• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Summary
 The concept and general principles...
 Table: Trials in Liwonde ADD -...
 Annex I: Analysis of farming...
 Annex II: The extension upgrading...














Title: Field development services
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073323/00001
 Material Information
Title: Field development services
Alternate Title: Adaptive field trials 198283 programme field development services, vol. 4
Physical Description: 26, 22 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Malawi -- Liwonde Agricultural Development Division
Publisher: Liwonde ADD
Place of Publication: Liwonde Malawi
Publication Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Malawi   ( lcsh )
Agricultural productivity -- Malawi   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Malawi
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Liwonde Agricultural Development Division, LWADD.
General Note: "August 1982."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073323
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 82171679

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Summary
        Page A-1
    The concept and general principles of trials in Liwonde add
        Page A-1
        Objectives and focal points
            Page A-2
        Concept and strategy of trial work in Liwonde ADD
            Page A-3
            Page A-4
            Page A-5
            Page A-6
        Implementation
            Page A-7
            Page A-8
        On farm trials
            Page A-17
            Page A-18
        The extension upgrading programme
            Page A-19
            Page A-20
            Page A-21
            Page A-22
            Page A-23
    Table: Trials in Liwonde ADD - allocation
        Page A-24
    Annex I: Analysis of farming systems
        Page A-25
        Page A-26
    Annex II: The extension upgrading programme
        Page B-1
        Page B-2
        Page B-3
        Page B-4
        Page B-5
        Page B-6
        Page B-7
        Page B-8
        Page B-9
        Page B-10
        Page B-11
        Page B-12
        Page B-13
        Page B-14
        Page B-15
        Page B-16
        Page B-17
        Page B-18
        Page B-19
        Page B-20
        Page B-21
        Page B-22
Full Text
LIWONDE AGRICULTURAL


DEVELOPMENT DIVISION


LWADD


x

SERVICES'





ADAPTIVE
I "- 1FIELD TRIALS


Balaka
S.- -98 PROGRAMME
Bk I WA4f l\ L PROGRAMME


AUGUST 1982




DEVELOPMENT DIVISION


LWADD







FIELD
DEVELOPMENT
SERVICES
VOL. 4
ADAPTIVE
FIELD TRIALS
1982/83
PROGRAMME


AUGUST 1982


SIW ON DE


AGRICULTURAL







T A B L E of C O N T E N T S Page





Summary 1

CHAPTER I THE CONCEPT AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TRIALS 1
IN LIWONDE ADD
1 Introduction 1
2 Objectives and Focal Points 2
3 Concept and Strategy of Trial Work in Liwonde ADD 3
3.1 The Concept 3
3.2 The Strategy 5
4 Implementation 7

CHAPTER II THE TRIAL DESIGN 9
1 Trials in EPA-Centres 9
1.1 Intercropping of Local Maize with Grain Legumes under 9
different Fertilizer Levels
1.2 Density of Grain Legumes in Mixture with Maize 11
1.3 Cassava Time of Interplanting into Maize 13
1.4 N x K Fertilizer Trial 14
1.5 Crop Rotation 15
1.6 Selection of Local Cassava Varieties 16
2 On Farm Trials 17
2.1 Fertilizer on Local and Composite Maize 17
2.2 Intercropping of Maize with different Grain Legumes 18
3 The Extension Upgrading Programme 19
3.1 Purpose and Objectives of the Programme 19
3.2 Organization of the Programme 19
3.3 Principles for the Design of Recommendations 21
3.4 The Monitoring and Evaluation 22


TABLE : Trials in Liwonde ADD Allocation 24

ANNEX I: Analysis of Farming Systems Farm Size Distribution 25
Analysis of Farming Systems Average Cropping Pattern 26

ANNEX II: The Extension Upgrading Programme
1 Recommendations
2 The Monitoring Guideline ( Under Preparation )

This Programme was designed in cooperation with all Subject
Matter Specialists (SMS) of the Extension Section and all
Project Officers and Development Officers in the four projects
under LIWONDE ADD.
The overall responsibility for the formulation of the Paper
was in the hands of Juergen WERNER (Management Assistant).






- 1 -


SUMMARY

The trials, which will be conducted in Liwonde ADD during the 1982/83
cropping season are geared towards the immediate needs of extension.

The main objectives are to improve the situation of smallholders and
to increase the agricultural production in the area under LWADD by identi-
fication of improved technologies

which are only gradual modifications of farmers'present practices and
which help to maintain the agricultural productivity in the long run.

To achieve that close cooperation between research and extension staff
is required as well as the involvement of farmers as far as possible. Coope-
ration with national research will avoid a duplication of trial work and
improve the quality of the trials.

Three different types of trials will be conducted:
trials in EPA-Centres with the aim to get results which are adjusted to
the conditions of the different areas under LWADD;
"On Farm Trials" as a provement of new practices under smallholder con-
ditions; and
an "Extension Upgrading Programme" to upgrade the ongoing extension ac-
tivities, i.e. to test how the extension messages fit into smallhold-
ers' present farming systems.



CHAPTER I THE CONCEPT AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TRIALS
-IN LIWONDE ADD


1 INTRODUCTION

The general idea of trials in Liwonde ADD is to identify improved agri-
cultural practices which are appropriate to be promoted by extension
to the majority of smallholders in the ADD.

National research institutions are mainly concerned with basic research.
They have already obtained a bulk of knowledge on advanced technologies
like improved varieties. Trials of Liwonde ADD will not duplicate the
important work of national research institutions and will not compete
with it. They actually are geared towards the extension concept of the
Liwonde ADD (Liwonde ADD Field Development Services, Concept and
Policy Liwonde, March 1982) which has the main priority to meet the
immediate needs of smallholders in the ADD.

Experience gathered all over the world shows that farmers, but particu-
larly smallholders, with low capital resources and a high priority to






- 1 -


SUMMARY

The trials, which will be conducted in Liwonde ADD during the 1982/83
cropping season are geared towards the immediate needs of extension.

The main objectives are to improve the situation of smallholders and
to increase the agricultural production in the area under LWADD by identi-
fication of improved technologies

which are only gradual modifications of farmers'present practices and
which help to maintain the agricultural productivity in the long run.

To achieve that close cooperation between research and extension staff
is required as well as the involvement of farmers as far as possible. Coope-
ration with national research will avoid a duplication of trial work and
improve the quality of the trials.

Three different types of trials will be conducted:
trials in EPA-Centres with the aim to get results which are adjusted to
the conditions of the different areas under LWADD;
"On Farm Trials" as a provement of new practices under smallholder con-
ditions; and
an "Extension Upgrading Programme" to upgrade the ongoing extension ac-
tivities, i.e. to test how the extension messages fit into smallhold-
ers' present farming systems.



CHAPTER I THE CONCEPT AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TRIALS
-IN LIWONDE ADD


1 INTRODUCTION

The general idea of trials in Liwonde ADD is to identify improved agri-
cultural practices which are appropriate to be promoted by extension
to the majority of smallholders in the ADD.

National research institutions are mainly concerned with basic research.
They have already obtained a bulk of knowledge on advanced technologies
like improved varieties. Trials of Liwonde ADD will not duplicate the
important work of national research institutions and will not compete
with it. They actually are geared towards the extension concept of the
Liwonde ADD (Liwonde ADD Field Development Services, Concept and
Policy Liwonde, March 1982) which has the main priority to meet the
immediate needs of smallholders in the ADD.

Experience gathered all over the world shows that farmers, but particu-
larly smallholders, with low capital resources and a high priority to






- 2 -


risk avoidance, move away from their present practices only in small
steps. Therefore, extension in Liwonde ADD tries to develop recommen-
dations which aim on gradual modifications of existing technologies rather
than on radical new ones. Consequently trials in Liwonde ADD will be con-
ducted on practices which are based on and quite similar to the local
farmers' present oney.


OBJECTIVES AND FOCAL POINTS

The overall objectives of extension efforts in Liwonde ADD and connected
with that of the Liwonde \DD trials are

- to improve the living standard of the majority of the
population in Liwonde ADD by production of more food with
a higher nutritional value and more cash crops to cover
farmers' cash demands;

to increase agricultural production in Liwonde ADD area
by development of labour saving, yield increasing and eco-
logically suitable ways of crop production which consider
farmers' management problems, farmers' constraints and
limitations as well as his goals.

The trials in Liwonde ADD are to assist the extension services to achieve
these goals. Therefore, the trial objectives are as follows:

Generating knowledge on how to improve farmers' present
practices on their most important crops and crop mixtures
in order to achieve higher productivity per unit area.
This is mainly to adjust national research findings

-- to the area-specific environmental conditions of the
different projects and EPAs

-- and to the locally specific needs of the smallholders.

Emphasis will be laid on crops which are actually most important
for smallholders in Liwonde ADD. These crops are particularly:

local maize, which is grown by more than 90% of the farmers under
Liwonde ADD, either in pure stand or in different mixtures;
mixturesof maize with grain legumes, which are grown by almost
all of the farmers under Liwonde ADD, whereby the grain legumes
serve as an important source for relish as well as for cash;
cassava, which is grown by most of the farmers mainly as a
security crop.
Despite their eminent importance for smallholder farmers agronomic
knowledge on these crops is poor and if at all available it is not
area-specific adjusted.







