| Material Information
||Suggested outline for growing Virginia type peanuts
||NFES mimeo report
||3 leaves : ; 28 cm.
||Lipscomb, R. W ( Ralph W )
North Florida Experiment Station
||North Florida Experiment Station
||Place of Publication:
||Peanuts -- Growth -- Florida ( lcsh )
||government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
||Statement of Responsibility:
||by R.W. Lipscomb.
||"January 30, 1956."
||NFES mimeo rpt. ;
NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida ,
January 30, 1956
NFES Mimeo Report 56-4 Ju 3,9
SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR GROWING VIRGINIA TYPE PEANUTS
by R. W. Lipscomb
Mobile Unit No. 3
It has been proved experimentally that Virginia type peanuts may be success-
fully grown in Jackson County and surrounding area. However, there are certain
precautions that must be adhered to very closely if good yields of high quality
peanuts are to be produced. It is the purpose of this paper to outline a few of
the important points that must be considered by anyone who might be growing the
Virginia type peanuts.
Selection of Soil
Soils should be selected that are known to be average or above in fertility.
The heavier types of soil, such as loams or loamy fine sands, should be used for
growing the large peanuts if available. The soil should be well drained and pre-
ferably of the brown colored soil class. The light colored (gray) sandy soils
which have no subsoil or which have subsoils at 24" to 36" deep should be avoided.
Too many of the pods would fail to fill out on such soils.
Preparation of the Soil
Preparation of the soil would not vary greatly from that employed in growing
Dixie Runner peanuts. Deep, thorough plowing that moves every inch of the plowsole
and completely buries all of the cover crop or material on the surface is important.
Plowing should be done far enough ahead of planting to allow all trashy material
turned under time to rot. The land should be disked and leveled before planting.
It is always a good practice to stir the surface of the soil just ahead of planting
in order to destroy any young vegetation that has germinated.
If the crop preceding peanuts was highly fertilized, a fertilizer such as
0-14-14 might be used at the rate of 400 pounds per acre. On the other hand, if
it is thought some nitrogen is necessary to start the plants growing, a 2-12-12
-- or 3-12-12 might be used at the rate of 300 400 pounds per acre. The fertilizer
may be applied at the time of planting. Do not allow peanut seed to come in con-
tact with fertilizer. If fertilizer is applied broadcast and disked in ahead of
planting, use approximately 200 pounds more than if it had been applied in the drill.
Use of Gypsum (Landplaster)
Virginia type peanuts are known to use large amounts of readily available
calcium in the development of the fruit or pod. It will therefore be necessary
to apply 500 pounds of gypsum or calcium sulphate per acre. The application of
gypsum should be made when the peanuts are in full bloom. Apply the gypsum direct-
ly on top of the plants and be sure that it thoroughly covers the entire fruiting
zone of the plants. In other words, spread the gypsum over an 18" strip of the
row. Gypsum may be applied by any convenient method available to the particular
person using it. Stopping up part of the holes in a limespreader is one suggested
way of applying it. Gypsum cannot be successfully applied with a dusting machine
because of the coarse texture of the material. To lime with one ton of lime per
acre before planting would be a good practice. This however, is not a substitute
for the application of gypsum. Do not apply gypsum broadcast or in the drill
before planting as it is readily soluble and would be lost before the pegs are
Date and Rate of Planting
From April 15 to 25, or as soon as the soil warms up sufficiently in the
spring, seems to be the best time for planting the large type peanuts. Plant in
rows from 30 to 36 inches wide and approximately one seed every 6 inches in the
drill. This rate of planting would require from 50 to 60 pounds of shelled and
treated seed to the acre.
Virginia Bunch 67 is a high yielding variety that matures in 130 days from
planting. This variety is too small however to be classed as a Virginia peanut
in so far as the government support price is concerned. Generally speaking, the
larger the peanut the lower the yield of good quality nuts. Other varieties that
have given good yields are Holland Station Runner and P. I. 124,681.
Thorough preparation of the soil prior to planting is a distinct aid to the
Cultivation of the crop. There appears to be two critical periods in the control
of weeds in peanuts; first, when the plants are very small; and second, after the
plants start setting fruit or pods. The plants must not be disturbed after they
start pegging down. Neither should the small plants be covered entirely with soil
during the first cultivations. Early and frequent cultivation with a rotary hoe,
rotary cultivator, or weeder and sweeps is recommended. Large weeds that appear
after peanuts have started to peg may be pulled by hand if it can be accomplished
without disturbing the plants too much.
From 3 to 4 dustings with sulfur or copper-sulfur (10-90) mixture may be ap-
plied to control leaf spot in'peanuts. Dustings may be made at two week intervals
at rates of from 15 to 20 pounds each application. First application should be
made approximately 60 days after peanuts are planted. It is often desirable to
include 5% DDT with the above mentioned dust to insure control of several insects
that may be feeding on the plants at this stage of growth.
Many of the Virginia type varieties of peanuts will begin to shed the pods
soon after maturity. For this reason a very close check must be made as the date
of maturity approaches in order to know when the crop must be harvested. Different
varieties have different maturity dates and it would be well to know just how many
days is required for a certain variety to reach maturity.
Stacking and Picking
It is recommended that Virginia type peanuts be stacked rather than windrowed.
Too many of the pods will shed from the vines if windrowing is practiced. Especi-
ally is this true if a rain occurs while the crop is still in the window. After
they are plowed up, let the vines wilt from eight to twelve hours and then stack in
medium sized stacks being careful to see that the peanuts completely fill the stack
pole so that a good cap can be made for the stack, It has been found from experience
that plowing up two rows for stack rows and starting the stack before the main crop
is plowed up will aid in the circulation of air through the stack. Such a practice
would greatly aid in curing while in the stack.
The large type peanuts may be picked with the same picker as is used to pick
Dixie Runner peanuts if the following changes are made:
(1) Slow the picker down to about 2/3 the usual speed.
(2) Feed the picker about one-half as fast as when picking Dixie Runners.