WASHINGTON: THURSDAY, APRIL 1, 1841.
PUBLISHED BY GALES & SEATON,
THREE TIMES A WEEK.
Pa IcE-For a year, six dollars-For six months, four dollars.
PAYABn IN ADVANCE.
1% WEDNESDAY; MARCH 31, 1841.
THE PRESIDENT'S HEALTH.
Rumor having already spread the news of the
indisposition of the PRESIDENT, it is deemed pro-
per to say here, from information which may be
relied upon, that he was attacked on Saturday last
by a severe Pneumonia, which, we are gratified to
learn, had, at a late hour last evening, been in a
great measure subdued. His attending Physician
considered him,, last evening, decidedly better,
and we entertain little doubt of being able, very
soon, to relieve the public mind entirely from
apprehension of the consequences ofthis attack.
Speaking of the Reform Circular recently issued
by the Secretary of State, at the request ofPresi
dent HARRISON, the Raleigh (N. C.) Register
says : Let the honest yeomanry of the country
read this Circular, 'without note or comment'
from disappointed politicians, and our word for
it, they %ill heartril subscribe to its doctrines-as
well that pornon iof it which secures the elective
franchise, as that part which provides for the rigid
accountability of Government agents."
In reference to this same Circular, the Charles-
ton Courier, which supported the Administration
of Mr. VAN ButREN, has the following candid and
laudatory remarks : We have read this document
with much pleasure. It is a speedy practical ful-
filment of at least one inaugural pledge. It for-
bids such official interference with elections as
nmay bring the patronage of the General Govern-
ment in conflict with their freedom, but allows,
and even courts, in Federal officers, 'the free and
proper expression and maintenance of their
opinions respecting public men or public minea-
sures,' and the exercise to the fullest degree of
the constitutional right of-riTf, age.' The deter-
mination expressed' in the Circular, promptly to
dismiss all delinquent offices in money matters,
is also a praiseworthy step, and should be rigor-
The following extract of a letter from an officer
of the Army in Florida to gentleman in Norfolk,
taken in connexion with the-intelligence of a like
character recently received, would seem to present
a gratifying prospect of an. early termination of the
"FORT ARMISTEAD, MARsH 3,1841.
I suppose you would like to hear how we are getting
along, and I am happy to tell you we are now doing first
rate.' The Indians are all coming in as far as we can learn.
We have about thirty hers now. IHospitaki is on his way
in; he sent in a runner two days ago with a stick notched
with the number of his people (fifty) and requesting that
some horses might be sent to assist him on his way. We
expect him in about ten days. We have very favorable ac-
oonnts from the Bis Cypress. Some Indians start for that
place to-morrow i and the band that isr there, perhaps two or
three hundred, may be in by the first of April.
"A talk has been sent to Sam Jones, and another is to be
sent to-morrow; arnd it is supposed he will come in here.
Coas8 Tuskenuggee is in, and all his band is coming. I have
just seen a letter from Captain Page, who is in fine spirits.
He writes that Coosa and Alek Tuskenuggee say that Sam
Jones must come in, and they have sent to him to that effect.
Coacooche is somewhere on the St. John's; he has cent in
to see Tiger, one of the delegation who was here at the time.
The General sent down immediately for him, in order that
he might go out and talk with Coacooche, and it is supposed
he will bring him in. I don't know where Tigertail is, and,
in fact, it is not of much consequence, if all the others come
- in that are spoken of. Captain Page thinks that all the In-
dians this way will be in by the 10th of April, and thatthere
will be no necessity for the regiment to remain here after that
time. The prospect is certainly quite flattering just now,
and it is possible the Indians have really determined to give
up. But we have been deceived by them so often that I can-
not say I rely very much upon their promises. There are
now three hundred or thereabouts at Tampa, and I under-
stand they are to be shipped to New Orleans this week.
They are now very strictly guarded. I really hope the
Florida war is over, but it is best not to be too sanguine."
MORE OF THE LATE FRESHET AT THE SOUTH.
SAVANNAH, (GEORGIA,) MARCH 26.
WVe learn that the flood has carried away all the bridges on
Crooked river, in Camden county, and that Turtle river, in
Glynn county, is over all the adjoining plantations. Mr.
John Gignhilai's iii 1,1I of corn anti cotton are all under wa-
ter, and ihe p.larildLj., ofaVlr. J. H. Cooper covered several
feet. At Darien, all the plantations are overflowed. Deer
have been seen in the Altamaha, borne down the stream by
the rapid current, some of them dead. Thus, even the wild
and fleet tenant of the woods has been driven from his hiding
place, arid deprived of his shelter by the resistless waste of
The repairs on the Ogechee bridge have been completed,
and the road is in travelling condition.
IRWINTON, (ALA.) MARCH 17.
THE FRESHET.-Never before has it been our lot to wit-
ness such a mighty rushing of the waters and destruction of
property as we did last week. On Monday and Tuesday of
last week the rain poured in torrents, and, in a short time, the
Chattahooohee began to rise and threaten destruction.to every
thing within its reach. A large amount ofcotton was taken
from the warehouse at this place, and the warehouse belong-
ing to Dr. SHEPPAI.D was swept downward by the swelling
fi.,.jd. The river continued to rise until Saturday evening,
when It reached a height never before known. The planta-
tion of Mr. IIAHRItON, on the opposite side of the river, was
fully two-thirds covered with water, and we learn that plan-
tations on each side of the river, below and above, have
suffered greatly from the inundation. A negro man bdong-
ing to Mrs. FORT was unfortunately drowned on Friday, by
being capsized while in a batteau catching cotton. Consi-
dirable damage has been done to the butment of the Irwin-
ton bridge, ,m the Georgia side-the foundation having been
w,,shed iroi under the pier, when it was forced to give way.
We regret, also, to learn that the Florence bridge, on the
Alabama ide, received a similar injury. The Irwinton
Brid.ge Company have set about repairing the bridge, and it
,n il t.e rprdyv h'r crossing in a few days.
We krrin that the Columbus bridge and the Factory
bridge above Columbus have both been swept away, the
river having risen above the piers to the body of the bridges,
when, as a matter of course, they were forced to yield to the
The warehouse at Fort Gaines, we understand, has also
been swept off, together with a large amount of cotton which
was stored in it.
The grear destruction of property occasioned by this flood
is incalculable, and it will be some time before the loss can be
In thelinleribr of Alabama, so far as we learn, the extent
of the damages was much more limited.
PowEs OF EroituDNCE.-A striking illustration occurred
at Mr. Va,,denhoil'a la.t leiiur, in Niw York. Mr. V. was
reciting a scene in Byrun,, Cam," and picturing the fright-
ful remorse r.i the murderer when the dreadful ruth of Abel's
death flashed upon ,hi irind, and in an agony of soul he
summoned around him his father, mother, and wife, antd with
the thrilling exclamation--" Father! Mother! I Ada! Zillah!
come hithEr [--,eath is in the world I" Tih' pa6.age was
given wth an energy if truth so fearful as to send a irhll .f
horror to the very rul, and one young man, who had been
gazing intently, and kindling to a pitl i ot unconirrollahl, ex-
citement, as the last clause-" Death is in the world !"-was
ultered, fell senseless to the floor!
SoUni PLt.use-The Nitchti Courier rellates thai a very
inieresting hide girl, the daugh liter ,.f MArs. E. Sweairngtou,
dIed a short Lime since in Grand Gulf, irom eating sugar
plums, prepared by a confectioner there. Dr. Wharton, who
analyzd the candy, lound white lead to have keen used in
We congratulate our readers upon their being
put in possession of the' two subjoined papers,
which, whether we consider the character of the
writers, or the importance of the subject, cannot
but be universally read with the deepest interest.
We find them in the Louisville Journal, to which
they have been communicated for publication by
the authorof a series of very able papers, which ap-
peared in that paper during the early part of last
winter, on the subject of the mode of election of
President of the United States, the object of which
was to commend and revive the plan proposed,
many year: atn,by the venerable JAMEsHILLIIOUSE,
formerly for a long time a Senator from Connec-
ticut. A correspondent in Connecticut, after
reading this series of papers, placed in the hands
of the author the Letters of Judge MARSHALL and
Mr. CRAWFORD, called forth by the original pro-
position of Mr. HILLHOUSE, which is substantial-
ly and correctly stated in the Louisville Journal as
"EVach Senator, belonging to the class whose
term of service will first expire, shall, in the al-
phabetical order of their narmnes, draw an ivory
ball from a box containing as many balls as there
are Senators of that class, one of which to be
colored, the other white ; the Senator drawing
the colored ball to be the President for a term
of two years, tand the drawing to be superin-
tended by a committee of the House of Repre-
We do not propose to encumber with any re-
marks of ours the valuable Letters which follow;
but we must-be allowed, as an'sxception, to point
out to our readers the striking and very remarkable
similarity of the views of these two distinguished
men, writing'simultaneously without concert or
consultation with each other.
WOODLAND, JUNE 4, 1830.