- 3


Developing cropping patterns which are appropriate to
maintain the soil productivity in the long run.
Previous trends in smallholder agriculture were: a) to change from
fallow systems to permanent cultivation due to decreasing availabi-
lity of uncultivated land suitable for agricultural production, and
b) a rising area under maize in mono-cropping, whereby extension in the
past stressed the growing of maize in pure stand. Both trends bear
the risk of decreasing soil fertility. Previous extension efforts
aimed more or less on rising agricultural production in the short
run. On the other hand the question of soil productivity in the long
run was fairly neglected.

The third main objective is to gather more information on
farmers present farming systems and his ability and willing-
ness to adopt extension recommendation.
Recommendations developed based on research results and results of
ADD trials are not proved under farmers present farming systems. The
extension planners do not know how the recommendations fit into
smallholders' conditions and whether they are appropriate to improve
the present situation.
The recommendations implemented by extension are always based on
the assumption that they fit somehow into farmers' conditions concern-
ing his present farming system (management levels; constraints like
labour, capital and land availability; aims and priorities). However
knowledge on farmers' situation provided by garden, household and
yield surveys is limited to average data on cropping pattern, actual
practices, yields and household composition. Few additional qualitative
data are provided by "exploratory" farming system surveys conducted
in Kawinga RDP and the Balaka area.
Problems are set to planners when it comes to compare the labour
demand of present and recommended practices or where we have to
assess interactions between farm activities and cash generating off-
farm activities. In addition most of the recommendations are only
proved under quite controlled conditions on trial fields. But what
is the efficiency of these recommendations, implemented according to
the regular extension set-up of the ADD, under smalllholder conditions
and constraints? Is the farmer really willing or at all able to
adopt the recommendations?
The consequence of these uncertaincies is that recommendations often
fail because the assumptions of extension planners were not true. A
good example for failing recommendations is the previous concentration
on improved varieties.


3 CONCEPT AND STRATEGY OF TRIAL WORK IN LIWONDE ADD

3.1 The Concept
Research in Liwonde ADD is "adaptive" Research based on
farmers' present farming systems
the different environmental conditions in the different
areas under Liwonde ADD.

The research subsection is part of the extension section of Liwonde ADD
and will act as a link between local farmers, extension and national






- 4 -


research.


National Extension
Research
Adaptive Research in
Liwonde ADD



Smallholder
farmers




Involvement of farmers: Farming system surveys are carried out by
Planning and Evaluation section. The data obtained in the surveys are
supplemented by information gathered in discussions with field staff
in order to design research activities which are appropriate to meet
farmers' needs.

Farmers will be directly involved in the trial programme by trials on
their fields. These trials will be accompanied by discussions of research
staff with the trial farmers which aim on continuous improvement of trial
activities by gathering farmers' opinions concerning the tested techno-
logies.

Involvement of extension services: The goal of research in Liwonde ADD
is to improve the present recommendations and to design new ones accord-
ing to farmers' needs and circumstances. Therefore, research is integrated
in the extension section of Liwonde ADD to guarantee a close cooperation
between extension and research. Identification of research needs and
design of research activities is a joint effort of extension and research
staff. The trials will be run by extension staff under supervision of
researchers. On the other hand research staff assists in the development
of extension recommendations based on gathered research data.

Involvement of national research institutions: Research in Liwonde ADD
will not duplicate the work of national research. National research is
mainly involved in basic research, while the trials of Liwonde ADD are
geared towards the immediate needs of the extension section. Liwonde ADD
extension and research staff will assist national research in identifi-
cation of basic research needs and provides data obtained in their own
trials.

Liwonde ADD research tries to gather locally adjusted results and results
which are proved under farmers' conditions. To avoid duplication of work





5 -


and to guarantee proper research work Liwonde ADD cooperates with
national research institutions in planning, conduction and analysis
of trials.

3.2 The Strategy

To achieve the mentioned objectives research in Liwonde ADD is carried
out in three steps (see FIGURE 1).

3.2.1 Identification of Research Needs and Design of Trial Activities

Identification of research needs and design of trials are mainly based
on discussions with farmers, extension and national research staff as well
as on the available survey data. Soon after harvest of the last years
On Farm Trials of Liwonde ADD group discussions with all trial farmers
were started.* The aim was to get an impression on farmers' attitude
towards the trials, to get an idea how to improve the trials and to
gather points for further investigation. These discussions were followed
by discussions with extension staff on MU and project level on area-specific
research needs. Based on the gathered information a preliminary design
of trials was done which seemed to be appropriate to cover the most im-
portant identified needs. The design was again discussed on MU and on
project level. In addition the planned activities were introduced and dis-
cussed with the maize agronomists of Bvumbwe and Chitedze Research Stations
and the Officer in Charge Lunyangwa Research Station. The discussions were
followed by elaboration of the presented paper on trial activities in
Liwonde ADD. The trial planning phase will be finished by introduction of
the paper to the Southern Region Research and Extension Liaison Committee.

3.2.2 Implementation

The trial programme consists of three components.

3.2.2.1 Trials in EPA-Centers
The main objective is to gather area-specific results under controlled
conditions. The trials aim on provement of technologies which are only
slightly different to smallholders' present practices under the different
environmental conditions in the areas under Liwonde ADD. The trials will
mainly focus on mixedcropping practices (see CHAPTER II). The trials will
be carried out in all operating EPA-centers of Liwonde ADD with sufficient
land availability.

3.2.2.2 On Farm Trials
The main purpose of these trials is the provement of new technologies and
the verification of results obtained in EPA-centres under smallholders
* On Farm Trials-Liwonde ADD, 1981/82 The Analysis (under preparation)






-6-


STRATEGY OF ADAPTIVE TRIAL WORK
IN LIWONDE ADD


Adaptive Trial Work


1 Identification of needs
for adaptive research in
LIWONDE ADD and planning
of trials


Identification
of problems
for
Station Research







Station
Research







Findings of
Station Research


Adaptive Trials
.1 Trials in EPA-centres
generating cf area-speci-
fic knowledge on agro-
nomic practices


2.2 On Farm Trials
Verification of EPA-
trials
Testing of improved agro-
nomic practices under
smallholders' conditions


2.3 Ext.Upgrading Programme
Analyses of farmers' pre-
sent farming system
provement of farmers' abi-
lity and willingness to
adopt recommendations




3 Analyses of Results
Design of recommendations
Improvement of
ongoing trial work


Identification
of
Research Needs









Extension Service







Improvement of
Recommendations


FIGURE 1:






- 7


conditions. The trials will be conducted on farmers' fields by farmers
with support of extension field staff. They will be carried out under
farmers resource and management levels. Improved practices will be
tested to check whether these practices are appropriate and beneficial
to farmers. For the analysis the results will be supplemented by inter-
views with farmers to get an idea on the attitude of farmers towards
the proved practices. These trials will be carried out in all operating
EPAs.

3.2.2.3 The Extension Upgrading Programme
The Extension Upgrading Programme tries to look deeper into smallholders'
present farming systems. It further aims to generate information on
farmers' ability and willingness to adopt extension recommendations.

To achieve that the Extension Upgrading Programme consists of two
components:

1) The Extension Component: Recommendations which are slightly
different to the present extension recommendations will be im-
plemented by extension field staff in line with the extension set-
up of Liwonde ADD. The recommendations used in the programme are
supposed to be the extension recommendations for the forthcoming
season.

2) The Monitoring and Evaluation Component: The farmers participating
in the programme will be accurately monitored by field enumerators
of the Planning and Evaluation section.

The Extension Upgrading Programme will be implemented in ten EPAs
of Liwonde ADD.

(More detailed information on the different trials: CHAPTER II, The
Trial Design).

3.2.3 Trial Analysis

The third step of research in Liwonde ADD is the trial analysis. The re-
sults will get an accurate agronomic and economic analysis. Conclusions
concerning the design of recommendations and the improvement of the
trial programme based on the gathered results will be drawn in discussions
with Extension Field and Management Unit staff and with National Research
Institutions.


4 IMPLEMENTATION

Mainly the extension field staff is responsible for the implementation








- 8


of the trials under assistance and with close cooperation of MU-
research staff.

- Training: training of the respective DOs and TAs will be con-
ducted to enable them to carry out the trials in a proper way.
MU-SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS (SMSs) are responsible for the time-
ly conduction of training and the providing of appropriate aids.
The training will be carried out EPA-wise in the EPA headquarters.

- Input Supply: the Management Unit will provide all the required
inputs for EPA and On Farm Trials.

- Coordination and Supervision: the Development Officers are respons-
ible for the coordination and supervision of all trials in their EPA.
They will get support by the ADD Research Officer who will visit each
EPA in a monthly sequence. The respective TAs are responsible for
supervision of their On Farm Trials and for the implementation of the
Extension Upgrading Programme.

- Field Operations: Field operations in trials in EPA-centres will
be mainly carried out by hired labourers. Field operations in the
On Farm Trials will be done by the farmers themselves.

