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Supplementing winter grazing
Tibbee crimson clover
New developments in small grains for grazing
Alfalfa for the 80s
Chemicals for drying hay
The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.
Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
Research Report NF 82-3
FALL FORAGE FORUM
FORAGES FOR THE 80s
PROCEEDINGS FOURTH ANNUj
NOVEMBER 2, 1982
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
J. T. Woeste, Dean for Extension
F. A. Wood, Dean for Research
JUL 18 1985
I.F.A.S.- Univ. of Florida
Proceedings of the Fourth Annual
Fall Forage Forum
"Forages for the 80's"
The topics presented in this years forage forum should bring everyone
up-to-date on new forage varieties in the Southeast as well as what can be
expected during the next few years.
Many of the topics discussed are in the forefront with farmers and ran-
chers and should help determine their use in their farming operations,
D. L. Wright
Speakers and Writers of the following papers are listed below.
Sloan Baker University of Florida, Quincy, AREC
Bob Logan Funks Seed International, Ozark, Alabama
Andy Harrison Funks Seed International, Valdosta, Ga.
Dr. E. D. Donnelly Auburn Univ., Auburn, Alabama
Dr. Ron Barnett University of Florida, Quincy AREC
Dr. Earl Horner University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla.
Dr. Ken Quesenberry Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla.
Dr. Charles Ruelke University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla.
SUPPLEMENTING WINTER GRAZING1
F. S. Baker, Jr. and R. L. Stanley, Jr.2
Growing or backgrounding calves on cool season pasture continues to be an im-
portant alternative for farmers in North and West Florida.
A. It is imperative that pasture and cattle be managed to produce a large
animal gain. With total costs of growing small grain-ryegrass pasture
of $124 per acre, and actual out-of-pocket costs of at least $80 per
acre, the pasture forage is expensive.
B. Need for supplementing cool season pasture.
1. Grazing studies indicate that if calves have an adequate quantity
of small grain pasture, adding a grain supplement generally does
not improve cattle performance enough to pay for the cost of the
grain (Fla. Beef Cattle Research Rpt., 1979).
2. Producing a large animal gain per acre of cool season pasture.
a. Heavy rate of stocking
(1) Impossible to predict quantity of small grain forage
that will be produced 2 to 3 months ahead of time.
(a) Most calves are marketed in late summer and
early fall 2 to 3 months before winter annuals
are ready to graze.
(b) Quantity of forage produced is dependent on un-
certain weather conditions.
b. If supplement is not fed, abundant forage (about all calves
will consume) is needed for fast weight gain (1.5 lb/day or
AREC Quincy cool season forage dry matter yields (Fla. Field and Forage Crop
Variety Rpt., 1977-1981) show the great variation in forage production among
years, months, and species and varieties of forage crops.
A. Although yields of forage clipped at monthly intervals differs from
yields of forage consumed by cattle grazing continuously, it is in-
teresting to relate the clipping yields to nutrient requirements of
calves so that carrying capacity of the small grains can be esti-
mated. Monthly dry matter yields of two ryes (Wintergrazer and
Wrens Abruzzi), one oat (Fla. 501), and two wheats (McNair 1813
and Coker 762) were recorded for the five years, 1977-1981, from
the AREC Quincy Forage Trial (Fla. Field and Forage Crop Variety
Rpt.). The small grains were clipped at monthly intervals, from
three to six times each year. Average date of first and last clip-
pings were December 24 and April 17, with an extreme range of
December 10 to May 15 in one of the five years. Variation in
14th Annual Fall Forage Forum, AREC Quincy, November 2, 1982.
2Professor of Animal Husbandry and Associate Professor of Agronomy, AREC
Quincy, IFAS, University of Florida, Rt. 3, Box 638, Quincy, Florida 32351.
length of forage production among the years is shown by the number of
days between first and last clippings and the number of monthly clipping
yields each year:
1st and Last Clipping
If it is assumed that significant amounts of forage were available about 10
days prior to the first clipping yield, it might be estimated that cattle
could have grazed the small grains each year for 10 days longer than shown
for the clipping yields, or 80 (1980) to 166 (1978) days. Interplanting
ryegrass with rye could have increased the grazing period as much as 45
to 60 days in 1977 and 1980.
Estimated carrying capacity by months
Carrying capacity was estimated by dividing the monthly, and total season, dry matter
yields of rye, oats, and wheat by the pounds of dry matter needed to supply the net
energy required by a 550 Ib steer calf gaining 1.5 Ib daily for the month, or for the
total grazing season. Carrying capacity is expressed as the number of calves which
could get their required net energy (550 Ib calf gaining 1.5 Ib/day) from dry matter
produced on one acre. Following are five-year monthly and yearly averages, and
ranges based on high and low forage production:
Number of 550-lb calves that could obtain
and 1.5 Ib daily gain from small grain dry
the required net energy for maintenance
matter produced on one acre (avq/30 days)
5 yr avg.
McNair 1813 Coker 762
Despite the limitations of relating clipping forage yields to yields of forage available for
grazing, these estimates do show (1) the great variation in monthly forage yields, (2)
superiority of some forages for early and others for late grazing, and (3) the difficulty
of maintaining a constant rate of stocking throughout the grazing season without sup-
For most operators, grain is the simplest and most effective supplement for calves
grazing cool season pasture. The amount of grain needed will depend on the amount of
pasture forage available.
1. If calves are allowed to graze rye, oats, wheat, ryegrass, or clover for one
to two hours each day, a protein supplement probably will not be needed. If
the pasture forage is grazed less frequently, feed 1 to 1.5 lb of a 40% protein
supplement per head daily, in addition to grain.
2. To maintain a 1.5 Ib average daily gain, the amount of grain needed will depend
on the quantity of high quality pasture forage available to the calves. To pro-
duce 1.5 Ib daily gain on a steer calf with no pasture, the following daily quan-
tities of grain (in addition to a protein supplement) would be needed:
Weight of calf
Lb corn per head daily
Of course, some roughage (hay or silage)' would normally be fed in the absence
of pasture, and the amount of grain could be reduced in accordance with the
amount of TDN or net energy in the roughage. Also, milo could be substituted
for corn, but 10 to 15 percent more milo than corn would be needed. Milo should
always be ground or rolled, while corn may be fed whole if (1) there is no more
than a 15% level of roughage in the ration, or (2) no more than 5 Ib grain per
head daily is fed.
Silage will be used by relatively few Florida operators, but it is used more extensively
in Georgia. Experience has shown that corn or sorghum silage, if properly supplemented,
can replace part or all of pasture forage.
