, 1967.
Plowing, beginning a few days after transplanting, placed untreated soil around the plants.

Treatments giving significantly better survival than check and also better growth
were Daconil 2787, Polyram, tribasic copper sulfate, and Chemagro 4497.

* * *.'* *: ;** * *

Similar experiments with foliar and soil fungicides are planned for 1968.








RRK
12/1/67
100 CC









Table 1-1274. Bed foliar dust treatments, sowed to Conn. B January 23, 1967.

Blue mold index Cumulative yield of seedlings per sq. yd.
Treat- March March
ment Fungicide AI 14 22 24 27 17 24 27 31 Stand
%

1 Dithane Z-78 6.5 T T 13 28 45 103 178* 257* 545**

2 Dithane M-45 4.0 0 0 T 2 62 142 222** 313** 626**

3 Polyram 5.0 0 0 0 T 47 152* 243** 340** 625**

4 Polyram 8.0 0 0 T T 41 126 216** 326** 654**

5 Daconil 2787 5.0 0 0 T 6 48 130 220** 309** 575**

6 Zineb spray 0 0 T 5 45 130 227** 312** 528**

7 As No. 6 + DMSOC 0 0 T 11 51 126 202** 277** 515**

8 Check 0 33 93 100 46 91 109 182 377

L.S.D., 5% 37 55 61 69 81
1% 51 77 85 95 113


Scale: 0 (none) to 100 (severe)
0.5 lb. Dithane Z-78 per 100 gallons
CDimethyl sulfoxide 500 ppm (vol.)


* **Significantly better than check at 5% and 1% levels, respectively.











Table 2-1274. Shade dust treatments; Florida 15 transplanted March 23, 1967.

BM
Treat- Sur- score Root disease index Grade Crop
ment Fungicide A.I. vival 5/2 BS RK CR Yield Index Index
% % Ibs./A


Dithane Z-78

Dithane M-45

Polyram

Daconil 2787

Fermate

Check

L.S.D., 5%
1%


6.5

4.0

5.0

7.5

15.0


94

96

89

97

97

95

8
11


61

44*

43*

59

80

97

46
63


0 28

0 23*

0 38

0 27

0 32

0 35

11
- 15


1926

2052

1926

2017

2040

1946

239
340


.715

.752

.711

.750

.761

.696

.057
.081


1376

1543

1374

1512

1554

1356

248
353


* **Significantly better than check at 5% and 1% levels, respectively.


-












Table 3-1274. Shade broadcast treatments, applied Feb. 16, transplanted to Conn. B.
March 24, 1967.

Survival (%) Growth Root Disease
Treat- Apr. May June May Index
ment Fungicide A.I. Rate 22 1 9 17 25 5 20 12 BS RK 'CR
% lbs./A


1 Dexon 35 60 80** 74 60 55 47 37 28

2 Polyram 80 50 86** 79 66 58 44 39 33

3 Dithane M-45 80 100 84** 76 63 56 52 40 29

4 Temik 10 50 86** 77 60 54 47 42 36

5 Mylone 50 200 97** 92** 83** 79** 72** 66** 60**

6 Mylone 50 400 98** 95** 93** 90** 88** 86** 84**

7 EP-216 30 400 96** 89* 73* 60 54 48 42

8 Check -- 74 68 46 41 37 33 29

L.S.D., 5% 12 14 21 19 20 20 17
1% 16 19 28 26 27 27 24


13 80 0 51

17 77 0 54

17 78 0 47

17 73 0 53

21* 46** 0 46

24** 28** 0 30*

18 69 0 40

13 76 0 55

6 20 16
9 27 22


* **Significantly better than check at 5% and 1% levels, respectively.

















Table 4-1274. Shade hill (plastic), transplanted to Conn. B and treated March 24, 1967.


Growth
Survival (%) rating Root disease
Treat- Apr. May June Apr. May index
ment Fungicide A.I. Rate 22 1 9 25 5 20 22 3 12 BS RK CR
% Ibs./A


Dexon

Polyram

Dithane M-45

Morsodren

Trib. cop. sulf.

