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Fungicidal control of cigar-tobacco diseases
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 Material Information
Title: Fungicidal control of cigar-tobacco diseases
Series Title: North Florida Station mimeo report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: North Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station.
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Creation Date: 1964
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Tobacco -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
General Note: Description based on: 1964/1965; title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1968.
Funding: NFES mimeo rpt.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 76789236
lccn - 2006229105
System ID: UF00073378:00001

Full Text






/t, AIFS 6- NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida

September 30, 1965

North Florida Station 4ilmeo Report NFS 66-2


FUNGICIDAL CONTROL OF CIGAR-TOBACCO DISEASES IN 1964 AND SPRING, 1965

By R. R. Kit aid1


INTRODUCTION

Fungicidal control of blue mold (Peronospora tabacina) in tobacco plant beds and fields
is practiced in the shade-tobacco area of North Florida. Diseases amenable to fungicidal
control which require attention include also soil-borne diseases (principally Phytophthora
parasitica var. nicotianae and Pythium spp.) and green spot (Cercospora nicotianae).
Project 1274 was initiated to investigate fungicidal control of these diseases.

The purpose of this project is to investigate fungicidal control of plant bed and field
diseases of cigar tobacco, with particular reference to blue mold, green spot, and soil-
borne diseases.

TESTS IN 1964

Exploratory tests were conducted with soil fungicides in an attempt to find materials
and methods which would merit further trial in plant beds and/or fields. The variety Dixie
Shade was used in all tests except as noted. Test 1 was in quadruplicate; others were in
triplicate.

Chemicals

The following fungicidal and other materials, all in wettable powder formulations
except as otherwise noted, were included in one or more tests:

Dexon, 70% p-dimethylamino benzenedizao sodium sulfonate (Chemagro)
Chemagro 2635, 70% trichlorodinitrobenzene (Chemagro)
Polyram, 80% of a mixture of (ethylenebis(dithiocarbamato)) zinc and ((dithiobis)
(thiocarbonyl) iminoethylene)bis(dithiocarbamato)) zinc (Niagara)
Captan, 50% n-trichloromethyLmercapto-4-cyclohexene-l,2-dicarboximide or n-
trichloromethylthio tetrahydrophthalimide (Stauffer)
Dithane 4-45, 80% coordination product of zinc ion and maneb (Rohm and Haas)
Soil Fungicide 1823, 75% l,4-dichloro-2, 5-daiethoxybenzene (Du Pont)
Daconil 2787, 75% 3,3,4,4-tetrachlorotetrahydrothiophene-l,l-dioxide (Diamond Alkali)
Du-Ter, 20% triphenyl tin hydroxide (Thompson-Hayward)
Morsodren (liquid), 2.2% methylmercury dicyandiamide (Morton)
Terraclor, 75% pentachloro nitrophenol (Olin 'iathieson)
Dyrene, 50% 2,4-dichloro-6-(0-chloroanalino)-s-triazine (Chemagro)
Tribasic copper sulfate (Tennessee)
Cap-Cop-Ter, 3:4:2 mixture of Captan 50%, tribasic copper sulfate, and Terraclor 75%
Di-Syston granular, 10% 0,0-diethyl S-2-(ethyl thio)ethyl phosphorodithioate (Chemagro)
Non-fat dry milk solids
Fertilizer, 16-16-16 water-soluble



1Plant Pathologist, North Florida Experiment Station, Quincy.






-2-


All rates of application are stated in terms of the formulation used, from which rates
of active ingredients may be calculated.

Methods, Observations and Conclusions

Conclusions from plant bed experiments were based mainly on cumulative yields of
seedlings suitable for transplanting, which reflect both disease control and plant toxicity.
Conclusions from field experiments were based on mortality and visual growth ratings.

Some observations on weeds and algae are included, although these are not of primary
importance in this project. Mortality data included some plants which appeared to be dying
but later recovered, as well as any plants which were killed by the treatment.

1. Spring plant bed. Materials applied in water, 3 gallons per plot (15 sqi ft.).
Sowed and treated January 30: covered with perforated plastic sheeting January 31. (Table
1-1274)

No disease appeared in this test. Certain rates of Dexon, Daconil 2635, and Polyram
gave yields equal or slightly superior to those of untreated checks. Treatments which gave
appreciable control of weeds or algae were inferior in yield.

