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Management of insects attacking flue-cured tobacco in ..
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 Material Information
Title: Management of insects attacking flue-cured tobacco in ..
Series Title: Quincy NFREC research report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Agricultural Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: Agricultural Research and Education Center.
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Creation Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Tobacco -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Field experiments -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
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Numbering Peculiarities: <1982-> issued as Quincy AREC research report, <-1987> issued as Quincy NFREC research report
General Note: Description based on: 1982; title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 1987.
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Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 76789153
lccn - 2006229447
System ID: UF00073373:00001

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Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida








AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
AFCS Quincy, Florida
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER
Live Oak, Florida

Quincy AREC Research Report NF 82-4

Management of Insects Attacking Flue-Cured Tobacco in 1982

William B. Tappan, Entomologist, Quincy, and
J. R. Rich, Associate Nematologist and Acting Center Director, Live Oak

MATERIALS AND METHODS

One setting water, 5 baits, and 12 chemical foliar spray treatments was field
tested on Speight G-28 flue-cured tobacco for insect control, phytotoxicity, and
effects on crop yield and value. Formulations, number of applications, rates of
applications, and dosage of active ingredient per acre per application are pre-
sented in Tables 1, 7, 8, and 9.

The dates treatment applications were made are given in a footnote in Tables
1 through 9. All Orthene bait treatments were broadcast by hand over the foliage
on the same dates of the foliar spray treatments, except 2 treatments that were
applied at planting. An interval of 14 days was allowed between all foliar spray
and Orthene bait applications, except the bait treatments applied at planting. The
Orthene setting water treatment was applied using a 2-row tractor-mounted trans-
planter. Four of the sprays of FMC-54800 and Orthene, applied for aphid control,
were made using 2-gallon compressed-air hand sprayers. All other spray treat-
ments were made with a tractor-mounted CO2-pressurized sprayer with 1 hollow-
cone nozzle over each row and 1 hollow-cone nozzl of the row. The
3 Tee Jet D3-25 nozzles per row were designed to eih p o yty gallons
of spray per acre at 60 p.s.i. and 4 m.p.h.

Treatments were replicated 3 times in complete randc~hidSi bcks. E ch plot
was 2 rows wide and was separated by a 5-foot va ant alley or buffer zon between
plots within a block. The rows were 40 feet long rfIA3..67J gt Vt in plots.
Both rows served as the experimental plot for ins 1 otdQ1U ratings,
crop yield, and crop value determinations. Each row contained 23 to ants set
on approximately 19-inch centers. Alleys between blocks of plots were 20 feet wide.
The test area was east of the location in 1981 near the barn area of the Center.
The setting-water treatments were replicated 3 times in 2-row plots 25 feet long
with rows 3.67 feet apart, and plants set on approximately 19-inch centers. Alleys
between plots were 4 feet wide.

All cultural practices in preparing the test area for planting were performed
in the usual manner. Beds for planting were prepared and fertilizer applied in
early March. The tobacco was transplanted on March 17, 1982, and hand topped
on June 8. A sucker control, Royal-Tac-M, was applied at 2 gallons per acre on
June 2, and 2 gallons of Royal MH per acre were applied on June 10.

Green peach aphid counts were made from natural infestations beginning on
April 21 (pretreatment count), and succeeding counts followed at 14-day intervals.
The time lapse from treatment to first count of the Orthene bait (planting time
applications) was 28 days. All counts were made by counting the number of live
alate and apterous aphids on 4-leaves 3 inches or longer down from the bud.





- 2-


Five marked plants equidistant from each other in each of the experimental rows
were counted, except in the FMC-54800 and Orthene comparison study, where 3
plants per plot were marked and counted each time.

Counts of tobacco budworm and tobacco hornworm were made from natural in-
festations on April 21. In the Orthene bait longevity study (planting time appli-
cations), the first count was made on April 14. The count on April 21 was a pre-
treatment count for all treatments excluding the planting time applications of
Orthene bait. The count on April 21 and all succeeding counts were made on the
same dates as aphid counts. Each plant in each plot that had at least 1 larva and
the characteristic feeding injury was counted as a damaged plant.