Cap-Cop-Ter

Demosan

Daconil +
Captan

Check

L.S.D., 5%
1%


35 0.5 96**

80 2.5 98**

80 1.0 97**

-- 1.0 93y**

4.0 93**

-- 2.0 95**

65 0.5 90

10 2.0 93**
10 4.0 95**

-- 84

7
9


90**

97**

93**

82**

82**

87**

65

78**
90**

62

12
16


84**

95**

88**

72**

78**

81**

59

70*
86**

52

15
20


77**

93**

80**

63**

70**

73**

46

58*
80**

40

15
21


71** 68**

85** 77**

69** 63**

52* .45

59** 56**

60** 52*

36 27

47 41
74** 68**

34 30

18 17
24 23


* **Significantly better than check at 5% and 1% levels, respectively.


21 21 27

18 19 25

20 21 24

17 15 22

24 21 24

24 21 25

24 22 21

24 21 23
20 20 25

22 20 23

----
--6


44**

34**

40**

66

54*

55*

79

66
40**

76

19
25











Table 5-1274. Shade fumigation (mulch) treatments, applied
transplanted to Florida 15 March 23, 1967.


and mulched February 16;


Root disease index
Treat- Ferti- Grade Crop Suv- Black Root Coarse
Fumigant Rate/A ment lizer Yield index index vival hank knot root
lbs./A %


Vorlex



Vorlex



Mylone 50


EP-216 30G



Check



D-D



D-D



D-D
(no mulch)


5 gal.



10 gal.



100 lbs.


150 Ibs.


5 gal.



10 gal.


10 gal.


Org.
Inorg.
Avg.

Org.
Inorg.
Avg.

Org.
Inorg.
Avg.

Org.
Inorg.
Avg.

Org.
Inorg.
Avg.

Org.
Inorg.
Avg.

Org.
Inorg.
Avg.

Org. a
Inorg.
Avg.


1718
1771
1744

1747
1767
1757

1806*
1760
1783

1656
1601
1629

1699
1652
1676

1557
1594
1676

1728
1652
1680

1653
1714
1684


.698
.702
.700

.700
.695
.697

.730**
.702
.716

.681
.702
.691

.693
.720*
.707

.749**
.687
.718*

.659
.625
.672

.658
.680
.669


1203
1247
1225

1221
1229
1225

1317*
1236
1277

1136
1132
1134

1177
1190
1184

1163
1095
1129

1137
1136
1137

1100
1169
1134


16* 0
17 0
17 0

14* 0
15* 0
14 0


15* 0
18 0
17 0


1-8 Org. 1695 .696 1185 86
9-16 Inorg. 1689 .697 1179 87


L.S.D., 5%


L.S.D., 1%


Fumigants
Fertilizers
Fum. x Fert.

Fumigants
Fertilizers
Fum. x Pert.


177 .057
54 .017
153 .047

246 .079
74 .023
211 .065


174 10
56 3
158 9

243 13
77 4
218 12


Standard
* **Significantly better than D-D (no mulch) at 5% and 1% levels, respectively.














Table 6-1274. Shade fumigation (mulch) treatments, 1967; estimated net returns.

Treat- Variable costs (dollars) Returns (dollars)
Fumigant Rate/A ment Fum. Fert. Plastic Cult. Total Grossb Netc


Vorlex


Vorlex


Mylone 50



EP-216 30G


Check
(no fumigant)


D-D
(no mulch)


5 gal.



10 gal.


100 lbs.



150 Ibs.


1* 30
9** 30
Avg.


65
65


100
100


0
0


5 gal.



10 gal.



10 gal.


128
70


128
70


128
70


128
70


128
70


128
70


128
70


128
70


100
100


100
100


100
100


100
100


100
100


100
100


100
100


0
0


20
20


20
20


100
100


278
220


308
250


313
255


348
290


248
190


258
200


268
210


248
190


*Organic fertilizer 1-8
**Inorganic fert. 9-16

L.S.D., 5% Fumigants


3609 1331
3741 1521
1426

3663 1355
3687 1437
1396

3591 1638d
3708 1453
1546

3408 1060
3396 1106
1083

3531 1283
3570 1380
1332

3489 1231
3285 1085
1158

3411 1143
3408 1198
1172

3300 1052
3507 1317
1184

1271
1312


627
168
475


aStandard
bCrop index x 3
CGross variable costs fixed costs ($2,000)
dSignificantly higher than standard














Table 7-1274. Sun broadcast, applied March 3, transplanted to Conn. B March 29, 1967.

