• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Introduction
 Project strategy
 Activities
 Support systems
 Staffing
 Cooperative links
 Budget
 Executive summary
 Annexes














Group Title: Formulation document of the TanzaniaNetherlands farming systems research project : Lake zone, Tanzania.
Title: Formulation document of the TanzaniaNetherlands farming systems research project
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073333/00001
 Material Information
Title: Formulation document of the TanzaniaNetherlands farming systems research project Lake zone, Tanzania
Physical Description: 71 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Netherlands -- Directoraat-Generaal Internationale Samenwerking
Publication Date: 1997
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural development projects -- Tanzania   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Tanzania
 Notes
General Note: "Phase II : January 1992 - December 1997"
General Note: "Final draft, October 1991."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073333
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 76922097

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    List of Tables
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Project strategy
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Activities
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Support systems
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Staffing
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Cooperative links
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Budget
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Executive summary
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Annexes
        Page 43
        Terms of reference
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
        Conclusions and recommendations of evaluation document phase I, July 1991
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
        Itinerary
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
        Job descriptions
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
        Budget details Netherlands contribution
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
        Acronym definitions
            Page 71
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JANUARY 1992 DECEMBER 1997

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FORMULATION DOCUMENT


OF THE TANZANIA/NETHERLANDS


FARMING


SYSTEMS


RESEARCH


PROJECT


LAKE ZONE


- TANZANIA


PHASE II


JANUARY 1992 DECEMBER 1997


FINAL DRAFT
OCTOBER 1991








TABLE OF CONTENTS


TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL
1.2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

2. PROJECT STRATEGY
2.1 OBJECTIVES
2.2 TARGET AREAS
2.3 COOPERATIVE LINKS WITH OTHER PROJECTS


3. ACTIVITIES
3.1 RESEARCH
3.2 OXENISATION
3.3 GENDER
3.4 LINKAGES
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.4.4
3.4.5
3.5 TRAINING
3.5.1
3.5.2
3.5.3
3.5.4


Introduction
Between FSR and Farmers
Between FSR and CRTs
Between FSR and Extension
Between FSR and NCU

Introduction
Long Term
Short Term
On-The-Job


4. SUPPORT SYSTEMS
4.1 ADMINISTRATION
4.1.1 Written Guidelines
4.1.2 Administrative Assistance
4.1.3 DSA Allowances
4.2 EQUIPMENT
4.2.1 Microcomputer Related
4.2.2 Library Support
4.2.3 Transport
4.2.4 Other Equipment
4.3 REHABILITATING INFRASTRUCTURE


5. STAFFING
5.1 LONG TERM
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
5.2 SHORT TERM
5.2.1
5.2.2


Introduction
National
Expatriate

Consultants
Students


6. COOPERATIVE LINKS
6.1 DISTRICT RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
6.2 NATIONAL SOIL SERVICE








7. BUDGET 35
7.1 NETHERLANDS CONTRIBUTION 35
7.2 TANZANIAN CONTRIBUTION 36

8. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 39

ANNEXES 43

Al. TERMS OF REFERENCE 44
Al.1 ACTIVITIES REQUIRED BEFORE MISSION 44
A1.2 TERMS OF REFERENCE OF FORMULATION MISSION 45
A1.3 REPORTING 47

A2. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS, EVALUATION DOCUMENT
PHASE I, JULY 1991 48
A2.1 CONCLUSIONS 48
A2.2 RECOMMENDATIONS 49

A3. ITINERARY 54

A4. JOB DESCRIPTIONS 57
A4.1 PROJECT SUPPORTED 57
A4.1.1 Tanzanian Gender Specialist
(Ukiriguru) 57
A4.1.2 Expatriate Livestock Specialist
(Ukiriguru) 58
A4.1.3 Research Extension Liaison Officer
(Ukiriguru) 59
A4.2 PROJECT RELATED 60
A4.2.1 NSS Tanzanian Soil Scientist (Maruku) 60
A4.2.2 NSS Expatriate Soil Scientist(Maruku) 61
A4.2.3 Maswa DRDP Agricultural Mechanisation
Specialist 63

A5. BUDGET DETAILS NETHERLANDS CONTRIBUTION 65

A6. ACRONYM DEFINITIONS 71


LIST OF TABLES

3.1 LONG TERM TRAINING TO BE FINANCED BY THE PROJECT 19

5.1 LONG TERM STAFF PLANNED AT THE BEGINNING OF PHASE II
OF THE LAKE ZONE FSR PROJECT 29

7.1 NETHERLANDS CONTRIBUTION BY CODE, 1992-94 35

7.2 NETHERLANDS CONTRIBUTION BY CATEGORY, 1992-97 36

7.3 TANZANIAN CONTRIBUTION (IN '000 SH) 37

A5.1 NETHERLANDS CONTRIBUTION: CROSS REFERENCES BETWEEN
REPORT SECTIONS AND BUDGET CODES 64

A5.2 BUDGET DETAILS NETHERLANDS CONTRIBUTION(PARTS A TO K) 65-70







1. INTRODUCTION


1.1 GENERAL

This report presents the findings of an external Formulation
Mission for Phase II (January 1st, 1992 December 31st, 1997)
of the "Tanzania / Netherlands Farming Systems Research Project,
Lake Zone" (FSR Project). The project will be financed jointly
by Tanzania and The Netherlands. The partners are the Ministry
of Agriculture, Livestock Development and Cooperatives (MALDC),
Tanzania, and the Directorate General for International
Cooperation (DGIS), Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The
Netherlands. The Department of Research and Training, MALDC, is
the Tanzanian executive agency of the project. In line with the
recommendation of the Evaluation Mission [Evaluation Document,
Recommendation 28], the Formulation Mission proposes the Royal
Tropical Institute (KIT), Amsterdam, be the Netherlands
executing agency for the project.

Phase I of the project covers a period of three years and four
months: from 1st July, 1988 to 31st December, 1991. This phase
was evaluated in June 1991. The Evaluation Mission recommended
extending the project for at least six years [Evaluation
Document, Recommendation 1]. This recommendation was supported
by both governments.

The Formulation Mission was carried out by the same team which
executed the evaluation of Phase I. Both consisted of the
following persons:

(a). Dr. Gerard H. de Bruijn, Tropical Agronomist, Innovation
and Development Consultants, The Hague, The Netherlands,
Mission Leader.

(b). Mr. Timothy N. Kirway, M.Sc., Assistant Commissioner for
Farming Systems Research, MALDC, Dar es Salaam.

(c). Ms. Mary T. Liwa, M.Sc., Agricultural Training Officer,
Ministry of Agriculture Training Institute (MATI), MALDC,
Mlingano, Tanga.

(d). Dr. David W. Norman, Professor of Agricultural Economics,
Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA.

The team met on 1st September 1991 and started work in Dar es
Salaam. The report was written during the course of the
mission. It is based on the conclusions and recommendations of
the Evaluation Mission of Phase I, July 1991, and on
information and impressions gained from interviews and
discussions with different individuals related to the project.
While all the topics mentioned in the Terms of Reference have
been considered by the mission, they have not necessarily been
allocated separate headings in the report.

The report consists of eight chapters. After a general
introduction, Chapter 2 provides a brief description of the







project strategy. In Chapter 3 we give details on the various
activities planned for Phase II. In Chapter 4 we describe the
support systems, while Chapter 5 deals with the staffing. In
Chapter 6 we discuss cooperative links with other projects. We
present a summary of the budget in Chapter 7, and finally we
present an executive summary in Chapter 8.

The Terms of Reference of the mission are included as Annex Al.
Annex A2 presents the Conclusions and Recommendations of the
Evaluation Document of Phase I of the project. Annex A3 includes
a diary of activities and meetings. Annex A4 contains a number
of job descriptions for project supported and project related
functions. In Annex A5 we present a detailed project budget for
the first three years of Phase II. Definitions of the acronyms
used in the report are listed in Annex A6.

At the end of the mission, the results were discussed with the
appropriate authorities in Tanzania and at the Royal Netherlands
Embassy in Dar es Salaam.


1.2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We wish to express our appreciation and thanks for the support
and constructive cooperation of many persons, from both the
Tanzanian and The Netherlands side. They were involved in
making arrangements for the preparation of the mission,
meetings, field visits, interviews, discussions and writing up.

The support and constructive inputs by the Lake Zone Research
Director, Dr. M.M. Msabaha, were very much appreciated. Mr.
B.M. Gama, Head of the Soil Science Section, Ukiriguru, provided
much of the information, including budget figures, for the
proposed soil science input at Maruku. Special acknowledgement
is due to Mr. K.F. Bunyecha, Lake Zone FSR Coordinator, who
arranged the very comprehensive and trouble-free programme, and
who performed a major informative and supportive role for the
mission. Budgetting was greatly facilitated by a document
prepared by Ms. Z.M. Semgalawe, National Coordinating Unit FSR,
and by Mr. H.J. Enserink, Chief Technical Advisor.







2. PROJECT STRATEGY


2.1 OBJECTIVES

As indicated in the Evaluation Document for Phase I [Evaluation
Document, Sections 1.2 and 4.1; Recommendation 31], the original
objectives of the Lake Zone Farming Systems Research Project, as
expressed in the Formulation Document for Phase I, require some
adjustment. This is necessary to rationalise some of the past
activities of the project which will be continued in Phase II.
The modified long term objective of the project is therefore:

"Through the application of the farming systems
research approach, to improve the productivity and
sustainability of the agricultural research system
and the farming systems practiced by small scale
farming families in the Lake Zone Region."

Activities that will contribute to improving the productivity
and sustainability (i.e., institutional) of the agricultural
research system will include:

(a). Those that emphasise the complementary and interactive
relationship between station-based (commodity research
teams) and farm-based (farming systems research) research.

(b). Those that help in creating the necessary basic foundation
for (a) to occur through activities involving improvement
of the support systems (e.g., rehabilitating
infrastructure, providing equipment, transport, library
materials, some recurrent expenditure, etc.) and training
(i.e., long, short and on-the job) of national staff.

(c). Those that, in conjunction with the National Coordinating
Unit for Farming Systems Research, us _and, where
necessary, adapt the CIMMYT methodology, so tha---he
resulting methodology is not only well adapted to the
Tanzanian farming environment, but also is an approach
that can be sustained within the severe research budget
constraints of Tanzania.

Activities that will contribute to improving the productivity
and sustainability (i.e., ecological) of farming systems
practiced by small-scale farming households in the Lake Zone
area include:

(a). Those that encourage the development of collaborative and
interactive links, not only between the FSR team and CRTs,
but also with farming families (i.e., including both men
and women), extension and planning/development agencies.

(b). Those that, using the FSR approach, identify relevant
(i.e., acceptable to farming families) strategies to help
improve 1the productivity of small-scale farming families
(i.e., mainly through improved technologies but also,
where necessary, through adjustments in policy/support







systems), and channel these to the appropriate authorities
responsible for disseminating them to farmers.

(c). Approaches that will ensure that the short-run felt needs
of farming families are met (i.e., u~~tty-?rv a- hert-
run production perspective) while, at the same time,
ensuring that this is not achieved at the expense of the
productivity (i.e., sustainability) of the farming system
in the long-run.

Most of the activities (i.e., with perhaps slightly less
emphasis on ecological sustainability) along the lines described
above, occurred in Phase I of the project and will continue to
be emphasised in Phase II. The plan for the Netherlands
Government to extend support to the project for at least six
more years is laudable and provides an opportunity for
substantial progress to be made in achieving the long term
objective of the project as presented at the beginning of this
section.


2.2 TARGET AREAS

In the Evaluation Document of Phase I, the choice of target
areas received considerable attention [Evaluation Document,
Sections 2.1.2 and 4.2: Recommendations 2 and 3]. As a result
some adjustment is to take place with reference to the target
areas. The adjustments that will be made during Phase II, are
as follows:

(a). There will be increased concentration of FSR activities in
Kwimba District, close to the Zonal Research Station (ZRC)
of Ukiriguru, in order to better integrate the farming
systems research (FSR) approach with the ongoing commodity
research teams (CRTs) at the Zonal Research Station.

(b). Current research activities will be finalised in Maswa.
However, efforts will be made to maintain good contacts
with the district authorities (i.e., development and
extension), through passing on extension messages relevant
to the area (e.g., urea work on rice). <_

(c). The focal point of the proposed oxenisation work will be
shifted to Kwimba District, but linkages with respect to
this work will be established with the agricultural
mechanisation specialist proposed for funding by the
Netherlands supported District Rural Development Project
at Maswa [see Section 6.1].

(d). Activities in Bukoba District will be continued in Phase
II of the project. However, a possible further extension
after Phase II (i.e., if Netherlands support continues)
will depend on proper integration of the existing
commodity research at Maruku Research Station with the FSR
activities. For this to occur staffing in commodity
research will need to be strengthened.








2.3 COOPERATIVE LINKS WITH OTHER PROJECTS


FSR should play an integrating or linking function with the
CRTs, the extension service, planning/development agencies and,
of course, the farmers. If there are missing elements in
commodity work or other services, we believe it is inadvisable
for FSR teams to try and fill gaps with their own resources.
Instead they should try to obtain the necessary support from
CRTs or other institutions. Consistent with this philosophy we
have made some effort to reinforce some supportive linkages.
Those we have been particularly concerned with have been the
District Rural Development Project (DRDP) in Maswa and the
National Soil Service (NSS) in Mlingano. We propose the
financial means necessary to achieve this support should be
provided by DGIS.

DGIS has always stressed the importance of establishing
cooperative links between the Netherlands supported DRDPs and
the FSR project. This was considered to be important in
ensuring that technological recommendations developed by
research are disseminated to, and adopted by, farmers.
Obviously the agricultural extension service plays an essential< 1
role in this process.

In undertaking our task in the Formulation Mission we have paid
particular attention to the issue of ensuring that linkage
activities are effective. Links that we consider are
potentially important as far as the Lake Zone FSR project is
concerned, are the following:

(a). District Rural Development Projects in Maswa and Bukoba
[see also Section 6.1].
(b). National Soil Service [see also Section 6.2].
(c). Agricultural Extension Service [see also Section 3.4.4].
(d). National Coordinating Unit (NCU) for FSR [see also Section
3.4.5].
(e). Centre for Agricultural Mechanisation and Appropriate
Rural Technology (CAMARTEC), and the Malya and Maswa farm
mechanisation workshops [see also Section 3.2].







3. ACTIVITIES


3.1 RESEARCH

In the Phase I Evaluation Document, specific attention was
focused on summarising and evaluating research activities in
general [Evaluation Document, Sections 3.1 and 4.4]. As a
result a number of recommendations were formulated [Evaluation
Document, Recommendations 11 and 13 to 19]. These help in
forming the foundation on which research activities in Phase II
will be based. Only a summary of the main points are presented
in this section. Details on the rationale behind these points
can be obtained through consulting the Evaluation Document.

In Phase II research activities, there will be three basic
changes or adjustments in the research approach to be used.
These are as follows:

(a). To improve the efficiency of the research process and
reduce costs, research activities will be concentratedi-n\ -
fewer locations (i.e., probably three villages),
"representative" of a much larger areass. It is
anticipated however, that linKage activities with
extension staff (e.g., extension oriented farmer groups),
in which extension staff play a leadership role, could be
undertaken in other village areas. Linkage activities
with extension are discussed elsewhere in this Formulation
Document [i.e., Section 3.4.4].

(b). There will be increasing emphasis on interdisciplinary
(i.e., joint activities between the different disciplines)
rather than the multidisciplinary (i.e., different
disciplines working somewhat independently) that generally
prevailed in Phase I. As a result, for example, technical
scie s will play a more active role in designing,
implementing and aa ne reys, while social
scientists will e more active in tri.al-work, particularly
in cases where farmers are more intimately involved (e.g.,
where farmers manage and/or implement trials). Where
feasible, extension staff will also participate in such
activities.