MYDear SinR: I received with much pleasure your let-
ter, of the 12th ultimo, from Washington, accompanied by
the pamphlet which was enclosed. I received this token of
friendly recollection with more pleasure, as I pass my time
in great retirement, and mix and mingle but little with those
who aie now actively engaged in the State or Federal Go-
vernments. I recollect distinctly the propositions of amend-
ment to the Constitution which you submitted to the Senate
twenty-two years ago, and which I then seconded. At that
time I had not made up my mind definitely upon the princi-
ple of the amendment. Reflection and experience have con-
vinced me that the amendment is correct. I am now entire-
ly convinced that great talents are not necessary for the
Chief Magistrate of the nation. A moderate share of ta-
lents, with integrity of character and conduct, is all that is
necessary. * * But I am not certain that the
nation is prepared for such an amendment. There is some-
thing fascinating in the idea of selecting the first talents in
the nation for the Chief Magistrate of the Union. The
view which ought to decide in favor of the principle of your
amendment is seldom taken. The true view is this: Elec-
tive Chief Magistrates are not, and cannot, in the nature of
things, be the best men in the nation; while such elections
never fail to produce mischiefs to the nation.
The evils of such elections have generally induced civiliz-
ed nations to submit to hereditary monarchy. Now, the evil
which is incident to this form of Government is. that of hav-
ing the eldest son of the monarch for ruler, whether he is a
fool, a rascal, or a madman. I think no man, who will reflect
coolly upon the subject, but would prefer a President chosen
by lot out of the Senate, to running the risk of having a
fool, a rascal, or a madman, in the eldest son of the wisest
and most benevolent sovereign that ever lived. When the
amendment is considered in this point of view, I think it will
find favor, especially when it must be admitted that the se-
lection of a President in this manner will be productive of
as little turmoil and agitation as the accession of the son to
the father in hereditary monarchies. The more I reflect
upon the subject, the more I am in favor of your amend-
ment. The country is at this time much agitated on consti-
tutional doubts, which exist as to the acts of Congress.
Would not a convention at this time remove much of the
discontent that now prevails I The resolutions for calling a
convention should express the object to be, to explain doubt-
ful questions which have arisen under the Constitution, and
the election of President. If you should think with me,
will you use your influence with the Legislature of New
England to obtain a call of a convention to revise the Fede-
ral Constitution I anm persuaded that, unless this mea-
sure is brought about, we shall have an explosion in the Re-
public, and that in our time. I have as little interest in the
preservation of union and harmony as perhaps any living
man in the nation, yet I cannot feel indifferent to the symp-
toms of disunion which are daily manifested.
I am, (fear sir, your friend and most obedient servant,
WM. H. CRAWFORD.
RICHMOND, MAY 26, 1830.
MY DEAR SIR: I have just returned from North Carolina,
and had this morning the pleasure of receiving your letter of
the 10th, accompanying your proposition for amending the
Constitution of the United States as to the mode of electing
the President, and your epeeeh made on that subject in the
Senate in 1808. I read your speech when first published with
great pleasure and attention, but was not then a convert to
either of the amendments it suggested. In truth, there is
something so captivating in the idea of a Chief Executive
Magistrate, who is the choice of the whole People, that it is
extremely difficult to withdraw the judgment from its influ-
ence. The advantages which ought to result from it are
manifest; they strike the mind at once, and we are unwilling
to believe that they can be defeated, or that the opera-
tion of choosing can be attended with evils which more
than counterbalance the actual geod resulting from the choice.
It is humiliating, too, to admit that we must look, in any de-
gree, to chance for that decision, which ought to be made by
the judgment. These strong and apparently rational con-
vicioers can be shaken only by long observation and painfult
experience. Mine are, I confess, very much shaken; and
my views of the subject have changed a good deal since 1808.
1 consider it, however, rather as an affair of curious specula-
tion than of probable fact. Your plan comes in conflict with
so many opposing interests and deep-rooted prejutlices that
I should despair of its success were its utility still more ap-
parent than it is.
All those who are candidates for the Presidency, either im-
mediately or remotely, and they are the most powerful mem-
bers of the community, will be opposed to it; the body of the
People will also, moat probably, be in opposition; for it will
be difficult to persuade them that any mode of choice can be
preferable to election, mediate or immediate, by themselves.
The ardent politicians of the country, not yet moderated by
experience, will consider it as an imputation on the great re-
publican principle, that the People are capable of governing
themselves, if any other mode of appointing a Chief Magis-
trate be substituted for that which depends on their agency.
[ believe, therefore, that we must proceed with our present
system, till its evils become still more obvious; perhaps, indeed,
till the experiment shall become impracticable, before we shall
be willing to change it.
My own private mind has been slowly and reluctantly ad-
vancing to the belief that the present mode of electing the
Chief Magistrate threatens the most serious danger to the
public happiness. The passions of men are inflamed to so
fearful an extent, large masses are so imbittered against each
other, that I dread the consequence. The election agitates
every section of the United States, and the ferment is never
to subside. Scarcely is a President elected before the machi-
nations respecting a successor commence. Every political
question is affected by it; all those who are in office, all those
who want office, are put in motion. The angriest, and I may
say the worst passions are roused, and put into full activity.
Vast masses, united closely, move in opposite directions, ani-
mated with the most hostile feelings towards each other.
What is to be the effect of all this '1
Age is perhaps unreasonably timid. Certain it is that I
now dread consequences which I once thought imaginary. I
feet disposed to take refuge under some less turbulent and
less dangerous mode of choosing the Chief Magistrate; and
my mind suggests none less objectionable than that you have
proposed. We shall no longer be under the banners of par-
ticular men. Strife will no longer be excited, when it can no
longer effect its object; neither the People at large, nor the
councils of the nation, will be agitated by the all-disturbing
question, who shall be President '1 Yet he will in truth be
chosen substantially by the People. Thie Senators must al-
ways be among the most able men of the State. Though not
appointed for the particular purpose, they must always be ap-
pointed for important purposes, and must possess a large share
of the public confidence. If the People of the United States
were to elect as many persons as compose one Senatorial class
and the President was to be chosen among them by lot, in
the manner you propose, he would be substantially elected by
the People; and yet such a mode of election would be recom-
mended by no advantages which your plan does not 1osesss
in many respects it would be less eligible.
Reasoning a priori, I should 'undoubtedly pronounce the
system adopted by the convention the best that could be 4e-
vised. Judging from experience, I am driven to a different
conclusion. I have, at your request, submitted my reflections
to your private view ; arid will only add-that I am, with great
and respectful esteem, your obedient servant,
FROM THE ONTARIO REPOSITORY.
We publish below the letter of the Hion. FRANCIS GRAN-
Gea, announcing to the People of this Congressional District
that his connexion with them, as their immediate Represen-
tative, is dissolved.
Under other circumstances, the annunciation would be re-
ceived with feelings of unmingled regret; but, as it is caused
by his being transferred to a sphere of greater usefulness, the
Whigs of old Ontario will cheerfully surrender on the altar
of the public weal their sectional attachments, not unmixed
with conscious pride that the individual whom they have de-
lighted to honor in mare subordinate stations is approved by
a whole nation. In the knowledge of that reciprocal attach-
ment and mutual confidence between the representative and
the constituent, which in this case is acknowledged to have
existed, we do not hesitate, in the name of the whole con-
stituency, to respond to the sentiments contained in his fare-
well letter, in the Warmest terms of satisfaction and congratu-
lation ; and to pray that Heaven, in its kindness, may here-
after enable him to acquit himself, in the Department to
which he has been called, with equal usefulness to the nation
and honor and satisfaction to himself.
To THE ELECTORS OF THE COUNTY OF ONTARIO:
FELLOW-CITIZENS: Having this day transmitted to the
proper authority the surrender of my place as your Represen-
tative in Congress, permit me to say one parting word beyond
that cold formality which belongs to an official resignation.
For more than twenty years we have been bound by politi-
cal and social ties, which, by me, will long be remembered.
Your partiality first gave me political consideration, and dur-
ing every vicissitude of political fortune, by you have I been
most proudly sustained. Kind to my faults, and generous in
rewarding any services that may have been rendered by me,
to your approbation or censure I shall ever be most keenly
Called to the direction of a department more closely con-
nected with our whole People than any other branch of the
Government, I cannot be insensible to the increased responsi-
bilities now resting upon me; and whilst ay untiring exer--
tions in the public service will be devoted to a just and impar-
tial discharge of its duties, in such a manner as the various
interests of our wide-spread confederacy demand, you must
still permit me to feel that I am a citizen of New York, and
that Ontario is my home. FRANCIS GRANGER.
Washington, March 6, 1841.
Mr. COMBnE, the distinguished English Phre-
nologist, in his last work, "A Tour Through the
United States," has the following notice of JOHN
John Vaughan, Esq. and Benjamin Franklin.-Mr.
VAUGHAN is now in his 83J year, and is one of the most in-
teresting men in Philadelphia. Ha is secretary to the Ame-
rican Philosophical Society, and lives in their apartments.
He was educated under the auspices of Benjamin Franklin-
was his intimate friend, and, in a long career of public useful-
ness and private benevolence, has faithfully walked in his
footsteps. ie was one efDr. Franklin's suite when he was pre-
sented to Marie Antoinette after France had recognized the
independence of the United States. Dr. Franklin had order-
ed a wig, and intended to appear in a full court dress ; but
when the wig was sent him it was too small. He told the
perruquier that he had marred his whole arrangements by
this blunder, and that it was now too laie to rectify it. Ah!
mran Dieu, Monsieut, c'est quivolre etet eet tropgrosse," was the
grave reply; and Franklin at once resolved to appear in his
velvet coat, of the tOuaker cut, with his hair combed back;
in short, in his usual attire when dressed for a private party.
His fine venerable figure, in this unique yet becoming apparel,
created quite a sensation in the French Court, and what was
the result merely of a barber's blunder was talked of as an
admirable specimen of good taste and republican independ-
ence! His suitewere all in Courtdresses; and as Mr.Vaughan
had only newly arrived at Passy, he was fitted with clothes
hired for the day from a fripier.