- Data Recording: the DOs are responsible for recording of the necessary
data for the trials in EPA-centres. Data recording for On Farm Trials
is to be done by the responsible TAs. Data recording for the Extension
Upgrading Programme will be done by field enumerators of the Planning
and Evaluation section.

- Trial Analysis: the agronomic and economic analysis and the inter-
pretation of the results will be done by MU-research staff in coope-
ration with extension staff and national research institutions.




- 17 -


be distributed to all projects and compared with actual
recommended ones.


2 ON FARM TRIALS

2.1 Fertilizer on Local and Composite Maize
Problems: Common view is that local maize does not respond to
to N-fertilizer. However, On Farm Trials of Liwonde ADD and of the
farming systems section of Chitedze Research Station showed a good
response of local maize to N-fertilizer.

Objectives:
to compare response of local maize and composite maize to
different N-levels;
to identify the economic most appropriate amount of N on local
maize for smallholders;
to assess risks and benefits of fertilizer application to
smallholder farmers;
to assess farmers' attitude towards the different fertilizer
treatments.

Sites: 3 farmers' fields in each operating EPA of Liwonde ADD


Design and Replication:


Randomised block design. Each replication
is carried out on one farmer's field.


Treatments:
1) Local Maize 0 fertilizer
2) 125kg/ha 20:20:0
basal dress
3) 125kg/ha SA top dress
4) 125kg/ha 20:20:0
basal dress
125kg/ha SA top dress
5) 125kg/ha 20:20:0
basal dress
250kg/ha SA top dress


6) Composite
Maize
71 "1


10) "


- 0 fertilizer

- 125kg/ha 20:20:0
basal dress
- 125kg/ha SA top dress
- 125kg/ha 20:20:0
basal dress
125kg/ha SA top dress
- 125kg/ha 20:20:0
basal dress
250kg/ha SA top dress


n ou4-


farmer 1

farmer 2

farmer 3


1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9 10
7 10 8 6 9
1 3 5 2 4
8 6 4 7 2
10 5 9 3 1


Plot size:
Spacing:


6 ridges (5.40m) x 11
90 x 90cm x 3 plants


ridges = 60m2


1


Vi IH @


L


I




- 18 -


Varieties: Local maize: project-specific selection,
Composite maize: area-specific UCA or CCA
Time of Planting: with the first planting rains.


2.2 Intercropping of Maize with different Grain Legumes
Problem: Intercropping is a common practice, followed by almost
all farmers in the Liwonde ADD area. However, knowledge on interaction
between the different common intercrops and maize under different
environmental conditions is poor as well as on area-specific suita-
bility of different intercrops.

Objective:
to compare maize yield in pure stand and in mixture with different
legumes (maize = priority crop);
to compare gross margins per unit area of maize in pure stand
and different mixtures;
to test area-specific suitability of different intercrops;
to assess farmers' attitude to the different intercrops.

Sites: 3 farmers' fields in each operating EPA in Liwonde ADD
Design and Replication: Randomised block design. Each replication is
carried out on one farmer's field.


Treatments:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)


Maize
Maize
Maize
Maize
Maize
Maize
Maize
Maize


pure
/ Groundnuts
/ Groundnuts
/ Cowpeas
/ Cowpeas
/ Beans
/ Beans
/ Pigeon Peas


(Chalimbana)
(Mani Pintar)
(Nseula-type)
(Khobwe-type)
(Dwarf-type)
(Climbing-type)


farmer 1
5

farmer 2 8

farmer 3
2


Plot size:
Spacing*:


8 ridges x 11m = 80m2
Maize: 90'x 90cm x 3 plants
Groundnuts: 4 plants between 2 stations of maize
Cowpeas: 1 planting station x 3 plants after every second
station of maize
Beans: 3 stations x 3 plants between 2 stations of
maize
Pigeon Peas: 1 planting station after every second station
of maize


* area-specific modifications possible


IL


2 3 4
6 7 8
6 2 5
4 3 1
5 1 7
8 .6 4


n r r


! ......


y1






- 19 -


Time of Planting*:
Maize: with first planting rains
Groundnuts: soon after maize emerge
Cowpeas: soon after maize emerge
Beans: 1) soon after maize emerge ) area-
2) February/March after tasseling of maize ) specific
Pigeon Peas: soon after first weeding of maize
Varieties: Local selections
Fertilizer: Uniform application of 125kg/ha 20:20:0
as basal dressing to all plots

area-specific modifications possible



3 THE EXTENSION UPGRADING PROGRAMME

3.1 Purpose and Objectives of the Programme

This step of the LWADD trial programme does not consist of real field trials
like trials in EPA-centres and the On Farm Trials. They are not research
trials with the goal to find out highest-yielding technologies. This
programme aims at "Upgrading" of the ongoing extension activities and on
finding out optimum balances between technological options proved in
field trials and farmers actual requirements. The objectives of the
programme are:

to generate data on the farmers' present farming systems like their
present cropping patterns, their management practices, the labour
requirements for the different field operations and their sources
for cash income ;

to test the impact of the used recommendations on the productivity
of the smallholder farm under the regular extension set-up of Liwonde
ADD and farmers' actual resource and management levels;

to assess the level of adoption of the used recommendations;

to identify necessary modifications which lead to recommendations
appropriate for extension in Liwonde ADD.

3.2 Organization of the Programme

Different recommendations are developed for farmers in the different
areas under Liwonde ADD. These recommendations are designed according
to the area-specific conditions of each EPA (farm size, present cropping
pattern, environmental conditions, etc.).

The recommendations will be implemented according to the regular extension




- 20 -


set-up of Liwonde ADD*, which is based mainly on two principles:

1. Extension work concentrates on farmers' groups and clubs.

2. The training of groups and clubs is to be done in a regular
fortnightly sequence.

For the implementation of programmes one farmers' group or club will be
selected in ten EPAs of Liwonde ADD:
PROJECTS EPAs
Zomba MGA 06 (Malosa), ZO 02 (Chingale)
Mangochi MGA 01 (Balaka), MGA 02 (Phalula)
Kawinga MGA 09 (Nyambi), MGA 10 (Chikweo), MGA 11 (Nanyumbu)
Namwera MNG 07 (Katuli), MNG 06 (Ntiya), MNG 05 (Masuku)

The number of groups or clubs participating in the programme is limited to
ten because of two reasons:

1) The recommendations implemented are supposed to be the extension
recommendations for the forthcoming seasons. They include some new
components. But at the moment the ADD is not sure about the effect
of these new components.

2) Monitoring and evaluation of the participating farmers is a
time-consuming exercise. But the staff made available by the
Planning and Evaluation section is limited.

The groups and clubs participating in the Extension Upgrading Programme
will be selected by project staff in cooperation with the Management Unit.
Criteria for the selection are:
farm size the group members should be quite similar concerning
their farm size;

- cropping pattern the present cropping pattern should be similar for all
members of the same group or club. It should be representative for the ma-
jority of farmers in the respective EPA.

For the coming season groups with rice-growing farmers will be excluded
to ease the design of recommendations. However, it is not out of the
question that rice growers may be included for the following reasons.

In Zomba project the ADD works with two cotton groups to look into the
conditions of cotton-growing farmers.
- farm implements: work-oxen should not be available for the group
and club members.

The field assistants will be responsible for the implementation of the

* see Liwonde ADD, Field Development Services, Concept and Policy,
Liwonde, March 1982





- 21 -


programme. They have to train their groups or clubs in a fortnightly
sequence. On the other hand the respective TAs will get a special train-
ing on the implementation of the used recommendations.

To get realistic figures on the adoption of recommendations by the parti-
cipating smallholders no inputs will be supplied by the ADD. The farmers
have to purchase the necessary inputs themselves. Credit is made available
by the projects.

3.3 Principles for the Design of Recommendations

In the past extension work concentrated mainly on the few most important
crops like maize and cotton in cotton-growing areas. The extension approach
of the Extension Upgrading Programme is a more holistic one. The farm with
all its important and less important enterprises will be seen as a unit.
The aim is not only to increase the production of few crops, but it is to
rise and to maintain in the long run the productivity of the whole farm.
To achieve that the recommendations will include as a new element a farm-
planning component besides the crop-specific recommendations.

The recommendations on crops are in line with the "Guideto Agricultural
Production" but improved based on area-specific experience and extended
in some cases to get more precisely defined recommendations.

In designing crop recommendations the following principles were
followed:
timeliness of all field operations (land preparation, planting,
weeding and banking, fertilizer application, harvesting, etc.)
is necessary to obtain high yields;

proper performance of all field operations is required, parti-
cularly where costly inputs like improved seeds or fertilizer
are involved;

recommendations on local varieties are low-cost oriented.
The productivity of these crops is to be increased by intensified
intercropping and small amounts of fertilizer where required;

recommendations on improved maize varieties are more costly and
include the application of higher amounts of fertilizer.

The main element of the farm-planning component are "farming package re-
commendations". They are "farm models" developed for the area-specific
requirements of the different EPAs. They include quite flexible recommen-
dations on the cropping pattern and on the necessary inputs.