(c). There will be some adjustments in the relative emphasis on
different types of trials. As a result of increased
collaboration with CRTs, less emphasis will be placed on
diagnostic/design trials, which are usually researcher
managed and implemented (i.e., RMRI). Greater involvement
of CRTs in implementing these types of trials will enable
more time for FSR staff to concentrate on test type trials
involving greater fa FSR teams have a
comparative advantage in undertaking these types of
trials, which involve greater farmer involvement in
implementation and sometimes management (e.g., RMFI and
FMFI trials). Further details on proposed linkages of FSR
activities with CRTs and farmers are given elsewhere in







this Formulation Document [i.e., Sections 3.4.2 and
3.4.3].

There are a number of points that can be made about how the
focus, management, accountability and return from research
activities can be improved. Five important ones, which will be
taken into account during Phase II, can be summarized as
follows:

(a). With reference to management and accountability, there
will be increased efforts to systematise the presentation
of research activities in documents indicating work plans
and progress/results. For example, separate sub-sections
under each research topic will be devoted to the
objectives, justification, approach, and progress made.
Numbering each research topic (i.e., trial, study or
survey) will enable progress, or lack of progress, to be
systematically recorded in later reports/papers through
cross referencing. Whenever possible, papers presenting
research results will have executive summaries, for those
not wishing to read all the details. Publications in the
Working Paper series, will generally be subjected to peer
group review by individuals outside the project. All
papers will indicate whether or not they have been
officially approved, therefore implying whether or not
they reflect the official views of the Lake Zone Research
Station or the National FSR Programme.

(b). With reference to recommendation domains, more attention
will be paid to explicitly indicating which ones are being
addressed in specific research activities (e.g., trials).

(c). With reference to surveys, focused special subject
surveys, usually consisting of" single interviews will,
whenever possible, continue to receive relatively more
emphasis than more general multiple interview surveys. In
designing surveys, special attention will be devoted to
three areas:

i. Devising the cheapest data collection method
required to achieve the minimum level of accuracy,
and hence understanding, required.

ii. Improving the efficiency and accuracy of the data
entry/processing/analysis chain.

iii. When relevant, collecting data that help in
explaining the relationship between technical and
socio-economic variables.

On a more specific issue concerning the proposed
reorientation of activities to Kwimba District, the
possibilities of initially confining descriptive/
agnostic ativities to an informal survey will be
explored. This may be possible because of recent surveys
already undertaken in the district under the auspices of







the International Course for Development Oriented Research
in Agriculture (ICRA) [Evaluation Document, Section 3.2].
It would also enable trial work to commence at the
beginning of the coming rainy season.

(d). With reference to trials, specific attention will be paid
to:

i. Clearly specifying the nature of the trial (i.e.,
RMRI, RMFI or FMFI). This will hold implications
concerning what t pe of experimental designs are
most appropriate, what are reasonable expectations
in terms of the results, and to whom the trial is
most likely to appeal (i.e., farmer, researcher or
extension agent).

ii. Ensuring when relevant, that both technical and
socio-economic data are collected from the trials.
SucE data, and the relationship between the two,
become particularly important in test-type trials
(i.e., RMFI and FMFI) where farmers are intimately
involved, and evaluative criteria need to reflect
not only technical feasibility, but also economic
viability and social acceptability.

One more specific point to mention about trials, is the
plan to concentrate research activities in a limited
number of villaes. The possibility of simultaneously
implementing diagnostic/design and testing type trials in
the same area could accelerate the rate of progress in
terms of eliciting farmers' attitudes early in the
research process. The former type of trial will expand
the farmers' imagination in terms of what is possible,
while the latter type of trial will result in a rapid
preliminary evaluation of a potential possible technology.


(e). With reference to producing recommendations in a timely
and relevant manner -- therefore further improving
relationships with the extension service -- increased
attention will be paid to:

i. Including targetinginfrnormajon -- indicating under
what technical and socio-economic conditions te /
technology being recommended, will be mo st
ap~licae This is very consistent with the notion
of recommendation domains.

ii. Conditional clauses -- which state what to do under
circumstances different from those originally
envisioned in the recommendation.

iii. When necessary and possible, being prepared to
produce "interim" recommendations as a result of
extension requests at their Training and Visit (T
and V) Meetings/Workshops. These would be based on







currently available knowledge, and could be modified
on the basis of future research results -- including
monitoring what happened when they were offered to
farmers. Such recommendations would have to be
approved by the participants at such meetings (i.e.,
usually senior extension staff and research
representatives). They are likely to be a response
to problems and issues identified by extension staff
at the farm level.

3.2 OXENISATION

As a result of the proposal of the FSR team to begin work on
oxenisation in Maswa/Meaju, the Evaluation Mission of Phase I of
the project rec b~mE d two actions [Evaluation Document,
Section 4.6; Recommendations 4, 6 and 21(e)]. These were as
follows:

(a). Recruiting for the FSR team in Ukiriguru, a person who
would have expertise in handling oxen, be mechanically
minded in suggesting modifications to equipment being
tested (e.g., weeders and possibly planters), and have
some knowledge of livestock nutrition and forage/fodder
crops. If for this post no Tanzanian could be identified,
then an expatriate was to be recruited and financed by the
Netherlands contribution to the project. The person
recruited would concentrate on working in Kwimba District,
in a suitable location, as close as possible to Ukiriguru.
The person would team up with the Tanzanian FSR animal
scientist at Ukiriguru and establish a working
relationship with the scientists at the Malya Livestock
Research Station, and with the Centre for Agricultural
Mechanisation and Appropriate Rural Technology (CAMARTEC)
in Arusha.

(b). Providing, with Netherlands financial support, an
agricultural mechanisation position in the District Rural
Development Project at Maswa. This person would
facilitate operation of the workshop, and adapt prototypes
of equipment to be manufactured there to local conditions.
This person would provide a supportive linkage to the Lake
Zone FSR project, with respect to the oxenisation thrust
[see also Section 6.1 and Annex A4.2.3].

We believe that implementation of the above recommendations
would be valuable in contributing to the development of
oxenisation in the Maswa/Meatu and the Kwimba Districts.
However, we also recommended in the Evaluation Mission that, in
view of the significance of livestock in the farming systems of
the Lake Zone, livestock interactions should also be given
increased attention in Phase II of the project. We believe,
therefore, that the person mentioned under (a) above, should
have a more general role regarding livestock interactions in
farming systems of the Lake Zone.







We recommend that this person should also, for a limited part of
his/her time (e.g., not more than 20%) be involved in the
project activities in Bukoba District.

Regarding the position under (a) above, the Evaluation Mission
stressed that recruitment for this position should be
conditional on potential establishment of cooperative links with
the Malya Livestock Research Station and with CAMARTEC in
Arusha. However, as yet it is unclear whether the Malya station
will continue to undertake any research activities. The
proposal in the National Agricultural and Livestock Research
Master Plan is that the Malya station will continue as a
production unit only. However, not everyone agrees with this
proposal. A final decision still has to be made. Regarding ox
traction, the farm mechanisation workshop in Malya operating
under a farmers' cooperative, could play a supportive role.

Technical reasons prevented the FSR team making contact with
CAMARTEC before arrival of the Formulation Mission. However,
support from CAMARTEC can reasonably be anticipated since the
collaborative activities envisioned are consistent with their
mandate.

Since, apparently, no Tanzanian scientist is available for
position (a) above, an expatriate will be recruited. We believe
this should proceed in spite of some uncertainties regarding the
conditions on technical support for position (a), as stressed by
the Evaluation Mission. We recommend that the person selected
should not do too much original research on equipment, but
should test and, where necessary, adapt equipment already
developed. There is abundant documentation available on animal
traction equipment as well as considerable experience in its
development, not only at CAMARTEC but also in other countries in
the region (e.g., Netherlands funded projects in Kenya and
Zambia). The work of actually adapting the equipment will be
done in collaboration with the agricultural mechanisation
specialist mentioned under (b) above [see Section 6.1] and
possibly the agricultural mechanisation workshop at Malya.

For the livestock scientist to test and adapt equipment
developed in collaboration with the agricultural mechanisation
specialist at Maswa, oxen and the necessary implements will be
required. We recommend during the course of the first three
years of Phase II a total of 36 oxen are purchased' and placed in
the care of collaborating farmers in the target areas. The
management of the oxen will be left to the farmers themselves.
The farmers will make them available for use in collaborative
trials with the FSR team. When not required for that purpose,
they will be free to use them on their own farms. The
collaborating farmers will also be given the opportunity of
trying any ox drawn implements, that are being tested, on their
own plots. We hope that neighboring farmers will learn about
ox traction from the collaborating farmers.

DGIS asked the Formulation Mission to consider proposing a
separate project on oxenisation. It was envisioned that this








project would be part of a network between the Netherlands
) supported DRDys and the FSR project. After considerable
discussion With a number of individuals we have concluded that
as long as a very small number of individuals are involved in
oxenisation work, it is preferable to integrate the persons into
existing projects, as proposed by the Evaluation Mission.
However, if there is potential for Netherlands funds to support
several persons then a separate project would certainly be
desirable. In such a situation it would make sense for such
work to have more of a nation wide focus. Agricultural
mechanisation research is in fact included as a special project
research activity in the proposed National Agricultural and
Livestock Research Master Plan. However, we understand that, in
the short run, it will not receive very high priority. Little
oxenisation research is currently underway in Tanzania. If the
possibility of such a project is to be further explored, which
we think would be desirable, we believe there would be
considerable value in considering closely linking it with
CAMARTEC.

A job description for the FSR livestock scientist, to be
stationed at Ukiriguru, is included in Annex A4.1.2.

3.3 GENDER

During the Evaluation Mission considerable attention was
focused on the gender issue. As a result we recommended that
a Tanzanian be hired on a long term basis to address issues
relating to gender [Evaluation Document, Section 4.5,
Recommendations 20 and 21(c)]. In fact, as indicated elsewhere
in this document [Section 5.1.2], a female Tanzanian has already
been identified and will shortly be joining the project.

The FSR approach has the potential ability to describe and
iagnose the role of women in agriculture, and to help in
assessing whether propose stra ege ill protect their
interests and improve and strengthen their situation.
Agric t r ural activities absorb a great deal of women' time in
the two regions. This is particularly the case in the poorer
households, especially in the female headed households.

The objective of recruiting a gender specialist is to ensure
that the attention already given to the gender issue within FSR
work in the Lake Zone will continue in such a manner that in the
future evaluation of the project the following questions can be
answered:

(a). How far women have been consulted in the design of the
project activities?

(b). How far have women actively participated during
implementation of project activities?

(c). Which barriers to female participation have been
identified and which measures have been designed to







overcome them?


(d). Which expertise related to "Women in Development" has been
utilised in the project?

(e). How far has the project contributed to strengthening the
economic situation of women by targeting agricultural
research and recommendations to their felt needs?
.p, ecd-gA SpercL, 4+Wt
A job description for ed is given in Annex A4.1.1. Some of the
possible activities she will be expected to consider doing will
include the following:

(a). Continuing analysis of the multiple and varying roles
played by women. Such analysis will give rise to more
accurate insights into the productive contribution of
women, the division of tasks within the households, and
the interaction between men and women in farm production.
This improved understanding will, in turn, indicate what
additional information is required.

(b). Providing training to FSR staff, through sensitising them
on gender issues. Without this there will be no guarantee
that sufficient attention will be given to gender issues.
The objective will be to ensure incorporation of the
gender issue in all FSR activities.

(c). Involve women in the designing and evaluation of proposed
technologies with reference to crops and livestock they
are responsible for. Whereever relevant the creation of
women groups will be facilitated.

Periodic consultancies [Section 5.2.1] and possibly employment
of students [Section 5.2.2] on specific gender related research
topics, will be helpful in developing the methodologies for
gender analysis, in providing expertise for training programmes,
in enhancing knowledge with respect to gender issues and in
identifying the role of women within target groups.

In conclusion, the perceived "visibility" of women as
agricultural producers will be increasingly- realized through
education and sensitisation of both men and women who come into
contact with the interdisciplinary Lake Zone FSR project.

3.4 LINKAGES

3.4.1 Introduction

The ultimate goal of FSR is to help improve the well-being of
farming families. This is accomplished through improving the
productivity of the farming systems with the help of two
complementary strategies: the development and dissemination of
relevant improved technologies and the designing and
implementation of relevant policy/support systems. Success in
these efforts is determined to a great extent by the







effectiveness of the interaction between the different "actors"
involved in the agricultural development process. FSR plays a
key role in making these linkages work. Four linkages that, as
far as the Lake Zone FSR team is concerned, will be important in
Phase II of the project, are discussed in the following
sections.
Before doing so, we wish to mention the role of the Research
Extension Liaison Officer (RELO). As mentioned elsewhere in
this document [see Section 5.1.2], the RELO will be moved out of
the FSR team and will come directly under the office of the
R~searcn Director of the Lake Zone. This move is being
recommenaea because of the type of job description we believe
he/she should have [see Annex A4.1.3]. This person can play and
should play a significant role in facilitating linkages between
FSR, CRTs, extension and farmers -- the subject of the next
three sections.


3.4.2 Between FSR and Farmers

The FSR approach recognizes the central role of the farmer in
the agricultural development process. Also FSR teams have a
comparative advantage in doing test type trials in which farmers
are heavily involved. As a result a recommendation in the
Evaluation Document [Section 4.4.4; Recommendations 17] there
will be increased emphasis on test type trials, and hence farmer
involvement, during Phase II of the project.

The Lake Zone FSR teams have had some problems in identifying
technologies for inc ion in test Lype -tr-ials. However, '
possible sources that will be thoroughly explored are the
following:

(a). Promising technologies arising out of the
diagnostic/design type trials undertaken during the Phase
I of the project.

(b). Technologies jhat- ar alar~y off\ciiall recommended. It
is important to evaluate under FMFI conditions, whether
the technologies already recommended are in fact valid -- /
since it is likely many of them have never been subjected
to farm level nestng. -If they arevlidn
priority needs to be given by the CRTs -- in collaboration
with the FSR teams -- to adjusting the recommendations.
The CRTs will be fully informed and involved in such
testing work.

One possible format within which such test type trials can be
implemented is through "volunteer" farmer groups. Farmers
voluntarily join these groups and select- he-tIcETnogies they
wish to test. Monitoring progress and evaluation primarily
takes place through monthly farmer group meetings attended by
researchers and farmers. Therefore they are groups with re pect
to dialogue only, while any action is the responsibility of
individual farmers. Some direct observation activity and
follow-up evaluative surveys by researchers complete the







assessment and evaluation process. The applicability of this
approach (which is efficient with respect to the commitment of
research resources) to the Lake Zone will be tested at the
beginning of Phase II in the villages where research activities
are to be primarily concentrated [see Section 3.1].

It will be important, in the light of his/her other
responsibilities, for the RELO to attend some of these
researcher oriented farmer group meetings. Such attendance will
keep him/her well informed about FSR research activities,
information concerning which can then be transmitted to other
interested parties (e.g., extension staff). The RELO can also
play a more direct role -- along with FSR staff -- in
encouraging extension and CRT staff to attend farmer field days
which will be hosted by the farmer groups. Farmers from outside
the groups and from other villages will also be encouraged to
attend the farmer field days.


3.4.3 Between FSR and CRTs

In general -- apart from good interaction with the soil science
section at Ukiriguru and the bean variety work at Maruku
collaborative work between the FSR teams and the CRTs was not
optimal during Phase I of the project. In the case of
Sukumuland the planned move of research activities from
Maswa/Meatu Districts to wimba District should la a better
fou nton for collaborative work with the CRTs [see e n
2.2].

As indicated elsewhere in this document [Section 3.1] efforts
will be made in Phase II to encourage greater participation by
the CRTs in the descriptive/diagnostic type trials (i.e., both
on-station and on-farm) where they have a comparative advantage
over the FSR team. In order to start the process of moving
towards a truly integrated research process, the Zonal Research
Director wants to encourage a more formalised process for
planning and reporting results of research programmes, and will
encourage more frequent meetings between CRTs and the FSR team.
The RELO can also play a facilitating role in encouraging this
process. These initiatives, plus some financial support to the
CRT teams engaged in collaborative activities with the FSR team
[see Section 4.1.3], will, we hope, bring about the desired
integration and collaboration.