In the hall of the American Philosophical Society there is
a portrait of Franklin in the act of reading. He is dressed in
a wig and a light blue coat. This portrait, which Mr.
Vaughan describes as an exact resemblance, gives him an ex-
pression about the lower part of the face different from that of
any other portrait which I have seen : it indicates more con-
centration of mind. The bumt of him, of which we have casts
in Edinburgh, is here in marble, and is a duplicate of the
head and shoulders of his statue erected above the front door
of the Philadelphia Library, of which he was founder. It
also is a faithful representation of him, according to Mr.
Vaughan's testimony. His chair likewise is here, and be-
speaks his ingenious mind. It is in itselfan old, comfortable,
leather-covered arm-chir, on wheels. But the bottom turns
round on a pivot, and its unlier side presents steps for mount-
ing up to the shelves in the library. The chair in which
Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence is
also preserved here. It is small, circular in form, with arms,
and a high back, and a flat black board is fixed over the right
arm, on which Jefferson wrote.
Capt. Lemis, of the ship Caroline, at Boston, from Calcut-
ta, touched at St. Helena llth ultimo. He left there three
slavers captured by British cruisers. From one 300 slaves
had been landed ; about half of those taken in the other two
had died of small-pax since their arrival at St. Helena, the
rest remained on board the vessels. The disease was still
raging amongst them.
On Monday evening, 29th instant, at the residence of Dr.
LrNDSI.Y, by the Rev. Dr. CsAPsN, President of the Colum-
bian College, Rev. PETER PARKER, M. D. to HAR-
RIET COLBY WEBSTER.
On the 21st instant, by the Rev. Mr. DAVIS, Mr. WIL-
LIAM PETTIBONE, of Philadelphia, to Miss JANE C.
DIGGES, of this city.
JOSEPH S. WILLIAMS,
ATTORNEY AND COUNSELLOR AT LAW,
And General Collecting Agent,
LINDES, MARENCO COUNTY, SOUTH ALABAMA.
Late ef Ckambersburg, Pennsylvania,
A. J. DURBORAW,
ATTORNEYS-AT-LAW, PITTSBURG, PENN.
J. W. MENZIES,
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
He will attend to Land Claims and Collecting Business in the
surrounding country. dec 3t-wly
CHAS. H. LEE,
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
MAHTINSBtBo, BERKELEY COUNTY, VA.
Will attend the Superior and County Courts of Berkeley,
Frederick, Clarke, Morgan, and Jefferson counties, Vs.
Office immediately over the room occupied by Mr. C. D. Stew-
art, near Oden's Hotel. mar 27-itf
RGBEAT AMERICAN LIVFE BOATS.-The pro-
piietors of Pranris's Patent having opened a large estab-
lishmient in the city of New York, are able to supply any demand
at short notice. The boat will be forwarded to any part of the
Union on a written order to that effect through the post office,
stating th- irvlth ,.f boat required directed to
mal 6-cpwly JOSEPH FRANCIS & CO., New York.
HARRISBURG, MARCH 28, 1841.
The bank bill which passed the Senate several
days since was returned from the House on Friday,
With numerous amendments. Indeed, it might,
wail great propriety, be called anew bill. It pass-
ed that body after a hard-fought battle, which last-
ed several days, by a vote of 49 to 48--three
members being unavoidably absent, two Locofo-
cos (it is said) and one Whig. The bill consists
of no less than 17 sections, most of which are
very long. The amendments were yesterday taken
up in the Senate, and were .ll cicuicd in af-
ter a little debate, and several inert] iil attempts
had been made further to amend the bill. There
are some very extraordinary and novel provisions
contained in it, and they would have undergone
amendment, but from the great apprehension that existed on
the part of those friendly to the banks, that, if the bill should
be returned to the House, it would be lost. So that, under pre-
sent circumstances, they deemed it discreet and wise to take the
bitter with the sweet." The question was taken seriatim
on each section ; and on the motion to agree to the first sec-
tion, it was decided, yeas 18, nays 14-a test "ote.
.-i p,)ini.'n! that a synopsis of the sections of this bill might
not be uninteresting to your readers, I have prepared the fol-
Section 1 repeals all the severe penalties against the banks
for not redeeming their liabilities when demanded, and leaves
them open to actions at law, the same as individuals.
Section 2 permits them to issue for five years one, two,
and three dollar [notes, payable on demand, to any amount
not exceeding in the whole 15 per cent. on the amount of the
capital paidl in, &c.
Section 3 requires that the total amount of the debts and
liabilities, exclusive of the sums due for deposits, shall not
exceed double the amount of the capital paid in, provided that
funds deposited by any bank with arty other bank in thin
Commonwealth for the repayment or redemption of the bills
or notes of the bank depositing the same shall not be consid-
ered as coming within the provisions of this section.
Section 4 provides that the total amount which any bank
may directly or indirectly invest in or advance upon any stocks,
loans, or other securities, including its own stock, the stocks or
loans of any State, those of Pennsylvania excepted, the stocks
or loans of the United States, and of cities, counties, boroughs,
incorporated districts, &c. whether purchased bona fids by
the hank, or held collaterally by itself or others, to secure
the payment of any advance, loan, or discount made by the
bank, shall not exceed one-tenth part of the total amount of
the debts and liabilities of the bank. No bank shall make an
advance of loans or discounts upon any such stocks, loans,
or other securities in the nature thereof, except as excepted in
the preceding section, or where the same may be taken and
held collaterally, and shall not exceed the par value. And
when the market value of these stocks, securities, &c. shall
be less than par, the amount of advances, loans, &c. shall
not exceed two-thirds of that value; provided that nothing
herein contained shall be so construed as to compel any bank
to reduce the amount of such investments, advances, loans,
or discounts made prior to the passage of this act in any great-
er ratio than twelve and a half per cent. for every ninety days
on the total amount thereof.
Section 5 prohibits the President, Cashier, and others lend-
ing the funds of a bank without the authority of the Board of
Directors, and- limits the amount of the liabilities of the Di-
rectors in proportion to the capital paid in.
Section 6 prohibits .the granting of loans and discounts to
clerks, tellers, and porters, and enacts that they shall not keep
an account in bank. No Director shall become the surety of
any officer, clerk, &c.
Election 7 abolishes voting by proxy.
Section 8. No person shall be elected a Director unless
he holds stock in the bank in the proportion of $3,000 to the
capital stock of three millions actually paid in. It also pro-
hibits the immediate re-election of the Directors. The Pre-
sident of the Board shall always be eligible.
Section 9. Every officer before entering upon his duties shall
take an oath or affirmation before an alderman or justice of
the peace for the faithful discharge of his duties, and to comply
with the laws of Pennsylvania in relation to the banks, the
oath or affirmation to be in writing, and registered in a book
to be kept open for that purpose.
Section 10 imposes upon the officer or officers who shall
make false entries, or false returns of the condition of a bank,
or do any thing calculated to deceive or injure the Public,
punishment by imprisonment for any term not exceeding
seven years, and be fined in the sum of not more than $2,000.
Section 11 declares that the banks shall not be allowed
hereafter to make dividends exceeding seven percent, per an-
num ; that the profits beyond that amount shall be reserved
and invested until they amount to ten per cent. on the capital
paid in; and thereafter, all the profits exceeding seven per
cent. shall be equally divided-one half for the use of the
Commonwealth, to be paid into the Treasury as taxes or
dividends are now paid, and the other half, with the ten per
cent., to be set apart and invested by the bank in the loans of
the State, to form a contingent fund to cover the losses and
provide for the ultimate redemption of all the liabilities of the
Section 12 prohibits the banks neglecting or refusing to pay
the demands upon them (special deposits excepted) in gold
or silver, making any dividend exceeding five per cent. per
annum, and requires all future profits to be divided and nppro-
priated in the manner prescribed by the foregoing section in
ration to profits exceeding seven per cent.
Section 13 requires them to transmit to the Auditor G'ne-
ral, four times in each year, a statement, verified by the oaths
of the President and Cashier, of their condition, &c., and
prescribes the mode of designating their liabilities and re-
Section 14 provides that any neglect, or refusal to comply
with the requisitions within thirty days after the itme fixed,
shall be deemed cause of forfeiture of the charter.
Section 15 makes it the duty of the Secretary of the Com-
monwealth, immediately after the passage of this act, to for-
ward a copy of it to the President and Directors of banks, who
are to call a meeting of the stockholders for the purpose of
submitting the provisions of this act for their acceptance or
rejection, which fact is to be communicated to the Governor
within sixty days from the passage of the act, when he shall
declare by proclamation which have accepted or rejected.
And if they refuse or neglect to accept, then they are to be
lialble to the provisions and penalties of the acts heretofore
Section 16 repeals the penalty imposed by former acts on
the banks refusing to pay a higher interest than six per cent.
in consequence of a demand for gold or silver.
Section 17 suggests that the President and Directors of
the Bank of the United States may, after the passage of this
act, convene a meeting of the stockholders forthe purpose of
submitting to their decision the propriety of reducing tke
capital of the bank, to consist of 350,000 shares only, of tu--
ty dollars each, to the amount of fourteen millions ; and if
they agree to the proposition, they are to submit acopy of their
proceedings to the Governor, together with a duplicate of the
consent of the stockholders, when the Execative will imme-
diately thereupon issue his proclamation declaring that the
capital of the bank has been so reduced.