Generally, the percentage of moisture is lower, the percentage of grain is higher, and
the percentage of total digestible nutrients (TDN) is higher in corn than in sorghum
silage. In the three years, 1979-1981, corn silage at the Agricultural Research Center,
Jay, produced only 37% as much green weight per acre but had 45% as much dry matter
(moisture-free weight) and 77% as much grain per acre as sorghum silage. For wintering
brood cows, the lower nutrient content of the sorghum silage does not create as much of
a problem as with calves and yearling cattle because the cows are usually able to consume
enough of the sorghum silage to meet their need for TDN. However, with calves being
grown or backgrounded, grain must be added to sorghum silage to provide the TDN
needed for satisfactory gains. To make sorghum silage comparable to corn silage for
1700 Ib sorghum silage
300 Ib grain
is equivalent to
2000 lb corn silage
Both silages need to be supplemented with protein, minerals, and vitamin A.
Growing 400 Ib steer calf, 1.5 Ib gain/day
Corn silage Sorghum silage
Lb silage day 20.0 20.0
Lb shelled corn day 2.0 3.5
Lb 40% protein sup. day 1.5 1.5
Total per day, Ib 23.5 25.0
Growing 600 lb steer calf, 1.5 Ib gain/day
Corn silage Sorghum silage
Lb silage day 30.0 30.0
Lb shelled corn day 3.0 5.5
Lb 40% protein sup. day 1.5 1.5
Total per day 34.5 37.0
In the calf growing examples, it is assumed that the corn and sorghum silages are high
quality, with a moisture content of 65% for the corn silage and 70% for the sorghum silage.
With more realistic assumptions of somewhat lower quality and perhaps higher moisture
content of the silages, the following general recommendations are suggested:
(1) With calves weighing 400 to 600 Ib, supplement corn silage with shelled corn
at the rate of 0.5 to 1.0% of body weight daily (2 to 4 Ib corn daily to a 400 Ib
calf), plus silage and protein supplement.
-(2) With calves weighing 400 to 600 lb, supplement sorghum silage with shelled
corn at the rate of at least 1.5% of body weight per head daily (6 Ib corn
daily to a 400 Ib calf) plus silage and protein supplement.
(3) Sorghum grain (milo) may be substituted for shelled corn, using 10-15%more
sorghum grain than shelled corn.
(4) Sorghum grain must always be ground or rolled for satisfactory grain
utilization. However, whole shelled corn will be utilized efficiently if: (1)
the amount fed does not exceed 5 Ib per head daily, or (2) the roughage level
in the total ration does not exceed 15%. With good quality silage, the example
rations would meet these criteria.
Marshall is a new annual ryegrass variety that was developed
at the Mississippi Agricultural & Forestry Experiment Station
after twenty-nine years of selection. This selection process was
carried out under grazing stress and under cold winter conditions.
The results of this rigid selection program was the variety
Marshall which is a high forage yielder with superior cold hardi-
ness. This increased cold hardiness means that ryegrass can be
planted farther north and can produce more forage during the cold
mid-winter months in the Deep South.
The variety Marshall is fast on early growth, has plants
that are tall with an erect growth habit and wide dark green
leaves. Its later maturity allows cattlemen to graze later into
Marshall's superior yielding ability has been demonstrated
in virtually every test where it has been entered. In Alabama,
Marshall was the top yielding variety at every location tested
for the last three years by Auburn University (Attachment 1).
Its yield was as high as 16,018 pounds per acre of oven-dry forage
at the Gulf Coast Experiment Station in extreme south Alabama in
1981-82 (Attachment 2), as compared to Gulf, the most widely used
ryegrass, at 12,365 pounds per acre. The highest yield the pre-
ceding year (1980-81) was at Tallassee, Alabama with 13,778 pounds
per acre as compared to Gulf with 10,563 pounds per acre (Attach-
In Florida Marshall has likewise been an exceptional forage
producer. At the Agronomic Research Center, Jay, Florida,
Marshall has been the top yielder for the past two years pro-
ducing 11,130 pounds per acre of oven-dry forage in 1981-82
(Attachment 4). The last year a ryegrass variety test was con-
ducted at Quincy was 1979-80 and Marshall was the top yielder
with 6,024 pounds per acre as compared to Gulf with 4,888 pounds
per acre. In this particular test Marshall was tested as N. Miss.
Reseeding. (Attachment 5)
Its ability to withstand cold temperatures make Marshall
the most cold hardy ryegrass available in the South. Numerous
side-by-side comparisons have demonstrated this cold hardiness.
During the exceptionally cold winter of 1981-82 cold injury ratings
were made in the Ryegrass Test at Plains, Georgia. Marshall had
0% cold injury and was the top yielding variety while Gulf had
36% cold injury (Attachment 6). Ratings in Mississippi Experiment
Station Test in 1980 showed Gulf with 92% cold injury while
Marshall had only 2%.
Cattlemen are finding that they can graze their cattle on
Marshall Ryegrass during the very coldest part of winter and
eliminate much of their costly hay feeding.
Another unique ability of Marshall is its ability to produce
higher Average Daily Gains and more total beef per acre, which
results in a higher net return per acre.
The results of two years grazing study at Mississippi State
Experiment Station at Raymond, Mississippi has shown that steers
grazing Marshall gained 2.32 pounds per day as compared to Gulf
at 2.14 pounds per day. The total pounds of beef produced per
acre was 725 pounds on Marshall as compared to 620 pounds on
Gulf, or 105 pounds more beef per acre on Marshall, a signifi-
cant increase. The end results of this test showed a Net Return
of $72.65 per acre for Marshall which was $37.39 more than on
Gulf (Attachment 7).
Marshall Ryegrass can be grown alone or in mixtures with
small grains and/or legumes. It can be planted on prepared land,
in permanent pastures or overseeded in row crops like soybeans
Marshall is an exciting new variety of ryegrass that when
properly managed can offer cattlemen in the Southeast more total
grazing with higher beef gains and an end result of more net
return per acre.
Table 4. Seasonal forage production of ryegrass varieties at Plant Breeding
Unit, 3-year average
Pounds oven-dry forage per acre
Entry Autumn Winter Spring Spring Total
Marshall 1482 1819 3284 4264 10849
Sunbelt 1521 1622 2853 3336 9332
Gulf 1465 1534 2722 2578 8299
Florida 80 875 1 93 2699 2435 7902
Table 5. Seasonal forage production of ryegrass varieties at Gulf Coast Substation
PouR7dj oven-dry forage per acre
Entry Autumn Winter Spring Spring Total
Marshall 1222 1818 6293 2656 11989
Sunbelt 955 1477 5031 2839 10302
Gulf 675 1523 5256 2062 9516
Florida 80 380 1479 5134 2399 9392
Table 6. Seasonal production of ryegrass varieties at Sand Mountain Substation,
Entry Winter SDr
Marshall 410 21
Gulf 325 2
Sunbelt 253 17
Florida 80 43 2
is oven-dry forage per acre
FORAGE YIELD OF RYEGRASS VARIETIES OF GULF COAST SUBSTATION,
FAIRHOPE, ALABAMA, WINTER 1981-82
Mom Lm M
TE Trelite II
Oven-dry Forage Per Acre
*Means within a column followed
the 5% level.