This move towards greater understanding, communication and
collaboration will be further encouraged through continuing.
activities that were implemented in Phase I. These were:

(a). Sponsoring CRT staff attendance at seminars, courses and
workshops on FSR related topics [see Section 3.5.3].

(b). Strengthening linkages with CRT researchers through
attending their National Research Coordinating Committee
meetings [Evaluation Document, Section 4.3, Recommendation
23].
16 ./








3.4.4 Between FSR and Extension


During the Evaluation Mission [Evaluation Document, Section
4.7.6; Recommendation 24] we found senior extension officers
enthusiastic about the roles the FSR teams have been playing.
They were also optimistic concerning the probability of the FSR
teams developing, in collaboration with others, appropriate
technologies that could be fed into the T and V system. They
believe that the FSR approach and the T and V system can be made
compatible with each other, through FSR staff feeding in
relevant technology messages at the T and V Extension <
Meetings/Workshops. They noted, however, that to date, the FSR
teams have been unable to suggest much in the wa of appropriate
technological messages. In te meantime, because the Tan V
system is already fully operational, they have little option but
to continue giving general blanket tye recommendations, rather
tha m-e specific technological 'meag ar eating
and conditional types of information. Elsewhere in this
document [sections 3.1 and 3.4.2] we have suggested strategies
(i.e., production of "interim" recommendations, monitoring the
adoption of technologies currently being offered through the T
and V method, accelerating the process of evaluating potential
improved technologies through test type trials, etc.) designed
to try and meet the short term needs of the extension service.

The RELO has a very critical role to play in the research
extension linkage. He/she will regularly attend, sometimes in
conjunction with FSR team members, the regional extension
meetings and T and V Extension Meetings/Workshops. If the
research oriented farmer groups [Section 3.4.2] are successful
he/she will play an important leadership role in encouraging --
subject to the approval of senior extension staff
implementation of extension oriented farmer groups, that we
believe, can potentially be useful lessening the somewhat "top-
down" approach inherent in the T and V system.

The extension oriented activities currently undertaken by FSR
staff, in collaboration with the extension service, will
continue. Both the RELO and FSR staff will be sensitive to, and
if at all possible, respond positively, to requests for help
.from the extension staff (e.g., playing an advisory role with
reference to Extension Centres in Bukoba District, etc.).

Funds will also be provided by the project for special linkage
activities (e.g., field days, collaborative activities with
extension staff, sponsoring extension staff for FSR related
courses, seminars and workshops [see Section 3.5.3], etc.).


3.4.5 Between FSR and NCU

Under the project for Strengthening the National Development and
Coordination of FSR -- also sponsored by the Netherlands
government -- the mandated linkages with the NCU will be
strengthened [Evaluation Document, Section 4.7.1; Recommendation







22]. With respect to the Lake Zone FSR project, the NCU will
help in the following ways:

(a). Developing and institutionalising a national FSR programme
by: providing of technical leadership to Zonal FSR teams,
consolidating and disseminating research results,
assessing the impact and output of zonal teams, and,
representing the FSR programme at national and
international levels.

(b). Ensuring the development of a well coordinated and
coherent national FSR programme in the different zones
through coordinating research activities, exchange of
information and experiences, and adoption of harmonised
methodologies and terminologies for FSR.

(c). Integrating FSR within the national agricultural and
livestock research system, and strengthening links with
the extension service, through organising workshops on
FSR. These are designed to create awareness among CRT
researchers and extension staff, on the need to work
together, with FSR teams, in developing and disseminating
appropriate technologies for farming families.

3.5 TRAINING

3.5.1 Introduction

For the Lake Zone FSR project to develop self sustaining local
capacity in the long run, training of its staff is critically
important. As is the case with other FSR programmes in the
country, the Tanzanian staff are relatively young and
inexperienced compared with those working in CRT programmes. As
indicated in the Evaluation Document [Section 4.8;
Recommendation 26] all types of training will continue in Phase
II of the project. The following sections give details on long
term, short term and on-the-job training.


3.5.2 Long term

The long-term training planned for the Tanzanian project staff
will be mainly at the M.Sc level [Table 3.1].

Currently two staff are already pursuing their M.Sc degrees
abroad (i.e., an agronomist in the Netherlands and an
agricultural economist in the USA). Because of some financial
commitments made in Phase I, not all their costs need to be
budgeted to Phase II. Originally the Ph.D training slot listed
in Table 3.1 was slated for Phase I of the project. However,
because of the need for more time to collect thesis data, funds
for training this person have been shifted to Phase II of the
project.







TABLE 3.1: LONG TERM TRAINING TO BE FINANCED BY PROJECT
------------------------------------------------------------
'91 '92 '93 '94 '95
------------------------------------------------------------------
Number By Year Of Departure:
M.Sc: Ag. Economics 1 1 -
Agronomy 1 1 1 -
Animal Science 1 -
Social Science/Gender 1 -
Ph.D: Ag. Economics 1 -

Number Away By Year:/a 2 3 3 5 3/b
------------------------------------------------------------
a. Assuming two years for an M.Sc and 3.5 years for a Ph.D.
b. The Ph.D student will return in 1997 or early 1998.


Funds for advanced degree training will also need to be
allocated for Tanzanian staff who have recently arrived or are
likely to arrive in the near future. Currently, according to
Table 3.1, this could amount to a maximum of five individuals
(i.e., excluding the person scheduled for Ph.D training).

Because all the FSR positions in the Lake Zone will shortly be
filled, the restriction of replacing any Tanzanian sent for
long-term training will no longer apply in Phase II. Also no
restrictions will be placed on where students can be sent for
long-term training.

The conditions to be applied for long-term training will be as
follows:

(a). Staff will be eligible for advanced degree training once
they have completed two years field work with the project.

(b). All staff will be expected to write a thesis, as much as
possible based on data collected within the framework of
the project.

In the budget the cost per student per year is estimated to be
about Dfl. 50,000. including transport. This is in line with
current international standards.


3.5.3 Short Term

Short-term training activities at various levels will continue
for individuals in FSR or closely associated with it, in Phase
II of the project. The types of short-term training planned are
as follows:

(a). Participation in overseas symposia and study tours.
Provision will be made for two researchers per year to
benefit from this.

(b). Participation in courses and study tours outside Tanzania

19







but within the African region. Provision will made for
six persons per year to benefit from this activity. It is
hoped that at least four of these will be able to attend
the courses (i.e., two of them on different subjects)
currently annually sponsored by CIMMYT at the University
of Zimbabwe. Other possibilities include study tours in
the region to activities relating to those undertaken in
the Lake Zone (e.g., FSR livestock staff visiting the
Small Ruminant Collaborative Research Support Programme
(CRSP) activities in Western Kenya).

(c). Participation in courses in Tanzania itself. These will
usually be workshops/courses sponsored by the NCU for FSR
or by the Lake Zone FSR team itself. Instructors for
these activities may be NCU or Lake' Zone FSR staff or
consultants (i.e., often from within Tanzania). Currently
plans for locally sponsored courses include word
processing, instruction in the use of microcomputers and
related software (e.g., word processing, statistical
packages, spreadsheets, database management, etc.),
training or orientation in FSR principles and techniques
for lower level extension staff and for technical staff in
research, etc. Since such courses are relatively cheap,
can create improved understanding and goodwill, and can
yield big dividends, a good deal of emphasis will be
placed on them during Phase II. It is estimated 40
persons per year will benefit from such courses/workshops.



3.5.4 On-The-Job

Since FSR is a relatively new approach to research and the
methodology is still evolving, FSR researchers in the Lake Zone
need to be kept informed of new developments on a regular basis.
Obviously such methods will need to be adapted to the conditions
and research problems existing in the Lake Zone.

On-the-job training will be an on-going activity from which all
Tanzanian project and associated staff will benefit. Such
training will help improve the skills of the staff in their own
disciplines. It will also provide an opportunity for applying
FSR techniques in a practical research setting. Senior project
staff and NCU staff will provide technical guidance to junior
project staff. Short term consultancies (i.e., including
professional back stopping from the contracting agency, KIT) in
specific areas will also help to complement the on-the-job
training efforts by senior project and NCU staff.








20







4. SUPPORT SYSTEMS


4.1 ADMINISTRATION

4.1.1 Written Guidelines

In the Evaluation Document [Section 4.3], concern was expressed
about the ambiguity that existed with respect to administrative
matters in terms of procedures, responsibilities, control and
approval mechanisms. Two recommendations [Evaluation Document,
Recommendations 8 and 9] were made to address this and a related
issue. Consequently, written guidelines are currently being
produced on the following by the Lake Zone Research Director,
the Assistant Commissioner for FSR, the Lake Zone FSR
Coordinator and the Chief Technical Advisor.

(a). Division of administrative responsibilities between the
Tanzanian Lake Zone FSR Coordinator and Chief Technical
Advisor,

(b). Procedures to be followed on various administrative
matters including reporting and control mechanisms and
channels, approval process for short term consultants and
students on special projects, approval process for
publishing widely circulated papers, etc.

These administrative guidelines, when produced, will be
distributed to all interested and associated parties, including
the Netherlands Embassy and the contractor, KIT. Hopefully this
will help clarify matters and eliminate the possibility of
misunderstandings in the future.

On a related administrative matter, in line with a
recommendation in the Evaluation Document [Section 4.3;
Recommendation 12], efforts will be made, during Phase II of the
project, to hold more regular and frequent FSR team meetings.


4.1.2 Administrative Assistance

In order for the Chief Technical Advisor to play a greater
professional role, the Evaluation Document [Section 4.3;
Recommendation 8] recommended recruiting an experienced, well-
qualified administrative assistant who will be office at
Ukiriguru. This person will be employed until the end of the
Netherlands contribution to the Lake Zone FSR project. The
person employed will be expected to be able to type
correspondence, keep the accounts, type research reports,
arrange for purchase of any necessary supplies, undertake other
routine administrative tasks, etc. Recruitment of a person is
currently underway.

In addition to the salary of the administrative assistant other
budgetary implications for administration of the project are the







purchase of office supplies.


4.1.3 DSA Allowances

Because of severe financial limitations facing the Tanzanian
Government during Phase I, the Netherlands contribution to the
project included funding the daily subsistence allowances (DSA)
of both Netherlands and Tanzanian staff associated with the
project. Because of continuing financial constraints, we
proposed in the Evaluation Document [Section 4.3; Recommendation
10]], that DSA allowances should continue to be paid to national
and expatriate staff out of the Netherlands contribution to the
project. In addition, similar allowances will be paid to CRT
researchers when engaged in collaborative activities with FSR
team researchers. This is designed to facilitate such
collaboration.

A particularly sensitive issue pertains to the monetary level of
the DSA for Tanzanians. Currently they are paid at standard
Government of Tanzania (GOT) rates, which are considerably lower
than those paid to the Netherlands staff. In line with the
Evaluation Document we propose that consideration be given to
paying an "incentive allowance" amounting to a modest increase
of 2,000 sh (Dfl. 18) above the normal DSA. We believe the
provision of the DSA allowances for Tanzanian staff, as part of
the Netherlands contribution, has been critically important in
enabling them to engage in field work. In effective FSR type
work, staff must spend considerable amounts of time in the field
with farmers and extension staff. As Tanzanian research staff
salaries are only about 6,000-8,000 sh (Dfl. 50-70) per month,
they need to supplement their salaries with other activities
such as gardening, and keeping poultry, in order to meet monthly
living expenses amounting to 20,000-30,000 sh per month.
However, because in FSR type work they are forced to spend long
uninterrupted periods away from their duty stations, they are
unable to supplement their salaries to the extent necessary.
Some donor funded FSR projects, such as the International Fund
for Agricultural Development (IFAD) in the Western Zone, are
currently considering an incentive package for their staff which
includes a topping-up allowance. As indicated in the Evaluation
Document, shifting the bulk of the FSR activities from
Maswa/Meatu Districts to Kwimba District, should reduce the
number of days for which the DSA allowance will need to be paid.


4.2 EQUIPMENT

4.2.1 Microcomputer Related

With increasing demands on the microcomputers in the Lake Zone,/
IBM compatible microcomputer capacity will be expanded during
Phase II of the project. In the Evaluation Document [Section
4.3; Recommendation 10]], we proposed four more IBM compatible
microcomputers plus related equipment (i.e., printers plus power







back-ups) should be purchased (i.e., two each for Ukiriguru and
Maruku). These will be purchased at the beginning of Phase II.
Further consideration of the issue has now led us to
recommending the purchase of an additional microcomputer (i.e.,
a lap top with a battery power back-up) that can be used outside
the office.

To complement the purchase of the microcomputers it will be
necessary to acquire the necessary software. In addition some
of the current software needs to be updated. At a minimum, each
location requires access to a number of different user-friendly
software packages. Types required and possible suitable
packages are as follows: word processor (e.g., Word Perfect
5.1), database (e.g. DBase IV), spread sheet (e.g., Lotus 123)
and statistical analysis (e.g., Abstat for survey data and Mstat
for trial data). In purchasing the necessary software, it will
be important for the following to be considered:

(a). To avoid data re-entry, it will be necessary for data to
be easily transferred from one package to another. This
is in fact possible in the case of the specific software
packages that are listed above.

(b). Since multiple copies of the software packages are
required, KIT should seek the cheapest method of
purchasing them (e.g., through quantity discounts,
licenses for making multiple copies, etc.).

At both places, a consultant will be needed to train potential
users and, administrative procedures will need to be
established, to ensure that they are properly used. A computer
room will need to be allocated at Maruku. Although the micro
computer equipment plus software packages are being purchased
for use by the FSR team members themselves and those associated
with them, it is expected that on occasion they will be used by
other research staff.


4.2.2 Library Support

In the Evaluation Document [Section 4.3; Recommendation 10] we
recommended that financial support for the libraries at Maruku
and Ukiriguru should be continued, preferably, at a higher rate.
The libraries have suffered greatly as a result of the financial
crisis in Tanzania, thereby severely inhibiting the potential
for professional growth on the part of Tanzanian researchers.
Recent figures indicate the equivalent of Dfl. 60,000 is
currently owed on journals received during the last three years.

Given the limited resources that the project can reasonably be
expected to contribute to the library, they will be optimally
allocated if the funds are allocated in the following manner:

(a). Subscribe to one or more abstract series (e.g., Abstracts
on Tropical Agriculture, Abstracts on Rural Development in
the Tropics, Commonwealth Agricultural Abstracts, etc.).








(b). Subscribe to one or two journals that are FSR oriented
(e.g., Journal of Farming Systems Research and Extension),
since the basic strategy is to support FSR in the Lake
Zone.

(c). Purchase of books relating to FSR and associated
disciplines. Particularly important in this is to have
books relating to FSR methodology available at both
Ukiriguru and Maruku.

With reference to (a) above, we recommend the following:

(a). Investigating the feasibility of purchase of one or two
CD-ROM readers so that the compact discs on which the
abstracts are now available, can be used. These would be
used in combination with the microcomputer equipment
purchased with project funds [Section 4.2.1]. The
alternative, which in the long-run is less desirable since
it is likely to be less comprehensive and is more
cumbersome to use, is to purchase the abstracts in paper
form.

(b). Provision of some funds to the contractor (i.e., KIT) in
order that photocopies of individual articles can be made
as a result of specific requests from FSR and associated
scientists in the Lake Zone. We believe copyright laws
generally permit individual photocopies to be made.

Obviously the project cannot be expected to solve the problems
of the library as a whole. However, a good library is essential
for effective FSR work, and we believe the above proposal can
help alleviate the situation to some extent. Although the
strategy suggested is designed to support FSR, the materials
provided should be of benefit to all researchers. Also this
strategy would be cost efficient since it will be possible to
reduce the number of journal subscriptions, because only a few
articles in any journal are likely to be directly relevant to
researchers in the Lake Zone.