Great doubts are entertained that the Governor will give
his approval to this bill. His political friends are as silent as
the grave upon the subject out of doors, but within the walls
of the Capitol strong intimations, at least, have been thrown
out that this measure cannot become a law. If it should not,
many think that the Governor's friends will being forward
one which the Whigs must accept, or take the consequences
of rejecting. D.
F OR SALE.-Sixty acres of land, situated about 1I miles
northeast of the Capitol, adjoining the lands of Messrs. Gales,
Berry, &c. 21 acres of which are heavily wooded, and possessing
one or more commanding sites for building.
Likewise, about sixty thousand square feet in square 472, a river
square, with water privilege, and a front on the river sufficient for
three large wharves, at the termination of 7th street, adjoining
Cane's wharf. The sand alone it contains would pay for the re-
moval of the bank to fill up the wharves.
For terms, apply in person, or by letter, postage paid, to
mar25-cp3t R. Y, BRENT,
APPOINTMENT BY THE PRESIDENT.
JAMES WATSON RILEY, Register of the Land
Office at Lima, Ohio.
NEW YORK, MARCH 29.
We have had a dull day, a sort of blue Monday,
with a sunless sky, a heavy rain, and weather
which puts a check to all out of door business.
But little, therefore, has been done in the way
There is news from Albany to last evening, a
boat having left there last night, and reached
the city this forenoon. From the city of Albany there is
no news of importance to any one.
From Lockport we have an item or two of interest in re-
ference to McLFoD. The Court opened on the morning of
the 22J. Judge DAYTON directed the Clerk nrot to call the
jury, and decided not to hold the Court in consequence of the
clerical error already named, giving but one, instead of six
days' notice. The prisoner, however, was arraigned, and
plead not guilty. H's counsel moved the Court for two com-
missions, both of which were granted-the one for the exam-
ination of the British Minister and Secretary of State, at
Washington, and the other for the examination of ALEXAN-
DE McNAsB and others, in Upper Canada. An application
was then made to the Circuit Judge to allow a certiorari to
remove the cause from the Oyer and Terminer to the Su-
preme Court. The reasons for the application were regard-
ed as insufficient and the request not granted.
From Buenos Ayres a vessel came in yesterday, bringing
20 days' later news from the Argentine Republic. The pros-
pects far peace were most favorable. LAVALLE and La MAD-
RID were not successful. General RosAS was more popular
than ever, and, instead of accepting a resignation when ten-
dered by him, he was persuaded to continue in the service,
and assured that the safety of the Republic depended upon his
administration. There were thirty-two American vessels at
Buenos Ayres on the 15th of January, (our information is to
the 231.) No national vessel was there. The whole num-
ber of vessels in port was about two hundred. The news in
regard to the success of ROSAS and the defeat of LAVALLE
and LA MADRID created great joy at Buenos Ayree, and had
been the subject of great rejoicing among the People. The
bells were rung, guns fired, and a feeling of general joy made
The most important document which has made its appear-
ance since the annual message of Governor SEWARD is a Re-
port from Mr. VERPLANCK in reference to the financial inter-
ests of New York. The Report gives a picture of things
based upon facts, and most favorable to the prospects of this
great and growing State. Notwithstanding the heavy debt
New York owes, she has abundant means to meet it. Any
future deficiency is considered highly improbable in the Re-
port, even in the completion of all the important internal im-
provements which have been contemplated. The enlarge-
ment of the Erie Canal is spoken of as a work which may
increase the revenue, upon the ground that it will dimi-
nish the rates of transportation very materially, and add much
to the funds of the State to be derived from tolls. The Re-
pert shows that ten millions of our debt have been expended
upon works as yet unproductive, because unfinished. These
works finished, and a cautious movement made in reference.
to others, of course we shall have clear and good sledding.
But little has been done in the stock market to day. There
has been no depression in prices, however. Illinois 6's sold
for 51, and Indiana 5's for 53. United States Bank moves
in its narioiv circle from 151 to 16A.
POLAND AND RUSSIA.
"Strike but hear"
T OW IN PRESS, A iD IN ABOUT A MONTH
S will be published, in book form, with the above title,
the communications signed TACITUS, which appeared.in the co-
lumns of the National Intelligencer in 1839.
I have been compelled, in self-defence, to bring those papers
before the Public in a form to render the matter accessible to
every one who may feel an interest in subjects of so much' im-
portance in general blstory. I have been charged, by a Major
TOcHMANA, an emigrant Pole, with r.1 .,' -. history and slander-
ing his country and countrymen. I....r,.-I every one to decide
between tus, measures have been taken to transfer the matter
from a situation of very dihicultto one of easy reference.
Other circumnstances have combined with Major Tochmau'sas-
sertiorns, to impel me to this publication. This man has soughtand
obtained legislative halls in which to deal out his assertions, and,
relying on his ipse dixilt, members of Legislatures have, with
other prominent citizens, formed themselves into joint meetings,
formed preambles and passed resolutions censuring me, (in my
absence of course,) unheard and undefended. Such proceed-
ings need no observation. All I now demand of the Public is, to
read firs:., compare document next, and then condemn whoever
has attempted imposition relying on individual credulity.
TERMS, &c.-The pamphlet will contain about 60 medium
octavo pages, and be printed on small pica type. As it will be a
compend of historical matter tromn the most authentic and respec-
table sources, accessible in this country only at great expense and
labor, the copy-right of the forthcoming work will be secured.
To subscribers the price will be but 25 cents per copy.
CHILLICOTHE, OHO, MARCr 2, 1841.
mar 1 l--cp5t
L AW SCHt)OL.-Ju-ge CLEMENT DORSEY, of the
first judicial district of Maryland, having located himself
in the village of Bladensburg, near the City of Washington, will,
on the first Monday in May next, open a Law School.
He will have an almost daily intercourse with the students.
The course of instruction will also embrace the laws and deci-
sions of those States from whence the students sthall come.
The village of Bladensburg is within a few miles of the Copital
at Washington, healthy, and contains a very moral population, and
the students will have an opportunity of attending the debates and
. .:l;n 1,,, A..u.I- .r eloquence from the great and distinguished
-..i. ....r.: bar of the Supreme Court.
i t,... ": i|enses for board at the boarding houses and
tuition fee will not exceed, for the year, $260.
Reference may be had to those members of Congress who
served with Judge Dorsey in Congress between 1825 and 1832.
nr The Richmond Enquirer and Richmond Whig will please
publish the above, and charge thisoffice.
VALUABLEE LAND FOR SALE.-Iln pursuance ef
V the decree of the Superior Court of Law and Chancery for
the county of Fairfax, Vs. in the seit of Jacob Morgan and others,
complainants, against E. I. Smith and others, defendants, we, the
undersigned, Commissioners named in the said decree, wilt, on
the llh day of May next, if fair, if not, the next fair dany, on the
estate sailed Westgrove, in the county of Fairfax, and near the
town of Alexandtia, sell at public auction, to the highest bidder,
so muoh if the tract of land as will be sufficient to pay the several
sums of money mentioned in the said decree, with interest thereon.
The land will be sold in small portions, from one to two hundred
acres, to suit purchasers.
According to the decree, the terms ofsale are as follows : One-
tenth part of the purchase money to be paidin hand, and the resi-
due in three equal instalments, in one, two, and three years, the pur-
chasers to give bond and good security for the deferred payments,
which are to bear interest from the day of sale, and the title to the
premises to be retained until the said payments shall be made.
The property offered for sale is very valuable, and not more thin
two miles from the town of Alexandria. It is partly bounded by
the river Potomac, the land is of good quality, a portion very rich,
and is well wooded. The improvements on it are a comfortable
dwelling-house, and all the necessary out-houses. Those whoare
inclined to buy will, of course, examine for themselves before the
day of sale. The property will be shown to those who wish to
purchase by Robert J. Smith, of Alexandria.
JAMES D. KERR, tCommissiners.
ROBT. RATCLIFFE, commissioners.
1iiRUSTEE'rS SALE.-By virtue of an order of the
1 Chancellor of Maryland, made in the case of Charles A.
Darby and John W. Darby, complainants, andti Samuel DarSy and
George Darby et al. defendants, the subscriber will offer at pub-
lic sale, en the premises, on Saturday, the t7th day of April, at
12 o'clock M., a traetofland called "Amsterdam," orby whatever
name the same may be known, it being the farm on which the
late Basil Dsrby resided, and now in the occupancy of his sons
Samuel Darby and George Derby, containing about three hun-
dred and sixty acres of land. It lies en the waters of Seneca
Creek, about half a mile south of Dawsonville. It has on it two
comfortable dwellings, with the necessary out-houses attached to
each ; three good tobacco-houses; two orchards; an abundance
of wood and timber for the support of the farm; and abounds in
stone ofthe best quality for building or fencing ; and has always
been deemed one of the most desirable farms in the vicinity.
Terms of sale as prescribed by the decree: One-third of the
purchase money in hand on the day of sale, the balance in twelve
months ; the deferred payment to be secured by bond with approv-
ed security, beating interest from the day of sale ; and upon the
ratification of the sale by the Chanejilor, and the Fa, m ati, I tthe
whole purchase money, the trustee will convey to tihe .urc h aer
at his expense all the title of the parties to said suit to said land.
The premises will at any time be shown by Mr. Samuel Darby,
residing thereon, or by the subseni,.t r living in the neighborhood.
GEORGE W. D.aWSON,
mar fi-wt-cp Trustee.
To the Voters of Charles, St. Mary's, Calvert, and
Pri:,ce George's counties, in -.arltfund.