- 22 -


the recommended cropping pattern is based on the existing
situation in the different EPAs as indicated in the results
of garden surveys. The recommended cropping pattern is only
slightly different to the existing one. It seems to be economically
more suitable and considers aspects of soil productivity:

-- intercropping is stressed to obtain higher outputs under
low input levels,to improve the diet of the rural population,
and as a means to maintain soil productivity in the long run;
-- the packages are developed in a way that allows simple rotations
with different crops or of maize in pure stand with maize in
mixtures.
the input requirements for the whole farm are included in the packages
according to the recommended cropping pattern.

3.4 The Monitoring and Evaluation

The monitoring and evaluation exercise will be done by the Planning
and Evaluation Section.

For monitoring purposes five farmers of each participating group or club
will be selected. These farmers will be visited by enumerators in a weekly
sequence. The enumerators will interview the farmers according to a
special guideline.

The monitoring involves a detailed record of the past and the actual
cropping pattern, of all activities performed, activity standards, input
utilization, including labour used for each activity, an assessment of
crop growth at periodic intervals and an accurate measurement of the yield
of all grown crops.

The objectives of the monitoring and evaluation exercise are:

to assess and record the previous cropping pattern and physical out-
put;

to measure and assess the physical and financial resources used
by each farmer;

to measure and assess the labour availability of each farm house-
hold and the labour requirement involved in each field operation;

to identify and record constraints realized in carrying out field
operations;

to measure the physical output of each farm;

to evaluate the costs and return for each farm;
to assess the level of adoption for each recommendation;







23 -


to obtain opinions and suggestions of the participating
farmers on the recommendations;

to determine which recommendations are ready for implementation
in general extension and which need modification.

The detailed recommendations and a monitoring guideline are under
preparation.




TRIALS IN LIWONDE ADD ALLOCATION
SITES
Trial Description SITES
Tril KAWINGA NAMWERA Z 0 M B A MANGOCHI
1 TRIALS IN EPA-CENTRES Nanyum Chik- I Mach. Mach. Mg. Mg.L.
bu .weo Nyambi Masuku.Ntiya Katuli. N W S E W SW .Lakesh.Mtuwa
1.1 Intercropping of Local
Maize with Grain Legumes X X X X X X X X X
under diff. Fertiliz.Levels
1.2 Density of Grain Legumes X X X X X X X X X
in Mixture with Maize
1.3 Cassava Time of Inter-
planting into Maize
1.4 N x K Fertilizer Trial
X

1.5 Crop Rotation X

1.6 Selection of Local Cassava
Varieties X X X X


2 ON FARM TRIALS

2.1 Fertilizer on Local and
Composite Maize X X X X X X X X X X
2.2 Intercropping of Maize with
different Grain Legumes X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
different Grain Legumes X X X X X X X X


EXTENSION UPGRADING PROGRAMME X X X X X X X X X X
--- -- LI X X X X X---- X -- ---X_


Number of trials:


EPA trials
On Farm trials
Extension Upgrading


Total number of trials


: 32
: 28
: 10
: 70









ANALYSIS OF FARMING SYSTEMS
TABLE 1: Farm size distribution


Farm Size Distribution Cultivated area per Farm-Size Category
__ of all holdings o of total area

PROJECT E P A No. of 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 1.6 Average 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 1.6
Holdings Farm size

NAMWERA MNG 07 (Katuli) 5,980 13.2 26.3 23.7 18.4 18.4 1.09 1.5 15.2 21.2 22.7 39.4
MNG 06 (Ntiya) 13.2 21.1 31.6 23.7 10.5 0.99 3.0 12.9 30.4 33.4 20.4
MNG 05 (Masuku) 24.4 33.5 15.4 18.0 9.0 0.85 5.4 25.6 16.5 30.3 22.2
KAWINGA MGA 09 (Nyambi) 5,895 5.0 45.0 25.0 10.0 15.0 0.99 1.6 28.9 23.8 13.6 32.0
MGA 10 (Chikweo) 8,010 7.7 35.9 25.6 20.5 10.3 1.06 2.1 20.0 23.9 27.6 26.4
MGA 11 (Nanyumbu) 8,435 16.2 29.7 27.0 10.8 16.2 0.98 5.0 18.4 26.4 15.8 34.4
ZOMBA MGA 06 (Malosa) 11,170 10.0 45.5 30.0 12.5 5.0 0.83 2.6 30.6 35.3 19.8 11.8
ZO 02 (Chingale) 7,265 30.0 35.0 23.3 5.0 6.7 0.78 8.9 26.6 27.6 8.3 28.6
ZO 05 (Mpokwa) 10,570 21.3 40.0 18.8 11.3 8.8 0.81 6.8 29.0 21.9 19.5 22.8
ZO 07 (Dzaone) 7,910 27.0 32.4 24.3 10.8 5.4 0.80 7.5 23.1 30.0 19.6 19.9
MANGOCHI MNG 03 (Lakeshore) 16,230 22.0 40.2 19.4 7.8 10.4 0.81 5.0 28.6 23.5 13.5 29.3
MGA 01 (Balaka) 17.7 30.4 22.8 17.7 11.4 0.92 4.4 18.1 24.3 26.4 26.8
MGA 02 (Phalula) 15.0 26.2 28.8 16.3 13.7 1.10 3.6 14.1 26.4 20.3 35.6







ANALYSIS OF FARMING SYSTEMS


TABLE 2: Average Cropping Pattern


MAJOR CROPS- % of total cultivated area


PROJECT E P A LM LM/GN* LM/P* LM/Cass** Cass** GN Cotton Rice


NAMWERA MNG 07(Katuli) 53.7 2.9 21.9 0.0 0.3 -
MNG 06 (Ntiya) 68.0 7.2 17.2 0.2 1.0 1.5 -
MNG 05 (Masuku) 70.8 19.8 7.0 0.6 0.5 9.5 0.4
KAWINGA MGA 09 (Nyambi) 70.4 7.9 4.5 1.1 10.8 1.4
MGA 10 (Chikweo) 43.1 32.1 3,4 1.5 8.1 10.6
MGA 11 (Nanvumbu) 63.4 7.1 1.3 10.3 3.9 4.0 6.9
ZOMBA MGA 06 (Malosa) 52.9 10.8 0.8 21.9 2.1 9.0
ZO 02 (Chingale) 32.5 11.7 51.3 1.7 2.3 --
ZO 05 (Mpokwa) 87.1 0.8 2.2 2.1 7.5
ZO 07 (Dzaone) 45.5 32.1 3.1 5.0 2.3 -
MANGOCHI MNG 03 (Lakeshore) 82.2 1.8 9.8 3.2 -
MGA 01 (Balaka) 73.0 3.6 0.8 2.9 3.7 7.6
MGA 02 (Phalula) 75.7 9.7 4.4


Local Maize
Local Maize/Groundnut Mixture
Local Maize/Pulses Mixture (type of
Local Maize/Cassava Mixture
Cassava
Groundnuts


pulses not indicated)


* = figures on mixtures are too low. Legumes are mostly 'scattered' interplanted, while Maize
with scattered interplants was not judged as mixture.
** = figures on cassava are too low. The data on cropping pattern were surveyed at the begin
of the cropping season, while most of the cassave is planted later.
SOURCES: NSSA Garden Survey


LM
LM/GN
LM/P
LM/Cass
Cass
GN


U, Z
Worn
tNO
Mr 1-






ANNEX II
Page 1

THE EXTENSION UPGRADING PROGRAMME

1 The Recommendations

As mentioned in Chapter II, the recommendations consist of two
parts:
1.1 Crop-specific recommendations
1.2 "farming package recommendations".

1.1 The Crop-Specific Recommendations

Recommendations are developed for
maize in pure stand (local and composite)
maize mixtures (with groundnuts, beans, cowpeas,
pigeon peas, cassava)
groundnuts in pure stand
beans in pure stand
cassava in pure stand
sorghum in pure stand
cotton.

Before coming to the recommendations, three points should be con-
sidered:

- recommendations on mixtures are not proved in trials, they are more
or less preliminary suggestions. Particularly the cropping density
will be proved in EPA-trials;

- fertilizer recommendations stress the application of CAN, despite
the fact that a bag of SA (MK 10.50) is cheaper than a bag of CAN
(MK 13.00). This price relation should not mislead farmers and
extension staff. The N-content, which causes the effect of the
fertilizer, is 21%o for SA but 26% for CAN. That means that 1kg Nitrogen
is MK 1.00 for CAN as well as for SA the price per kg nutrient
is exactly the same for both. However, SA has an acid effect and
leads to lower soil pH and connected with that to detoriation of
soil structure and decreasing soil fertility in the long run, while
the acidity of CAN is only very low;

- early garden preparation in combination with incorporation of all
crop residues (if not needed for feeding of livestock) is one main
element of the recommendations. It should be stressed in order to
achieve maintenance of the soil humus content and the soil structure.
The incorporation of residues should be finished by July at latest.






ANNEX II
Page 2


CROP RECOMMENDATIONS


CROP: MAIZE


LOCAL MAIZE


COMPOSITE MAIZE


Recommended Varieties:


local varieties


UCA (Namwera,Kawinga,Zomba)


CCA (Balaka)

Planting: seed rate: 25kg/ha (= 10kg/dcre)
-time: soon after first planting rains
-spacing: 90 cm between ridges, 90cm within ridges, 3 seeds per hole
-supplying: supply blank stations as soon as possible.