Planted: November 3, 1981
Soil: Marlboro fine sandy loam
by the same letter are not significantly different at
TABLE 2, FORAGE YIELD OF RYEGRASS VARIETIES AT PLANT BREEDING UNIT, TALLASSEE, ALABAMA
POUNDS OVEN-DRY FORAGE PER ACRE
NAPB 107 .
NK 78120 ..
S. 1036 A*
, 608 B
S. 418 BC
. ,. 648 B
S 435 BC
S 412 BC
. 300 c
DING. 0 D
DING. 171 C
,, 0 D
C.V, PERCENT . 32 18 7 12 19 28 9
* MEANS, WITHIN A COLUMN HAVING THE SAME LETTER, ARE NOT SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT AT 5% LEVEL,
PLANTED: OCTOBER 2, 1980
SOIL: CAHABA FINE SANDY LOAM
Biomass and/or Forage
Agricultural Research Center
Yield of Oven-dry Forage
(Pounds Per Acre)
Entry Feb. 8 Mar. 3 Mar. 30 Apr. 27 June 2 Total
Marshall ryegrass 1640 1690 3490 2940 1370 11,130
Siberian kale 880 910 1530 3400 4210 10,930
Fla. 80 ryegrass 1280 1870 2900 2560 1460 10,070
Emerald rape 1080 700 930 2550 2230 7,490
Wrens abruzzi rye 2480 1740 1030 280 0 5,530
Fla. 301 wheat 1640 1110 690 70 0 3,510
Fla. 501 oat 1120 740 910 170 0 2,940
Tyfon turnip 120 120 350 1110 0 1,700
Fla. Broadleaf mustard 280 220 620 350 0 1,470
Ryegrass Forage Production.
N. Miss. Reseeding
Fla. Rust Resistant
1979-80. AREC, Quincy (Dry Matter, Ibs/A).
800 Ib/A 0-20-20 preplant.
75 Ib/A Ammonium nitrate 11/8/79, 150 Ib/A 1/7/80 and again 3/11/80.
RYEGRASS FORAGE YIELDS AT PLAINS, 1981 82
DRY FORAGE YIELDS
12-4-81 2-11-82 2-23-82
PERCENT OF ABOVE-GROUND PLANT MATERIAL KILLED.
SOIL TYPE: GREENVILLE SANDY CLAY LOAM
PLANTING DATE: OCTOBER 5, 1981
SEEDING RATE: 40 LBS/A.
PREPLANT FERTILIZER PER ACRE: 30 LBS N, 60 LBS P205, 30 LBS K20
TOPDRESS FERTILIZER PER ACRE: 50 LBS N ON 10-30-8.1, 50 LBS N.ON
40 LBS N ON 3-11-82,
TEST CONDUCTED BY DARRELL MORE, FRED BARNES, RB, MCss, AND BEN DEAL,
SEvaluation of Ryegrass Cultlvars in Pnstures for Backgroun'dng Beef Calves
E.G. Morrison and Ned C. Edwards, Jr.
Brown Loom Branch Experiment Station
n1 this study three ryegrass cultivars will be evaluated under grazing conditions
with steers. The cultivars to be evaluated are Gulf, Marshall and Sunbelt. Each cultivar
will be tested in six acre plots over a three year period. Plots will be followed in late
summer and fertilized with 250 lbs. of 0-24-24 and 150 Ibs. of ammonium nitrate per acre
in early September. The ryegrass will be planted between 9/5 and 9/15 with a grain drill
ot 40 pounds per acre and cultipacked in one operation.
Purchased vweonling age steer calves of mostly Hereford X Angus breeding will
be lest animals. All calves will be wormed and implanted with a growth stimulant at the
beginning of the grazing season. Plots will be stocked with 1.5 350-400 calves per acre
Ammonium nitrate will be applied as a top-dressing at the rate of 100 lbs. per
acre on February 15 and again on April 1. Animal performance data and input cost records
will be maintained for analysis. Soil samples will be taken annually in order to make any
needed corrections in P205, K20, and pH levels.
Table 1. Average performance of steers grazing ryegrass cultivars at Brown Loam Branch
Experiment Station, Raymond, Mississippi, 1979-80 and 1980-81.
Days on test 193 193 193 188
-Stocking rate/acre 1.5 1.5 1.613 2/ 1.5
Initial Weight, lbs. 385 388 390 380
Final Weight, Ibs. 817 801 839 808
Gain per head, Ibs. 432 413 -449 428
Daily gain, lbs. 2.24 2.14 2.32 .2.28
Gain per acre, lbs. 648 620 725 642
Return per acre, $ 44.33 35.26 72.65 41.97
1/ 1980-81 only
2/ Stocking rate increased to 2:0/acre on 3-3.-81.
Planned for next year: Continue the test.
Tibbee Crimson Clover
Andy Harrison, District Sales Manager Funk's Seed Co.
With the southeastern farmer being plagued by the ever present problem of
soil erosion and the increase in the cost of nitrogen fertilizer looming on the
horizon, attention is being focused on new cover crops adapted for the south,
especially legumes. One of the legumes that has come into view recently is Tibbee
Developed by Mississippi State University, Tibbee crimson clover is a widely
adapted cold hardy crimson variety that is an average of 14 to 17 days earlier in
maturity than the well known Dixie crimson variety. This earlier maturity was
illustrated at the AREC (Jay, Fla.)
AREC, Jay, Florida. 1981-82.
Yield of Oven
Dry Forage Pounds
April 16 Total
Tibbee also has excellent early growth and establishes itself quickly.
Much of the research done to date with Tibbee clover has been with it being
used as a fall planted cover crop to provide nitrogen for a spring planted corn or
sorghum. Irrigated no-till corn yields of 182 bushels per acre have been harvested
at AREC Quincy, Fla.
In Adel, Ga. on the farm of S. L. Bell under non-irrigated conditions corn
was no-till planted into standing Tibbee crimson clover in mid-March. The clover
was sprayed with Paraquat pre-emerg to kill the clover. Part of the corn planted
in the Tibbee received 30 pounds nitrogen total with the remaining corn receiving
90 pounds nitrogen total. At tassle tissue samples were taken for analysis and reported:
Corn in clover 30 Ibs N
Corn in clover 90 Ibs N
Adequate Range 2.75 to 3.2%
% N in tissue
When harvested the yield difference between the two nitrogen levels was barely
30 Ib N
90 Ib N
Based on the yield data Tibbee crimson clover appears to have the ability to
produce adequate levels of nitrogen for the production of a corn or sorghum crop.
As expected part of the nitrogen is from the nodules on the roots. A large por-
tion is also released from the large amount of dry matter produced as it decomposes.
Tibbee is believed to have the capability to produce from 200 to 150 Ibs of nitrogen
and at times more. The nitrogen produced is slowly released, therefore, leaching
is not a major factor.
Also notable is the dry matter yield of Tibbee clover as illustrated by the
clipping taken at S. L. Bell at the time the corn was planted 2.2 tons dry matter.
This volume of dry matter is significant in respect to Tibbee's use as a cover crop.