Budgetary implications of the above proposal are as follows:

(a). Maruku library : Dfl. 6,000 per year.
(b). Ukiriguru library : Dfl. 8,000 per year.
(c). KIT for photocopying : Dfl. 1,000 per year.


4.2.3 Transport

In line with recommendations in the Evaluation Document [Section
4.3; Recommendation 10], the five Toyota four wheel drive
vehicles will be replaced early during Phase II of the project
(i.e., 1992). Three of the vehicles will be handed over for use
by the Ukiriguru based CRTs for official travel purposes.
Because of the expansion of FSR staff at Maruku (i.e., Tanzanian
agronomist and agricultural economist), one vehicle will be
retained for use by the FSR team. The fifth vehicle will be








handed over to an FSR team in another zone where transport is a
major constraint.

The six motorbikes will also be replaced. The old ones will be
disposed of according to standard GOT procedures. Any resulting
revenues will be returned to the project and made available to
support the running costs of the vehicles handed over to the
CRTs. In addition three extra motorbikes will be purchased.
Reasons for this are as follows:

(a). To support the additional staff who will be stationed at
Maruku
(b). To support increased collaborative activities between the
FSR and CRT teams.
(c). To provide transport for students associated with the
project.

Replacement and additions to the motorbike fleet will occur
according to the following schedule:

Ukiriguru Maruku

1992 Additional 1 2
Replacement 3 -

1993 Replacement 1 1

1994 Replacement .1


In addition, running costs for the vehicles will have to be
included in the budgetary estimates.

Finally, 10 bicycles (i.e., 4 for Maruku and 6 for Ukiriguru)
will be required to facilitate field work particularly by the
enumerators to be stationed in the villages where research
activities are to be concentrated. All will be purchased in
1992.



4.2.4 Other Equipment

Other equipment relating to the project will need to be
purchased for using in the offices, laboratories and the field.
The newly built office block will require furniture, filing
cabinets, etc. Some equipment is needed relating to the
oxenisation thrust. Possible examples of other equipment include
-- but are not confined to -- photocopiers, fax machine,
balances, scales, camping equipment, camera, video equipment,
etc.

At the beginning of Phase II of the project, the completion of
the office block at Ukiriguru and acquisition of suitable office
equipment, will receive some priority. The shortage of office
accommodation at Ukiriguru has created some problems for both








local (i.e., FSR and CRT) staff and expatriates. With the
completion of the office block and provision of furniture and
equipment, all staff will be expected to work there on a daily
basis.

The budgetary implications of the above discussion, are as
follows (Dfl.):
Ukiriguru Maruku

1992: New office block 30,000
Oxenisation equipment 8,000
Other 12,000 10,000

1993: Oxenisation equipment 6,000
Other 9,000 9,000

1994: Oxenisation equipment 6,000
Other 9,000 9,000



4.3 REHABILITATING INFRASTRUCTURE

Although during Phase I much has been done in rehabilitating the
infrastructure at both Ukiriguru and Maruku, this project
activity needs to continue during Phase II [Evaluation Document,
Sections 3.4 and 4.9; Recommendation 27]. Examples of some of
the possible requirements -- which do not constitute a complete
list -- are as follows:

(a). Ukiriguru: rewiring offices, replacing electric poles,
fencing, etc.

(b). Maruku: fuel reservoir, line for accessing the telephone
system from Maruku, fencing, basic laboratory equipment,
etc.

With reference to the smooth implementation of rehabilitation
activities the following is recommended:

(a). Committees at Ukiriguru and Maruku, appointed by the
Research Director/Officer-In-Charge, which will include
the Chief Technical Advisor and some Heads of Sections,
will annually decide what requests will be submitted for
the use of rehabilitation funds.

(b). The Research Director/Officer-In-Charge will be
responsible for ensuring the appropriate documentation is
produced for submitting the request.

(c). Each year, in January, the Research Director will be
responsible for forwarding the request to the Netherlands
Embassy for approval after consulting with the Chief
Technical Advisor.

(d). Not more than 20 percent of the value of each annual

26







estimate submitted will be devoted to domestic housing
rehabilitation.

(e). As much as possible of the supervisory input involved in
the rehabilitation activities will be shouldered by others
than the Chief Technical Advisor.

Some, but not all of the above points were followed during Phase
I of the project.

Proposed budgetary allocations are as follows:

(a). Ukiriguru: Dfl. 80,000 per year.

(b). Maruku: Dfl. 60,000 per year.








5. STAFFING


5.1 LONG TERM


5.1.1 Introduction

Staffing, not only numbers but also quality, is a critical
ingredient in determining the strength and productivity of
research programmes. The strength of the staffing in the long
term will depend on the quality, training and experience of the
Tanzanian staff and the gaps resulting from the departure of the
expatriates. The current situation with respect to long term
staffing is given in the Evaluation Document [Table 2.3]. The
Long term staffing planned for Phase II is given in Table 5.1.
Specific points about the information presented in this table
are discussed in the following sections.

Only those positions constituting a direct part of the project
itself are discussed. Those that will have close links but are
funded by other projects (i.e., the soil science and
agricultural mechanisation positions) are discussed elsewhere in
this document [Sections 6.1 and 6.2].


5.1.2 National

The changes in staffing that will shortly occur with reference
to Tanzanians in Phase II compared with the end of Phase I can
be determined by examining Table 5.1 in this document together
with Table 2.3 in the Evaluation Document. The changes that
will occur are as follows:

During the second phase of the project the following actions
will be undertaken:

(a). GOT will provide an agronomist counterpart to be stationed
at Maruku [Evaluation Document, Section 4.6;
Recommendation 21(a)]. Since there are already two
Tanzanian agronomists associated with the Lake Zone FSR
teams -- one being on overseas training -- the individual
identified will have no long term position in the Lake
Zone. However, such an arrangement will be beneficial to
the national FSR effort in providing an extra individual
with on-the-job and long term training possibilities. In
order to make this a feasible strategy for GOT, because of
severe budgetary constraints, the Netherlands contribution
will include provision for the transfer allowance that the
individual will be entitled to, on his/her return from
overseas training and posting to another location. This
amounts to about 500,000 sh.

b). The agricultural economist, who recently replaced the one
who departed on overseas training, will be posted to







TABLE 5.1: LONG TERM STAFF PLANNED AT THE BEGINNING OF PHASE II
OF THE LAKE ZONE FSR PROJECT/a

Maruku Ukiriguru
Research Staff:
Agronomists: M.Sc 1(A)
B.Sc

Animal Sc.: M.Sc
B.Sc

Ag. Econ.: M.Sc 1(T)
B.Sc 1(T)

Gender B.Sc 1(T)

Socio-Econ.: M.Sc 1(A)

RELO/b: B.Sc/M.Sc 1(T)

Support Staff:
Administrative Assistant 1(T)/c
Diploma 3(T)/d 3(T)
Secretary 1(T)/c
Computer Attendants 1(T)/c 1(T)/c
Enumerators/e 3(T)/c 3(T)/c
Drivers/f 2(T) 2(T)
Watchmen 3(T)/c
Casual Labourer 1(T)

Total 13 22

a. In the table, T refers to Tanzanian and A to Advisor. The table
includes staff that are still to be recruited. It does not reflect
those currently away on long-term training. Unless otherwise
indicated all the Tanzanians are paid by the Tanzanian Government.
b. Research Extension Liaison Officer.
c. Paid from the Netherlands contribution to the project.
d. In addition there are three diplomats provided by the extension
service who help with project work on a part time basis.
e. In addition there are to be funds equivalent to 1.5 enumerators in
each area for the purpose of hiring more persons during busy periods.
Initially the enumerator positions will be funded through the
Netherlands contribution to the project.
f. Two will be funded from the Netherlands contribution to the project.




Maruku to improve the potential for interdisciplinary work
with the FSR agronomists [Evaluation Document, Section
4.6; Recommendation 21(d)].

(c). In view of the importance of gender issues, a female
Tanzanian has been identified and is being transferred
from the Northern Zone, in order to address them.
Although trained as an agricultural economist, she has








been addressing gender issues in the Northern Zone [see
also Section 3.3 and Annex A4.1.1).

(d). The Research Extension Liaison Officer (RELO) position
will be transferred from being under FSR to being directly
under the Research Director of the Lake Zone. In view of
the critical significance of the link between research and
extension, the incumbent in this position can play a very
influential role. In order to be effective the person in
this position will need to be of senior rank (e.g., RALDO
level), well respected, very committed to the position, be
highly motivated and be a self-starter. Although not yet
officially approved at the national level it appears
likely that the move we are advocating will be implemented
in other zones in the near future. Since terms of
reference for the RELO position still have to be drawn up
at the national level we have suggested some in Annex
A4.1.3. Since there are currently no GOT funds available
for the RELO to operate independently of FSR, the position
has been left in FSR in Table 5.1, in order that, for the
near future, the project can continue supporting the
operational costs relating to the post.

(e). A highly qualified administrative assistant is currently
in the process of being hired. This person will take over
some of the administrative burden from the Chief Technical
Advisor and will be funded from the Netherlands
contribution to the project [see also Section 4.1.2].

(f). The following are additional support staff to be funded
through the Netherlands contribution to the project:

,i. A well trained personal secretary, to be stationed
in Maruku, is needed because of the growing number
of staff and activities there.

ii. Enumerators (i.e., equivalent of nine positions)
will be recruited who will be posted in the villages
where the FSR teams are working, to assist in
recording socio-economic and technical data relating
to trials and surveys [Evaluation Document, Section
4.6; Recommendation 21(f)]. Initially, as indicated
above; these will need to be paid out of the
Netherlands contribution, but over time, provision
will be made in the GOT estimates. The objective of
this is to increase the multiplier effect, and
hopefully the productivity, of research staff,
through relieving them of recording all the data
themselves once the data collection system becomes
established and routine in nature. Such staff would
be equivalent to those in analogous activities in
CRTs.

iii. Three watchmen to guard the office block under
construction.







iv. Two additional drivers (i.e., in addition to those
employed by GOT). These are required for driving
the larger number of staff involved in on-farm work
(i.e., CRT personnel).

v. One casual labourer to assist in field work.

vi. Two computer attendants with word processing
capacity, to help look after the extra equipment to
be purchased at the beginning of Phase II.


5.1.3 Expatriate

In terms of the Netherlands contributions, the services of the
Chief Technical Advisor -- who is also an agronomist -- at
Uklriguru and the agronomist in Maruku will continue to be made
available to thre project. These two can provide valuable on-
the-job training to their Tanzanian counterparts who are fresh
graduates.

In addition a socio-economist will shortly arrive to replace the
sociologist who`left in April 1991. The decision to redefine
the position to be one of a socio-economist is good, since the
Tanzanian agricultural economists will benefit greatly from such
collegiate interaction.

In addition, at the beginning of Phase II of the project, a
livestock specialist with soi knowledge about handling oxen,
who- is able to6 test and suggest modifications to equipment that
has been developed elsewhere, will be recruited [see also
Section 3.2 and Annex A4.1.2).

Staffing projects with expatriates is always expensive. This
one is no exception. Among the costs involved is that of
renting housing. In the budget $800/month per house has been
budgeted. Over a six year period this amounts to a considerable
amount (i.e., $57,600 per house at 1991 prices, while
construction costs of a suitable house are estimated at
$75,000). Given the length of the project, is there any
possibility of the Netherlands Government in essence using the
rent money to build housing on the compounds at Maruku and
Ukiriguru, that would be available to local staff at the end of
the project? We strongly recommend such option be considered.


5.2 SHORT TERM

5.2.1 Consultants

Short-term consultancies will continue to be used in filling
gaps in expertise of project staff members, to help stimulate
the thinking of such staff, and to help through providing
leadership roles at training courses and workshops.
Professional back-stopping visits by staff from the NCU of FSR,
and from KIT, can play important roles with respect to these.







Whenever possible, continuing use should be made of Tanzanian
short-term consultants. Areas in which help is potentially
currently required include expertise in computer operation and
analysis, biometrics, gender issues, research-extension liaison,
etc. Budgetary implications are as follows:

(a). Professional (i.e., technical not administrative) back-
stopping visits from the contracting institution (i.e.,
KIT) are needed for the project at a level of at least one
visit per year [Evaluation Document, Section 4.6;
Recommendation 29]. This backstopping may be an
appropriate staff member of KIT or a member of the project
backstopping committee at KIT, on which the Agricultural
University of Wageningen and the Agricultural College of
Deventer are represented. The time spent by the non-KIT
members of this committee in the Netherlands will not be
more than 20 days per year.

(b). Other consultancies (i.e., three international and two
local) will be funded by the project at a level of five
person months per year.

In addition the project will be evaluated twice, the first half
way through the third year and the second in the sixth year.
Evaluations will be undertaken with a mixed Tanzanian and
expatriate team.

To promote institutional contacts abroad, the Lake Zone Research
Director, or another senior Tanzanian official related to the
project, will be funded by the project for one trip per year to
the Netherlands and neighboring countries [Evaluation Document,
Section 4.6; Recommendation 30]. If possible, such trips will
coincide with seminars/workshops devoted to FSR related matters.

5.2.2 Students

Use of students to undertake specific tasks for the project
will continue during Phase II [Evaluation Document, Section 4.6;
Recommendation 25]. Research costs of such students -- both
Tanzanian and Netherlands -- will be borne by their own
institutions. However, to motivate them not only to work in the
Lake Zone but also to produce their reports in a timely manner,
a small allowance will be paid to them from the project after
delivery of their reports. Whenever feasible, preference will
be given to Tanzanian students. Contrary to comments we made in
the Evaluation Document [Section 4.6], Tanzanian students at the
M.Sc degree level should be available for extended periods
during the agricultural cycle. It is estimated that four to
five per year can be handled by the project.








6. COOPERATIVE LINKS


6.1 DISTRICT RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

As indicated in Section 2.3, close cooperation with the
Netherlands supported DRDPs is considered to be very important
during Phase II of the FSR project. In addition to the
cooperation already existing, we propose, in the light of the
recommendations of the Evaluation Mission [Section 4.6;
Recommendations 3, 4, 6 and 21(e)], the recruitment of an'
agricultural mechanisation specialist for the DRDP in Maswa for
an initial period of three years. This position will be
financed by DGIS. A job description for this position is
included in Annex A4.2.3.

If an agricultural mechanisation specialist is recruited then we
recommend he/she is allocated the housed built by the FSR
project in Maswa, which will soon be vacated by the SNV
volunteer who will be leaving in February 1992.

Appointment of an agricultural mechanisation specialist at Maswa
will, in addition to salary costs, require extra funding for the
following:

(a). A means of transport for the expatriate and supporting
staff (i.e., one vehicle plus two motorcycles and
associated running costs).

(b). Three support staff are needed, mainly for extension
purposes. Reallocation of existing extension staff should
be considered.

(c). Agricultural implements to be tested at the field level
after necessary adaptation.

(d). Support services of the agricultural mechanisation
workshop.

We propose that items (a), (c) and (d) are funded by DGIS, while
item (b) be taken care of by GOT.


6.2 NATIONAL SOIL SERVICE

In view of the importance of more detailed study of soil
fertility problems in Bukoba District [Evaluation Document,
Section 4.6; Recommendations 5 and 21(b)], a cooperative link
with NSS will be established. GOT is prepared to post a junior
soil scientist to Maruku. In addition, in principle, DGIS is
prepared -to finance a soil scientist for Maruku through
providing extra funds to NSS. Posting an experienced expatriate
at Maruku, who could provide additional professional training to
the junior Tanzanian soil scientist, will be an ideal
combination, and provide considerable impetus to the study of







soil fertility problems. Job descriptions for the Tanzanian and
expatriate soil scientists are included in Annex A4.2.1 and
A4.2.2 respectively.

Posting of the two soil scientists to Maruku will, in addition
to salary costs, require some extra resources. These are as
follows:

(a). Means of official transport for the staff (i.e., one
vehicle plus running costs).