Fertilization:
-amount: 3 bags CAN/ha 5bags CAN/ha
(or 4 bags SA/ha) (or 6 bags SA/ha)
-timing: 50% soon after maize emergence
50% when maize is kneehigh (45 cm-60 cm)
-method: dollop method use x 100 cup for dollop method use x 150 cup,
both dressings, filled for CAN, % filled for CAN,
filled for. SA). .filled for SA).

Weeding: 1st weeding as soon as weeds appear,
2nd weeding 3-4 weeks later
Banking: soon after 2nd weeding, cover roots sprouting from the
lower nodes; no banking in areas with termite infestation.

Seed Selection: select good cobs of well-developed plants in the field,
harvest and store separately..

Harvest: harvest maize when completely dry,
stocking is recommended in areas with termite infestation or
lodging during harvest time to prevent rotting of cobs on the
ground and to speed up drying.

Storage: store when cobs are completely dry,
treat maize with actellic (1 sachet per 90g maize) or with
ashes, protect nkhokwe against rats.

Garden Preparation for the next Crop:
start soon after harvest,
incorporate all crop residues if not needed for feeding of live-
stock, burrying should be done soon after harvest and finished
in July at latest.



CROP: GROUNDNUTS (pure stand)
Recommended Varieties: Chalimbana, (Mani Pintar)

Planting:
-time: early in the rains
-spacing: 90cm between ridges, 15 cm within ridges
-supplying: soon after emergence to ensure high plant population.







ANNEX II
Page 3


CROP RECOMMENDATIONS (continued)

.CROP: GROUNDNUTS. (pure stand)

Weeding: soon after weeds appear
Banking: before groundnuts start pegging
fatten the ridges that pegs are able to enter the soil.

Crop Protection: Remove .all severe' disease-infested plants.

Seed Selection: select disease-free plants before harvest;
harvest, .dry and store separately.

Harvest: harvest as soon as nuts are matured (indication: most of the
leaves are yellow and spotted, inside of the shells is dark
spotted),
lift the nuts by hoe,
dry in stocks in the field or stripe the pods and dry on
mats at home.

Storage: store only dry unshelled nuts in rat-protected nkhokwes,
treat with ashes or with actellic to avoid infestation with
weevils.

Garden Preparation for the following crop:
start soon after harvest; if not needed for feeding of livestock
incorporate all crop residues. Burrying should be finished
by July at the latest.



CROP: ..B E A N S (pure stand)

Recommended Varieties: Dwarf Beans

Planting:
-time: November/December (summer crops)
February/March (winter crops)
July/August (dimba crops)
-spacing: 90 cm x 15 cm x 3 plants

Weeding: weed as soon as weeds appear.

Seed Selection: select seed of disease-free plants in the field, harvest,
dry and store separately.

Harvest: -harvest when pods are completely matured, if necessary,
dry on mats at home,
-remove pest-infested pods before storing.

Storage: Store in sacks or in mbiya on dry and cool places. Treat
against weevils with ashes or with actellic.

Garden Preparation for the next Crop:
soon after harvest. If not needed for feeding of livestock,
incorporate all crop residues.






ANNEX II
Page 4


CROP: CASSAVA (pure stand)


Recommended Varieties:


Local varieties


Planting: plant disease-free material, stick 30 cm long
-time: soon after planting and weeding of main crops
spacing: 90 cm between ridges x 90 cm within ridges
-supplying: supply blank spaces as soon as possible.

Fertilization: no fertilizer recommended

Weeding: as soon as weeds appear
Banking: bank before tubers are fully L eloped make ridges as
big as possible.

Crop Protection: Remove all cassava mosaic-infested plants as soon as
possible.

Seed Selection: select well-matured cassava mosaic- and insect-free plants,
take cuttings with 5-7 nodes (about 30 cm long) from the
middle part of the stem.

Harvest: according to area-specific practice.

Storage: store as dried slices or pieces.

Garden Preparation for the next Crop:
start with garden preparation as early as possible.



CROP: SORGHUM

Recommended Varieties: Local varieties or PN 3

Planting:
-time: plant early in the rains soon after planting of maize
-: -local varieties: 90 cm between ridges x 45 cm within ridges,
-5-8 seeds per hole;
-PN 3 : 90 cm between ridges x 25 cm within ridges,
5-8 seeds per hole;
-thinning: thin when crop is 10 cm high to 3 plants per station.

Fertilization: no fertilizer recommended

Weeding: 1st weeding as soon as weeds appear,
2nd weeding 3-4 weeks later.
Banking: cover new emerging crop roots at the stem base as early
as possible.

Seed Selection: select well-developed plants in the field, harvest, dry and store
separately.






ANNEX II
Page 5


CROP RECOMMENDATIONS (continued)


CROP: SORGHUM

Harvest: harvest as soon as physiological maturity is reached,
don't allow to overstay to avoid losses by insects and
birds, if necessary dry at home on mats.

Storage: store only well-dried grains,
treat with ashes or with actellic.

Garden Preparation for the next Crop:
start with garden preparation soon after harvest, incorporate
all crop residues. Burrying of residues should be finished
by July at latest.



CROP: MAIZE/GROUNDNUT mixture
MAIZE GROUNDNUT
Recommended Varieties: Local varieties Chalimbana (Mani Pintar)

Planting:
-time: soon after first planting rain soon after maize emergence
-spacing: 90 cm between ridges, 4 groundnuts between 2
90 cm within ridges, 3 plants/hole stations of maize
-supplying: supply blank space soon after emergence (for both).

Fertilization: fertilizer only applied to maize.
-amount: 3 bags CAN/ha (or 4 bags SA/ha)
-timing: total amount applied as basic dressing
-method: dollop method (use x 150 cup for CAN
or x 200 cup for SA)..
Weeding: 1st weeding as soon as weeds appear
2nd weeding 3 4 weeks later
Banking: bank before groundnuts are pegging, fatten the ridges to ease the
penetration of pegs into the soil;
if weeds appear after banking uproote by hand.

Crop Protection: as in pure stand.

Seed Selection: as in pure stand.

Harvest: as in pure stand, harvest maize at first.

Storage: as in pure stand.

Garden Preparation for the next Crop: as in pure stand.










CROP: MAIZE/BEANS mixture
MAIZE


Recommended Varieties: Local varieties


Local varieties


Planting:
-time: as in pure stand -1st planting: soon after maize
emergence
2nd planting: February/March
-spacing: as in pure stand -2 stations of beans x 3 seeds
between 2 stations of maize,
plant beans near to maize,that
beans can use fertilizer applied
-supplying: as in pure stand, to maize because beans are a
small feeder..

Fertilization: fertilizer only applied to maize
-amount: 3 bags CAN/ha (or 4 bags SA/ha)
-timing: total amount applied as basic
dressing
-method: dollop method (use x 150 cup for
CAN or x 200 cup for SA).

Weeding: as for maize in pure stand
Banking: as for maize in pure stand.

Crop Protection: as for beans and maize in pure stand
Seed Selection: as for beans and maize in pure stand
Harvest: as for beans and maize in pure stand
Storage: as for beans and maize in pure stand
Garden preparation for the next Crop: as for beans and maize in pure stand.



CROP: MAIZE/COWPEA mixture
MAIZE COWPEAS

Recommended Varieties: Local varieties local varieties

Planting:
-time: as for maize in pure stand soon after maize emergence
-spacing: as for maize in pure stand every second ridge in every
2nd space* between 2 stations
of maize one station of cowpeas
x 3 seeds (= 180x180cm x plants:
-supplying: as for maize in pure stand

Fertilization: fertilizer only applied to maize
-amount: 3 bags CAN/ha (or 4 bags SA/ha)
-timing: total amount applied as basal dres-
ing
-method: dollop method (use x 150 cup for
CAN or x 200 cup for SA)


ANNEX II
Page 6


BEANS







ANNEX II
Page7


CROP RECOMMENDATIONS (continued)
CROP: MAIZE/COWPEA mixture

Weeding: as for maize in pure stand
Banking: as for maize in pure stand

Seed Selection: as for maize in pure stand select disease-free plants in
the field, harvest, dry and
store separately.
Harvest: .as for maize in pure stand harvest dry pods, if necessary
dry at home on mats.
Storage: as for maize in pure stand remove pest-infested pods be-
fore storing; store only com-
pletely dry pods. Treat against
weevils with ashes or actellic.
Garden Preparation for the next Crop:
Start soon after harvest. If not needed for feeding of livestock,
incorporate all crop residues. Burrying should be finished in
July at the latest.

*) 7 o = maize stations
x = cowpea stations






CROP: MAIZE/PIGEON PEA mixture
MAIZE PIGEON PEA

Recommended Varieties: Local varieties Local varieties

Planting:
-time: as for maize in pure stand soon after first weeding of maize
-spacing: as for maize in pure stand every second ridge in every
-supplying: as for maize in pure stand second space between two stations
Sof maize one pigeon pea*

Fertilization: fertilizer applied only to maize
-amount: 3bags CAN/ha (or 4bags SA/ha)
-timing: split dressing:
1/2 soon after germination of maize,
1/2 when maize kneehigh (50-60cm)
-method: dollop method (use x 100 cup for
both dressing,- filled for CAN,
filled for SA).