By producing quantities of material such as this to remain in the soil the percentage
of organic matter in the soil will increase providing for better water retention, soil
tilth and better herbicide effectiveness.
In addition to being an excellent cover crop Tibbee clover fits well into many
types of forage programs. The early maturity allows Tibbee to be planted into summer
permanent pasture where it can put nitrogen into the soil during the winter dormant
period of the summer pasture. Since the Tibbee growth is generally over before the
important spring growth of the summer grasses start there is little competition for
nutrients and moisture. Tibbee also adapts well for use in a mixture with fall
planted wintergrazing. Tibbee will allow earlier clover grazing than most other clovers
As with any legume Tibbee clover needs to be inoculated properly prior to planting
with a good, fresh crimson clover inoculant to get maximum nodulization.
1 NEW VETCH VARIETIES
2 E. D. DONNELLY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRONOMY AND SOILS
3 ALABAMA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
4 AUBURN UNIVERSITY
5 There was a time in the 1950's and 1960's when interest decreased
6 in the development of legumes for forage and green manure because of
7 the advent of "cheap" commercial nitrogen. However, the Alabama
8 Agricultural Experiment Station continued research and development of
9 improved vetches. As a result, four new varieties, 'Cahaba White',
10 'Vanguard', 'Nova II', and 'Vantage', are now available to meet a
11 renewed interest in green manure crops (3, 4).
12 In the vetch breeding program, emphasis has been placed on early
13 herbage production, high seed yields, and ability to reseed. To reach
14 these goals, special attention was given to winter hardiness, resistance
15 to the vetch bruchid or weevil (Bruchus brachalis Fahr.) (7), resistance
16 to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), and a high percentage hard
18 Variety Development
19 To combine the desired characteristics into varieties, it was
20 necessary to hybridize vetch species. Cahaba White, Vantage, and
21 Nova II were developed from Vicia sativa L. (Al. 1894) x V. cordata
22 Wulf (P. I. 121275), and Vanguard from V. sativa (Al. 1894) x
23 V. narbonensis f. serratifolia (Jacq.) Hermann (P. I. 170017). The
24 F1 hybrid from V. sativa x V. cordata had 93% sterile pollen (6);
25 however, fertility was restored in V. sativa type plants in F4 (2).
26 The F1 hybrid from V. sativa x V. narbonensis f. serratifolia was
27 fertile. Pure line breeding was employed following both corsses.
1 During development of these four varieties, individual plants in each
2 generation through F6 were selected for vigor, cold hardiness, seed
3 production, and a high percentage hard seed.
4 Variety Description
5 Cahaba White and Nova II have white flowers, while Vanguard and
6 Vantage have purple flowers. Cahaba White and Vantage are semi-prostratt
7 and compact in growth habit; Nova II and Vanguard are upright and have
8 a more open growth habit. Characteristics are essentially those of
9 V. sativa, with the following exceptions: These varieties have a high
10 percentage of hard seed and, therefore, reseed well, and they are more
11 cold hardy and produce higher seed yields in Alabama than other
12 V. sativa accessions tested, with the exception of 'Warrior'. Also,
13 Vanguard is the most shatter-resistant vetch tested in this breeding
15 Variety Performance
16 Seed of these four new vetch varieties are not damaged by the
17 vetch bruchid (Bruchus brachialis Fahr.) as are seed of hairy vetch
18 (V. villosa Roth). The new vetches are resistant to root-knot nematode
19 species Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949,
20 M. incognita acrita Chitwood, 1949, and M. javanica (Treub, 1885)
21 Chitwood, 1949,whereas hairy vetch is susceptible (10).
22 Cahaba White, Vantage, Nova II, and Vanguard generally produce
23 herbage earlier and mature seed ten days earlier than hairy vetch in
24 their area of adaptation. None of these is as cold hardy as hairy
25 vetch; however, they are sufficiently hardy for the southern two-thirds
26 of Alabama and other areas with similar winter climates.
27 To illustrate earliness and cold hardiness, data are presented
1 for two years at one location. Herbage yields of these new vetches
2 were obtained in central Alabama during two unusually cold winters,
3 1976-77 and 1977-78. In 1977, Table 1, Cahaba White, Vantage, Nova II,
4 and Vanguard produced as much herbage as did Warrior when cut at two
5 dates. Warrior is a non-reseeding variety of common vetch, V. sativa,
6 released by the Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station in
7 1959 (8). All of these five varieties produced more herbage than
8 hairy vetch when cut early (March 16), Table 1. Nova II also produced
9 more herbage than hairy vetch when cut April 4 and April 20. In 1978,
10 there was no difference in the herbage yield of Cahaba White, Vantage,
11 Vanguard, and hairy vetch when cut either March 20 or March 31, Table 2.
12 Nova II produced less herbage than these on both cutting dates in 1978
13 due to cold damage. However, Nova II is sufficiently cold hardy for
14 central Alabama most years, see Table 1.
15 Seed yields of these new vetch varieties have been equal to those
16 of Warrior. Thus, they have the potential to produce 1,500 lbs. of
17 seed per acre if well supported by cotton stalks, sorghum stubble, or
18 other suitable means.
19 These four new vetch varieties have a hard seedcoat and reseed
20 well (1, 5). Good reseeding stands can be obtained when mature seed
21 are plowed down in preparing land for crops such as grain sorghum or
22 soybeans. Inheritance of hard seed has been determined (9).
24 Cahaba White, Vantage, Nova II, and Vanguard are sufficiently cold
25 hardy for a green manure or grazing crop in the southern two-thirds of
26 Alabama. The following are advantages of these new vetches: (1) pro-
27 duce herbage earlier than hairy vetch; (2) produce high seed yields;
1 (3) have a hard seedcoat and will reseed; (4) are resistant to the
2 vetch bruchid or weevil that often destroys 50% of the seed produced
3 by hairy vetch; (5) mature seed ten days earlier than hairy vetch;
4 (6) are resistant to three of the five root-knot nematode species,
5 while hairy vetch is susceptible to all five (the new vetches act as
6 trap crops for these nematodes); and (7) are resistant to races
7 3 and 4 of the soybean cyst nematode.
8 These reseeding vetches can be used for green manure crops,
9 grazing, or seed. They can be used in cropping systems with crops
10 such as cotton, rye, grain sorghum, corn, and soybeans. Or they can
11 be planted annually for temporary grazing crops or for green manure to
12 be turned ahead of corn. When used for green manure, they can produce
13 available nitrogen equivalent to 90 to 120 lbs. of fertilizer nitrogen.
14 Seed are being produced and marketed by Louisiana Seed Co., Inc.
15 and are available on a limited basis for fall planting.
1 1. Donnelly, E. D. 1970. Persistence of hard seed in Vicia lines
derived from interspecific hybridization. Crop Sci. 10:661-662.
2. Donnelly, E. D. 1971. Breeding hard-seeded vetch using inter-
3 specific hybridization. Crop Sci. 11:721-724.