2. Summer plant bed. Materials applied in water, 3 gallons per plot (15 sq. ft.).
Sowed and treated May 26, 1964. (Table 2-1274)

Incidence of Pythium rot varied from slight to severe in different parts of the bed,
making reliable comparisons difficult. All treatments appeared to be slightly to con-
siderably superior to untreated, except Du Pont 1823. Yields (July 3) higher than checks
were obtained with Daozn, Daconil 2635, Polyram, Captan, Cap-Cop-Ter, and Morsodren. Of
these, Daconil 2635 and Captan appeared to be of some value as algaecides. Du-Ter was toxic.

3. Fall plant bed. Sowed and treated with Polyram 10 pounds per acre as a drench
July 28. Fungicides were applied as dusts, using pyrophyllite as the carrier. Nine
applications were made August 14 September 4, for a total of 166 pounds of finished dust
per acre. (Table 3-1274)

A mixture of Captan 50% and tribasi: copper sulfate gave one of the lowest Pythium
rot readings, and also slightly higher yield than the check.

4. Spring field band (row) treatment. Fungicides applied in water with a sprinkling
can to a band 12 inches wide, 900 gallons per acre, immediately after transplanting April 9
and hand watering with a dipper. (Table 4-1274)

Among treatments which received better growth ratings than checks were certain rates
of the following:

Du Pont 1823 (low mortality)
Dexon (low BSI)
Polyram, Captan, Daco:il 2787 (low mortality, low DSI)
Dithane 1-45, Di-Syston (low BSI, low CRI)

5. Spring field hill treatment. Fungicides applied in water, 450 gallons per acre
(1/3 pint per plant) with a dipper immediately after transplanting April 10. (Table 5-1274)

Among treatments which gave the most promising results were SF 1823, Daconil 2787,
Jorsodren, and tribasic copper sulfate. Terraclor and some others were toxic.








-3-


Yields of the eight treatments primed were inversely related to mortality and to black
shank index, with the exception of two treatments; Morsodren gave a high coarse root index,
and Polyram appeared to have a stunting effect.

6. Summer field hill treatment. Fungicides applied in water as above, immediately
after transplanting May 5 and May 8 with Dixie (two replications) and 1129-2-2-1-3-1-(3S)
(one replication). (Table 6-1274)

Mortality was higher than in the previous test, due to increased incidence of Pythium
rot during the first 2 to 3 weeks after transplanting. Dexon appeared to be outstanding.
Du-Ter gave low mortality, but only average growth.

7. Fall field band (row) treatment. Fungicides except Morsodren applied dry, diluted
with fuller's earth, in the drill, and incorporated with a garden rake into a band 12 inches
wide. Treatments were applied to the three blocks June 26, June 29, and June 29; and
transplanted with three filler varieties June 26, June 29, and July 1, respectively.
(Table 7-1274)

Mortality was highest of all tests. The highest rate of Polyram gave the best results
on the first count, but none of treatments was satisfactory.

Discussion

Materials. Table 8-1274 shows the materials used in 1965 in the plant bed (reported
below) or in the field, using various methods of application.

Methods. Plant bed treatments applied in water by the drench method probably do not
give uniform penetration of the soil. The 1965 treatments were applied by mechanical
incorporation and by fumigation under plastic cover.

Field treatments banded along the row using water as the carrier could probably be
applied as a coarse spray, supplemented by ordinary irrigation. The 1965 treatments,
however, were applied by mechanical incoporation in a band 24 inches wide by 4 inches deep,
using a spike-tooth ("Little Joe") harrow.

Field treatments applied to the hills in transplanting water require only small amounts
of fungicide, and may prove to be useful at this Station, where newly set plants are watered
with a dipper. A large majority of the growers have dispensed with the dipper, and use only
the irrigation system; they might use the dipper method with a fungicide for resetting.

Broadcast treatments were included in the 1965 tests, applied by injection of fumigants
or by rotary tillage of other materials.

Plant Bed Tests with Folair Fungicides for Blue Mold Control, 1965

The soil was fumigated with methyl bromide December 10, 1964, fertilized December 31,
and sowed to Selecci6n Olor January 10.

Nine treatments including checks were arranged in triplicate 3' x 5' plots. Dust
treatments were applied by methods described in previous reports (Project 1093). Two spray
treatments were included, using Dithane Z-78, 1 pound per 100 gallons, with and without
dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) 500 parts per million by volume.