(b). Setting up of a simple soil analysis laboratory (including
pH, EC, organic C, N, P and K) in collaboration with the
Soil Science Section at Ukiriguru (i.e., more complicated
analysis will be done at Ukiriguru). Laboratory space is
already available at Maruku. However equipment and
chemicals will need to be purchased. A summary of the
total costs involved (i.e., provided by Mr B.M. Gama, Head
of the Soil Science Section, Ukiriguru on costs existing
in 1989/90), is as follows:

Equipment Dfl. 68,500
Chemicals (for 3 years) 30,500
Installation costs 4,000

Total Dfl. 103,000

Some unpacked soil analysis equipment is already at Maruku and
could be used. This would lower the size of. the above estimates.
We propose Mr. Gama is financially supported to assess this
equipment and accordingly modify the above estimates.

(c). Laboratory support staff, which would consist of:

1 (Senior) laboratory technician
S2 Laboratory assistants
2 Laboratory attendants

We propose that the costs under (a) and. (b) above are met by
DGIS through extra funding to NSS, and that the laboratory staff
be supplied by GOT.








7. BUDGET



7.1 NETHERLANDS CONTRIBUTION

Table 7.1 gives a summary of the Netherlands contribution to
Phase II, for the first three project years. A detailed
breakdown of the budget item for those years is presented in
Annex A5. Table A5.1 in the annex indicates the cross
references between the items, the item codes, and the
corresponding report sections. The total contribution during
the first three years amounts to Dfl. 8,664,149, including an
allowance for inflation and contingencies.



TABLE 7.1: NETHERLANDS CONTRIBUTION BY CODE, 1992-1994 (Dfl.)
--- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
CODE ITEM 1992 1993 1994 TOTAL
--- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
9100 MISSIONS:
9120 Backstopping 49900 49900 49900 149700
9130 Evaluations 0 0 97836 97836

9200 PERSONNEL:
9210 Expatriate 1491028 1231950 1283950 4006928
9230 Local 14650 14650 14650 43950
9290 Students 12450 12450 12450 37350

9300 CONSULTANTS:
9330 Expatriate 121749 121749 121749 365247
9340 Local 16880 16880 16880 50640
9350 Institutional Contacts 12713 12713 12713 38139

9400 PURCHASES AND INVESTMENTS:
9410 Rehabilitation 140000 140000 140000 420000
9420 Machinery and Equipment 134000 41500 41500 217000
9430 Transport 283000 10000 5000 298000
9470 Cattle/Oxen 2100 2100 2100 6300

9500 OPERATIONAL COSTS:
9510 Office/Accommodation Maintenance 10000 10000 10000 30000
9520 Machinery/Equipment Maintenance 36800 36800 36800 110400
9530 Transport Maintenance 89400 89400 89400 268200
9540 Office Costs 20000 20000 20000 60000
9550 Research Programme Costs 27000 27000 27000 81000
9570 Board and Lodging 147919 147919 147919 443757
9590 Miscellaneous 24229 24229 24229 72687

9600 TRAINING:
9610 Fellowships Abroad 103000 150000 250000 503000
9620 Fellowships in Reg Tanzania 8000 8000 8000 24000
9630 Fellowships in Region: Outside 41750 41750 41750 125250
9640 Overseas Symposia 15000 15000 15000 45000
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL (1991 PRICES) 2801568 2223990 2468826 7494384
TOTAL (INCLUDING 5% INFLATION/YEAR) 2941646 2451949 2857975 8251570
TOTAL (INCL. 5% CONTINGENCY AS WELL) 3088729 2574546 3000873 8664149








Table 7.2 presents a very approximate estimate, by major
category, of the costs of the second three years of Phase II,
assuming that the costs for that period will be similar to the
costs of the first three years (e.g., replacement of vehicles,
continuing rehabilitation activity, etc.). Again a yearly
inflation rate of 5 percent and contingencies of 5 percent are
accounted included in the calculations. Thus the total
contribution during the second three years amounts to Dfl.
10,029,835.

The total Netherlands contribution to Phase II of the project
amounts to Dfl. 18,693,984.

TABLE 7.2: NETHERLANDS CONTRIBUTION BY CATEGORY, 1992-1997 (Dfl.)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
ITEM CODE 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Missions 9100 49900 49900 147736 49900 49900 147736
Personnel 9200 1518128 1259050 1311050 1518128 1259050 1311050
Consultants 9300 151342 151342 151342 151342 151342 151342
Purchases 9400 559100 193600 188600 559100 193600 188600
Oper. Costs 9500 355348 355348 355348 355348 355348 355348
Training 9600 167750 214750 314750 167750 214750 314750
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL O /a 2801568 2223990 2468826 2801568 2223990 2468826
TOTAL +I /b 2941646 2451949 2857975 3405323 2838437 3308463
TOTAL +I+C /c 3088729 2574546 3000873 3575590 2980359 3473886
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
a. Total at 1991 prices.
b. Total with annual inflation rate of 5%.
c. Total including inflationary factor plus 5% for contingencies


TOTALS OVER PROJECT PERIODS:
---------------------------------------------------------------------
1992-94 1995-97 1992-97
------------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL 1991 PRICES 7494384 7494384 14988768

TOTAL + 5% INFLATION 8251570 9552224 17803794

TOTAL + 5% INFL. + 5% CONT. 8664149 10029835 18693984
------------------------------------------------------------------

The budget has been composed after considerable consultations
with the Lake Zone FSR coordinator, the Zonal Research Director,
and the Chief Technical Advisor. Other persons consulted
included the Head of the soil science section at Ukiriguru ZRC,
the coordinator of the District Rural Development Programme in
Maswa and the Netherlands agronomist in Maruku. Budgetting was
greatly facilitated by a document prepared by Ms. Z.M.
Semgalawe, National Coordinating Unit FSR, and by Mr. H.J.
Enserink, Chief Technical Advisor.


7.2 TANZANIAN CONTRIBUTION

During Phase II of the Lake Zone FSR project, the Tanzanian
Government will fund the salaries and home leave expenses of all
the permanent Tanzanian staff (i.e., 9 research officers








including those on overseas study, 6 field officers and 2
drivers) directly involved in the project (i.e., see Table 5.1).
The salaries and expenses of the administrative assistant and
the other support staff will, until 1997, be paid out of the
Netherlands contribution to the project.

TABLE 7.3: TANZANIAN CONTRIBUTION (IN '000 SH)
----------------------------------------------------------------------
ITEM 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Salaries 1283 1283 1283 1283 1283 1283

Leave Expenses 103 103 103 103 103 103

Transport and 559 559 559 559 559 559
Travel on Duty

Workshop/Seminar 350 350 350 350 350 350
Allowances

Casual Labour 336 336 336 336 336 336

Farmer Field Days 350 350 350 350 350 350

On-Farm Inputs 105 105 105 105 105 105

Office Supplies 250 250 250 250 250 250

Machinery 50 50 50 50 50 50
Maintenance

Total 3386 3386 3386 3386 3386 3386
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Total (With 10% 3386 3725 4097 4507 4957 5453
Annual Inflation)
----------------------------------------------------------------------


TOTALS OVER PROJECT PERIODS:
----------------------------------------------------------------------
1992-94 1995-97 1992-97
----------------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL 1991 PRICES 10158 10158 20316

TOTAL + 10% INFLATION/YEAR 11208 14917 26125
----------------------------------------------------------------------

The Tanzanian Government will also meet some of the operational
costs of the project as indicated in Table 7.3. The Tanzanian
and Netherlands contributions are complementary. The total
budget of the project is, therefore, the sum of the component
contributions of both governments.
The total Tanzanian contribution to Phase II of the project
amounts to 26,125,000 sh. It includes:

(a). Some allowances such as for travel and transport, and for
workshops and seminars.

(b). Some funds for hiring casual labour and expenses with
respect to holding farmer field days.







(c). Some money for purchasing office supplies and farm level
inputs.

(d). A contribution towards costs involved in maintaining
equipment.

It is important to note that GOT, in addition to the above, will
also provide the necessary office accommodation, at Maruku and
general support services at both locations, which are
significant items not included in Table 7.3.

During the last three years the approved annual GOT budget for
all seven FSR programmes in the country, some of which have no
donor support, has not exceeded 16,000,000 sh. This is an
average of only 2,300,000 sh per programme or zone (Dfl. 20,700
at the current September 1991 exchange rate). Because of the
high level of the Netherlands contribution, GOT has been giving
more than average support to the Lake Zone programme. However,
it would be unrealistic to increase the level of contribution
above the amount indicated in Table 7.3 (i.e., 3,386,000 sh or
Dfl. 30,500). Unfortunately, therefore, any additional
operational costs will have to be met from the Netherlands
contribution to the project.
































38







8. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


From 1st to 19th September 1991 a joint Tanzanian Netherlands
mission was fielded to formulate Phase II of the Farming Systems
Research Project, Lake Zone, Tanzania. The Terms of Reference
of the mission are presented in Annex Al.

In June 1991, an Evaluation Mission, consisting of the same
persons, recommended extension of the project for a second phase
of at least six years. This recommendation was supported by
both governments. In fact, Phase II is planned to cover the
period from January 1st, 1992 until 31st December, 1997. A mid-i
term evaluation is proposed for the middle of 1994.

After an introductory chapter, the project strategy is outlined
in Chapter 2, which includes the long term objective of the
project, namely:

"Through the application of the farming systems
research approach, to improve the productivity and
sustainability of the agricultural research system
and the farming systems practiced by small scale
farming families in the Lake Zone Region."

Different activities that will contribute to reaching this
objective, are mentioned. Development of a complementary and
interactive approach between station-based commodity research
and farm-based farming systems oriented research is stressed,
the final goal being improvement of the well being of thel
farming families. Development of appropriate messages for
farmers, to be put into practice through interaction with the
extension service and the farmers themselves, is an essential
part of the approach. To promote this, linkages with other
projects also working at the farm level, and with projects or
institutions contributing to the farming systems approach, are
stimulated.

To facilitate better cooperation between the FSR and CRT
activities, the mission proposes a change of one of the target
areas, through shifting research activities from Maswa to Kwimba
District, in the vicinity of the Ukiriguru ZRC. However,
efforts will be made to maintain good contacts with the Maswa
District authorities which were built up during Phase I of the
project. Cooperation will mainly emphasise the application of
urea on rice and the introduction of weeding with oxen. For
Bukoba District no change was recommended with respect to the
target area.

Chapter 3 describes the different activities in Phase II.
Regarding FSR research we recommend, amongst others, to:

(a). Concentrate work in a reduced number of locations.

(b). Put increasing emphasis on interdisciplinary activities.








(c). Concentrate more on test-type trials at the expense of
descriptive-diagnostic trials.

(d). Give more attention to properly defining recommendation
domains.

(e). Focus more on special subject surveys.

(f). Produce more preliminary recommendations to be further
tested at farm level.

(g). Increase efforts to systematise the presentation of
research activities.

Oxenisation will receive more attention in Phase II. An
expatriate livestock specialist will be stationed at Ukiriguru.
In addition, through cooperation with an agricultural
mechanisation specialist in Maswa, who hopefully will be
stationed under the DRDP, the project will be assured of more
external support in this field.

Gender issues will also receive more attention in Phase II, and
a Tanzanian specialist in this field will be stationed at
Ukiriguru.

Development of linkages between the FSR team and farmers, CRT's,
Extension and NCU will get increased attention in Phase II. In
terms of interacting with farmers, we strongly recommend
strengthening links with them through working with volunteer
farmer groups. In these groups possible interventions can be
discussed and implemented, farmers' opinions can be expressed
more informally, and interactive reactions of farmers can take
place.

As in Phase I, training of FSR staff and FSR-related staff will
continue to receive much attention in the project. It will
include long term training for a higher degree, short term
training courses and on-the-job training. The higher degree
theses will be related to issues of relevance to the project.

Chapter 4 deals with support systems, including administration,
equipment and rehabilitation of infrastructure. Important items
are the following:

(a). Written guidelines will be produced in collaboration
between the Lake Zone Research Director, the Assistant
Commissioner for FSR, the Lake Zone FSR Coordinator and
the Chief Tchnical Advisor, regarding (1) division of
administrative responsibilities between the Tanzanian Lake
Zone FSR Coordinator and the Chief Tchnical Advisor, and
(2)\ different procedures to be followed on various
administrative matters.

(b). A well qualified experienced administrative assistant will
be allocated to the FSR project and office at Ukiriguru.







(c). An incentive allowance for Tanzanian staff is proposed to
partly compensate for long periods of field work.

(d). Support is included for microcomputers with software,
library, replacement of vehicles and motorbikes, and
various other items.

(e). As in Phase I the project will make funds available for
rehabilitation of the Ukiriguru and Maruku stations.

Staffing of the project is paid attention to in Chapter 5.
Table 5.1 summarises the staff positions. The main changes
regarding Tanzanian staff positions, in Phase II, will be:

(a). A female Tanzanian staff member for gender issues will be
stationed at Ukiriguru.

(b). The RELO position, now in the FSR team, will be placed
directly under the Zonal Reseach Director.

(c). GOT will provide an agronomist to be stationed in Maruku.

(d). An agricultural economist will be transferred from
Ukiriguru to Maruku.

(e). A highly qualified administrative assistant, a secretary
and some other support staff will be recruited.

Expatriate staff will be maintained at the same level. However,
the SNV supported agronomist in Maswa will leave early in Phase
II. A livestock specialist will be recruited to be stationed in
the team at Ukiriguru.

Job descriptions of new staff positions are given in Annex A4.

As in Phase I, the project will be supported by two local and
two and expatriate consultants per year. Also one backstopping
consultancy visit from KIT is included. To promote
institutional contacts abroad, one visit per year to The
Netherlands and neighboring countries, of the Lake Zone Reseach
Director, and other senior Tanzanian officials related to the
project, is proposed. Tanzanian and Netherlands students will
be accepted for specific tasks with the project, preferably for
a period of about six months.

Chapter 6 deals with two specific cooperative links. In line
with the approach of creating cooperative links with other
projects, and the efforts to strengthen some supporting
commodity research activities, we have proposed increasing
activities with respect to ox traction in Maswa District through
the DRDP project, and work on soil fertility in Bukoba District
through the NSS. As a result stationing of a Tanzanian and an
expatriate soil scientist in Maruku, and an expatriate
agricultural mechanisation specialist in Maswa can be
anticipated. Job descriptions are included in Annex A4.







An overview of the project budget is presented in Chapter 7.
The total Netherlands contribution amounts to Dfl. 18,693,984
(see Table 7.2) and the total Tanzanian contribution will be
26,125,000 sh. (see Table 7.3). A detailed budget breakdown of
the Netherlands contribution during the first three years of the
project is given in Annex A5, Table A5.2. The budget for the
second three years is based on data from the budget of the first
three years. A detailed budget for that period can only be made
towards the end of the first part of Phase II.
















ANNEXES







ANNEX Al. TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR FORMULATION MISSION. PHASE II
SEPTEMBER 1991

A1.1 ACTIVITIES REQUIRED BEFORE MISSION

The following actions are required before the arrival of the
formulation mission in September 1991, in order to facilitate
the timely completion of the task. Responsibility for the
completion of the task is indicated in brackets.

1. Written guidelines are produced on the division of
administrative responsibilities between the Tanzanian Lake
Zone FSR Coordinator and the Chief Technical Advisor, and
on procedures to be followed on administrative matters,
including approval of short term consultants, students for
special projects, etc. [Lake Zone Research Director,
Assistant Commissioner for FSR, Lake Zone FSR Coordinator,
Chief Technical Advisor].

2. With respect to oxenisation:

(a). Assessment of potential cooperation with Malya --
taking into account its future -- and with CAMARTEC
[Lake Zone FSR Coordinator, Chief Technical Advisor
and Netherlands Embassy].

(b). Assessment -- pros and cons -- of possible sites for
oxenisation work in the vicinity of Ukiriguru and
Malya (Lake Zone FSR Coordinator and Chief Technical
Advisor).

(c). Information on the future of Malya and availability
of an experienced Tanzanian to undertake the
"oxenisation" assignment (Assistant Commissioner for
FSR, Assistant Commissioner for Livestock).