In the Orthene setting water study, wireworm and cutworm damaged plants
were counted on April 21, 3 weeks after transplanting, by sacrificing the plants
and examining the soil and root system for either larvae or feeding symptoms.

Visual phytotoxicity ratings were begun on April 21; pretreatment count and
intervals for all succeeding counts were the same as explained above for aphid
counts, and were made on the same dates. Plots were rated according to severity
of phytotoxicity observed. The readings were based on the following system:

0 = None
1 = Slight leaf spotting or chlorosis
2 = Moderate leaf spotting or chlorosis
3 = Heavy leaf spotting or chlorosis with some necrosis
4 = Severe leaf spotting or chlorosis with considerable necrosis

Four leaf primings or harvests were made during the crop season for evalu-
ation of crop performance on June 7, June 15, June 28, and July 7. Yield was cal-
culated in pounds per acre from the total weight of cured leaves from each treat-
ment replication. The crop value or dollar return per acre was obtained by mul-
tiplying the yield in pounds per acre by the return in cents per pound of cured
leaf. The value per pound was based upon the price for the various grades of
tobacco.

An analysis of variance was made, and Duncan's multiple range test was applied
to all means analyzed to obtain statistical comparisons for data interpretation.

Rainfall data expressed in inches for the term of the experiment were as
follows:
March April ay June June July
23 1.72 9 2.02 8 0.08 1 0.36 18 2.22 5 T
24 0.23 10 0.10 24 0.63 2 0.58 22 2.39 6 0.21
25 0.57 11 1.80 25 T 3 0.78 23 0.81 7 0.19
26 0.19 12 T 26- 0.15 4 0.06 24 T Total 0.40
27 0.01 25- 0.02 27 0.72 5 T 25 0.56
28 0.07 26 0.19 28 0.96 12 0.32 26 T
29 0.37 27 T 31 0.25 13 0.45 27 0.38
30 T Total 4.13 Total 2.79 14 0.49 28 0.07
Total 3.16 17 2.27 29 T
30 0.20
Total 11.94

T = Trace
Grand Total = 22.42 inches





- 3-


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Insect activity on flue-cured tobacco during the crop season of 1982 was
mixed. The green peach aphid populations were light to moderate during the
entire season. The decreased aphid activity probably accounted for the lack of
PVY infected plants. Populations of tobacco budworm were smaller in early
season than in 1981, but by June 2, were larger than in 1981. After the tobacco
was topped on June 8, budworm populations declined for the remainder of the
growing season. Tobacco hornworm populations occurred about 7 to 10 days
earlier than in 1981, and were considerably larger for the entire season. The
adequate rainfall in March and April enhanced the hornworm populations and con-
tributed to the early and large populations. The hornworm populations were
larger earlier than any observed during the past 27 years. Damage by the horn-
worm was more severe in early season (May 19) than any past observation. A
light blue mold infestation appeared in April and May, but was of little conse-
quence to the crop. The wet weather had no adverse effect on the crop, since
yield and crop value were much improved over 1981. This marks the 14th year
that no control data have been obtained on the cabbage looper because populations
on the crop have been almost nonexistent.

Green peach aphids began building populations on field plants on April 21
(pretreatment count). Aphid populations continued increasing until May 19 on
untreated tobacco. (See Table 2.) Aphid populations began a natural decline
from May 19 and continued for the remainder of the growing season. On May 19,
when populations were the largest on the untreated checks, all treatments except
FCR-1272 at 0.039 lbs. AI/A. gave significant control. Both rates of FCR-1272
on June 2 showed poor control, and apparently enhanced aphid populations when
compared to the untreated checks. The first application of FMC-54800 on May 19
gave a significant reduction in aphid populations on June 2. Succeeding appli-
cations further reduced the aphid populations, and maintained effective control.
The data indicated that FMC-54800 compared favorably with Orthene and Nudrin
for aphid control. If FMC-54800 had been applied in a preventive control pro-
gram, the data may have approached complete aphid control by June 2. The
Orthene bait treatments performed well, even the 1 Ib. AI/A.-rate applied on 4-
week intervals. Yield and dollar return data in Table 6 indicated that the in-
fluence of the green peach had been usurped by the tobacco hornworm.