Weeding: as for maize in pure stand
Banking: as for maize in pure stand

Crop Protection: as for maize in pure stand remove disease-infested plants.






ANNEX II
Page 8
CROP RECOMMENDATIONS (continued)
CROP: MAIZE/PIGEON PEA mixture

Seed Selection: as for maize in pure stand, select seed from disease-free
plants, harvest and store
separately.

Harvest: as for maize in pure stand'. harvest only dry pods.

Storage: as for maize in pure stand store in sacks or in mbiya on
dry and cool places,
treat with ashes or actellic
against weevils.

Garden Preparation for the next Crop:
Burry maize stalks soon after maize harvest, incorporate leaves
of pigeon peas after harvest.
*) x = pigeon pea stations









CROP: MAIZE/CASSAVA mixture
MAIZE CASSAVA

Recommended Varieties: Local varieties Local varieties

Planting:
-time: as for maize in pure stand plant cassava when maize is
kneehigh (45 cm 60 cm)
-spacing: as for maize in pure stand one cassava between two stations
of maize
-supplying: as for maize in pure stand

Fertilization: fertilizer applied only to maize
-amount: 3bags CAN/ha (or 4 bags SA/ha)
-timing: split dressing:
1/2 soon after germination of maize
1/2 when maize is kneehigh
-method: dollop method (use x 100 cup for both
dressings,- filled for CAN,filled
for SA).

Weeding: 1st season as for maize in pure stand, 2nd season as for
cassava in pure stand
Banking: make ridges bigger than for maize in pure stand.

Crop Protection: as for maize in pure stand. as for cassava in pure stand.
Seed Selection: as for maize in pure stand, as for cassava in pure stand.









CROP RECOMMENDATIONS (continued)


ANNEX II
Page 9


CROP MAIZE/CASSAVA mixture

Harvest: as for maize in pure stand as for cassave in pure stand.

Storage: as for maize in pure stand as for cassava in pure stand.

Garden Preparation for the next Crop:
as for maize and cassave in pure stand.



CROP: COTTON

Recommended Varieties: Plant ALA 54 which is the current recommended variety
to be planted.

Planting:
-time: prepare land early so that cotton can be planted with the
planting rains.
-spacing: the land should be deeply ploughed because cotton is deep-rooted.
Ridges should be 90 cm apart and 30 cm high. Ridges may be tied
to control soil erosion.
Sow 8-10 seeds per hill spaced at 60cm between plants and later
thinned to 3 plants per station. All planting must be done by
7th January. (20-25 kg/ha).

Thinning: thin early about 2-3 weeks after planting depending on the emer-
gence date of the seedlings. Thinning after three weeks causes
reduction in yield due to competition and causes ranky growth.
Thinning should be done when the soil is moist.

Fertilization: no fertilizer recommendation.

Weeding: weeding should be done when weeds are still small.
Make subsequent weedings as weeds grow.

Scouting: start scouting in the morning to find out what pests are found
in the field so that you can recommend what insecticide to use.

Spraying: dissolve the chemical according to the recommended rates as
follows:
(a) for ULV sprayer one sachet of carbaryl to one bottle
which holds chemical when you are spraying. One sachet
of DDT to one bottle. One sachet of dimethoate to one
bottle.
(b) for Knapsack sprayer one sachet of carbaryl to 14 Itr.
of water. One sachet of dimethoate to 14 Itr. of water.
One sachet of insecticide is sufficient for 1000 m
(four sachets for one acre).
Spray weekly according to pests found in the field up to the time
when the bulk of the crop has burst.

Picking: start picking when 3 to 4 bolls have opened on each planting station.
Picking should be done when all the dew on the cotton has dried off.
Pick cotton according to grades.
Uprooting: uproot all cotton stalks as soon as picking has finished by 31st July.
All cotton stalks should be burned by 14th August.






ANNEX II
Page 10


1.2 The"Farming Package Recommendations"

The package recommendations include two elements:

the cropping pattern and
an input component.

For each EPA three different packages are tailored for three different
farm-size categories. These farm-size categories are determined according
to the area-specific farm-size distributions. Based on the assumption
that the farmers with the smallest farms do not participate in groups or
clubs, the smallest farm-size category starts with 0.6 ha (0.8 ha in
Mangochi, 0.8 and 1.2 ha in Zomba).

Recommendations on the cropping pattern: EPA-specific recommendations
on the cropping pattern are developed. These recommendations are based on
the existing situation as indicated in the NSSA Garden Survey 1980/81,
which was modified according to the experience of the Development Officers.
The recommended pattern was designed in discussions with the Development
Officers.

The cropping patterns aim
on the one hand on increased production of the farm unit, and
on the other hand on maintaining of the productivity in the
long run.

The recommended cropping pattern is equal for all farm-size categories in
the same area, exceptions are cotton-growing areas where cotton is re-
commended only in the higher farm-size classes.

The recommended cropping patterns include the following crops:
1) Maize in pure stand: the area under maize in pure stand is
reduced compared to the existing pattern. It includes for each
farm-size category a small portion (0.2 or 0.4 ha) under
composite maize.

2) Maize mixture with grain legumes: the area under these mixtures
is increased based on the assumption that mixtures
are more appropriate to maintain soil fertility than
maize in pure stand;
are more profitable for farmers who work under low input
levels.
The intercrops are not specified in the recommended cropping pattern
in order to leave the decision on which crop will be grown to
the farmer himself.







ANNEX II
Page 14

3) Cassava, maize/cassava mixture is included in the cropping
pattern for Nanyumbu.

4) Cotton is included in the cropping pattern for the EPAs in
Zomba and Mangochi only for the bigger farm-size categories,
where cotton actually is grown.

5) Minor crops: 10-20 % minor crops are included in each re-
commended pattern. This is a means of flexibility. The farmer
should not be pushed too much into a cropping pattern which he
might not like to follow. The decision how to cover these 10 or
20 % of his farm is with the farmer. Allowed is almost every
crop which the farmer wants to grow including crops which are
already mentioned under 1-4. The only exception is maize in pure
stand in order to achieve somehow a simple crop rotation.

Crop rotation: The cropping patterns are developed in a way that
allows a simple crop rotation of maize in pure stand with all the other
crops.

The Input component: The second element of the package recommendations
is the input component. It includes for each farm-size category in each
EPA the inputs which can be purchased on credit.
improved seed: Maize:
the package includes the recommendation to grow 0.2 ha or 0.4 ha
CCA or UCA according to the farm-size category. Since the normal
bag is 10kg for 0.4 ha, the ADD will provide smaller ones to check whether
more farmers would grow composite maize if smaller seed packages were
available.
Groundnuts: in groundnut-growing areas 6 or 12kg seeds (for 0.1 or 0.2 ha)
are included in the input component.
Pulses: 1-4 kg seed according to the farm-size category is included
in the package.
- fertilizer:
each farmer can choose his own fertilizer component, starting with
1 bag. The package recommendations include a recommendation on the
amount of fertilizer for each farm-size category.

- insecticides:
insecticide recommendations are included for cotton-growing farmers,
for 0.1 ha (12 sprays): 12 sachets carbaryl, 7 sachets DDT*, 3 sachets
dimethoate.
All the other necessary inputs (like seed of local maize and-polees)

.) other insecticides mainly for effective control of the american bollworm
are not available at present.







ANNEX II
Page 12

are not provided on credit. The farmer himself has to procure
them.


EXPLANATIONS on the following TABLES:

The following TABLES show EPA-wise

1) the present cropping pattern (according to NSSA Garden Survey
modified in cooperation with the respective DOs);

2) the anticipated cropping pattern in %;

3) the anticipated cropping pattern by farm-size category
in ha and acre. They always include a certain portion under
CCA or UCA. For the other crops they mostly indicate a range,
whereby the smaller figure is for the smaller farm size in the
farm-size category (for example 0.6 ha), the higher figure for
the bigger farm size within the same category (for example 0.8 ha).
For the biggest farm-size category (more than 1.2 or 1.6 ha)
one example on the cropping pattern in ha (acre) is indicated;

4) the recommended crop rotation;

5) the recommendations on input per farm which can be purchased
on credit. For fertilizer on Local Maize and Maize mixtures
they give again a range, whereby the smaller amount is for the
smaller farms,the higher amount for the bigger farms within
the same farm-size category.