Growth
Survival (%) rating Root disease


Treat-
ment Fungicide


Dexon
Cl 4497
Dithane M-45

Polyram
Dac. 2787
Nia. 10242

Mylone
Mylone

EP-216
EP-216

Temik
Temik

Dac. 2787 +
Captan
Di-Syston

Check

L.S.D., 5%
1%


A.I. Ra
% lbs

35
50
80 1

80 1
75
10 1

50 2
50 4

30 4
30 6

10
10 1

10
10
10 1


May June July
te 8 25 6 18 3
./A % % % % %

60 87** 67** 50** 41** 35**
80 95** 83** 58** 42** 33**
00 74 50* 31 20 13

00 82* 47 34* 18 14
50 97** 71* :41,** 26* 22*
00a 74 37 17 7 6

00 93** 84** 73** 71** 54**
00 98** 97** 93** 90** 74**

00 84* 52* 31 21 13
00 76 43 26 13 5

50 82* 50* 33* 27* 19
00 77 48 26 19 14

20 84* 47 18 10 5

00 83* 59** 34* 2d* 19

- 64 28 11 6 3


16 22 22 19 15
21 30 30 25 21


May index
4 12 BS RK CR


16 13 70** 0
18 16 68** 0
17 14 89 0

18 15 88 0
21 16 79** 0
15 12 95 0

20 18 41** 0
.22 19* 27** 0

17 13 89 0
16 13 97 0

17 16 83* 0
17 12 90 0

18 15 96 0

17 15 82* 0

18 15 97 0


5 4 13
7 5 18


- 19
- 27


aPhytotoxic
* **Significantly better than check at 5% and 1% levels, respectively.










Table 8-1274. Sun hill treatments applied to Connecticut B March 29, 1967.


Treat-
ment Fungicide


Dexon


Polyram


Captan


Dithane M-45


Ch. 4497


Morsodren

Dyrene

Dac. 2787

Trib. cop. sulf.


Cap-Cop-Ter

Demosan


Dac. 2787 +
Captan

Check

L.S.D., 5%
1%


Survival (%)
April May June
A.I. Rate 20 9 18 25 6 19
% lbs./A % % % % % %

35 .25 87*- 70* 42 31 11-* 4
.50 83 71* 55* 38* 20* 11

80 1.25 91** 80** 55* 39* 14 6.
2.50 94** 87** 69** 49** 26** 17.

50 2.00 97** 92** 74** 57** 24* 11
4.00 93** 85** 66** 49** 9 4

80 1.00 94** 83** 65** 34 15 6
4.00 97** 90** 71** 56** 21* 8

50 .125 91** 82** 60** 46** 22* 13*
.250 87* 77** 50 29 12 6

-- 1.00 86* 74** 53* 39* 13 7

50 2.00 90** 89** 71** 50** 24* 9

75 2.00 96** 96** 76** 56** 29** 18**

-- 2.00 86* 74** 51* 42* 13 0
4.00 97** 87** 61** 43* 25** 14*

-- 2.00 89** 77** 52* 32 13 5

65 .50 92** 84** 61** 42* 19 11
1.00 96** 84** 53* 32 18 9

10 2.00 90** 82** 56* 33 18 6
10 4.00 95** 77** 63** 50** 23* 12

-- 77 56 32 17 6 2

9 12 19 20 14 11
12 15 26 27 19 15


* **Significantly better than check at 5% and 1% levels, respectively.


Growth


rating
May
4 12


15 14
17 16

16 15
15 16

18* 18**
15 13

17 14
18* 17*

18* 17*
14 12

18* 16

18* 16

18* 18**

17 13
18* 16

18* 15

18* 17*
15 12

16 15
18* 16

14 12

4 5
5 6