Budworm populations in the pretreatment count were slightly smaller than in
1981, but by mid-May had increased to slightly above those in 1981. (See Table
3.) The count on June 2 represented mostly infestations in the inflorescence,
which accounted for the large counts in most treated plots. If the tobacco had
been topped as the plant maturity indicated, the count on June 2 would have been
much smaller on all plots. Using the May 19 count for treatment comparison, all
treatments gave significant control with Orthene bait at 1 Ib. AI/A. applied on
2-week intervals, Orthene spray at 0.99 Ib. Al/A., and FCR-1272 spray at 0.02
and 0.039 lb. AI/A. being the best treatments. Orthene bait at 1 lb. AI/A. applied
on 4-week intervals did not perform as well as the same rate applied on 2-week
intervals. The data indicated that FMC-54800 was toxic to the budworm, but that
applications in commercial fields would have to begin at an earlier date to effect
acceptable control. As seen with the green peach aphid, the losses inflicted by
the hornworm masked any influence of the budworm on yield or dollar return.
(See Table 6.)

The hornworm population in 1982 was larger than in 1981, and began infesting
the tobacco in mid-April, about 7 to 10 days earlier than in 1981. (See Table 4.)





- 4-


The population increased steadily on untreated tobacco with 100% of the plants in-
fested on June 2. The untreated tobacco was severely damaged by the hornworm,
and most all of the last priming or harvest was lost. On June 16, all treatments
gave significant control of the hornworm. Some of the efficacy of the treatments
was lost in the count on June 30, which was due to a heavy rain (2.27 inches)
that occurred following the treatment applications on June 16. The effects of
the rain on the treatments indicated that rain within 8 hours of applications of
Orthene bait would necessitate retreating to maintain insect control. The data
clearly showed that FMC-54800 was highly toxic to the hornworm as 1 application
at 0.04 Ib. AI/A. reduced the infestation on June 2 by 91%. Damage by the horn-
worm significantly reduced yield and dollar return. (See Table 6.)

Phytotoxicity was observed only from the 2 Nudrin spray treatments applied
on May 5. (See Table 5.) The symptoms were typical with chlorosis and some
necrosis along leaf tips and edges. The injury from Nudrin diminished with time,
and was undetectable on June 16. The phytotoxicity from Nudrin apparently was
not severe enough to affect yield or dollar return indices. (See Table 6.)

Yield was considerably larger than in 1981, and was directly related to the
plentiful rainfall during the growing season. Total rainfall averaged 13.13 inches
more than in 1981, and almost all of that (11.94 inches) was recorded during
June. The overall quality, as measured by the dollar return index, was greatly
improved over 1981. (See Table 6.) The yield and dollar return data clearly
established the tobacco hornworm as the No. 1 insect pest of flue-cured tobacco
in 1981. In comparing the data from spraying FMC-54800 with that of the untreated
check, the hornworm reduced the yield by 60% and dollar return by 68%. Most of
the loss from the hornworm was confined to the last 2 harvests, with only 181 of
1,194 Ibs. /A. from the check being produced in the last 2 harvests.

Soil-borne insect populations in the setting-water treatment study were small,
and no statistical differences were found between treated plots and the untreated
check, except in the number of vacancies recorded on April 21. There was a
definite trend toward fewer vacancies where the Orthene setting water treatment
was used and where it was not used. All plots were reset on April 9, and on
April 21 there was a significant reduction in vacancies from the Orthene treatment.
Although there was no significant reduction in wireworm and cutworm damaged plants,
the numerical trend definitely favored the treatment. (See Table 7.)