F ELLOW-CITlZENS: Your late representative it
Congress, the Hon. DANIsL JzxgERn, having declined being
a candidate for re-election, and the President having fixed, by his
Proclamation, the 3lsat of May next for the meeting tf the next
Congress of there United States, it will become your duly to select,
at an early day, some suitable person to represent you ia that body.
The usual mode of resorting to a convention of rJeilgisti. fimni be
several counties composing this Congressional dietrc', by whtli, a
candidate has been designated for the suffrages of the People, how-
ever neeessaly it may have heretofore been, and however faith-
fully it may have heretofore reflected the popular wil4 in the ele-
vation of your late talented and able representative, cannot, it is
believed, at this time be considered as necessary to enable you to
narke choice of an individual who would be acceptable to a majority
of the People of the district. Without waiting, therefore, for the
action of a convention, I have determined to appeal directly to the
People themselves-the only legitimate source of power in this
country-and to present myself to them as a candidate to repre-
sent them in the next Congress of the United States. I deem it
unnecessary to say that I have always beenand smn io an itr'nf
and devoted friend to the present Administration of the General
Government ; and my efforts in there late Presidential contest to
elevate the People s Candidate" to the highest place in their
gift, too clearly indicate my political creed to require any assur-
ances on my part that, if elected, I shall continue to be under all
circumstances thire advocate of those principles which brought Gen,
Harrison into power. I must say, however, that there is one sub-
jecte which has recently been agitated, in which I feel more inter-
est than any other, and which 1 regard as more vitally important
to the People of this district than any which has ever been pre-
sented to their consideration-I mean the subject of regulating our
Tobacco trade with foreign nations. No considerations of partisan
feeling shall ever induce me to do any thing .1,i.', in rv i':l-g.
meant, shall conflict with the best interest of '-e -.s.. .o gr,,.c.rs or
this country ; and, if elected to Congress, I pledge myself, on all
occasions, to watch carefully over that hitherto much neglected
interest, regardless entireicly of party attachments and party re-
In submitting myself to the People as a candidate for their suf-
frages, 1 am only doing what every oithor man in this community
has an undoubted right to do, and, in the exercise of which right,
will be found, at all times, thire surest guaranty that the People's
will shall be respected in the choice of their representatives, and
their rights safely "-,,irrl-l nI-d protected under all circumstances.
To this tribunal 1 I. ,.i.. i ., submiti my claims, and to their de-
cision it will be not only moy pleasure but my highest pride to
submit. Your obedient servant,
mat-25-cptAp25 THOMAS F. BOWIE.
IDDLETOWN VALLEY LAND FOR SALE.
Qo Wednesday, the 7th o0 April next, on the premises, the
.1-. valuable jFarms, comprising some of the best lands in
I.i ,,, I with the Itr' : electionn of Blooded Cattle ever
offered in this State, .. i r. .. i of which will be furnished from
the herd-book on tihe day of sale.
Covint '-.'i, .inr 452j acres of first-rate land,in a high
state of i.. .ii. -i, L.-..,1 340 acres are cleared and divided into
10 fields, with running water in all but one, in which, by iemnv-
ing a division fence of r50 yards, it can be thrown, 70 acres are in
first rate timothy, and 15 in orchard grass, well set and in prime
order; a considerable part under post and rail locust and chestnut
fence ; the rest of the cleared land may, at a moderate expense,
be made into fine timothy meadow. For corn, wheat, oats, and
clover, no land in the valley is superior, and but little equal. There
are now seeded 147 bushels wheat and 20 bushels rye, which will
be sold with the farm, if desired by the purchaser.
The farm abounds with fine locust; a portion of the wood land
is heavily timbered.
The improvements consist of a large two-story commodious
brick Dwelling, faithfully built, and in complete order; an Over-
seer's house, a large first-rate Barn, Stables, Carriage-house,
Corn-house, Ice-house, (filled with ice,) a Blacksmith's Shop,
with a set of Tools, and a great variety of other necessary build-
ings, a first-rate Garden, abounding with strawberries, raspberries,
&c. ; a large young Apple Orchard, with the most choice pippins
and other desirable apples ; a'splendid young Peach Orchard, of
the most approved kinds, the most delicious cherries, plums, apri-
cots, and almost every description of fruit adapted to the climate.
There is a Mill attached to the Barn, worked by horse, mule, or
ox power, with two pairs of burr-stones of31 and 4J feet diameter,
that can grind from 20 to 25 bushels of corn or rye a day i in
short, it is considered by all who have been on the premises as one
of the moit desirable farmsna in Frederick or Washington county.
It can be conveniently and advantageously divided into two
There are 8 or 10 first-rate Fornst Hands, that the purchaser of
the farm can have, with their families, if desired, or they will be
sold separately, not to go out of the State. One very valuable hand
that ihas about ten years to serve, a good wagoner, and first-rate
manager of mules.
Also, 5 large Mules, young and well broken ; 12 or 13 first-rate
farm Horses, some Mares and Colts, (3 by the celebrated horse
Felt, one out of a blooded mare,) 5 or 6 yoke o .rf i:e y -n' i':11
broken Oxen. Also, a large number of valuable MNihb C.-..r,I riI
full-blooded short horn Durhamns anId i. .na, inI a great variety
of crosses of Alderney, short horn [ irh n.-,, I,-u. o n-, Helstein,
Teeswater, &c.; 2 fuill-blooded shorthorn Durham Bulls, 1 rising
3 years old, the other 2 years ; 3 Devon Bullt, 2 and 3 years old ;
20 to 25 Yearling%, part full bred Devons, the others of various
crosses ; a valuable flock of about 100 Sheep, various crosses,
South Down, Merino, &c.
Covington is 13 miles southwest of Frederick city, 6 miles east
of Harper's Perry, about 2 miles from the Baltimore and Ohio
Railroad and the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal.
Also, Oakland Mills and Farm, on the Catoctin creek, loca-
ted I of a mile from the railroad and canal, 3 miles west of lha
Point of Rocks. There are on this farm 160 acres of land, the
greater part cleared. This farm is hilly, but very fertile, and
equal to any land in the valley for wheat or clover, and perhaps
There are on this property a comfortable two story Log House, a
new log barn, stables, &c. The Mill is well located in a fine wheat
country, and the Saw Mill is kept in constant employment, always
well supplied with timber logs. The Grist Mill is at present out
of order, but grinding corn and meal and chopping rye. The dam
is the best on the Catoctin creek ; the water ample, affording a
good supply bhen almost all the other mills on the creek are de.
ficient. There are 74 bushels of Wheat and 20 bushels of Rye
sown on this farm; the balance of the cleared land is in fine clover.
I consider the property of great value for milling or manufactur-
ing purposes, and the most desirable water-power property on the
Catoctlin steam, or perhaps in the country.
Any information in elation to the above property will be given
by James Howard, Esq., President of the Franklin Bank of Bal-
timore, or the subscriber, on the premises.
Terns of sale: For the real estate, one-third cash, the balance
one and two years' credit, with interest from the day of sale, with
approved security; for the stock, farming utensils, household fur-
niture, &c. all sums under 8-0, cash; above that amount, 6 months'
credit, with approved endorsed notes, bearing interest.
W. R. STUART, Agent,
Covington Farm, near Petarville, Frederick county.
VALUABLE LANDI)S FOR SALE.-lo pursuanea
olf a deeree of the Circuit Superior Court of Law and
Chancery fior Frederick county, in a suit wherein the Farmers'
Bank of Virginia is plaintiff, and John R. Cooke and wife, and
others, are defendants, the undersigned will proceed to sell at
public auction, on the premises, on Saturday, the 3d day of April
next, 423 acres of fine limestone land, lying near the town of
Winchester, being part of the beautiful estate on which the said
John R. Cooke formerly resided, and including all the improve-
ments and best land; a fine stream of water passes ,r-uih trhe
lands, and there are two fine orchards on the estate. Before the
day of sale the lands will be surveyed ai d the corners marked.
In the mean time, Lewis A. Smith, E-q. residing on the lands, wilt
show them to any one disposed to purchase. Possession, except
the lands sown in grain last fall, will be given immediately.
Terms of sale, one fourth of the purchase money to be paid in
cash, and the residue in three equal annual payment, with interest
from the day of salc. Sale to commence at 11 o'clock A. M.
A. S. TIDBALL,
J. M. MASON,
mar 6 -cpts __Commwssnersn .
t' 'MltUYl7-T- i._'."1 ,--t,, .,,.-... *.,.'.i.,1.... **lt M .ar'B
trustees, owill expose to public sale at Leonaidtown, oen Tuesday ,
9th day of ,lareh next, if fair, if not, the next lair day thereafter,
all the real estate of Josiah Turner, deceased, coaristing of the fol-
lowing tracts, parts of tracts, or parcels of land called and knows
by the names of Turner's Lot, Manor and Dear-bought and Ryan
Venture, estimated to contain seven hundred and thirty-four acres,
more or less.
This farm is situated in the upper part of St. Mary'scounty,and
near the Wicomico river. The soil is very kind and productive,
and well adapted to the growth oh corn, wheat, and tobacco. It is
also susceptible of improvement by the use of clover, and is well
timbered. The improvements are a good dwelling-house and other
necessary out-houses ; such as barns, corn-house, and stables.
This real estate will be sold subject to the dower-right of the
widow of Josiah Turner. Possession will be given on the 1st day
of January next.