ANNEX II
Page 13

EPA: MALOSA

Present Cropping Pattern1) cultivated area
Present Cropping Pattern ( % cultivated area )
r -- i -- i ----


. Crops LM pure LM/legumes Cotton linor Crops
% cultiva-
ted area 40 20 20 20


Recommended Cropping Pattern ( % cultivated area )


I I I I


I z)


Crops Maize pure LM/legumes Cotton Iinor Crops
% cultiva-
ted area 30 30 20 20


Recommended Cropping Pattern ( ha and acre ) by farm-size category

Dimen- Farmsi rops Maize IRecommended Variety 2)
sion Category pure Local UCA LM/legumes Cotton Minor Crop
ha 0.8 1.2 0.2-0.4 (0 -0.2 0.2) 0.2-0.4 0.2 0.2

acre 2 3 0.5-1 (0 -0.5 0.5) 0.5-1 0.5 0.5

ha 1.2 1.6 0.4-0.5 (0.2-0.3 0.2) 0.4-0.5 0.2-0.3 0.2-0.3

acre 3 4 1 -1.25 (0.5-0.75 0.5) 1 1.5 0.5-0.75 0.5

ha 160 0.4 0.4
ha 1.6 3) 0.6 ( 0.2 0.4) 0.6 0.4 0.4
acre 4 3) 1.5 ( 0.5 1) 1.5 1 1


Input Component ( purchase on credit ) by farm-size category

farm-size s e e d insecticide fertilizer on
category (ha) Maize rainlequmes (sachets) Composite maizel LM and mixtures
24 carb.,14 DDT,
0.8 1.2 5kg UCA I 2 kg Pulses 6 dimethoate 1 bag CAN 1 2 bags CAN
4-36 carb.,14-21
1.2 1.6 5kg UCA 3 kg Pulses DT,6-9 dimeth. 1 bag CAN 2 3 bags CAN
3) 8 carb., 28 DDT,
1.6 l kg UCA : 4 kg Pulses12 dimethoate 2 bags CAN 3 bags CAN

NOTES: 1) Rotation: Maize pure and Cotton rotated with LM/legumes and minor crops.

NOTES: 1) Present cropping pattern different to pattern indicated in ANNEX I,
because the programme is carried out in Malosa with a cotton group.
2) Particularly LM/CASSAVA.
3) Example: 2 ha farm (5 acre).


_ _Z 7






ANNEX II
Page 14


EPA: CHINGALE


Present Cropping Pattern )( % cultivated area )

-..-.. -- -.. ._. -..... -- i...


. Cro
p
s LM
p
ure LM/1egumes Cotton Minor Crop
% cultiva-
ted area 50 15 30 5


Recommended Cropping Pattern ( % cultivated area )


Recommended Cropping Pattern ( ha and acre ) by farm-size category

Dimen- Farmsi rops Maize Recommended Variety
sion Cateory pure Local CCA LM/legumes Cotton inor Crops
ha
1.2 1.6 0.4-0.6 (0.2-0.4 0.2) 0.2-0.3 0.4-0.5 0.2
acre
ace 3 4 1 -1.5 (0.5-1 0.5) 0.5-0.75 1 -1.25 0.5
ha
1.6 2.0 0.6-0.8 (0.4-0.6 0.2) 0.3-0.4 0.5-0.6 0.2
acre
ae 4 5 1.5 2 (1-1.5 0.5) 0.75-1 1.25-1.5 0.5
ha 2)
2 1.0 (0.6 0.4) 0.5 0.7 0.2
acre 2)
acre 2) 2.5 (15 1 ) 1.25 1.75 0.5


Input Component ( purchase on credit ) by farm-size category

farm-size e e d insecticide fertilizer on
category (ha) Maize rain leumes (sachets) Composite maize4 LM and mixtures
48-60 carb.,28-35
1.2 1.6 5kg CCA 1kg Pulses DDT,12-15 dimeth 1 bag CAN 1 2 bags CAN
60-72 carb.,35-42
1.6 2.0 5kg CCA 2g Pulses DDT,15-18 dimeth. 1 bag CAN 2 3 bags CAN
2 ,84 carb., 49 DDT,
2.0 10k CCA 3kg Pulses 21 dimethoate 2 bags CAN 3 bags CAN

Rotation: Maize pure and minor crops rotated with LM/legumes and Cotton.

NOTES: 1) Present cropping pattern different to pattern indicated in ANNEX I,
because the programme is carried out in Chingale with a cotton group.
2) Example: 2.4 ha farm (6 acre).


]







ANNEX II
Page 15
EPA: BALAKA


Present Cropping Pattern ( % cultivated area )


Croos


LM pure


LM/legumes Cotton


Minor Crop


% cultiva-
0.8-1.6ha ted area 60 20 20

>1. cultiva- 40
RecommendedCropping Pattern ( cultivated area )

Recommended Cropping Pattern ( % cultivated area )


Croos


Maize pure LM/legumes


Cotton


Minor Crop


% cultiva-
0.8-1.6ha ted area 50 30 20
0, cultiva-
>1.6ha cultiva- 30 20 30 20
ted area


Recommended Cropping Pattern ( ha and acre ) by farm-size


category


Dimen- Farmsi rops Maize Recommended Variety
sion Category pure Local CCA LM/legumes Cotton Minor Crop

ha 0.4-0.6 (0.2-0.4 0.2) 0.2-0.4 0.2
acre 1 1.5 (0.5-1 0.5) 0.5-1 0.5

ha 1.2 1.6 0.6-0.8 (0.2-0.4 0.4) 0.4-0.5 0.2-0.3
acre 3 4 1.5-2 (0.5-1 1) 1 -1.25 0.5-0.75

ha > 1.6 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.4
acre > 4 1.5 1.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 1.0


Input Component ( purchase on credit ) by farm-size category

farm-size s e e d insecticide fertilizer on
category (ha) Maize rainlequmes (sachets) Composite maizej LM and mixtures

0.8 1.2 ha 5kg CCA I 2kg Pulses 1 bag CAN i 1-2 bags CAN

1.2 1.6 10kg CCA I 3kg Pulses 2 bags CAN i 2-3 bags CAN

> 1.6 ha 5kg CCA 2kg Pulses 72 carbar.,42DDT 1 bag CAN 2 bags CAN
__1.6ha_5_ _CA I 1R dimpthnate

Rotation: Maize pure with other crops (0.8-1.6 ha farms)
LM/P, Cotton rotated with Maize pure, Minor crops (farms >1.6 ha)










EPA:


PHALULA


Present Cropping Pattern ( % cultivated area )


Recommended Cropping Pattern


( % cultivated area )


Crops


Maize pure


LM/mixture


Cotton


Minor Crop


% cultiva-
0.8-1.2ha ted area 50 30 20
1.2ha cultiva- 50 20 20 10
ted area


Recommended Cropping Pattern ( ha and acre ) by farm-size category

Dimen- Farmsi rops Maize Recommended Variety
sion Cate or pure Local CCA LM/legumes Cotton Minor Crop
ha
0.8 1.2 0.4-0.6 (0.2-0.4 0.2) 0.2-0.4 0.2
acre 2 3 1 -1.5 (0.5-1 0.5) 0.5-1 0.5

ha
ha 1.2 1.6 0.6-0.8 (0.4-0.6 0.2) 0.2-0.3 0.3 0.1-0.2
acre 3 4 1.5-2 (1 -1.5 0.5) 0.5-0.75 0.75 0.25-0.5

ha
ha> 1.6 1 (0.6 0.4) 0.4 0.4 0.2
acre 4 2.5 (1.5 1.0) 1.0 1.0 0.5


Input Component ( purchase on credit ) by farm-size category

farm-size s e e d insecticide fertilizer on
category (ha) Maize hrainegumes (sachets) Composite maize LM and mixtures

0.8 1.2 5kg CCA 21kg Pulses 1 bag CAN 1 2 bags CAN
I 36 carbar.,21 DD
1.2 1.6 5kg CCA 2kg Pulses 9 dimethoate 1 bag CAN 2 3bags CAN

1.6 10kg CCA 2kg Pulses 48 crbar,28DD 2 bags CAN 3 bags CAN

Rotation: Maize pure rotated with other crops.


ANNEX II
Page 16







ANNEX II
Page 17


EPA: NYAMBI

Present Cropping Pattern ( % cultivated area )


Recommended Cropping Pattern


( % cultivated area )


Crops Maize pure LM/legumei Minor Cros
% cultiva-
ted area 50 30 20


Recommended Cropping Pattern ( ha and


acre ) by farm-size category


Dimen- Farmsi rops Maize Recommended Variety 1) 1)
sion Cateory pure Local UCA LM/legumes Minor Cro s
ha 0.6 0.8 0.3-0.4 (0.1-0.2 0.2) 0.2-0.3 0.1

acre 1.5 2 0.75-1 (0.25-0.5 0.5) 0.5-0.75 0.25

ha 0.8 1.2 0.4-0.6 (0.2-0.4 0.2) 0.3-0.4 0.1-0.2

acre 2 3 1 1.5 (0.5-1 0.5) 0.75-1 0.25-0.5
ha >1.2 0.8 (0.4 0.4) 0.5 0.3

acre >3 2.0 (1.0 1.0) 1.25 0.75

NOTE 1) Mainly Groundnuts.
Input Component ( purchase on credit ) by farm-size category

farm-size s e e d insecticide fertilizer on
category (ha) Maize irainleumes (sachets) Composite maizel LM and mixtures

0.6 0.8 5kg UCA I 6kg GN 1 bag CAN 1 1-2 bags CAN

0.8 1.2 5kg UCA 012kg GN 1 bag CAN 2-3 bags CAN

1.2 1kg UCA 12kg GN 2 bags CAN 3 bags CAN
*) Example: 1.6 ha farm (4 acre)

Rotation: Maize pure rotated with other crops.