(d). Assessment of potential for an agricultural
mechanisation person to be hired by the District
Rural Development Programme, Maswa, under
Netherlands Technical Cooperation, who could
interface with the FSR project (Netherlands
Embassy).
3. With reference to the soil science position:

(a). Determination of acceptability -- in the light of
the Master Plan -- in stationing a soil scientist
preferably at Maruku, and determining if a Tanzanian
is available for the post (Assistant Commissioner
for Crops, Assistant Commissioner for FSR).

(b). Assessment of possibility of funding Maruku soil
scientist position under the NSS with Netherlands
Technical Cooperation (Netherlands Embassy).


44







A1.2 TERMS OF REFERENCE OF FORMULATION MISSION


There are a number of recommendations arising out of the June
1991 Evaluation Mission that will need to be considered by the
Formulation Mission in laying out the general framework for
Phase II. It is critically important that if any of these are
not acceptable to the Tanzanian or Netherlands Governments,
these, plus any modifications or new ones, are made available in
writing to the Formulation Mission at the beginning of their
assignment. For example are the increased DSA allowances,
hiring of village-based enumerators with project funds, etc.,
acceptable to the Netherlands Government? A successful plan for
the implementation of Phase II will only result from extensive
consultation of mission members with the appropriate officials
in the Governments of Tanzania and The Netherlands. The final
document will need to include the following:

1. Redefinition of the objectives of the project to bring
them more into line with the current, and anticipated
activities of the project.

2. Redefinition of the target areas in line with the
recommendations of the Evaluation Mission, and
implications for stationing of staff.

3. Definition of type and levels of the various project
activities, using as a basis -- plus any agreed
modifications -- the recommendations of the Evaluation
Mission. Specific project activities that will need to be
addressed include:

(a). Research -- relative emphasis between surveys,
design and test type trials, addressing of gender
issues, ensuring more of an interdisciplinary
orientation.

(b). Training -- long term, short term (in and out of the
country), on-the-job -- for both FSR and other
personnel.

(c). Rehabilitation -- general idea of requirements at
Ukiriguru and Maruku.

4. To facilitate accomplishment of the above activities, a
number of other initiatives are required to ensure they
are successful, and must be considered by the Formulation
Mission:

(a). Staffing new positions:

i. 'For the proposed "oxenisation" and soil
science positions:
Draw up appropriate job descriptions.
Formulate recommendations on funding/
recruitment based on information
provided to the Formulation Mission.








Specify proposed linkages with FSR team
(soil scientist at Maruku: "oxenisation"
staff member with District Rural
Development Programme, Maswa, Malya
Livestock Research Station, and
CAMARTEC)

ii. Provide a job description for the gender
position.

(b). Support systems:

i. Specify vehicle and motorbike replacements.

ii. Specify microcomputer and related equipment
purchases, plus software.


iii. Indicate library
books and journals.


needs in general terms --


iv. Specify any other support requirements, e.g.,
staff, DSA, equipment, etc.

v. Indicate administrative responsibilities and
procedures based on written guidelines made
available to the Formulation Mission.


(c). Linkages -- make recommendations on
responsibilities, requirements for
initiative:
i. Between FSR and farmers.

ii. Between FSR and CRT.

iii. Between FSR and Extension.

iv. Between FSR and NCU.


(d). Short term consultants --
recommendations on type, numbers:

i. Professional back stopping
repeat visits from KIT.


make


components,
FSR Team


general


-- approval for


ii. Other consultants.


(e). Students -- make recommendations
general nature of tasks, etc.


on number,


6. Discuss any other issues relevant to the successful
implementation of. Phase II.

7. On the basis of the above -- draw up a detailed budget
from January 1, 1992 to the end of Phase II, indicating
both the Tanzanian and Netherlands contributions.







A1.3 REPORTING


Before completing the field assignment, the Formulation Team
will present their report to the Tanzanian and Netherlands
Embassy representatives. A final draft of the Formulation
Document will be submitted to DGIS within two weeks after the
completion of the field assignment proposed for September 1991.







ANNEX A2. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF EVALUATION
DOCUMENT PHASE I, JULY 1991


A2.1 CONCLUSIONS


1. In general the results of the first phase of the project
are very satisfactory. The Tanzanian and Netherlands
project staff are commended for what they have done. A
good start has been made with the implementation of a
project in which the objectives will only be fulfilled
after a long term commitment.

2. The "compromise" regarding the choice of target areas, on
which the project formulation was based, was not very
satisfactory. Also there have been too many project
activities and the field sites have been scattered over
large distances.

3. Because of having limited administrative support, the
Chief Technical Advisor has been compelled to spend too
much time on non-professional matters, detracting from the
time he could devote to being an agronomist.

4. In general, there is need for improvement in the
collaborative interaction of the Lake Zone FSR Team with
the commodity research scientists at Ukiriguru and Maruku.
The FSR Team has consequently undertaken too many research
activities normally the preserve of commodity research
teams. Exceptions are collaboration with the bean and
maize sections at Maruku, and with the soil science
section at Ukiriguru.

5. In view of the significance of livestock in the farming
systems in the Lake Zone, there has been an unfortunate
lack of attention paid to livestock issues. This is,
however, perhaps inevitable given the lack, until
recently, of an animal scientist on the FSR Team, and the
crop research emphasis at Ukiriguru in recent years.

6. The project has produced an impressive number of papers on
their activities, particularly with respect to research.

7. It is regrettable that the very fruitful relationship the
project has had with SNV, will come to an end after the
departure of the volunteer, at the end of his contract.
This is because SNV now plans to concentrate efforts in a
limited number of districts.

8. The Lake Zone FSR team has built up a very satisfactory
network of professional linkages, especially with the
extension service, in both work areas. With the exception
of the baseline studies, the anticipated benefits from
linking the project with the District Rural Development
Programmes in the two districts, have been limited. This







is partly because a stream of appropriate technological
recommendations has not yet developed from project
activities.

9. The training activities within and outside the FSR project
which have already been accomplished, and are planned, are
very important contributions of the project. The use of
project data for thesis studies of FSR staff is considered
important for stimulating their professional involvement
in the FSR approach, provided the collection of such data
are an integral part of the on-going FSR activities.

10. The rehabilitation and construction activities, at
Ukiriguru, Maswa and Maruku, are greatly appreciated by
staff -- both CRT and FSR -- and are very important in
creating conditions that will enable the research stations
to be more productive.

11. The roles played by the executing agencies, the Government
of Tanzania and the Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam,
have been very satisfactory. The only problem to date is
the lack of an agronomy counterpart at Maruku.


A2.2 RECOMMENDATIONS


1. We strongly support the extension of the project for a
second phase of three years. In order to fulfill the long
term objective of the project, we strongly recommend the
project should last more than a total of six years
Therefore, additional phases to the project will be
required (see Section 4.1).

2. FSR activities should be started in the vicinity of
Ukiriguru, in order to facilitate the integration of
commodity research activities undertaken by the ZRC, and
to increase the long-term sustainability of the FSR
approach (see Section 4.2).

3. As a result of recommendation 2 above, current research
activities in the Maswa/Meatu Districts should be
finalised. However, extension contacts with the district
authorities should be maintained, in anticipation of
transferability of appropriate technologies developed from
on-farm activities in neighboring Kwimba District (see
Section 4.2).

4. Regarding the proposal to work on an oxenisation activity,
our support is based on the following conditions (see
Sections 4.2 and 4.6 and recommendation 21(e)):

(a). A collaborative working relationship is established
with CAMARTEC in Arusha.







(b). The programme can be executed in Kwimba District,
close to Ukiriguru, in cooperation with the Malya
Livestock Research Station.

In addition we recommend that the Netherlands Government
funds an agricultural mechanisation individual in the
District Rural Development Programme at Maswa, who could
provide a linkage function with the FSR team with respect
to the "oxenisation" thrust.

5. We support continuation of the programme in Bukoba
District, including allocation of an expatriate FSR
agronomist plus a Tanzanian agronomist counterpart and a
soil scientist, with major attention being focused on the
problem of decreasing soil fertility (see also Section 4.2
and recommendations 21(a) and 21(b)).

6. In the next phase of the project, livestock interactions
should be given increased attention (see conclusion 5 and
recommendation 4).

7. To increase the professional contribution of the Chief
Technical Advisor to the project, top priority should be
given to recruitment of an experienced, well-qualified
administrative assistant, who should be office at
Ukiriguru (see Section 4.3).

8. More administrative responsibilities of the project should
be transferred to the Lake Zone FSR Coordinator (see
Section 4.3).

9. Before the start of the second phase of the project, clear
written guidelines should be produced concerning (see
Section 4.3):

(a). The division of tasks and responsibilities between
the Tanzanian Lake Zone FSR Coordinator and the
Chief Technical Advisor.

(b). Procedures to be followed in administrative matters,
including approval of short term consultants and
students for special projects.

10. Project support is needed on various logistical matters
such as replacement of vehicles and motorbikes, purchase
of additional microcomputer equipment, purchase of library
materials, and an increase in the DSA allowances of local
staff, who currently receive their allowances from project
funds (see Section 4.3).

11. We recommend some modifications in the reporting system of
the project, as specified in Section 4.3.

12. To stimulate interaction between the FSR staff members --
particularly of an interdisciplinary nature -- more







frequent and regular meetings are required (see Section
4.3).

13. More emphasis should be given to a clear description of
the recommendation domains in the project areas,
especially in Bukoba District. Within those domains, it
would be appropriate to test the validity of the existing
recommendations, under the prevailing farming conditions
(see Section 4.4.2).

14. We recommend that project activities should be
concentrated in a few, carefully selected, villages (e.g.,
three villages per district) (see Section 4.4.5).



15. To date the approach. of the FSR team has been mainly
multidisciplinary in nature. Therefore, an increased
interdisciplinary orientation, which is vital for an
effective FSR approach, is needed for the next phase of
the project (see Section 4.4.2).

16. FSR staff should increase their efforts to integrate
commodity research workers in the FSR approach, thereby
avoiding as much as possible having to undertake commodity
oriented activities by themselves (see Section 4.4.3 and
conclusion 4).

17. Increased attention should be paid to more actively
involving farmers in FSR work through (see Sections 4.4.4,
4.4.5 and 4.5):

(a). Increasing the number of farmer managed and
implemented trials.

(b). By stimulating creation of volunteer village farmer
groups (both male and female).

18. As a general principle, we suggest the greatest attention
should be focused on improving the productivity of the
major crop and livestock enterprises in the farming system
(see sections 4.4.4 and 4.4.5).

19. We recommend some modifications in the methodology for
executing surveys and analysis of their results, as
specified in Section 4.4.

20. Though the issue of gender studies has received attention
during the first phase of the project, it should receive
even more attention in the second phase, in particular,
through greater focussing on women oriented activities and
women managed crops- (see Section 4.5 and also
recommendations 17(b) and 21(c)).







21. Regarding staff provision by the Tanzanian Government, we
propose (see Sections 4.5 and 4.6):

(a). High priority is given to stationing an FSR
agronomist counterpart at Maruku. In order to
facilitate this, we propose provision of a transfer
allowance by the Netherlands Government on his/her
return from M.Sc training.

(b). The National Soil Service is approached with the
request to provide a soil scientist, preferably to
be stationed at Maruku, to support the soil
fertility activities. We recommend the provision,
if needed, of funds from the project, for the
transfer allowance.

(c). A female staff member is appointed to address gender
issues.
(d). The recently arrived agricultural economist who is
replacing the one who will shortly be leaving for
long term training, should be stationed at Maruku.

(e). If the conditions mentioned in recommendation 4 are
met, an "oxenisation" specialist who can handle oxen
and has some knowledge of livestock nutrition and
forage/fodder crops, should be appointed.

(f). Some enumerators to live in the villages where the
FSR teams are concentrating their efforts, should be
recruited, and the costs initially be met from the
Netherlands contribution, during the next phase of
the project.

If no local capacity is available for (b) and/or (e),
funds should be provided by the project to enable
appointment of expatriate(s).

22. Linkages of the project with the newly established
National Coordinating Unit of FSR should be strengthened
(see Section 4.7.1).

23. FSR staff should be encouraged to attend annual meetings
of relevant commodities in order to present their results
and encourage greater incorporation of the farmer
perspective in all research programmes (see Section 4.3).

24. The project should maintain and further develop the good
working relationships with the extension service, such
collaboration being very important (see Section 4.7.6).

25. We support continuing use of Netherlands students for well
defined tasks in the project, providing preference,
whenever possible, is given to Tanzanian students (see
Section 4.6).







26. We support continuing the training programme that has been
developed during the first phase of the project, with
addition of some new initiatives (see Sections 4.5 and
4.8).

27. We support continuation of necessary rehabilitation
activities during the next phase of the project (see
Section 4.9).

28. In view of satisfactory performance during the first phase
of the project, and to ensure continuity, we propose that
KIT continues to be the Netherlands implementing agency
(see Section 4.10).

29. In order to stimulate professional contacts and support of
the project, we strongly support continuation of regular
professional back stopping by KIT. Two visits per year
should be considered (see Section 4.10).

30. To promote institutional contacts, we suggest the Lake
Zone Research Director, or other senior Tanzanian
officials related to the FSR project, are funded for one
visit to the Netherlands per year.

31. We propose that, in the Formulation Document for the next
phase of the project, the objectives should be adjusted,
to reflect the full range of project activities (see
Section 4.1).

32. Assuming that the second phase of the project will start
on 1st January 1992, we propose implementing the necessary
formulation mission in September 1991.

33. We support the notion that the activities outlined in
Phase II of this project are compatible with the concepts
and plans contained in the National Agricultural and
Livestock Research Master Plan.



