Terms of sale : One-tenth of the purchase money to be paid on
the day of sale, and the balance on a credit of one and two years,
the purchasers to give bond, with approved security, bearing in-
terest from the day of sale. Upon the payment of the purchase
money, the trustees are authorized to execute a good and valid
deed to the purchaser, conveying all the interest of the parties to
the suit in said real estate. PETER W. CBAIN,
HENRY G. GARNER,
feb 6-3tawts [Leonardtewn Her. lawta] Trustees.
3 The above sale is postponed to Thursday, the 29th day of
April next; same hour and place. mar 4--eot
REDERICK COUNTY LAND FOR SALE.-
The subscriber offers for sale the Farm known as ARCA-
DIA, one of the most desirable and productive farms in the State
of Maryland. It lies within three miles of Frederick, and con-
tains S 10 acres. It can conveniently be divided into three farms;
the improvements comprising all that could be desired on a farm,
including an elegant Dwelling-house, a first-rate Barn, and two
new barracks, which, together with the barn, are sufficient to se-
cure six thousand bushels of wheat. A large quantity of locust
post and chestaut tail fence has been put up at great expense du-
ring the last few years, and the farm is now chiefly enclosed with
that kind of fence.
The land is well watered and timbered.
The soi. crnter is d,,ternii .ii to sell, ard ifn roi e.Id at private
sal., ao 'lav w-i re faiil f.,r a [ublc sale, i,, isk pl ice turig L ila
firing, at hlilh time the subscriber will sl' .)ii1 ha ensure soick,
..-inprning 22 Hoiese, 6 superior M.jles, trr.bstl\ the t.esi in ibe
Statl,) a Itr.-! ,il-i e ijlianiiy of .,'her stck, sand lasge amount
of ferning ,-iensils.
feb 23-w4t GRIFFIN TAYLOR.
We have now the pleasure of laying before our
readers an interesting correspondence on the sub-
ject of the Florida Peninsula, between Judge
BUACKENRIDOIc (of the late House of Representa-
tives) and Col. WYATT, of Florida. It discloses
some new and important facts in relation to that
country. It appears that we have a tropical region
within our limits capable of producing all the
choicest fruits of the West Indies. This circum-
stanc6, together with the valuable fisheries around
the whole coast of Florida, must render this por-
tion of the Union much more valuable than it has
been heretofore considered.
WASHINGTON, FEB. -2, 1841.
SIR : A few years ago, 1 read with interest a communica-
tion from you, on the subject of the Peninsula of Florida,
and in relation to our difficulties with ths Indians. I was
struck with the facts mentioned by you, some of them new to
me, and others corresponding with the information I had pick-
ed up from different sources, and with conjectures which I
had formed. The recent operations of Col. Harney have
alse developed some important facts connected with this sub-
ject. Your ideas of the difficulties to be encountered in the
subjugation of the Indians, and the beat ,node to be adopted
to bring them to terms, seemed to me more satisfactory than
any thing I had seen. But my object in addressing you is to
draw forth information in relation to the country, which, in
all probability, willsoon be freed from the energy, who has so
long baffled the efforts of our military commanders. I will
take the liberty of propounding a few questions which may
aid in directing your attention particularly to those matters
that appear to me interesting, as your opportunities of infor-
mation have been extensive, both from personal observation
and from information obtained at second-hand.
Is the extensive grassy tract called the Everglades elevated
above the ocean, or is it a low marsh affected by the tides
by means of the streams which connect with the Gulf on one
side, and the Atlantic on the other'
If the Everglades form an elevated plain, what is the gene-
ral elevation above the ocean 'I Could the surplus water be
drained by means of the streams which empty themselves in-
to the Gulf of Mexico From the account of Col. Harnev's
expedition, it appears that the streams have considerable fall,
and at their head he had to cross a kind of ridge which con-
fined the vast grassy sheet of shallow water which he en-
Are the glades at any time dry, and how long do they con-
tinue overflowed by the water accumulated by the heavy tro-
pical rains I What is the number and extent of the islands,
or scattered bodies of land elevated above the general surface!
What is the nature of the soil where, with the exception of
the lakes, the Everglades are dry I What is theextent, depth,
and character of the lakes 7
Is the Peninsula generally based on coral limestone, like
Key West, where the soil is naturally rich I Is this lime-
stone hard or soft, and at what depth generally below the
How far from the Point of Florida does the tropical region
extend I that is, the region free from posts, and adapted to the
culture of the tropical fruits, such as the lime, the banana, the
pineapple, the cocoa, the date, the orange and lemon, &c. Is
the nopal and the cochineal insect a native of the tropical part
of Floridal Does the cotton tree grow wild ? What other
valuable productions, such as Manilla hemp, &c. are natural
productions of Florida, and how far north can these produc-
tiona be introduced to advantage' 1
What is the supposed value of an acre in tropical fruits,
compared to plantations of sugar, coffee, or cotton ? If the
Everglades could be drained, what extent of land would be
gained for cultivation I Could the Manilla hemp be cultivat-
ed in Florida generally 1 Can the vanilla, and what is called
Havana tobacco, be cultivated I
What interior navigation by steam cou'd be created by im-
pro-ements of the rivers which connect with the Everglades,
and which might be connected with the Lakes'?
Theanswers to these questions may be very interestingto the
country. I have foir many years entertained an opinion that
the Peninsula of Florida would be found of great value on
account of its tropical climate, whieh would enable us to raise
the tropical fruits for which immense sums are annually ex-
pended in the West Indies, and even in countries across the
ocean. One acre planted in such fruits would be worth more
than fifty in cotton. The cultivation of the Manilla hemp, I am
inclined to think, might be successful in Florida and in parts
of Georgia and Alabama. A few years ago, I addressed a
letter to Mr. Adams, chairman of the Committee on Manu-
factures, stating that it was a natural production of every part
of Florida, growing in the poorest soil, and that all that was
necessary was to plant it and cultivate it; but that the planta-
tion being once formed,as the plants perennial, it mightremain
fr many years, and be annually cut. Mr. Perrine, who was at
that tnime applying for a grant of land, positively denied the ex-
istence of the plant in Florida, atnd declared that it would only
suit the tropical region. Since then, the grass rope (made from
the Manilla hemp) has become an article of immense import-
ance; it is used on all our steamboats, and for a thousand pur-
poses for which thecommon hemp was formerly in use. Itis cul-
tivated extensively in thesandy lands nearCampeacby, or Me-
rids. Would it not be well to procure some one from that
district acquainted with its culture I I had a Mexican in my
employment for a short time who was from that neighborhood,
and who first pointed out to me this valuable plant as growing
in Florida, and occasionally used for making halters and ropes
fur common purposes.
I am, respectfully, yours, &c.
H. M. BRACKENRIDGE.
Col. WM. WYATT.
WASHINGTON, FEBRUARY 27, 1841.
DEAR Sia: Your esteemed letter of the 22d instant has
been received. My thanks are due to you for the flattering
notice which you have taken of a communication written by
me, some years since, relative to the peninsula of Florida,
and the war in that quarter. This communication was writ-
ten soon after the commencement of hostilities on the part of
the Indians, and after I had become satisfied that the policy
of the Government as well as its plan of operations to termi-
nate the war was radically defective, as time has most fully
Two years before the war I explored that portion of
Florida, and at once saw the difficulty that would arise should
the Indians refuse to emigrate, in consequence of the peculiar
character ofIhe country which they then occupied, and
could occupy in case of war. With a view to place theGov-
ernment in possession of these facts, as well as many others
relating to their numbers, character, and temper, and their
connexion with the Spanish fisheries on the coast and the
Land of Cuba, with all of which the General Government
seemed to be almost totally unacquainted, I placed in the
hands of General Thompson, the Indian Agent, at his re-
quest, a letter to the Secretary of War, explaining and re-
commending what I then conceived to be, and which I am
now fully satisfied were, the proper preliminary steps to be
taken before any attempt was made to enforce the conditions
of the treaty with those Indian tribes. Those recommenda-
tions, like many others of a similar character from other in-
dividuals, were all disregarded. Indeed, such was the want
of correct information possessed by the Government in regard
to its Indian relations in Florida, that, at thte time I wrote the
letter to which you allude, estimating the number of the
Florida Indians al|atbout aix thousand, Gen. Case, Secretary
of War, then declared that there were only about seven hund-
red! In this letter, if I am not mistaken, (with a view to
attract the attention of General Scott, who was then operat-
ing in Florida,) I suggested the very plan recently adopted
by Col. Harney, for penetrating the Everglades.
The information you seek, relative to the peninsula of
Florida, I most cheerfully give; but to do so, to the extent
covered by your important inquiries, I trust, will not be ex-
pected in the space of an ordinary letter.
In answer to your questions generally in relation to the
Everglades, I have to say that, from all the observations I
have been able to make, I think there is no doubt that this
extensive tract of country is at least from 20 to 30 feet above
tide-water, and is susceptible of being rendered perfectly dry
by means of deepening and widening the various outlets or
rivers that flaw through it from the lakes to the sea. Those
glades extend from the head of St. John's to within 10 or 15
miles of Cape Florida, encompassed on either side by a belt
of high land, through which those streams have cut their
way. This belt of land on the Gulf side is generally fertile,
based upon coral rock and marl, whilst that on the Atlantic
side is sandy and less fertile. The soil in the Everglades is
very rich, with a deep black, and, I think, alluvial formation,
which is only covered with water in a wet season and after a
In the centre of those glades are several large lakes, which
connect with each other, and extend from within 20 miles of
the Cape to the head waters of the St. John's. Those lakes
are deep and navigable for steamboats or vessels, and are the
sources of all the above-mentioned rivers and outlets. I as-
cended two of them to the Everglades, and found them about
the same in point of elevation. The current, when I came
into the glades and near the lakes, became very rapid-this
was, however, at a dry time, and the glades were notover-
flawed by the water from the lakes. These facts convinced
me that, if the heads of these outlets or rivers were opened,
by deepening and widening them, which could be done at
comparatively small expense, these lakes could be kept at all
times within their natural bounds; which would render the
glades perfectly dry, opening to cultivation an extensive plain
of table-lands of about eight thousand square miles, after de-
ducting a fourth for thelakes, sufficiently elevated above both
I'k-s and tides to be entirely free from inundations, and as
healhy as the keys.