ANNEX II
Page 18


EPA:


CHIKWEO


Present Cropping Pattern ( % cultivated area )


[ r',nr.. I IM,, nl' M/l~1 nlmps M, nni.rinn


% cultiva- 60 30 10
ted area


Recommended Cropping Pattern ( % cultivated area )


Crops IMaize pure LM/legumes Minor Cropj
% cultiva-
ted area 50 40 10


Recommended Cropping Pattern ( ha and acre ) by farm-size category

Dimen- Farmsi rops Maize I Recommended Variety 1)
sion Category pure Local UCA LM/legumes Minor Crop
ha 0.6 0.8 0.3-0.4 (0.1-0.2 0.2) 0.2-0.3 0.1

acre 1.5 2 0.75-1 (0.25-0.5 0.5) 0.5-0.75 0.25

ha 0.8 1.2 0.4-0.6 (0.2-0.4 0.2) 0.3-0.5 0.1
acre 2 3 1 -1.5 (0.5-1 0.2) 0.75-1.25 0.25

ha >1.2* 0.8 (0.4 0.4) 0.5 0.3

acre >3 2 (1.0 1.0) 1.25 0.75
Note 1) Mainly Groundnuts
Input Component ( purchase on credit ) by farm-size category

farm-size s e e d insecticide fertilizer on
category (ha) Maize -rainlequmes (sachets) Composite maize4 LM and mixtures
0.6 0.8 5kg UCA 6kg GN 1bag CAN 11-2 bags CAN

0.8 1.2 5kg UCA 6kg GN 1bag CAN 2-3 bags CAN

1.2* 10kg UCA 112kg GN 2bags CAN 3 bags CAN
*) Example: 1.6 ha farm (4 acre)


Rotation: Maize pure rotated with maize mixture and minor crops.







ANNEX II
Page 19


EPA: NANYUMBU

Present Cropping Pattern ( % cultivated area )


rC o s LM pure LM/legumes LM/cassa p


% cultiva-
ted area 40 40 10 10


Recommended Cropping Pattern ( % cultivated area ) (unchanged)


SCrops Maize pure LM/legumes LM/cassava Minor Crop
% cultiva-
ted area 40 40 10 10


Recommended Cropping Pattern ( ha and acre ) by farm-size category

Dimen- Farmsi rops Maize Recommended Variety
sion Category pure Local UCA LM/legumes LM/cassava Minor Crop
ha
h 0.6 0.8 0.25-0.3 (0.05-0.1 0.2) 0.25-0.3 0.05-0.1 0.05-0.1
acre 1.5 2 0.6 -0.75 (0.1-0.25 0.5) 0.6-0.75 0.1 -0.25 0.1 -0.25

ha 0.8 12 0.3-0.5 (0.1-0.3 0.2) 0.3-0.5 0.1 0.1
acre 2 3 0.751.25 (0.25-0.75 0.5) 0.75-1.25 0.25 0.25

ha 1.2 0.7 (0.3 0.4) 0.7 0.1 0.1
acre > 3 1.75 (0.75 1.0) 1.75 0.25 0.25


Input Component ( purchase on credit ) by farm-size category

farm-size s e e d insecticide fertilizer on
category (ha) Maize rainlequmes (sachets) Composite maize4 LM and mixtures

0.6 0.8 5kg UCA 2kg Pulses 1 bag CAN 1-2 bags CAN

0.8 1.2 5kg UCA 3kg Pulses 1 bag CAN 02-3 bags CAN

1.2 1Okg UCA n 4kg Pulses 2 bags CAN 3 bags CAN

*) Example: 1.6 ha farm (4 acre)

Rotation: LM Pure with LM/Legumes.







ANNEX II
Page 20


EPA: KATULI


Present Cropping Pattern ( %


I --


cultivated area )


. Crops ILM pure LM/legume4 Minor CroGs
% cultiva-
ted area 65 30 5


Recommended Cropping Pattern


I I


( % cultivated area )


I I I


Crops LM pure LM/legumes Minor Cropi
% cultiva-
ted area 50 40 10


Recommended Cropping Pattern ( ha and acre ) by farm-size category

Dimen- Farmsi rops Maize Recommended Variety
sion Category pure Local UCA LM/legumes Minor Cro s
ha 0.6 0.8 0.3-0.4 (0.1-0.2 0.2) 0.2-0.3 0.1

acre 1.5 2 0.75-1 (0.25-0.5 0.5) 0.5-0.75 0.25

ha 0.8 1.2 0.4-0.6 (0.2-0.4 0.2) 0.3-0.5 0.1

acre 2 3 1 1.5 (0.5-1 0.5) 0.75-1.25 0.25
ha > 1.2 0.8 (0.4 0.4) 0.6 0.2

acre 3 2.0 (1.0 1.0) 1.5 0.5


Input Component ( purchase on credit ) by farm-size category

farm-size s e e d insecticide fertilizer on
category (ha) Maize rainlegumes (sachets) Composite maizel LM and mixtures

0.6 0.8 5kg UCA Zno Pulses 1 bag CAN i 1-2 bags CAN

0.8 1.2 5kg UCA 3kg Pulses 1 bag CAN 2-3 bags CAN

1.2 10kg UCA i 4kg Pulses 2 bags CAN 3 bags CAN


*) Example: 1.6

Rotation: Maize


ha farm (4 acre)

pure rotated with LM/mixture and minor crops.


1 r 1 1


- --





ANNEX II
Page 21


EPA: NTIYA


Present Cropping Pattern ( % cultivated area )


Crops LM pure LM/legumes MinorCrope
% cultiva- 7 20 5
ted area


Recommended Cropping Pattern ( % cultivated area )


Crops Maize pure LM/legumle Minor Cropj
% cultiva-
ted area 60 30 10


Recommended Cropping Pattern ( ha and


acre ) by farm-size category


Dimen- Farmsi rops Maize Recommended Variety 1)
sion Category pure Local UCA LM/mixture Minor Cro s
ha
0.6 0.8 0.3-0.5 (0.1-0.3 0.2) 0.2 0.1
acre
are 1.5 2 0.75-1.25 (0.25-0.75 0.5) 0.5 0.25
ha
0.8 1.2 0.5-0.7 (0.1-0.3 0.4) 0.2-0.4 0.1
acre
acre 2 3 1.25-1.7. (0.25-0.75 1.0) 0.5-1 0.25
ha
ha 1.2 0.9 ( 0.5 0.4) 0.5 0.2
acre >3 2.25 (1.25 1.0) 1,25 0.5
1) 1 .2 0.5
Note 1) mainly Groundnuts
Input Component ( purchase on credit ) by farm-size category

farm-size s e e d insecticide fertilizer on
category (ha) Maize hrainlequmes (sachets) Composite maizel LM and mixtures

0.6 0.8 5kg UCA 6kg GN 1 bag CANI 1-2 bags CAN

0.8 1.2 10kg UCA 12kg GN 2 bagsCAN, 1-2 bags CAN

1.2 10kg UCA 12kg GN 2 bagsCAN 3 bags CAN

*) Example: 1.6 ha farm (4 acre)

Rotation: Maize mixture and minor crops with maize pure.






ANNEX II
Page 22


EPA: MASUKU


Present Cropping Pattern ( % cultivated area )


1)
Crops LM pure LM/legumes Groundnutj Minor Cro s
% cultiva-
ted area 55 30 10 5


Recommended Cropping Pattern ( % cultivated area )


Crops Maize pure LM/lequmes Minor Cropi
% cultiva-
ted area 50 35 15


Recommended Cropping Pattern ( ha and acre ) by farm-size category

Dimen- Farmsi rops Maize I Recommended Variety 1) 1)
sion Category pure Local UCA LM/mixture Minor Crop
ha
h 0.6 0.8 0.3-0.4 (0.1-0.2 0.2) 0.2-0.3 0.1

acre
acre 1.5 2 0.75-1 (0.25-0.5 0.5) 0.5-0.75 0.25
ha
ha 0.8 1.2 0.4-0.6 (0.2-0.4 0.2) 0.3-0.4 0.1-0.2
acreI
acre 2 3 1-1.5 (0.5-1 0.5) 0.75-1 0.25-0.5
ha
ac >1.2 0.8 ( 0.4 0.4) 0.5 0.3
acre >3 2.0 ( 1.0 1.0) 1,25 0.75

Note 1) mainly Groundnuts.
Input Component ( purchase on credit ) by farm-size category

farm-size s e e d insecticide fertilizer on
category (ha) Maize prainequmes (sachets) Composite maizel LM and mixtures

0.6 0.8 5kg UCA 6kg GN 1 bag CAN 1 2 bags CAN

0.8 1.2 5kg UCA 12kg GN 1 bag CAN 2 3 bags CAN

1.2 10g UCA 12kg GN 2 bags CAN 3 bags CAN

*) EXAMPLE: 1.6 ha farm (4 acre)

Rotation: Maize pure rotated with LM/mixture and minor crops.




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