4 3. Donnelly, E. D. 1978. New vetch varieties released. Alabama
Agr. Exp. Stn. Highlights of Agr. Res. Vol. 25, No. 3.
4. Donnelly, E. D. 1979. Registration of Cahaba White, Vantage,
6 Nova II, and Vanguard vetch. Crop Sci. 19:p. 414.
7 5. Donnelly, E. D. 1980. Selecting lines of vetch that breed true
for hard seed. Crop Sci. 20:259-260.
6. Donnelly, E. D. and E. M. Clark. 1962. Hybridization in the genus
9 Vicia. Crop Sci. 2:141-145.
10 7. Donnelly, E. D. and Sidney B. Hays. 1961. Warrior--a bruchid-
resistant vetch. Alabama Agr. Exp. Stn. Leaflet 65, pp. 1-3.
8. Donnelly, E. D. and W. R. Langford. 1959. Warrior vetch, a new
12 variety for Alabama. Alabama Agr. Exp. Stn. Leaflet 62, pp. 1-4.
13 9. Donnelly, E. D., J. E. Watson, and John A. McGuire. 1972. Inheri-
tance of hard seed in Vicia. J. Hered. 63:361-365.
10. Minton, Norman A., E. D. Donnelly, and R. L. Shepherd. 1966.
15 Reaction of Vicia species and F5 hybrids from V. sativa x
V. angustifolia to five root-knot nematode species. Phytopathology
Table 1: Yield Per Acre Produced by Vetch Varieties When
Cut at Two Dates at the Plant Breeding Unit,
Cut on Cut on
Variety 3/16/77 4/20/77
Hairy 411 a* 3,870 a
Vantage 1,416 b 4,549 ab
Vanguard 1,598 b 4,384 ab
Warrior 1,648 b 4,241 ab
Cahaba White 1,787 b 4,335 ab
Nova II 1,908 b 4,725 b
same letter are
*Yields within a columnfollowed by the
not significantly different, P < .05.
Table 2: Yield Per Acre Produced by Vetch Varieties
When Cut at Two Dates at the Plant Breeding
Unit, Tallassee, 1977-78.
Cut on Cut on
Variety 3/20/78 3/31/78
Nova II 928 c* 2,549 b
Cahaba White 1,749 ab 3,398 a
Hairy 1,821 ab 3,521 a
Vanguard 1,874 ab 3,286 a
Vantage 2,150 a 3,811 a
*Yields within a column followed by the same letter are not
significantly different, P < .05.
New Developments in Small Grains for Grazing
New Developments in Small Grains for Grazing-
R. D. Barnett2
The acreage of small grains in Florida has increased steadily the past few
years. Small grains fit well into multiple cropping systems and provide much
valuable forage in the winter and spring seasons when forage is in short sup-
ply. A survey, conducted during the summer of 1982, of acreages and uses
of the small grain crops in Florida is summarized in Table 1.
Table 1. Acreages and uses of the small grains grown in Florida in 1982.
Percent of the Acreage Used for
Acreage Grazing Grazing + Grain Hay or Cover Crop or
Crop Planted Only Grain Only Silage Green Manure
Wheat 155,476 0.3 3.7 94.1 0.2 1.7
Oats 82,601 42.0 6.7 37.8 7.7 5.8
Rye 154,900 76.9 6.2 9.9 3.2 3.8
It is apparent that wheat is grown almost entirely for grain whereas rye is
grown predominantly for forage. Oats are the best dual purpose crop of the
small grains and are widely used for a number of purposes. The objectives
of this report are to describe some of the recently developments in each crop,
and to give some insight into new developments expected in the 80's.
Wheat is the most versatile of the small grains, and can be used for a
number of purposes. It makes an excellent grazing, hay, silage, cover,
green manure, mulch, food or feed-grain crop. A number of new disease
resistance varieties have recently become available, making wheat particularly
attractive to livestock farmers. Florida 301, Coker 797 and Coker 762 all
have excellent disease resistance which is important in grazing, grain or dual
purpose uses. Two new recently released varieties that are expected to do
well in Florida are Hunter and Coker 916. All these varieties were developed
primarily for grain production, and a variety has not been released as yet
in the Southeast for use exclusively as a forage crop. With the exception of
Coker 762, all these varieties are early maturing, and thus rather short season
forage producers since they start jointing rather early in the spring. They
could be used very effectively for long season forage production by blending
with ryegrass, if the crop is to be grazed out completely.
Varietal development in wheat is being conducted by several nearby state
experiment stations and a number of commercial seed companies, and it is quite
likely that a number of additional varieties will become available in the near
future. The development of new hybrid wheat technology may make the
appearance of new hybrid varieties possible within the next few years. The
1/ Presentation at the "Fourth Annual Fall Forage Forum Forages for the
80's", held at Quincy, Florida, November 2, 1982.
2Associate Professor of Agronomy, AREC, Quincy, IFAS, University of
Florida, Route 3 Box 638, Quincy, FL 32351.
technology, developed and patented by the Rohm and Haas Company, is based
on a chemical pollen sterilant, and is called "Hybrex". This system allows
hybrids to be made from regular lines of wheat, and does not use the cumber-
some cytoplasmic male sterile system that has proven difficult to handle in wheat.
This system should allow new strains of high yielding, disease resistant wheat
to be developed in three to four years, instead of the eight to ten years now
required with classical methods. Hybrid wheat would be particularly attractive
to the forage producers, since heterosis (hybrid vigor) is expressed more in
vegetative growth than in seed production. A preliminary evaluation of the
forage production of some hybrids produced by the cytoplasmic male sterility
system at Quincy, and evaluated during the 1982 season, is presented in Table
2. Although this data is only preliminary, it does indicate that hybrids might
be particularly useful as forage producers. Nothing is known now about the cost
of hybrid seed produced with the Hybrex technology and the extra cost of the
seed may outweigh the extra production that could be obtained with hybrids.
Table 2. Hybrid wheat forage trial at Quincy in 1982.
Forage Yield Pounds Per Acre Dry Matter
1st Clip 2nd Clip Season
Entry 1-7-82 2-18-82 Total
Blueboy II X FL7271A-103 hybrid 1097 a-e 1625 a 2722 ab
Blueboy II X La. 724 hybrid 1087 b-e 1517 ab 2604 a-c
Blueboy II X FL-P83-16-6-G6 hybrid 998 b-e 1509 ab 2507 b-d
Blueboy II female parent 1044 b-e 1441 ab 2485 b-e
Blueboy II X FL71T-8370-1Y hybrid 834 ef 1591 ab 2425 b-e
Blueboy II X Wakeland hybrid 1041 b-e 1209 a-c 2310 b-g
Coker 762 check 721 f 1562 ab 2284 c-g
FL71T-8370-1Y male parent 954 c-f 1213 a-c 2167 d-g
La 724 male parent 964 b-f 1168 a-c 2142 d-g
FLP83-16-6-G6 male parent 1008 b-e 1124 b-d 2132 d-g
Blueboy II X FL72115A-35-3 hybrid 1223 ab 856 c-e 2079 e-g
Wakeland male parent 1017 b-e 889 c-e 1906 g-i
Florida 301 check 1046 b-e 460 ef 1505 ij
FL72115A-35-3 male parent 1101 a-d 262 f 1363 j,
FL7271A-103 male parent 873 d-f 447 ef 1321 j
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level
according to Tukey's Test. Planting date = 10-29-81. 5 replication in a randomized
complete block design. Plot size = 10' X 4', harvested 26.7 ft2. Applied 600
Ibs/A 5-10-15 preplant. Topdressed with 50 Ibs N/A twice during the season.