Soil-borne insect populations were small in the Orthene bait longevity study;
therefore, feeding of the tobacco budworm was used as an indicator for longevity
of efficacy. (See Table 8.) On April 14, 28 days after treatment, the broadcast
applications at planting of 1 Ib. Al/A. were giving significant control of the bud-
worm. Seven days later, April 21, only 1 of the treatments was significantly
better than the untreated check, but budworm damage had increased on both treat-
ments. Apparently, the broadcast application of Orthene bait will perform well
for approximately 4 weeks, but loses efficacy after that time. This observation
was confirmed by the data taken in the treatment of Orthene bait broadcast every
4 weeks for tobacco hornworm control. (See Table 4.)

In the study comparing the effectiveness of FMC-54800 and Orthene sprays
in control of the green peach aphid, populations of the aphid were allowed to in-
crease to 100+ per plant before treatments were applied. Owing to the erratic
infestation of aphids in the plots, no treatments had been applied on May 19. A
large population of tobacco hornworms occurred in the plots and severely defoliated
the plants by June 2, which resulted in a considerable reduction in aphid populations.





- 5-


(See Table 9.) The first treatment application was made on June 2, even though
the aphid population was below that desired. That application was followed by a
second on June 16. Both applications significantly reduced aphid populations, and
were statistically comparable to Orthene. There appeared to be no difference be-
tween the 3 rates of FMC-54800 with regard to efficacy. The evidence in Table 2
clearly showed that FMC-54800 at 0.04 Ib. AI/A. could effectively reduce a heavy
population (151/plant) of green peach aphid with just 1 application, and that appli-
cation followed by a second reduced the population to less than 2/plant. FMC-54800
does have excellent aphicidal properties, and compares equally to Orthene. On a
commercial preventive control program, the flue-cured tobacco grower would be
well satisfied with the effects of FMC-54800 on the green peach aphid.

Average maximum and minimum air temperatures during the test period were:
March 75 and 55, April 79 and 54, May 88 and 59, June 91 and 70, and
July 95 and 710F. Temperatures were even for the maximum and 1 degree
higher for the minimum for 1981, which indicated that test period temperatures
were generally warmer than in 1981. However, the temperatures for April and
June averaged 4 and 2 degrees cooler, respectively, than in 1981. The average
test period temperature was the same for both years, 740F. The warm tempera-
tures in March, 5 degrees above that in 1981, probably caused the large and early
outbreak of tobacco hornworms. Along with the plentiful rainfall, conditions were
near perfect for heavy hornworm populations. The generally cool temperatures
during April enhanced the blue-mold infestation, but the warm temperatures
(avg. 740F.) in May caused the blue mold to subside.

Orthene bait broadcast over the foliage at 1 lb. AI/A. on bi-weekly intervals
beginning approximately 5 weeks after transplanting will provide control of the 3
major insect pests comparable to Orthene spray at the same rate and schedule of
application. The bait lends itself to aircraft application, which needs study for
efficacy. The new experimental material, FMC-54800, has excellent aphicidal pro-
perties, and also gives excellent control of the tobacco hornworm. FMC-54800
showed promise for tobacco budworm control, but further testing will be necessary
for confirmation.







AREC, Quincy and ARC, Live Oak, Florida


Table 1. Foliar Treatments Applied for Insect


Control on Flue-Cured Tobacco (Speight G-28)-1982.