Fifteen applications were made February 22 April 2, about 7 weeks. The total amount
of each dust applied was 280 pounds of finished dust per acre.












Blue Mold first appeared March 26, reached its peak about April 5, and thereafter
subsided. Pullings of seedlings as for transplanting were made March 31 and April 2, 5, 7
and 12. All remaining seedlings were pulled April 22.

Results (Table 9-1274) show that Dithane Z-78 (standard) gave the best over-all
results, followed closely by Polyram and then Daconil 2787. Dithane M-45 6.5% active
retarded growth. Dyrcne was inferior for blue mold control.

Tobacco dust with 1% parathion, 10% DDT, and 6.5% zineb controlled blue mold, but
retarded growth, probably because of the overdose of DDT. Growers commonly make more
frequent applications of "1-10-10" than once a week as recommended.

Zineb spray with DHSO appeared to control blue mold slightly better than without DMSO,
and increased yield and stand considerably.


Plant Bed Tests with Soil Fungicides~ 1965

Tests were located in an area which had been fumigated with methyl bromide December
10. In preparation for this test, the soil was reinfested with soil naturally infested
with Phytophthora and Pythium.

Treatments were broadcast on 3' x 5' plots in triplicate, and incorporated 2 inches
deep with a hand rake February 19. Immediately after treatment, the plots were sowed to
Seleccin Olor.

No seedling rot appeared in the plots.

Results (Table 10-1274) show that yields equal or slightly superior to those of checks
were obtained with Dexon and Cap-Cop-Ter.












RRK
9/30/65
100 CC











NORTH FLORIDA EXPERrIENT STATION
Quincy, Florida


Table 1-1274: Soil fungicide test in spring plant bed, sowed and treated January 30, 1964.


Weeds/yard2 Algae Cumulative yield of
Treat- Rate March Rating* April
ment Fungicide lbs./A. *13 27 2/12 6 8 13


Dexon, 70%



Ch. 2635, 70%



Polyram, 80%



Trib, cop. sulf.

Morsodren (pints)

Captan 50%


Dithane M-45 80%

Check (water only)


L.S.D. 5%
1%


11.7
27.2
62.2

7.8
19.4
46.7

40
60
100

40

16.3

25
50

60


110
106
71

121
34
28

116
70
40

75

73

65
127

73

122


13
13
12

12
12
8

11
9
6

13

15

13
12

3
13


178
117
73

221
165
54

158
71
0

166

188

117
153

31

212


250
224
126

282
239
118

238
166
75

219

246

225
209

177

259


seedlingss/yd2

16 Stand

296 410
305 417
189 391

315 403
264 368
151 206

290 386
226 316
124 219

264 348

284 371

270 362
247 322

227 314

296 400


83 91 83
111 122 111


77
103


*Highest numbers, most algae






NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida


Table 2-1274: Soil treatments in summer bed, sowed and treated May 26, 1964.


Cumulative yield of seedlings
per square yard
Treat- Rate Algae Rot June July
ment Material lbs./A. Control* Control* 27 2 7 13


Dexon 70%


1
2

3
4

5
6

7
8

9

10
11

12

13

14
15

16

17


10
20

10
20

20
40

10
20

20

5
10

20

5

10
20

16


54
55

108
38

136
76

73
67

81

88
71

28

112

18
2

84

78


L.S.D. 5%
1%


106
91

135
98

136
81

91
110

81

88
71

68

112

44
3

117

80


80
108


115
100

135
98

136
81

94
116

81

88
71

68

112

58
14

117

80


82
110


*a, best control


Ch. 2635 70%


Polyram 80%


Captan 50%


Dithane M-45 80%

SF 1823 75%


Daconil 2787 75%

Cap-Cop-Ter

Du-Ter 20%


Morsodren (pints)

Check









NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida


Table 3-1247: Fungicide dust test in late plant bed, 1964.


Disease Cumulative yield of seedlings per
index* square yard
Treat- Formu- Total August September
ment Fungicide lation applied 24 25 28 1 3 7 .Stand


Dexon 70%



Ch. 2635 70%


Polyram 80%


SF 1823 75%

Daconil 2787 75%


,Captan 50% +

LTrib. cop. Sulf.