No new varieties of oats have been released in recent years in the South-
east. However, several new ones are on the horizon within the next couple of
years. Coker Pedigreed Seed Company is planning to release one named Coker
820 that is early maturing, disease resistant and well adapted to Florida. The
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station is currently increasing an early maturing,
disease resistant line, and it is anticipated that foundation seed will be distributed
to seed growers in 1983. Both of these new varieties should become widely grown
and replace the currently recommended varieties, Florida 501 and Coker 227.
Another area of research being conducted with oats is the development and
utilization of hull-less oats. Hull-less oats developed in the Florida and Coker
breeding programs are currently being yield tested for grain production. A small
increase of several lines will be grown in 1983 for utilization in swine feeding
trials. It is anticipated that hull-less oats would be an excellent, high quality
feed grain utilized in special purpose rations. Quite likely, these hull-less
types would be slightly lower yielding than the regular hulled types, but would
produce a much higher quality feed since the bulky hulls thresh off during
combining. We have not evaluated the forage potential of the hull-less types but
they would likely be good forage producers.
The most exciting development in rye in the 80's will quite likely be the
release of tetraploid varieties adapted to Florida growing conditions. The
tetraploid varieties Wheeler, developed in Michigan, and Hiwassee, developed
in Tennessee, both remain vegetative throughout the winter and spring growing
seasons, and are excellent forage producers. However, both of these varieties
mature too late to produce a seed crop in Florida, so for them to be used for
forage in Florida, the seed would have to be grown outside Florida and then
shipped in. We are testing a number of tetraploids, and hope to develop one
that will have a long season of forage production, but will also produce seed
in Florida. In general, the tetraploids have heavier seed weight, greater plant
height, enhanced seedling vigor and greater vegetative growth as compared to
diploids. Therefore, the use of tetraploid varieties having more seeding vigor
and greater vegetative growth associated with tetraploidy, and prolonged vegeta-
tive growth associated with late maturity, may be desirable.
Triticale (pronounced trit-a-KAY-lee) is a relatively new, synthetic small
grain crop combining the grain quality, high protein content, productivity and
disease resistance of wheat with the vigor, hardiness and high lysine content of
rye. A new variety of triticale, Beagle 82, was released to certified seed growers
in 1982 and has potential for relieving some of the feed grain deficit in this area.
It is an early maturing, spring type developed by the University of Georgia,
University of Florida and the U.S.D.A. This particular variety probably is not
a good forage producer, since it has such a short growing season (Table 3). It
will produce a lot of forage early in the growing season, but does not tiller very
well and would not regrow well when grazed. It would make a good one-cut silage
or hay crop, and would work as a grazing crop in blends with ryegrass or some
other late season forage producer.
There are several other varieties of triticale available, and several of them
are excellent forage producers (Table 3). Dessert Seed Company is presently
marketing blends of several of their varieties as forage crops utilizing different
maturities in order to lengthen the grazing period.
Beagle 82 triticale makes an excellent feed grain and as compared to corn,
it is higher in protein and the essential amino acids, having nearly double the
complement of lysine. As a result, livestock feeders should be able to use
triticale not only as an energy source, but also as a partial replacement for the
protein supplement in rations. At the present time, triticale grain has a limited
market, so its cash crop potential is restricted until livestock feeders learn of its
value. Triticale can produce high grain yields, and seems to have an advantage
over wheat in sandy, acid soils, and when other environmental stress conditions
Table 3. Triticale and Oat Forage Trial at Quincy in 1982.
Brand or Forage Yield Pounds Per Acre Dry Matter
Originating 1st Clip 2nd Clip Total Through 3rd Clip Season
State Variety C rop 1-6-82 2-22-82 2-22-82 4-1-82 Total
Dessert A313A-15 Triticale 1247 d-h 1718 a-c 2966 a-d 2070 b-f 5036 bc
Coker 227 Oats 1362 b-g 1845 a-c 3207 ab 1770 e-g 4977 bc
Dessert A313A-12 Triticale 1080 g-i 1619 a-c 2966 b-d 2127 b-e 4827 bc
Dessert A313A-737 Triticale 1104 g-i 1902 a-c 3006 a-c 1791 d-g 4797 bc
Dessert A876 Triticale 361 j 1552 a-c 1913 f-h 2835 a 4748 bc
Ala. A & M Council Triticale 810 i 1875 a-c 2684 b-d 1554 e-h 4238 cd
Dessert A876-6 Triticale 845 i 2047 ab 2892 a-d 1298 g-i 4190 c-e
Dessert A208 Triticale 1419 a-f 644 ef 2063 e-g 1364 g-i 3427 d-f
Dessert A476 Triticale 1383 b-g 594 e-g 1977 e-g 1373 f-i 3350 ef
Noble Foundation NF 185 Triticale 1455 a-f 936 de 2391 d-f 792 i-j 3183 f
Coker 820 Oats 1706 a 356 f-h 2062 e-g 981 h-j 3043 fg
Florida Beagle 82 Triticale 1564 a-c 0 h 1564 g-i 0 k 1564 hi
Florida Florida 501 Oats 1315 b-g 24 h 1339 hi o k 1339 i
Dessert B227-8 Triticale 969 hi 2079 a 3048 a-c 2471 a-d 5519 ab
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level according to Tukey's Test.
Planting Date = 10-29-81. 5 Replications in a randomized complete block design. Plot size = 10' X 4', har-
vested 26.7 ft2. Applied 600 Ibs/A 5-10-15 preplant. Topdressed with 50 Ibs N/A twice during the season.
Alfalfa for the 80's
E. S. Homer
JWe have been involved since 1950 in a project to develop alfalfa
varieties well adapted to the southeastern coastal plain area. The main
problem has been persistence of stands. Non-adapted varieties have poor
persistence, primarily because of susceptibility to several diseases,
and stands quickly thin out to the point that they become weedy and
The Florida alfalfa breeding program has resulted in the release of
'Florida 66' and 'Florida 77', which have much better persistence than
other available varieties. Florida 66 seed was not produced
camercially except for a small lot in 1970 because it is susceptible to
the spotted alfalfa aphid, a serious pest in the western seed producing
area. Florida 77 is resistant to this insect and no seed production
problems have been encountered. Adequate seed supplies have been
produced and distributed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. since
Results from an alfalfa variety test planted in October 1980 are
given for 1981 in Table 1 and for 1982 in Table 2. In both years two
experimental populations, Florida G80 and Florida 66 Selection (not the
original variety), were the highest yielding entries but Florida 77 was
not significantly lower. Stands were beginning to thin out in many of
the entries one year after establishment, as shown by the last column in
Table 1. Two years after establishment all but five of the entries had
very poor stands (Table 2). The remaining entries had stands adequate
for good production in 1983. Of these, only Florida 77 is available
The high yields and persistent stands of the two experimental
entries show that new varieties superior to Florida 77 can be developed.