STh- tropical region of the peninonla,ofwhich you inquire,
re chi s Ir.m C.-e Fil..sda bhuut *200 miles norlh, where all
the fruit known i) tropical cltimae.i can hIe ciulhivated with
certL inrv, ns i is emirly bey.,inr.J the region of frcsi. But
inrny f" lth.:..-se rui', sueTi asf the orang, lime, lemon, and rig,
r.,n. ,u, i-l.-s, l'e cI,iv..,ed nilh success much further north,
u- h,.v are nt a,.-(cftl prtIal or light frosts.
Tif- r.,,.:., or iiv'kly paar. on whieh the cnchineal insect is
ljuJ, d, id a native i" Cape Florida, so sla the cotton plant or
tree; both grow wild in the forest, and the cotton tree is the
same as cultivated on our plantations, differing only in the
smallness of the leaf and pod and the length and fineness of
the fibres. The seeds are turfed, like our upland cotton, and
need not be planted more than once in some three or four
years. The Manilla hemp is also a native growth of this re-
gion. In fact, it is to be found in all parts of the Territory,
and can, no doubt, be cultivated with great advantage as far
north as the 31st degree of north latitude on the poorest
sandy land. The Indians have always been in the habit of
manufacturing it into ropes, mats, &c. and, before the war,
supplied the first settlers with a variety of articles formed out
of it, such as halters, lines, bedcords, &c. at a very cheap
rate. It was commonly known as the grass-rape. Sugar, of
course, can be cultivated with the same success as in the Is-
land of Cuba.
I doubt whether coffee can be cultivated with advantage
here, as it will not thrive well on soil based upon rock
approaching near the surface, as is the case in this region.
The coffee tree has a long tap root, which penetrates the earth
to a considerable depth, and cannot be sustained, as almost
all other trees and plants are, by lateral roots. The vanilla
Ilint, which is used to a very great extent in imparting the
fine flavor which they have to Spanish cigars, snuff, &c. is
found in a wild state in all parts of South Florida, in great
The arrow, or coonti root, also abounds on Cape Florida;
on which the Indians, and even the white settlers in that re-
gion, prior to the war, subsisted almost exclusively. It is an
excellent substitute for bread, and the process of converting
it into the most beautiful and snow-white flour is very simple,
requiring nothing more than a common tin grater, and a bucket
or tub to wash it in, for the purpose of separating te flour.
As for the production of tobacco of a superior tality in
this region of Florida, as well as in portions further north,
there can be no question. Indeed, the experiment has been
already fully made, and has resulted in the raising of an arti-
cle not inferior to that in the West Indies. Its flavor is
thought by many to be superior to that of the Cuba.
You direct one of your inquiries to the supposed value of
one acre of tropical fruits, compared with the same quantity
of land planted in sugar or cotton. I have no positive data
-to govern me in this estimate; but I would say that one acre
cultivated in orange or lemon, allowing two hundred trees to
the acre, (not an over number, I think,) and producing a thou-
sand to the tree, valued at one cent each, would yield a crop
worth $2,000. One acre, planted in sugar, producing 2,000
lbs., at 4 cents per lb., would amount to $80; the same in cot-
ton, producing 200 Ibs. of cleaned cotton of the finest qua-
lity, at 30 cents, would amount to $60. One acre, planted in
the other tropical fruits, such as the pineapple, fig, plantain,
or banana, woull no doubt far exceed the estimate for the
orange and lime. The labor necessary for either culture, I
should presume, would be about the same.
Upon the subject of inland navigation by steam through
thisii part of the Territory, it is my opinion that, at a trifling
expense compared with other works of internal improvement,
steamboat navigation can be established from Key Biscayne
hay, at the Cape, directly through the centre of the peninsula,
by way of the lakes and the St. John's, to Jacksonville, on
the Atlantic side-having lateral communication, by means
of the rivers referred to, to the sea.
Of the islands in the lakes and everglades, I have personal
acquaintance with some, and have only heard of others.
They are generally very rich, and elevated to the same height
above tide-water as the belt of land referred to on the coast.
For further particulars of the coast, keys, and islands, I beg
leave to refer you to my report on that subject, published in
1834 in the United States Telegraph, and, I think, in other
papers of this city.
I most heartily agree with you in relation to the importance
of Florida, especially that portion of it lying within the tro-
pical region, for the supply of those products which enter so
largely into Ihe consumption of all portions of the Union, and
of which large importations are annually made to ourcountry
from abroad, under heavy duties. Indeed, Florida is impor-
tant in many other points of view to this great nation. Along
its coasts and around its reefs the commerce of the great val-
ley of the West, watered by the Mississippi and its tributa-
ries, must pass, and rely in a great degree for protection, in
the event of a maritime war with a foreign Power. Hence,
the building of fortifications, light-houses, and improving of
harbors, on the coast of Florida, and the encouragement of
population on its borders, by a liberal policy on the part of
the General Government in the disposal of its public domain
in that quarter, are considerations of immense interest to the
whole Union, and more particularly to the people of the
In conclusion, sir, I beg you to accept my warmest thanks,
as a citizen of Florida, for the many valuable services you
rendered that Territory while it was honored by your iit zen-
ship, and for the zeal and interest you still manifest in her
1 beg of you to accept the assurance of the high respect
and regard wiih wfiich I am your.abedient servant,
Hon. H. M. BRAKENRItDGE, Ho. of Reps.
C OACH b I'OR SALE.-For sale, a splendid Baltimore
built Coach, with C spring, full hammer-cloth seats, green
diamask silk swabs and lining, built of the very best materials, is
finished in the most expensive manner, and is pronounced by
competent judges to be one of the most superior coaches ever
built in this country. The above coach can be seen at Mr. Mc-
Curltey's a( i,-.: Repository, North Liberty street, Baltimore,
and will L i..i.l .-'- p-r cent. less than a similar one can be built
for in the United States. april 1-3t
1 1RUSTEE'S S AIE.-By virtue ofadeed of trust from
U George Broadrup to rae, dated October 15, 1835, and re-
corded in Liber W B, No. 54, folios 473, &c. of the Land Records
of the County of Washington, I will offer for sale at public auc-
tion, at the auction rooms of Edward Dyer & Co. in the city of
Waahiogton, on the 19th day of April next, at 12 o'clock M., all
that piece or parcel of land lying in said county of Washington,
being part of the tract of land called the first part of the rearvey
on Mill Seat," granted to James White March 18, 1772, begin-
ning for the outlines thereof at the end of the second line of said
tract, and running thence, with said tract, north 20 degrees east
40 perches, north 50 degrees east 132 perches, north 10 de-
grees east 20 perches, noith 40 degrees east 21 perches, to a
stone No. 3 ; then, leaving the outlines of said tract, north 6t1
degrees west 55 perches, west 64 perches, to the end of the 24th
line of Mill Seat," with said line south 10 degrees east 38
perches, to the end of said line, stil with said land south 85 de-
grees west 44 perches, south 19 degrees east 40 perches, south
13 degrees west 18 perches, to intersect a line drawn west from
the end of the fifth line of Isaac Pierce's part of a tract called
Gift;" east 26 perches, to the end of said fifth line; south 24
degrees west 45 perches, to the fourth line of Isaac Pierce's part
of Mill Seat;" thence, with said line reversed, south 48 de-
grees east 8 perches, to the beginning of said line ; and thence,
in a straight line, to the beginning; containing and laid out for 75
acres of land, with the buildings, improvements, and appurte-
nances to the same belonging or appertaining, consisting in part
of a valuable paper-mill, with the water power, and now in good
repair for immediate operations. This property, from its imme-
diate contiguity to the city of Washington, possesses great advan-
tages, and is well worthy of the attention of capitalists.
The terms of sale are : One-fifth of the purchase-money in
cash, and the residue in four equal quarter-yearly payments, with
interest from tlhe day of sale, to be secured by the purchaser's
bonds, with satisfactory sureties and a lien on the property. On
the full and due payment of the purchase-money and interest, I
will convey to the purchaser, his heirs or assigns, in fee simple,
all the right and eate in the premises, believed to bo perfectly
good, that I am empowered to sell and convey by virtue of said
deed of trust.
If the terms of sale are not complied with in three days, I re-
serve the right to resell, at the riak and cost of the purchaser, at
public auction, for cash, or on any credit, after three days' adver-
tisement in some newspaper published in the city of Washington.
JOHN MoCLELLAND, Trustee.
EDW. DYER & CO.
ap 1--2aw&da Auctioneers.
trnot to me, for certain purposes therein mentioned, and with the
consent of parties concerned, I shall sell at puthlt auction, to tie
highest bidder, for cash, on Tuesday, 30lh day of March, at 4
o'clock P. M. lots numbered 3 and 5, in square No. 558.