Du-Ter 20%


1
2
4

4
8

5
10

10

5
10

1+1

2+2

5.
10


lbs./A.

1.7
3.3
6.7

6.7
13.3

3.3
16.6

16.6

3.3
16.6

1.7+1.7

3.3+3.3

8.3
16.6


171
163
183

168
137

151
161

148

171
165

203

163

151
165

193


Check


355
352
360

358
328

337
356

336

364
350

383

349

374
377

351


L.S.D. 5%
1%


*0, none; T, trace; 1-3, slight.











NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida


Table 4-1274: Spring field band (row) treatments in
transplanted April 9, 1964.


old disease shade area, treated and


Growth Rating* Mortality C(%)
Treat- Rate April Aay April May June
ment Fungicide lbs./A, 21 27 8 30 21 8 21 8


1 Dexon
2

3 Ch. 2
4

5 Polyra
6

7 Captar
8

9 Dithar
1D

11 SF 18;
12

13 Daconj
14

15 Cap-Cc
16

17 Du-Ter
18

19 Morsoc
20

21 Trib.

22 Terrac

23 Di-Sys
24
25

26 Check

L.S.D. 5%


70%


535 70%


tm 30%


S50%


re M-45 80%


i3 75%


11 2787 75%


>p-Ter


2 20%


Iren (pints)


cop. sulf.

:lor 75%

3ton 10% G


1.25
2.5

2
4

2.5
5

5
10

5
10

1.5
3

5
10

5
10

1.25
6.25

2
4

5

5

20
40
80


1%
*Highest number, largest plants


6 10 10 10


Black
shank
index

15 abcde
15 abcde

14 abcde
23 bcde

14 abcde
25 cde

10 ab
11 abe

15 abcde
12 abc

16 abcde
12 abc

8 a
10 ab

16 abcde
13 abcd

18 abcde
18 abcde

15 abcde
21 abcde

12 abc

28 e

28 e
13 abed
14 abcde

27 de


Duncan Range Tests,
5%


Coarse
root
index

69 cd
62 abcd

70 d
61 abcd

61 abed
55 abed

58 abcd
52 abcd

51 abc
47 a

64 abcd
53 abed

59 abcd
62 abcd

58 abcd
57 abed

63 bcd
67 bcd

59 abcd
67 bed

61 abcd

63 abcd

67 bed
62 abcd
50 ab

65 abcd













NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida


Table 5-1274: Spring field hill treatments in old disease shade area, transplanted and
treated April 10, 1964.


Growth rating* Mortality (%) Black Coarse
Treat- Rate April .May April May June Shank root Yield
ment Fungicide lbs./A. 21 27 21 30 21 8 21 3 index index (ibs./A.)


Dexon 70%
1.

Ch. 2635 70% 1
2

Polyram 80% 2.
5

Captan 50% 2.
5

Dithane .-45 80% 2.
5

SF 1823 75%
1.

Daconll 2787 75% 2.
5

Cap-Cop-Ter 2.
5

Du-Ter 20%
3.

Morsodrcn (pints) 1
2


21 Trib. Cop. Sulf

22 Terraclor 75%


Milk


625 3 3 6 10
25 3 1 4 3


,5


.5


.5


5 6 7 11
4 4 7 11

6 8 12 13
8 8 12 12

3 8 12 14
6 7 9 12

7 7 9 13
5 6 8 12


625 9 11 12 13
25 7 7 8 9


,5


.5


7 9 10 13
7 10 13 14

9 10 11 12
7 7 10 11


,625 8 9 13 15
.125 1 1 5 10

10 11 13 15
7 6 8 9


2.5

2.5


12.5
25
50


26 Check

L.S.D. 5%
1%


8 8 10 13

2 3 3 4

10 10 12 14
8 10 12 15
7 8 10 14

9 10 11 13


3 17 16 16
0 31 33 33

3 9 10 11
6 19 21 23

2 6 5 5
0 1 2 4

2 4 5 5
1 8 0 10

1 5 6 8
0 9 10 11

3 4 4 5
2 9 10 13

1 6 7 7
1 2 4 3

1 5 6 6
1 8 7 9

1 6 8 9
10 41 43 46

0 5 5 5
2 14 16 17

1 2 2 2

5 14 16 19

1 7 3 3
2 10 13 13
3 7 8 7

3 8 9 10

5 13 13 14
7 18 18 19


1306


1868


1926


1852


1830


9 65 1898

32 71


1726


20 53 1840


*Highest number, largest plants.












NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida


Table 6-1274:


Summer field hill
treated May 5 and


treatments,in old disease shade area, transplanted and
3, 1964.


Growth
Mortality (%) Rating
Treat- Rate May June June
ment Fungicide lbs./A. 13 13 23 15 15


Dexon 70%


Ch. 2635 70%


Polyram 80%


Captan 50%


Dithane M-45


SF 1823 75%


Daconil 2737 75%


Cap-Cop-Ter


Du-Ter 20%


Morsodren (pints)


Trib. cop. sulf.

Terraclor 75%

Milk


.125
.25


1.5
3


2

1.5

25


27 31 46 56

20 23 37 40

31 42 52 57


24 Fertilizer
25


26

L.S.D. 5%
1%


Check, water only


24 30 33 41













NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida


Table 7-1274:


Fall field row (band) treatment, set June 26-July 1, 1964.


Mortality
Rate July
Treatment Fungicide lbs./A. 3 10 16
% % %


Dexon 70%


Ch. 2635 70%


Polyram



Captan 50%


Dithane M-45 30%


SF 1323 75%


Daconil 2737 75%


Cap-Cop-Ter


TPTH 20%

Morsodren (pints)

Check


L.S.D. 5%
1%


97
99












NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida


Table 3-1274: Materials tested in 1965.


Plant Bed Field
Material Soil Foliarr Drill Hill Broadcast Foliar

Dexon yes --- yes yes yes --

Chemagro 2635 yes -- yes -- yes

Dyrene -- yes -- ----- yes

Polyram yes yes yes yes yes yes

Captan yes -- yes yes yes --

Dithane M-45 -- yes yes yes --- yes

Dithane Z-73 --- yes -- -- yes

Soil fungicide 1023 yes -- yes yes yes ---

Daconil 2737 yes yes yes yes yes yes

Du-Ter yes -yes yes

Morsodren yes --- yes --

Vorlex -- --- --- --- yes --

Cap-Cop-Ter yes -- -- yes yes --

Di-Syston -- --- yes -- -- --

Fertilizer --- -- -- yes --








NORTH FLORIDA EXPERTrENT STATION
Quincy, Florida


Table 9-1274: Plant bed tests with foliar fungicides for blue mold control, 1965.


Blue Cumulative yieli of seedlings
mold ..per square yard
Treat- Formu- index* April
ment Material nation BAril 5 2 5 7 12 Stand


Polyram 30%

Dyrene 50%

Daconil 2737 75%

Dithane Z-73 75%

Dithane 1-45 30%


Dust 1-1-10


Zineb spray**

As No. 7 + DSO


Check

L.S.D. 5%
1%


%

10

10

6.7

3.7

3.1


146

125

104

140

101


139

171

143

199

136


193

131

155

209

144


21 81 135 146


37 134 142

138 194 243


122

72
99


126

69
95


*Scale: 0 (none) to 100 (most severe)

**1 pound Dithane Z-78 per 100 -all- ns


271

249

213

311

205


211


211

339


227

99
136









NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIENT STATION
Quincy, Florida


Table 10-1274: Plant be! tests with soil fungicides, 1955.


Cumulative yield of
Formu- Weels seedlings -er square yard
Treat- nation per April May
ment Material Rate sq. yv. 20 22 29 3
Ibs./A.

1 Dexon 70% 10 29 57 93 98 118
2 Chemagro 2635 70% 10 22 34 64 69 86
3 Dexon + Chemagro 10+10 31 33 70 81 96

4 Polyram 30% 20 31 22 52 56 66
5 Polyram 30% 40 23 33 52 70 80

6 SF 1323 75% 10 22 14 42 47 54

7 Daconil 2737 75% 20 17 27 57 66 76
3 Daconil + Dexon 20+10 32 30 68 76 99

9 Du-Ter 20% 5 22 2G 62 70 31

10 Captan 50% 20 20 41 70 76 35
11 Cap-Cop-Ter 5 31 59 94 100 117
12 Cap-Cop-Ter 10 31 61 102 108 127

13 Morsodren (pints) 16 18 32 53 71 38

14 Check (no treatment) -- 21 61 96 100 117

L.S.D. 5% 13 32 42 43 48
1% 13 44 57 57 64