Treatment, b
Orthene, 5% BC
Orthene, 5% Bc
Orthene, 5% Bd
Orthene, 5% Be +
Nudrin, 0.29% S(1.8 Ib./gal. EC)
Orthene, 0.45% S(75% SP)
FCR-1272, 0.011% S(1.67 lb./gal. EC)
FCR-1272, 0.022% S(1.67 lb./gal. EC)
Orthene, 0.35 S(75% SP)
Orthene, 5% B .+
Orthene, 0.45% S(75% SP)
Nudrin, 0.29% S(1.8 Ib./gal. EC)
FMC-54800, 0.04% S (0.8 lb./gal. EC)f


No.
Applications
6
6
3
1
6
6
6
6
6
1
6
6
4


Lbs. or Gals.
per Acre per
Application
20.0
10.0
20.0
20.0
26.6
26.1
26.1
26.1
26.1
20.0
26.4
26.9
26.4


Lbs. Al
per Acre per
Application
1.00
0.50
1.00
1.00
0.65
0.99
0.020
0.039
0.77
1.00
1.00
0.65
0.04


aB = Bait, EC = Emulsifiable concentrate, L = Liquid, S = Spray, and SP = Soluble powder.
bsprays applied on 4/21, 5/5, 5/19, 6/2, 6/16, and 6/3/ 82. Tobacco transplanted on 3/17/82.
CBait applied on 4/21, 5/5, 5/19, 6/2, 6/16, and 6/30/82.
dBait applied on 4/21, 5/19, and 6/16/82.
eBait applied on 3/17/82.
fSpray applied on 5/19, 6/2, 6/16, and 6/30/82.







AREC, Quincy and ARC, Live Oak, Florida


Table 2. Mean Number of Green Peach Aphid per Plot of Flue-Cured Tobacco (Speight G-28)-1982.

b Mean Rate
Aphid Counts Lbs. AI/Acre/
Treatmenta 4/21c 5/5 5/19 6/2 6/16 6/30 Application
Orthene, 5% Bd 21a la 6a 0a Oa 0a 1.00
Orthene, 5% Bd 37a 40a 6a 14a Oa 2a 0.50
Orthene, 5% Be 44a 2a 26a 8a Oa 9a 1.00
Orthene, 5% B + 1.00
Nudrin, 0.29% S (L) 7a 3a 80a 141a 66a 20a 0.65
Orthene, 0.45% S (SP) 13a Oa la Oa Oa Oa 0.99
FCR-1272, 0.011% S (EC) 43a 475ab 1,061b 2,424bc 890b 791b 0.020
FCR-1272, 0.022% S (EC) 41a 323ab 1,333bc 2,878c 1,410c 719b 0.039
Orthene, 0.35% S (SP) 26a 2a Oa Oa Oa Oa 0.77
Orthene, 5% Bf + 1.00
Orthene, 0.45% S (SP) 7a 3a Oa Oa Oa Oa 1.00
Nudrin, 0.29% S (L) 8a 15a 61a 167a 16a 12a 0.65
FMC-54800, 0.04% S (EC)g 33a 812b 1,505bc 393a 18a 10a 0.04
Check (Untreated) 56a 972b 1,942c 1,679b 560b 571b


aSee Table 1 for more details. Sprays applied


on 4 21, 5/5, 5/19, 6/2, 6/16, and 6/30/82.


bCounts made on 10 plants per plot, totaling 30 plants in 3 plots. Means followed
significantly different at the 5% level.


by the same letter are not


cPretreatment count for all treatments except Orthene bait plus Nudrin spray and Orthene bait
spray. Transplanted plots on 3/17/82. Sucker control Royal-Tac-M applied on 6/2 and Royal
Plants were topped on 6/8/82. Plots were harvested on 6/7, 6/15, 6/28, and 7/7/82.
dBait applied on 4/21, 5/5, 5/19, 6/2, 6/16, and 6/30/82.
eBait applied on 4/21, 5/19, and 6/16/82.
Bait applied on 3/17/ 82.
9Spray applied on 5/19, 6/2, 6/16, and 6/30/82.


plus Orthene
MH on 6/10/82.







AREC, Quincy and ARC, Live Oak, Florida


Table 3. Mean Percent Budworm Damaged Flue-Cured Tobacco Plants per Plot (Speight G-28)-1982.