These two are susceptible to the spotted alfalfa aphid, however, and are
not useful commercially in their present form. It should be possible to
select resistant plants from them for use in a new variety.
Table 1. Irrigated alfalfa performance trial at Gainesville, Florida.
Tons dry matter per acre in 1981 Estimated % stand
Entry 3/23 4/22 5/22 6/24 7/24 8/20 9/28 11/2 12/14 Total 11/81
Florida G80 (Exp.)
Florida 66 Selection
Northrup King 79178
Pioneer Brand 572
Pioneer Brand 581
Location: Agronomy Farm, University
Planting Date: October 15, 1980
Design: RCB with five replications
Plot size: 3 feet x 20 feet
Fertilizer: 500 Ibs/acre 0-10-20 at
planting and 250 Ibs/acre 0-10-20 after each harvest.
Table 2. Hay yields and estimated October stand percentages for alfalfa varieties in the second harvest year
(1982). Plots were planted in October 1980 at Gainesville, Florida, and irrigated as needed.
Tons dry hay per acre in 1982 Estimated % stand
Entry 3/9 4/5 5/17 6/15 7/27 9/1 Total 10/11/82
Fla. 66 Selection 0.64 0.83 1.18 0.77 0.79 0.78 4.99* 76
Fla G80 (experimental) 0.73 0.83 1.18 0.76 0.70 0.62 4.82 65
Fla. 77 0.65 0.87 1.12 0.76 0.72 0.63 4.75 58
WL 77T25 0.75 0.83 1.14 0.88 0.62 0.44 4.66 55
WL 515 0.50 0.74 0.94 0.74 0.85 0.45 4.22 29
Granada 0.53 0.79 1.02 0.70 0.67 0.40 4.11 24
NK 79178 0.56 0.61 0.88 0.79 0.67 0.56 4.07 62
Cimarron 0.57 0.84 0.93 0.71 0.64 0.27 3.96 13
Pioneer Brand 581 0.51 0.73 1.01 0.71 0.57 0.42 3.95 37
Apollo 0.49 0.74 0.91 0.68 0.70 0.37 3.89 21
Vangard 0.56 0.76 0.95 0.60 0.66 0.26 3.79 10
Barron 0.51 0.69 0.96 0.61 0.62 0.33 3.72 15
WL 512 0.45 0.68 0.86 0.66 0.56 0.25 3.46 16
Pioneer Brand 572 0.44 0.69 0.80 0.70 0.52 0.25 3.40 13
WL 514 0.40 0.59 0.86 0.66 0.54 0.31 3.36 28
Trident 0.40 0.65 0.73 0.59 0.63 0.24 3.24 16
WL 600 0.45 0.61 0.74 0.49 0.48 0.28 3.05 16
Arc 0.40 0.63 0.67 0.51 0.58 0.20 2.99 5
* Totals joined by the same vertical line are not significantly different at the 0.05 probability level.
K. H. Quesenberry
Red clover (Trifolium pratense) is generally considered a short-lived
perennial clover in most of the temperate pasture growing areas of the
world. It is used very successfully in the humid transition zone of the
United States (Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri, etc.) as a component of
perennial grass legume pastures. Although red clover is perennial under
more temperate conditions, it generally behaves as a cool season annual
clover in the southeast. My objectives in this presentation will be
(1) to discuss general production practices for red clover and other winter
annual legumes; (2) to compare the production of red clover in Florida and
the Gulf Coastal plains with other winter annual legumes and (3) to compare
the seasonal distribution of red clover with other winter annual legumes.
Red clover is generally seeded on a prepared seedbed either alone or
in combination with winter annual grasses such as rye and ryegrass. Red
clover generally has a slightly smaller seed than crimson clover and
slightly larger than arrowleaf clover. It is probably best adapted to
fertile, relatively well drained soils, but has shown good performance
during the drier winter months on flatwood type soils in central and south
Florida. Seeding rate for red clover will vary from 8 to 15 lbs. depending
on whether it is seeded with a drill or broadcast. The seed should be
covered only slightly (1/4 to 1/2 inch deep) and generally should be
planted in north central Florida no later than about November 15. Later
plantings up until about November 30 may be successful in central and
south Florida. The primary planting objective should be to plant when
adequate moisture for germination and young seedling survival is available
and to plant early enough for the small seedlings to become well established
prior to the times of first hard freeze.
Fertilization for growing red clover is similar to that of other cool
season winter annual legumes. Successful legume production requires a
minimum pH of about 6.0 and an adequate phosphorus, potassium, and minor
elements. Soil test well in advance of planting and follow the soil test
recommendations with special attention to minor element deficiencies. This
fertilizer may be applied in one application during the seedbed preparation
time prior to planting. Poor stands of winter legumes are also often caused by
seedling death due to poor Rhizobium inoculation.
Total seasonal yields of red clover are similar to those of other well
adapted winter annual clovers normally grown in the South. Table 1 sum-
marizes yield data from three different growing seasons and three different
locations in Florida for red, crimson, arrowleaf, and white clover. These
results indicate that red clover generally yields about equal to crimson
and arrowleaf clovers and often more than white clover. The 1980 yields
from the Jay Agricultural Research Center are generally higher than those
from other locations in Florida because red clover will show some continued
production into the warm months of June and July whereas the other two
clovers (crimson and arrowleaf) are true perennials and generally give no
production once full flowering has been initiated. It can be noted from
the footnote in Table. 1 that several different red clover cultivars have
been grown during the years of these tests. This variation in varieties
is primarily due to the availability of seed. In summarizing a number of
tests from Florida, south Alabama, and south Georgia, it generally appears
that Kenstar, Penscott, Florie, and Redland are generally among the top
yielding varieties. A recurrent selection program for an early flowering,
vigorous Florida adapted type red clover has been underway for the past
four years at Gainesville and preliminary results suggest that this breed-
ing population is superior to most released cultivars of red clover.