53







ANNEX A3. ITINERARY


August 28 Departure of Dr. Norman from Kansas, USA
Wednesday

August 30/31- London Dar es Salaam (de Bruijn and Norman)

Sept. 1 First meeting of the Formulation team
Sunday


Sept. 2
Monday















Sept. 3
Tuesday


Sept. 4
Wednesday

Sept. 5
Thursday






Sept. 6
Friday


Meeting with Mr. D.B. Mpiri, M.Sc, Assistant
Commissioner for Livestock Research, Ministry
of Agriculture, Livestock Development and
Cooperatives (MALDC)
Meeting with Ms. Z.M. Semgalawe, M.Sc,
Agricultural Economist, National Coordinating
Unit FSR
Meeting with Mr. J.B. Ndunguru, M.Sc, Acting
Commissioner for Research and Training
(MALDC)
Briefing at the Royal Netherlands Embassy Dar
es Salaam: meeting with Mr. Ernst Noorman,
M.Sc, Third Secretary, and Mr. C.D.M. Balk,
M.Sc, First Secretary
Meeting with Dr. Ann Stroud, Technical Advisor
National Coordinating Unit FSR

- Dar es Salaam Mwanza
- Meeting with Mr. K.F. Bunyecha, M.Sc,
Agricultural Economist, FSR Zonal Coordinator

- Team meeting and reporting
- Meeting with Mr. Bunyecha

- Meeting with Dr. M.M. Msabaha, Zonal Director
of Research & Training, Lake Zone, Ukiriguru
- Meeting with Mr. B.M. Gama, Head of Soil
Science Section, Ukiriguru
- Meeting with FSR team members
- Departure to Bukoba by night boat, in company
of Mr. Bunyecha

- Meeting with Mr. C.H. Bosch, M.Sc, FSR
Agronomist Bukoba, and with Mr. M.W. de Boer,
MA, Programme Coordinator Bukoba District
Rural Development Programme
Meeting with Dr. S. Omolo, BVS, RALDO Kagera
Meeting with Mr. Y.W. Ndaba, Acting Regional
Development Director Kagera
Visit to Maruku Research Institute. Meeting
with Mr. A.S.S. Mbwana, M.Sc, Officer in
Charge, Mr. E. Marandu, B.Sc, Head Coffee
Section, Mr. L. Mukandala, B.Sc, Head Bean
Section, and Mr. S.I. Mkulila, Diploma Crop

















Sept. 7
Saturday

Sept. 8
Sunday

Sept. 9
Monday











Sept. 10
Tuesday

Sept. 11
Wednesday

Sept. 12
Thursday

Sept. 13
Friday




Sept. 14
Saturday

Sept. 15
Sunday

Sept. 16
Monday


Production, Farm Manager
Social evening with Mr. Bosch, Mr. Bunyecha,
Mr. De Boer, Dr. Omolo, Mr. Amon Byejwe, MA,
District Executive Director, Mr. M.B.I.
Koloseni, DALDO Bukoba District, Mr. S.E.
Calvin, District Natural Resources Officer and
Mr. J. de Wolff, B.Sc, Advisor Kagera
Livestock Development Project
Departure to Mwanza by night boat

Discussions with Mr. Bunyecha and Mr. Gama and
reporting

Discussions with Mr. Bunyecha and reporting


Visit to Maswa (De Bruijn, Kirway, Bunyecha)

Meeting with Mr. H.C.C. Meertens, M.Sc,
Agronomist/Extensionist, SNV, based at Maswa
in FSR team
Meeting with Mr. O.H. Bori, B.Sc, DALDO for
Maswa
Meeting with Mr. J.H. Mulder, B.Sc,
Coordinator Maswa District Rural Development
Programme
- Visit to Farm Mechanization Workshop Maswa
- Reporting (Norman and Liwa)

Reporting


Reporting and discussions with Mr. Bunyecha


Reporting and discussion with Dr. Msabaha and
Mr. Bunyecha


- Departure Dr. Norman
- Meeting of Dr. Msabaha, Mr. Kirway and
Bunyecha about task division Zonal
coordinator and Chief Technical Advisor
Reporting


Mr.
FSR


Reporting


S Reporting and discussions with Mr. Bunyecha


S Meeting with Mr. H.J. Enserink, M.Sc, Chief
Technical Advisor
S Debriefing meeting at Ukiriguru with Acting
Zonal Director, Heads of Sections, FSR team
S Final discussion with Dr. Msabaha








Sept. 17
Tuesday

Sept. 18
Wednesday




Sept. 19
Thursday


Mwanza Dar es Salaam, in company of Messrs.
Bunyecha and Enserink

Short meeting at the Netherlands Embassy with
Mr. Balk and Ms M. te Riele, M.Sc, First
Secretary
Discussion of draft report with Messrs.
Bunyecha and Enserink

Meeting of Messrs. Kirway, Bunyecha and
Enserink about administrative procedures in
project
- Debriefing meeting with representatives
of MALDC and Netherlands Embassy: Mr. Buberwa,
M.Sc, Assitant Commissioner Project Planning
and Monitoring (Chaiman of meeting), Mr. J.B.
Ndunguru, M.Sc, Acting Commissioner for
Research and Training, Mr. D.B. Mpiri, M.Sc,
Assistant Commissioner for Livestock Research,
Ms. Lutkama, M.Sc. Acting Assistant
Commissioner Support Services, Dr. V.R.
Ndondi, Acting Assistant Commissioner Crop
Research, Ms. te Riele, Mr. Noorman, Mr.
Bunyecha, Mr. Enserink, Formulation team
Final meeting at Netherlands Embassy: Mr.
Noorman, Ms. te Riele, Mr. Bunyecha, Mr.
Enserink, Formulation team
Dinner offered by Mr. Noorman: Mr. Van der
Wiel, Mr. Sterkenburg, Formulation team
Departure Dr. de Bruijn to the Netherlands







ANNEX A4. JOB DESCRIPTIONS


A4.1 PROJECT SUPPORTED


A4.1.1 Tanzanian Gender Specialist (Ukiriquru)

Background:

(a). Qualifications: a minimum of a B.Sc degree in agriculture
or an agriculturally related field and a genuine interest
and working experience in gender issues.

(b). Salary Source: Government of Tanzania.

(c). Location: Lake Zone FSR team, Ukiriguru.

(d). Reporting: Through the Lake Zone FSR Coordinator to the
Lake Zone Research Director.

The tasks to be undertaken will include, but not necessarily be
confined to, the following:

(a). Sensitise Lake Zone research staff, both in and outside
the FSR team, to the importance of gender issues.

(b). When appropriate, provide researchers with training in,
and methodologies for incorporating, gender issues in
their own research programmes.

(c). Document through research the limits, opportunities and
conditions that need to be met in order to improve the
position of women in the Lake Zone.

(d). Through working with other FSR team members, monitor and
evaluate the impact of improved agricultural technologies
on women and help in designing gender specific messages.

(e). In cooperation with other FSR team members work directly
with women in designing and evaluating relevant improved
agricultural technologies which will directly benefit
them.

(f). Be a subject matter specialist on "women and agriculture"
and be available to help advise on all matters relating to
this in the Lake Zone (e.g., advising and helping
extension to focus some of their efforts directly to the
interests of women).

(g). Integrate all the results of gender analysis in
agriculturally related work in the Lake Zone and make them
available to interested groups (e.g., CRTs).







(h). Work with short term consultants who are addressing gender
issues in agriculture in the Lake Zone.

(i). Help students who are doing gender studies relating to
agriculture in the Lake Zone.

(j). Represent gender issue interests in relevant meetings,
seminars, workshops, etc.



A4.1.2 Expatriate Livestock Specialist (Ukiriquru)

Background:

(a). Qualifications:

i. An M.Sc degree or equivalent in animal science.

ii. At least five years working experience in developing
countries, on livestock an'd also, preferably, animal
traction problems.

iii. Experience in working in interdisciplinary teams
(i.e., preferably farming system), and ability to
establish and maintain good personal and
professional interaction with team members, project
related officials and farmers.

iv. Fluency in Swahili or willingness to learn it.

(b). Salary Source: Netherlands Government.

(c). Location: Lake Zone FSR team, Ukiriguru.

(d). Reporting: Through the Lake Zone FSR Coordinator and the
Chief Technical Advisor to the Lake Zone Research
Director.

The tasks to be undertaken will include, but not necessarily be
confined to, the following:

(a). Assume overall responsibility for incorporating a
livestock perspective into the FSR work undertaken in the
Lake Zone, through working in an interdisciplinary mode
with other FSR team members.

(b). Collect and interpret information relating to livestock
related issues in the Lake Zone farming systems.

(c). Collate available information (i.e., from literature and
other work in the region) on livestock in farming systems,
especially with reference to ox traction and related
equipment.







(d). Create and maintain cooperative links with the District
Rural Development Project in Maswa, CAMARTEC in Arusha,
and possibly other projects or institutions in Tanzania,
regarding ox traction issues. In collaboration with the
above test and, if necessary, adapt available animal
traction equipment to the local situation.

(e). Undertake other relevant FSR work relating to livestock
issues (e.g., test-type trials on forages, etc.).

(f). Be involved in livestock related FSR activities of the
project in Bukoba District (i.e., up to about 20% of
his/her time).

(g). Help design and test improved technologies relating to
livestock issues, and where appropriate, develop
recommendations for dissemination to farmers through the
extension service.

(h). Create and maintain good cooperation, regarding livestock
related issues, with the agricultural extension service in
the areas where the FSR project is active.



A4.1.3 Research Extension Liaison Officer (Ukiriquru)

Background:

(a). Qualifications:

i. A minimum of a B.Sc degree or equivalent in
agriculture.

ii. At least ten years satisfactory working experience
in agricultural extension, some of them being in a
senior administrative position (e.g., RALDO).

iii. Experience in working in an interdisciplinary
setting and ability to establish and maintain good
personal and professional interaction with
researchers of different disciplines, extension
staff and farmers.

iv. Have an understanding of research methodology and
the FSR process.

(b). Salary Source: Government of Tanzania.

(c). Location: Seconded from extension to the office of the
Lake Zone Research Director, Ukiriguru.

(d). Reporting: To the Lake Zone Research Director.

The tasks to be undertaken will include, but not necessarily be

59







confined to, the following:


(a). Have overall responsibility for establishing and
maintaining effective links between research (i.e., FSR
and CRTs), extension and farmers.

(b). Participate in FSR programme planning together with FSR
staff, CRT researchers and senior extension staff in the
Lake Zone.

(c). Help FSR team members in organising farmer meetings and
groups, field days, etc. In the future, depending on
their potential, help in organising extension oriented
farmer groups outside the villages where FSR research
activities are being concentrated.

(d). Participate in the T and V Extension Meetings/Workshops
attended by extension supervisors and subject matter
specialists, and on occasion FSR and CRT representatives.
When necessary feedback to research requests for help in
solving identified problems.

(e). Prepare, in collaboration with FSR and CRT researchers,
extension leaflets on relevant improved technologies ready
for dissemination to farmers.

(f). In collaboration with the FSR team, monitor and evaluate
the adoption of improved technologies by farmers.

(g). Assist the Lake Zone Research Director in encouraging
closer collaboration between the FSR team and CRTs, in
organising on-station field days, seminars, etc.

(h). Participate in National Research Coordinating Committees
and Regional Management Meetings.



A4.2 PROJECT RELATED


A4.2.1 NSS Tanzanian Soil Scientist (Maruku)

Background:

(a). Qualifications:

i. A minimum of a B.Sc degree or equivalent in soil
science/fertility.

ii. Preferably some satisfactory working experience on
soil fertility problems.

iii. Preferably experience in working in
interdisciplinary teams (e.g., preferably farming







system), and ability to establish and maintain good
personal and professional interaction with team
members, project related officials and farmers.


(b). Salary Source: Government of Tanzania.

(c). Location: NSS, Maruku.

(d). Reporting: Through the Head of the Soil Science Section,
Ukiriguru, and the Lake Zone Research Director to the NSS
headquarters at Mlingano.

The tasks to be undertaken will include, but not necessarily be
confined to, the following:

(a). Help collate and interpret information available on the
soils of Kagera Region.

(b). Undertake research on soil fertility and plant nutrition,
relating to the main crops in the farming systems in
Bukoba District.

(c). Collaborate with the senior soil scientist at the Zonal
Research Station, Ukiriguru, and with the National Soil
Service at Mlingano.

(d). Support the activities of the Lake Zone FSR project, with
respect to working on soil fertility aspects of farming
systems in Bukoba District.

(e). Work in close cooperation with the expatriate soil
scientist at Maruku station.

(f). Help create and maintain cooperative working links with
the District Rural Development Project in Bukoba, and with
the local agricultural extension service.

(g) When and where appropriate, initiate or help develop soil
related recommendations for dissemination to farmers
through the extension service.

(h). Help in setting up and supervising activities of the soil
analysis laboratory at Maruku.




A4.2.2 NSS Expatriate Soil Scientist (Maruku)

Background:

(a). Qualifications:

i. A minimum of an M.Sc degree or equivalent in soil
science/fertility.







ii. At least five years of satisfactory working
experience on soil fertility problems in developing
countries.

iii. Experience in working in interdisciplinary teams
(e.g., preferably farming system), and ability to
establish and maintain good personal and
professional interaction with team members, project
related officials and farmers.

iv. Fluency in Swahili or willingness to learn it.

(b). Salary Source: Netherlands Government.

(c). Location: NSS, Maruku.

(d). Reporting: Through the Head of the Soil Science Section,
Ukiriguru, and the Lake Zone Research Director to the NSS
headquarters at Mlingano.

The tasks to be undertaken will include, but not necessarily be
confined to, the following:

(a). Collate and interpret information available on the soils
of Kagera Region.

(b). Undertake research on soil fertility and plant nutrition,
relating to the main crops in the farming systems in
Bukoba District.

(c). Collaborate with the senior soil scientist at the Zonal
Research Station, Ukiriguru, and with the National Soil
Service at Mlingano.

(d). Support the activities of the Lake Zone FSR project, with
respect to working on soil fertility aspects of farming
systems in Bukoba District.

(e). Contribute to the professional training of the Tanzanian
soil scientist at Maruku station.

(f). Create and maintain cooperative working links with the
District Rural Development Project in Bukoba, and with the
local agricultural extension service.

(g) When and where appropriate, initiate or help develop soil
related recommendations for dissemination to farmers
through the extension service.

(h). Take a leading role in setting up and helping to
administrate the activities of the soil analysis
laboratory at Maruku.








Maswa DRDP Agricultural Mechanisation Specialist


Background:

(a). Qualifications:

i. A minimum of a B.Sc degree or equivalent in
agricultural mechanisation.

ii. Experience in working with and/or training farmers
to use oxen.

iii. At least five years of satisfactory working
experience on agricultural mechanisation problems in
developing countries.

iii. Experience in working in interdisciplinary teams
(e.g., preferably farming system), and ability to
establish and maintain good personal and
professional interaction with team members, project
related officials and farmers.
iv. Fluency in Swahili or willingness to learn it.

(b). Salary Source: Netherlands Government.

(c). Location: District Rural Development Project, Maswa.

(d). Reporting: To the Head of the District Rural Development
Project, Maswa.

The tasks to be undertaken will include, but not necessarily be
confined to, the following:

(a). Collate available information (i.e., from literature and
other work in the region) on animal drawn agricultural
equipment, to ascertain what might be potentially suitable
for conditions existing in Maswa/Meatu.

(b). Establish strong collaborative working links with the Lake
Zone FSR project, with reference to development and
adaptation of agricultural equipment, especially relating
to ox traction.

(c). Interact intensively with the mechanisation workshop in
Maswa.

(d). Establish and maintain intensive cooperation with the
agricultural extension service, and where appropriate,
test equipment with farmers in collaboration with the Lake
Zone FSR project.

(e). Establish and maintain strong cooperative working links
*with CAMARTEC, Arusha, and other Tanzanian institutions
working in the same field.


A4.2.3







ANNEX A5. BUDGET DETAILS NETHERLANDS CONTRIBUTION


Table A5.1 is designed to help identify in the text where
figures in the various parts of Table A5.2, are discussed.
Table A5.2 presents budget details about Backstopping (A),
Evaluation (B), Personnel Costs Expatriate Staff (C), Personnel
Costs Local Staff (D), Personnel Costs Students (E), Expatriate
Consultancies (F), Local Consultancies (G), Institutional
Contacts (H), Purchases and Investments (I), Operational Costs
(J), and Training (K), respectively.