Sb Mean Rate
Budworm Counts Lbs. Al/Acre/
Treatment 4/21c 5/5 5/19 6/2 6/16 6/30 Application
Orthene, 5% Bd 26a 7ab 6a 25a 9ab la 1.00
Orthene, 5% B 17a 6ab 11abc 30a 14bc la 0.50
Orthene, 5% Be 22a 7ab 25bc 32ab 14bc la 1.00
Orthene, 5% Bf + 1.00
Nudrin, 0.29% S (L) 18a 17b 25bc 48b 11ab la 0.65
Orthene, 0.45% S (SP) 17a la 8a 28a 11ab 2a 0.99
FCR-1272, 0.011% S (EC) 23a 12ab 10a 49b 10ab 2a 0.020
FCR-1272, 0.022% S (EC) 19a, 7ab 7a 39ab 7ab la 0.039
Orthene, 0.35% S (SP) 20a 8ab 11abc 38ab 15bc 2a 0.77
Orthene, 5% Bf + 1.00
Orthene, 0.45% S (SP) 28a 12ab 13abc 36ab 5a 2a 1.00
Nudrin, 0.29% S (L) 15a 9ab 14abc 47b 14bc 3a 0.65
FMC-54800, 0.04% S (EC)9 19a 49c 51d 41ab 20c la 0.04
Check (Untreated) 27a 51c 54d 70c 33d la


aSee Table 1 for more details.


Sprays applied on 4/21, 5/5, 5/19, 6/2, 6/16, and 6/30/82.


bCounts made on 47 to 51 plants per plot totaling 141
letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.


6 to 151 plants in 3 plots. Means followed by the same


cPretreatment count for all treatments except Orthene bait plus Nudrin spray and Orthene bait
spray. Transplanted plots on 3/17/82. Sucker control Royal-Tac-M applied on 6/2 and Royal
Plants were topped on 6/8/82. Plots were harvested on 6/7, 6/15, 6/28, and 7/7/82.
dBait applied on 4/21, 5/5, 5/19, 6/2, 6/16, and 6/30/82.
eBait applied on 4/21, 5/19, and 6/16/82.
Bait applied on 3/17/82.
gSpray applied on 5/19, 6/2, 6/16, and 6/30.82.


plus Orthene
MH on 6/10/82.







AREC, Quincy and ARC, Live Oak, Florida


Table 4. Mean Percent Hornworm Damaged Flue-Cured Tobacco Plants per Plot (Speight G-28)-1982.

b Mean Rate
Hornworm Counts Mean Rate
CountsLbs. Al/Acre/
Treatment 4/21c 5/5 5/19 6/2 6/16 6/30 Application
Orthene, 5% Bd 2a 3a 9a 18ab 25b 57cd 1.00
Orthene, 5% Bd 2a 3a 17ab 45def 48c 82de 0.50
Orthene, 5% Be Oa la 80d 39de 78d 78de 1.00
Orthene, 5% Bf + 1.00
Nudrin, 0.29% S (L) Oa 8a 48c 61f 59c 56cd 0.65
Orthene, 0.45% S (SP) Oa la 13ab 37cde 17ab 32bc 0.99
FCR-1272, 0.011% S (EC) la la 12ab 27bcd 22b 4a 0.020
FCR-1272, 0.022% S (EC) la la 9a 19abc 7a 3a 0.039
Orthene, 0.351 S (SP) 2a 3a 22b 38de 48c 54bcd 0.77
Orthene, 5% B' + 1.00
Orthene, 0.45% S (SP) la 9a 14ab 47ef 26b 28ab 1.00
Nudrin, 0.29% S (L) Oa 2a 57c 34bcde 55c 60cd 0.65
FMC-54800, 0.04% S (EC)g Oa 31b 93e 8a 10a 4, 0.04
Check (Untreated) la 32b 95e 100g 100e 100e


aSee Table 1 for more details.


Sprays applied on 4/21, 5/5, 5/19, 6/2, 6/16, and 6/30/82.