Table 2 shows the performance of red, crimson, and arrowleaf clovers,
grown in combination with rye and ryegrass in south Alabama and red clover
grown alone at Tifton, Georgia. These data show similar total yields as
trials in Florida with red clover generally being equal to or slightly
below crimson and arrowleaf at most locations. The inclusion of rye and
ryegrass in a mixture with red clover generally tends to extend the pro-
duction season of temporary pastures and slightly increases total forage
Table 3 summarizes the distribution of forage production of red, crim-
son, and arrowleaf clovers. Crimson clover generally gives greater early
season production than either red or arrowleaf. Producers generally find
that grazing can be initiated on crimson clover 2 to 3 weeks earlier than
on red or arrowleaf. Conversely, red clover will often give slightly
greater production in the mid-March to mid-May period than either crimson
or arrowleaf and generally equal production to arrowleaf in the period
after mid-May. Little production is achieved on crimson clover after mid-
May. As previously indicated, in years with good moisture distribution in
May and June, red clover continued to produce forage into June and July,
particularly in the panhandle of Florida and the lower coastal plains.
Utilization of temporary winter annual pastures can pay big dividends
for the Florida cattle producer. These legumes when utilized in combina-
tion with winter annual grasses provide high quality forage suitable for
gaining calves. Red clover offers a good alternative to crimson and
arrowleaf clover for utilization in Florida and the Gulf Coastal plains.
Production requirements are similar to those of other winter annual clovers,
but red clover may give slightly later seasonal production than either crim-
son or arrowleaf clover, particularly in years with good moisture distri-
bution in May and early June. A breeding program is currently underway to
select for an improved type of red clover which is adapted to Florida con-
ditions. Preliminary results of this breeding population indicate that
it is superior to currently available varieties.
In summary, Red clover offers real potential as an important forage
for improving animal production in north and west Florida. Work is in
progress to improve adaptability and early season production of Red clover
Table 1. Performance of winter annual clovers for several years in North, Central
and Southern Florida.
Type of 1976 1980 1981
Clover Ona Gainesville Ona Gainesville Jay Gainesville
Red 4600 5140 2100 3180 6910 4980
Crimson 1100 5450 -- 5340 -- 6870
Arrowleaf 1600 5440 -- 3910 -- 5770
White 3900 3260 -- 7710
t Varieties were as follows: 1976 Kenland red, Dixie crimson, Yuchi arrowleaf,
Florida white; 1980 Ona Nolins red, Gainesville Kenstar red, Jay Arlington
red, Dixie crimson, Yuchi arrowleaf, Florida white; 1981 Kenstar red, Dixie
crimson, Yuchi arrowleaf.
Table 2. Performance of winter annual clovers in southern Georgia and Alabama.
Type of Camden Ala.
Clover Lower Coastal Headland Ala. Fairhope Ala. Tifton Ga.
Plains Wiregrass Gulf Coast ABAC
Red & Rye &
Ryegrasst 3670tt 5370tt 6020-t 5280@
Crimson & Rye &
Ryegrass 4060 6490 5800 3890
Arrowleaf & Rye &
Ryegrass 4050 5860 6550 5450
t Cultivars were: Alabama Redland red, Autanga crimson, Yuchi arrowleaf; Georgia
Kenstar red, Tibbee crimson, Yuchi arrowleaf.
ttAverage yields for three growing seasons 1979-1981.
@ Georgia data are for legumes grown alone and average of two years data.
Data from Alabama furnished by Dr. D. M. Ball, Auburn University, Georgia data
from Dr. John Miller, USDA, Tifton, GA.
Table 3. Seasonal distribution of winter annual clover yields.
I nrat inn
Mid March After Mid
Mid May May
- Ibs/acre - - -
Gainesville data = average of 4 years; Fairhope, AL
r I n w r I nr;t i o
and Jay, FL = average of 3 years.
Chemicals for Drying Hay1
Dr. 0. Charles Ruelke2
Make hay while the sun shines, is a well known bit of advice which
farmers have followed for centuries. But what if it take 3 days of sunshine
to get the hay dry and it rains on the third day? Use of chemicals to
speed up the rate of drying could be a solution to this problem.
In recent years, low net return from corn and other field crops have
interested farmers in hay as a source of income. In recent years, farm in-
comes from hay has ranked 4th in the USA and 6th among field crops grown
in Florida. In Florida we find that in 1970 there were 166,000 acres of
hay harvested, producing 286,000 tons with a 1.72 Ton/acre yield, which
sold for an average of $29.72 per ton. In 1981 there were 230,000 acres
harvested yielding 2.1 tons/acre which sold for an average of $74,00/ton.
With the development of 'Florida 77' alfalfa for hay it is possible
with good management on well drained, fertilized soils, in Florida, to
produce 4 tons per acre and alfalfa hay has been sold for $150-200/ton,
if it is properly harvested and dried?
The real problem with producing alfalfa on fertilized well drained
soils in getting it dry between summer rain showers. Research is now in
progress to look at the potential of drying agents to speed up the rate of
drying of hay.
1. Presented at 4th Annual Fall Forage Forum held November 2, 1982, at
Agriculture Research and Education Center, Quincy, Florida 32351.
2. Professor of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
For years, grape growers have used potassium carbonate applied to
grapes to speed up drying to make raisins. Why could this not be used to
speed drying of hay? Preliminary tests of this idea were started both in
the USA and in Australia.
In our experiment in Florida it was learned that, how chemicals were
applied, and how the hay was handled, was critical for success using chemicals
for drying hay.
Chemicals Used -- Commercial grades of potassium carbonate are available
at moderate costs as well as Conservit #11 and Quick (M) Cure. All three
of these products, when properly applied, were effective in speeding up the
drying rate of alfalfa hay as compared to the untreated control. Conservit
#11 also contained a buffering agent and a mold inhibitor which gave additional
protection once the hay was dry enough to bale.
Application Rates and Methods -- Equally as important to what chemicals
are used is rates and methods of application. Potassium carbonate at
7 1/2 Ibs/ton of hay speeded up drying about as much as higher rates tested.
Commercial products were applied at rates recommended by the manufacturers,
with good results.
Most critical is the method of application. For alfalfa hay the mower
conditioner must be equipped with a spray boom, pump, and tank and a bar
ahead of the cutter bar to cause the plants to lean forward so spray is
concentrated on the stems and minimized on the leaves of alfalfa. Simply
spraying the top of the plant canopy speeds up rate of drying of leaves
and leaf loss, while stems are too wet to bale.
Stubble height must be raised to about 4 inches so that the sprayed
and conditioned swath of hay are spread out and perched on the stubble
holding it from contact with the wet soil surface. This permits air
circulation under the swath also.
When hay has reached 25-30% moisture, or before leaves shatter, it can
be raked in a window. Windrows can then be baled when the hay reaches
20% moisture or less without severe losses in storage.
Generally, with the use of chemicals to speed up the rate of drying
alfalfa hay, it can be treated and cut one day, and baled the afternoon
of the second day, while untreated hay will not be ready until the third
day. This has made it possible to escape losses from summer rain showers.
Chemicals have not been extensively tested on bermudagrass but pre-
liminary observations indicate they may be less effective.
Finally, chemicals can speed up the rate of drying when drying condi-
tions are favorabile between rains, but will not dry hay during cloudy,
humid, raining weather. Chemicals for speeding up drying are an aid, not
a guarantee to curing high quality hay.