TABLE A5.1: NETHERLANDS CONTRIBUTION: CROSS REFERENCE BETWEEN
REPORT SECTIONS AND CODES IN TABLE A5.2
------------------------------------------------------------
ITEM REPORT SECTION CODE
--------------------------------------------------------------
Backstopping 5.2.1 120

Board and Lodging 4.1.3 570

Cattle/Oxen 3.2 470

Consultants: Expatriate 5.2.1 330
Consultants: Local 5.2.1 340

Evaluations 5.2.1 130

Institutional Contacts 5.2.1 350

Library support 4.2.2 420

Machinery and Equipment 4.2.1, 4.2.2, 4.2.4 420
Machinery and Equipm. Maintenance 4.2.1, 4.2.2, 4.2.4 520

Office/Accomodation Maintenance 4.2.1, 4.2.4 510
Office operational costs 4.1.2, 4.2.1, 4.2.4 540

Personnel: Expatriates 5.1.3 210
Personnel: Local 5.1.2, 4.1.2, 4.1.3 230

Rehabilitation 4.3 410

Research Programme Expenditures 3.1 550

Miscellaneous operational costs 3.1, 3.4.4 590

Students 5.2.2 290

Training: Long-Term 3.5.2 610
Training: Short Term -- Tanzania 3.5.3 620
Training: Short Term -- Region 3.5.3 630
Training: Short Term -- Overseas 3.5.3 640

Transport 4.2.3 430
Transport Operational Costs 4.2.3 530









TABLE A5.2: BUDGET DETAILS NETHERLANDS CONTRIBUTION (PARTS A TO K)


PART A: CODE 9120 -- BACKSTOPPING 1992 1993 1994 TOTAL
~~~------------------------------------------------------
9121.4 Time Allocation in the Netherlands /a 20010 20010 20010 60030
20 days/yr @ Dfl. (7528 x 2.88/21.67) /b


9121.5 Time Allocation in Tanzania
21 days/yr @ Dfl. (7528 x 3.35)/30.4 /b

9123.3 Fares: 1 return ticket Amsterdam-Mwanza
business class

9125.0 DSA: Mwanza: 17 days/year @ $60 x 2.00 /c
Dar Es Salaam: 4 d/yr @ $124 x 2.00


9126.0 Report Expenses


9128.1 Travel Expenses in the Netherlands


17421 17421 17421 52263


7637 7637 7637 22911


3032 3032 3032 9096


1000 1000 1000


3000


300 300 300 900


9128.2 Travel Expenses in Tanzania 500 500 500 1500
---- ----------------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL (1991 VALUE) 49900 49900 49900 149700
TOTAL (INCLUDING 5% INFLATION/YEAR) 52395 55015 57765 165175
---- ------------------------- -------------------------------------------
a. Backstopping committee from Wageningen Agricultural University and
Deventer Agricultural College.
b. Dfl. 7528 is monthly salary, 2.88 and 3.35 are the KIT multipliers, 21,67
and 30.4 are the number of working days per month in the Netherlands and
Tanzania, respectively. These figures are used in other tables as well.
c. 2.00 reflect Dfl. 2.00 equals $1 (used in other tables as well).



PART B: CODE 9130 -- EVALUATION MISSION 1992 1993 1994 TOTAL
------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------
9131.4 Time Allocation in the Netherlands: 0 0 13065 13065
2 persons x 6 days @ (8192 x 2.88/21.67)


9131.5 Time Allocation in Tanzania
For Expatriate members of mission:
2 persons x 25 days @ (8192 x 3.35/30.4)
For Tanzanian Members of Mission:
2 persons x 25 days @ Dfl. 100/day

9133.3 Fares
2 ret. tickets Amsterdam-Mwanza bus. class
2 return tickets Dar Es Salaam-Mwanza

9135.0 Daily Subsistence Allowance
Dar Es Salaam: 4 pers. x 5 d. @ $124 x 2.00
Mwanza: 4 persons x 20 days @ $60 X 2.00

9136.0 Report Expenses


0 0 50137 50137


0 0
0 0


15274
700


15274
700


0 0 14560 14560



0 0 1500 1500


9138.0 Other Travel Expenses 0 0 2600 2600
In the Netherlands: 2 persons @ Dfl. 300
In Tanzania: 4 persons @ Dfl. 500
----- --------------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL (1991 VALUE) 0 0 97836 97836
TOTAL (INCLUDING 5% INFLATION/YEAR) 0 0 113257 113257
---------------------------------------------------------------------------








PART C: CODE 9210 -- COSTS EXPATRIATE STAFF/a 1992 1993 1994 TOTAL
-------------------------------------------------------


9211.3 Time Allocation for Swahili Course
4 team members x 6 weeks x 5 days
@ Dfl. (7528 x 1.35/21.67)

9211.5 Time Allocation in Tanzania
4 team members for 10.5 person
months @ Dfl. (7528 x 2.77)

9212.3 School Fees
8 children @ Dfl. 10000 x 90% paid

9212.5 Leave Fares
4 pers/fam. x 4 families @ Dfl.4,500
(return Mwanza-Amsterdam ec. class)

9212.7 Fares Duty Travel

9213.3 Fares, Posting Overseas
16 persons @ Dfl. 3000

9213.4 Excess Luggage Posting Overseas
4 families @ 20kg x Dfl. 50

9213.6 Lodging
4 families, 2 adults + 2 children
Storage household goods


56278


0 56278


875808 875808 875808 2627424




72000 72000 72000 216000

0 72000 72000 144000



10000 10000 10000 30000


48000


4000


0 48000 96000


0 4000 8000


102000 0
2500 2500


0 102000
2500 7500


9213.7 Transport of Private Car
4 cars @ Dfl. 5000


20000


9214.1 Swahili Course (Excluding Time Alloc.) 100800
Fees: 4 couples @ 6 wks x Dfl. 3200/wk
Board and lodging: 4 cples @ Dfl. 6000

9215.3 Rent: 4 houses @ $800/month x 2.00 76800

9215.4 Living Allowances 4 families 122842
@ (0.15 x 7528 + 1100 + 330) x 12


0 20000


0 100800


76800 76800 230400

122842 122842 368526


TOTAL (1991 VALUE) 1491028 1231950 1283950 4006928
TOTAL (INCLUDING 5% INFLATION/YEAR) 1565579 1358225 1486333 4410137
---- ----------------------------------------------------------------------
a. Budget based on: KIT multipliers, top BBRA salary scale 12, top
school fees, 4 married expatriates, 2 children per family,
one leave per 18 months period.


PART D: CODE 9230 -- COSTS LOCAL STAFF 1992 1993 1994 TOTAL
-------------------------------------------------------
9231.2 Local Office Staff:
Secretary 1200 1200 1200 3600
Administrative Assistant 4000 4000 4000 12000
Computer Room Attendants (2) 1200 1200 1200 3600
SUB-TOTAL 6400 6400 6400 19200

9231.3 Other Staff:
Drivers (2) 1100 1100 1100 3300
Watchmen (3) 1650 1650 1650 4950
Casual Labour (1) 550 550 550 1650
Enumerators (9) 4950 4950 4950 14850
SUB-TOTAL 8250 8250 8250 24750
---- ----------------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL (1991 VALUE) 14650 14650 14650 43950
TOTAL (INCLUDING 5% INFLATION/YEAR) 15383 16152 16959 48493
---- ----------------------------------------------------------------------








PART E: CODE 9290 -- COSTS STUDENTS 1992 1993 1994 TOTAL

9290 Allowances for young professionals/ 12450 12450 12450 37350
students (Tanzanian or Netherlands)
5 persons x 6 months x Dfl. 415
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL (1991 VALUE) 12450 12450 12450 37350
TOTAL (INCLUDING 5% INFLATION/YEAR) 13073 13726 14412 41211
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------



PART F: CODE 9330 -- EXPATRIATE CONSULTANCIES 1992 1993 1994 TOTAL
----------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------
9331.4 Time Allocation in the Netherlands 16331 16331 16331 48993
3 missions of 5 days
@ Dfl. (8192 x 2.88/21.67)

9331.5 Time Allocation in Tanzania 67705 67705 67705 203115
3 missions of 25 days
@ Dfl. (8192 x 3.35/30.4)

9333.3 Fares: 3 return tickets bus. class 22911 22911 22911 68733
Amsterdam-Mwanza @ Dfl. 7637

9335.1 Daily Subsistence Allowance 10152 10152 10152 30456
Dar: 3 pers x 3 days @ $124 x 2.00
Mwanza: 3 pers x 22 days @ $60 x 2.00

9336.0 Report Expenses 3000 3000 3000 9000

9338.0 Other Travel Expenses 1650 1650 1650 4950
In the Netherlands: 3 pers. @ Dfl. 300
In Tanzania: 3 pers. @ Dfl. 250
------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL (1991 VALUE) 121749 121749 121749 365247
TOTAL (INCLUDING 5% INFLATION/YEAR) 127836 134228 140940 403004
------------------------------------------------------------------------



PART G: CODE 9340 -- LOCAL CONSULTANCIES 1992 1993 1994 TOTAL

9341.5 Time Allocation in Tanzania 6000 6000 6000 18000
2 missions of 30 days @ Dfl. 100

9343.3 Fares: 2 return tickets Dar-Mwanza 700 700 700 2100

9345.1 Daily Subsistence Allowance 7680 7680 7680 23040
Dar: 2 pers x 3 days @ $100 x 2.00
Mwanza: 2 pers x 27 days @ $60 x 2.00

9336.0 Report Expenses 2000 2000 2000 6000

9338.0 Other Travel Expenses 500 500 500 1500
In Tanzania: 2 pers. @ Dfl. 250
------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL (1991 VALUE) 16880 16880 16880 50640
TOTAL (INCLUDING 5% INFLATION/YEAR) 17724 18610 19541 55875
------------------------------------------------------------------------







PART H: CODE 9350 -- INSTITUTIONAL CONTACTS/a 1992 1993 1994 TOTAL
------------------------------------------------------
9355.1 Subsistance Allowance 4576 4576 4576 13728
Netherlands 10 days @ $220 x 2.00 /b
Dar es Salaam 2 days at $44 x 2.00 /b


9353.3 Fares: 2 return tickets bus. class
Amsterdam-Mwanza @ Dfl. 7637


7637 7637 7637 22911


9358.0 Transport in Europe 500 500 500 1500
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL (1991 VALUE) 12713 12713 12713 38139
TOTAL (INCLUDING 5% INFLATION/YEAR) 13349 14016 14717 42082
----------------------------------------------------------------------
a. Visits of senior Tanzanians to the Netherlands (Section 5.2.1).
b. Rates used by the Government of Tanzania for senior officials




PART I: CODE 9400 -- PURCHASES & INVESTMENTS 1992 1993 1994 TOTAL
--------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------
9410 Upgrading and Rehabilitation of 140000 140000 140000 420000
Facilities at Ukiriguru and Maruku /a


9420 Machinery and Equipment:
Data Processing -- 4 micros,
4 printers and 4 UPS plus 1 laptop
Software
New Office Block, Ukiriguru
Oxenisation Equipment
Other Equipment
Library and Photocopying of Papers


SUB-TOTAL


9430 Transport:
5 Toyota Landcruisers @ Dfl. 50000
9 motorcycles @ Dfl. 5000
10 bicycles @ Dfl. 300

SUB-TOTAL

9470 Cattle/Oxen:
Oxen for animal traction trials.
Buy or hire. 3 farmers/year,
4 oxen each @ Dfl. 175


54000

5000
30000
8000
22000
15000


0 54000


2500
0
6000
18000
15000


2500
0
6000
18000
15000


10000
30000
20000
58000
45000


134000 41500 41500 217000 /


250000
30000
3000


0
10000
0


0
5000
0


0
250000
45000
3000


283000 10000 5000 298000 V

2100 2100 2100 6300 /


TOTAL (1991 VALUE) 559100 193600 188600 S7s;91W
TOTAL (INCLUDING 5% INFLATION/YEAR) 587055 213444 218328 1018827
----------------------------------------------------------------------
a. A detailed proposal will be presented to the Netherlands
Embassy in January of each year.


4-'









PART J: CODE 9500 -- OPERATIONAL COSTS 1992 1993 1994 TOTAL
9510 Office/Accommodation Maintenance 10000 10000 10000 30000


9520 Maintenance of Machinery and
Equipment (At 20% of total value)

9530 Operational Cost for Vehicles and
Motorcycles (At 30% of total value)

9540 Office
Telex, telephone, office expenditure

9550 Research Programme. Inputs on-farm
research fertilizerr, etc.)

9570 Board and Lodging on Official Duty:

Expatriate Staff (4 Persons):
-Dar: 4 x 15 days/yr @ $89 x 2.00
-Lake Zone: 4 x 90 d/yr @ $60 x 2.00

Local Graduate Staff: /a
FSR:
-Dar: 7 pers x 10 days/yr x $25.4
-Local: 7 pers x 60 days/yr x $23.7
-Meal allow: 7 pers x 30 d/yr @ Dfl 9
CRT:
-Local: 4 pers x 40 days/yr x $23.7
-Meal allow: 4 pers x 20 d/yr @ Dfl 9

Local Support Staff: /a
FSR:
-Dar: 6 pers x 4 days/yr x $25.4
-Local: 6 pers x 90 days/yr x $23.7
-Meal allow: 6 pers x 45 d/yr @ Dfl 9
CRT:
-Local: 4 pers x 60 days/yr x $23.7
-Meal allow: 4 pers x 30 d/yr @ Dfl 9
FSR Drivers:
-Local: 4 pers x 100 days/yr x $21.1
-Meal allow: 4 pers x 50 d/yr @ Dfl 9

SUB-TOTAL

9590 Miscellaneous:
Soil Analysis Services
Publications/Reports
Operational Costs RELO /b
Farmers Field Days (200 Farmers):
Lunch Allowances 200 @ Dfl. 9
Transport 200 @ Dfl. 9
National Farmer Days (Sabasaba):
Lunches 3 pers x 7 days @ Dfl. 9
Pamphlet Publication


36800 36800 36800 110400


89400 89400 89400 268200


20000 20000 20000 60000


27000 27000 27000 81000


10680 10680 10680 32040
43200 43200 43200 129600


3556
19908
1890


3556
19908
1890


3556
19908
1890


10668
59724
5670


7584 7584 7584 22752
720 720 720 2160


1219
25596
2430

11376
1080


1219
25596
2430


1219
25596
2430


3657
76788
7290


11376 11376 34128
1080 1080 3240


16880 16880 16880 50640
1800 1800 1800 5400

147919 147919 147919 443757


10000 10000 10000 30000
10000 10000 10000 30000

3600 3600 3600 10800


189

440


440 1320


SUB-TOTAL


24229 24229 24229 72687


TOTAL (1991 VALUE) 355348 355348 355348 1066044
TOTAL (INCLUDING 5% INFLATION/YEAR) 373115 391771 411360 1176246
--------------------------------------------------------------------
a. Allowances based on Tanzanian DSA and a small addition (Section 4.1.3).
b. RELO's board and lodging expense is covered under code 9570.










PART K: CODE 9600 -- TRAINING 1992 1993 1994 TOTAL
-------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------
9610 Fellowships Abroad: /a
1. M.Sc Agronomy /b 3000 0 0 3000
2. M.Sc Agric. Economics /c 50000 0 0 50000
3. M.Sc Animal Science 50000 50000 0 100000
4. M.Sc Agronomy 0 50000 50000 100000
5. M.Sc Agric. Economics 0 50000 50000 100000
6. M.Sc Social Science (Gender) 0 0 50000 50000
7. M.Sc Agronomy 0 0 50000 50000
7. Ph.D Agric. Economics 0 0 50000 50000

SUB-TOTAL 103000 150000 250000 503000 /

9620 Fellowships in Region: Tanzania 8000 8000 8000 24000 V
40 persons for 7 days @ total
costs per person of Dfl. 200

9630 Fellowships in Region: Other countries 32950 32950 32950 98850k
University of Zimbabwe: 4 staff
for 2 courses/year

Other Courses: 8800 8800 8800 26400
2 staff for 2 weeks per year

SUB-TOTAL 41750 41750 41750 125250/

9640 Participation in Overseas Symposia/ 15000 15000 15000 45000
Study Tours:
2 staff per year @ Dfl. 7,500
--- ----------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL (1991 VALUE) 167750 214750 314750 tz$S89) M
TOTAL (INCLUDING 5% INFLATION/YEAR) 176138 236762 364362 777262
------------------------------------------------------------------
a. Based on international standard now used of $25000 per year including
air tickets.
b. Air ticket only. All other costs covered by 1991 budget.
c. One year only (1992). First year training covered by 1991 budget.







ANNEX A6. ACRONYM DEFINITIONS


CAMARTEC


CIMMYT

CRT

DGIS



DSA

FSR

FMFI

GOT

ICRA


IFAD


KIT

MALDC


MATI

NSS

NCU

RALDO


DRDP

RELO

RMFI

RMRI

SNV

T and V

ZRC


Centre for Agricultural Mechanisation and
Appropriate Rural Technology

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre

Commodity Research Team

Directorate General for International
Cooperation, (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The
Hague)

Daily Subsistence Allowance

Farming Systems Research

Farmer Managed and Implemented

Government of Tanzania

International Course for Development Oriented
Research in Agriculture

International Fund for Agricultural
Development

Royal Tropical Institute

Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock Development and
Cooperatives

Ministry of Agriculture Training Institute

National Soil Service

National Coordinating Unit

Regional Agricultural and Livestock
Development Officer

District Rural Development Programme

Research Extension Liaison Officer

Researcher Managed and Farmer Implemented

Researcher Managed and Implemented

Netherlands Development Organisation

Training and Visit

Zonal Research Centre




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