Counts made on 47 to 51 plants per plot totaling 146 to 151 plants
letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.


in 3 plots. Means followed by the same


cPretreatment count for all treatments except Orthene bait plus Nudrin spray and Orthene bait
spray. Transplanted plots on 3/17/82. Sucker control Royal-Tac-M applied on 6/2 and Royal
Plants were topped on 6/8/82. Plots were harvested on 6/7, 6/15, 6/28, and 7/7/82.
Bait applied on 4/21, 5/5, 5/19, 6/2, 6/16, and 6/30/82.
eBait applied on 4/21, 5/19, and 6/16/82.
fBait applied on 3/17/82.
gSpray applied on 5/ 19, 6/2, 6/16, and 6/30/82.


plus Orthene
MH on 6/10/82.






AREC, Quincy and ARC, Live Oak, Florida


Table 5. Phytotoxic Effects of Certain Insecticide Formulations on Flue-Cured Tobacco (Speight G-28)-1982.

Mean Phytot y I. b Mean Rate
Mean Phytotoxicity Indicesb Lbs. AI/Acre/
Treatment 4/21c 5/5 5/19 6/2 6/16 6/30 Application
Orthene, 5% Bd 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.00
Orthene, 5% Bd 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.50
Orthene, 5% Be 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.00
Orthene, 5% Bf + 1.00
Nudrin, 0.29% S (L) 0.0 0.0 3.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.65
Orthene, 0.45% S (SP) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.99
FCR-1272, 0.011% S (EC) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.020
FCR-1272, 0.022% S (EC) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.039
Orthene, 0.35% S (SP) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.77
Orthene, 5% Bf + 1.00
Orthene, 0.45% S (SP) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.00
Nudrin, 0.29% S (L) 0.0 0.0 3.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.65
FMC-54800, 0.04% S (EC)g 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.04
Check (Untreated) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
a
See Table 1 for more details. Sprays applied on 4/21, 5/5, 5/19, 6/2, 6/16, and 6/30/82.
Rating System: 0 = None, 1 = Slight leaf spotting or chlorosis, 2 = Moderate leaf spotting or chlorosis, 3 =
Heavy leaf spotting or chlorosis with some necrosis, and 4 = Severe leaf spotting or chlorosis with consider-
able necrosis.
cPretreatment counts for all treatments except Orthene bait plus Nudrin spray and Orthene bait plus Orthene
spray. Transplanted plots on 3/17/82. Sucker control Royal-Tac-M applied on 6/2 and Royal MH on 6/1(0 82.
Plants were topped on 6/8/82. Plots were harvested on 6/7, 6/15, 6/28, and 7/7/82.
dBait applied on 4/21, 5/5, 5/19, 6/2, 6/16, and 6/30/82.
eBait applied on 4/21, 5/19, and 6/16/82.
Bait applied on 3/17/82.
gSpray applied on 5/19, 6/2, 6/16, and 6130/82.







AREC, Quincy and ARC, Live Oak, Florida


Table 6. Effects of Certain Insecticidal Treatments on Yield and Dollar Return per Acre of Flue-Cured Tobacco
(Speight G-28)-1982.

Mean Rate Yield Dollar
Lbs. AI/Acre/ Lbs./Acre Return/Acre
Treatmenta Applicationb Mean 3 Reps.c Mean 3 Reps.c
Orthene, 5% Bd 1.00 2,878ab 4,934ab
Orthene, 5% Bd 0.50 2,664ab 4,463ab
Orthene, 5% Be 1.00 2,546b 4,176ab
Orthene, 5% Bf + 1.00
Nudrin, 0.29% S (L) 0.65 2,988ab 4,870ab
Orthene, 0.45% S (SP) -0.99 2,873ab 4,923ab
FCR-1272, 0.011% S (EC) 0.020 2,655ab 4,002b
FCR-1272, 0.022% S (EC) 0.039 2,732ab 4,722ab
Orthene, 0.350 S(SP) 0.77 2,662ab 4,502ab
Orthene, 5% BT + 1.00
Orthene, 0.45% S (SP) 1.00 2,869ab 5,094a
Nudrin, 0.29% S (L) 0.65 2,685ab 4,582ab
FMC-54800, 0.04% S (EC)9 0.04 2,999a 5,020a
Check (Untreated) ---- 1,194c 1,614c


aSee Table 1 for more details.
bTransplanted plots on 3/17/82. Sprays applied on
harvested on 6/7, 6/15, 6/28, and 7/7/82.


4/21, 5/5, 5/19, 6/2, 6/16, and 6/30/82.


Plots were


cMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
dBait applied on 4/21, 5/5, 5/19, 6/2, 6/16, and 6/30/82.
eBait applied on 4/21, 5/19, and 6/16/82.
fBait applied on 3/17/ 82.
gSpray applied on 5/19, 6/2, 6/16, and 6/30/82.







9-


AREC, Quincy and ARC, Live Oak, Florida

Table 7. Effect of Orthene Setting Water Treatment in Soil-Borne Insect Control on Flue-Cured Tobacco
(Speight G-28)-1982.
% Wireworm % Cutworm
Treatment and Mean Plant Stand % Vacancies Damaged Plants Damaged Plants
Lbs. AI/Acreb 4/7 4/14 41 /21 4/7d 4/14e 4/21d 4/21 4/211

Orthene, 1.0 (75% SP) 30.7 30.7 30.7 0.Oa 0.Oa 0.Oa 6.5a 1.1a
Check 29.3 30.0 29.7 8.3a 6.3a 7.3b 13.5a 12.4a

aMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
bplots transplanted and treated on '3/31/82.
cAll plots reset on 4/9/82.
Plants died from unknown causes.
eOne plant destroyed by cutworm, the others died from unknown causes.
fPlants sacrificed to make root observations for insect damage.











AREC, Quincy and ARC, Live Oak, Florida


Table 8. Longevity of a Broadcast Planting Time Application of Orthene Bait in Control of the Budworm on
Flue-Cured Tobacco (Speight G-28)-1982.

% Budworm
Treatment and Mean Plant Standb Damaged Plantsc
Lbs. AI/Acrea 3/24d 3/31d,e 4/7d 4/14d 4/21d 4/14 4/21

Orthene, 5% B, 1.0 49.0 49.0 49.7 49.0 50.0 1.4a 18.Oa
Orthene, 5% B, 1.0 50.0 50.0 49.7 49.7 50.0 2.7a 28.0b
Check 49.3 49.0 49.0 48.7 49.3 9.6b 27.0b

aPlots transplanted and treated on 3/17/82.
bReset all plots on 3/24, 3/31, and 4/14/82.
cMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
Loss in plant stand was mostly from unknown causes.
eMole crickets a problem in the check, and caused minor plant loss.







AREC, Quincy and ARC, Live Oak, Florida


Table 9. Comparison of Effectiveness of FMC-54800 and Orthene Sprays in Control of the Green Peach Aphid
on Flue-Cured Tobacco (Speight G-28)-1982.

Lbs. Al/ No. Aphid Countsa
Treatment Acre Applications 4/21b 5/5b 5/19b 6/2b,c,d 6/16c 6/30
FMC-54800, 0.01% S (EC) 0.013 2 16b 256a 444a 7a la 13a
FMC-54800, 0.02% S (EC) 0.035 2 la 85a 266a 23i Oa Oa
FMC-54800, 0.03% S (EC) 0.066 2 7a 62a 221a 92b 5a Oa
Orthene, 0.35% S (SP) 0.63 2 4a 10a 97a 25a 6a 5a
Check (Untreated) --- -- 60c 298a 942b 11a 41b 44b

aCounts made on 3 plants per plot, totaling 9 plants in 3 plots. Means followed by the same letter are not sig-
nificantly different at the 5% level.
Pretreatment counts.
CTreatments applied after counts were made on 6/2 and 6/16/82.
dHornworms severely defoliated all plots disrupting aphid counts.