Upon lot No. 3 there is a very neat and comfortable frame
dwelling with 5 rooms and passage, end on lot No. 5 there is a
comfortable two-story brick house with 3 rooms and passage, all
of which are in excellent order. There is also a stable with car-
riage shed and other out houses and sheds. Also a veie large
and well-improved garden with peach trees, grapes, &c. &c. For
small families the above will be found desirable property.
Sale positive and peremptory on the premises.
PHILIP ENNIS, Trustee.
mar23-eod&3tdif E. DYERf & CO. Auctioneers.
S The above sale Is postponed to Tuesday evening
next, the 6th inst., at same time and place. The houses are be-
tween the residences of Mr. Samuel Burche and Mr. John Hoover.
DYER & WRIGHT,
april l-eod&ds Auctioneers.
FAUQOUIER AND ALEXANDRIA TURNPIKE
ROAD LOTTERY, CLASs 14, for 1841.
Draws Saturday, (April 3,) in Alexandria, Va. at 5 o'clock P. M.
Capital Prize 15,000 dollars.
2 prizes of $2,500-2 of $1,550-3 of $1,250-
2 of $1,000-5 of $700--40 of $500.
&c. &e. &-.
72 number lottery-12 drawn ballots.
Whole tickets $5-Shares in proportion.
For which apply to or address
JAMES PHALEN & CO., Managers,
april l1-3t Penn. av. near 4- street.
500 dollars-lowest three number ticket
POKOMOKE RIVER LOTTERY,
Class No. 44.
Which draws this day. Look at the Prizes.
$1,460-2 of $1,200-$1,100-$1,000-$900,
Whole tickets only $8-shares iii proportion.
For which apply at the most frlunate office of '
JAS. PHALEN & CO. Managers,
april 1-It Penn. Avenue. near 44 street.
STATE ARMORY AND TOWN HALL LOT-
TERY-CLAss3 'OR 1841.
Draws at Baltimore on Thursday, April 1st, at 3j P. M.
Capital prize 15,000 dollars.
50 Prizes of-$ 1l,01J0 are $5U 01.10.
1 prize of $1,924-70 prizes of $500, &c.
W fris Ti,: lia ,6-- liarrs in pr.,( t rt.,n.
For tickets in ilie saree jinf.-,o r i-.taiers apr.ls t.. or aJdrpss
JAME' PH tLEN & CO. Agenis,
mar ,u -4Itf Penn. avenue, sear 4j street,
TRIBUTE TO MILITARY MERIT.
Address of Governor GILMPR, on presenting nine
Swords at the Capitol of Virginia, on the 22'd
GENTLEMEN: In the name of Virginia, our mother, who is
proud to acknowledge you as her sons, I greet you with these
proofs of her remembrance and gratitude, which you have
honorably won, which she delights to bestow. The history
of this ancient Commonwealth, like an imperish:b ile scroll,
exhibits on every page some bright memorial, to kindle the
virtues of the patriot and arm the warrior's spirit. The sol-
dier's sepulchre, from a thousand battle-fields, proclaims how
much of Virginia's blood has been shed where the banner of
freedom waved. These illustrious survivors of many a will-
fought field are here to attest that a high and just sense of
military merit and reward has been cherished by the Stats
which gave you birth, and by the country which you serve.
This day, with its hallowed associations, reminds us of one
(and he was a Virginian) whose name stands, by the consent
of all mankind, first on the record of human benefactors. It
is no ordinary distinction, then, thus to be selected by such a
State from the multitudes who have perilled their lives in de-
fence of her free and venerated institutions.
This is not one of those splendid but vain pageants which
flash along our progress through the shadowy path of life, to
dazzle, to be admired and forgotten on the instant. It is a
spcctarl- of moral grandeur. It is the voice of a Common-
wealth which hails you to-day. It is the voluntary exhibition
of a People's gratitude in peace, for those who have signal-
ized themselves in war. The Olympic wreath, the triumphal
arch,, the "storniurn" and animated bust" may be, as
they have been,c Bfferred by royal dotards or by baby queens,
but the gratitude of a Republic beams in every eye and burns
in ever heart. These swords are the gift of your country.
When they shall be drawn in defence of that country's rights,
by you and by your sons, each blade will tell from generation
to generation the simple but touching story of Republican
heraldry-honor to whom honor is due-justice to all-fear
and favors for none.
Where Government is free, every citizen is a soldier, every
soldier is a citizen, and a nation comes up to the shock of war
as man rises in defence of his life or his hearth-stone, invoking
even in death the benedictions of Heaven on a just cause.
Hence it is that Republics always have been and always will
be invincible, until, prompted by ambition, revenge, or con-
quest, they forget what is due to their own rights by invading
the rights of others. Though you are surrounded to day by
so many imposing evidences of the pride, pomp and circum-
stance of glorious war," it becomes us to remember that our
bulwark is not in walls nor in camps, but in a system of wise
and just laws faithfully administered, so as to cause the hum-
blest American citizen to feel as sensibly as the Monarch on
his throne, that he is identified with his country-that he is
a part of its Government-that he is bound by sacred obliga-
tions to live or to die in its service.
Resolutions voting Swords to Colonel Roger Jones and Cap-
tain T/;omas Ap Catesby Jones.
[Agreed to by both Houses, February 15, 1834
1. Resolved unanimously by the General Assembly of Vir-
ginia, That the Governor be, and he is hei eby, requested to pre-
sent to ROGEa JONES, a citizen of Virginia, now a Colonel in the
Army of the United States, a sword with suitable devices, in tes-
timony of the ligh sense entertained by the Legislature of this
Commonwealth of his gallantry and good conduct in the battles of
Cbippewa, Niagara, and Fort Erie, and of his patriotic services
generally during the late war with Great Hritain.
2. Resolved unanimously by the General Assembly, That
the Governor be, and he is hereby requested to present to THos.
AP CATESSV JONES, a citizen of Virginia, now a Captain in the
Navy of the Unaited States, a sword with suitable devices, in testi-
mony of the high sense entertained by the Legislature of this
Commonwealth of his patriotic services during the late war with
Great Britain, and more particularly for the gallantry and good
conduct he displayed in the capture of the Pirates of Barataria,
on the sixteenth of September, eighteen hundred and fourteen,
and in the defence of the gun-boats under his command, near New
Orleans, when attacked by an overwhelming force detached from
Admiral Cochrane's fleet, on the fourteenth of December, eight-
een hundred and fourteen.
REPLY OF GENERAL ROGER JONES.
GOVERNOR : This sword which you present to me in com-
pliance with a resolution of the General Assembly of my
native State, I receive with all the reverence of a devoted son.
These devices and inscriptions carry back the flattered
memory to our great national struggle-to the fields and to
the Army of the Niagara. How can we recur to the memo-
rable campaign of '14 and see, as here emblazoned-" Chip.
pewa,"' Erie," Niagara," and not invoke the spirit of the
departed Chief under whose guidance our eagle so often
perched on victory ? And how can I suppress the names of
other gallant generals who, in the same campaign, and in
many a field, bled for their country and triumphed in her
cause ? The success of the American arms under the ban-
ners of BaowN, and GAINES, and SCOTT, and PORTER,* can
only be forgotten by Americana when the mighty cataractwhose
reverberations so often mingled with the shouts of victory
shall cease to attract the gaze and excite the wonder of the
It is, sir, my association in arms with these patriot soldiers
to which I deem myself much indebted fur the good report of
my humble endeavors in the cause of my country. That
their testimonials of services in the face of the enemy, often
received fresh from the conflict, have been confirmed by Vir.
ginia in the presence of this august assembly-witnessed,
too, by that honored patriot, the chivalrous chief who never
lost a battle-fills the heart of a faithful soldier with the purest
and most abiding joy.
I am unable to express in words, but generous hearts may
conceive, the grateful emotions which this scene inspires; sen-
sible, indeed, as Iam, that the honor conferred far exceeds the
merit of the services commemorated.
If the call to arms again be sounded over the land, I shall,
as in other days, be ready to obey the summons. But if, in
the order of Providence, the trump of war shall never more
salute my ear, there is pleasure in the thought that this polish-
ed blade may some day be Ibe heritage of one of seven sons.
And should it be their destiny to draw the sword in the de-
fence of the republic, the charm of reward made visible in
these beautiful devices, united, I trust, to the innate love of
duty and of country, cannot fail to inspire them, and exert a
genial influence in their line of march through life.
I tender to the General Assembly, and to your excellency,
sincere thanks, and the homage of my high respect, with the
assurance that, though a soldier, and not in the immediate
service of the State, I cling to her always, ever regarding
myself a citizen of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
REPLY OF COM. THOSE. AP C. JONES.
GOVERNOR : The highest reward the patriot warrior can
desire is his country's approbation.
If, then, amid war's desolation, when duty prompts and
hope animates, such demonstrations as we are now called to
witness are freely offered in the flush and pride of ;,-t.Jry,
how much more honorable, not to the recipient than t, ihe
source from which they emanate, are such spontaneous tri-
butes, rendered as it were by another generation, treed from
war's alarms, deliberately ratifying, with filial pride, the judg-
ment of fathers formed in the days of national triumph.
To me this presentation conveys a solace which none but
those who have mingled in battle's unsuccessful strife can
well appreciate. Unlike my compatriots in war, who now
stand before you, my dearest efforts were not crowned with
victory. Nevertheless I am not without reward. Indepen-
dent of this inestimable symbol, which it shall be my constant
care through life's remnant to preserve unsullied as I receive
it, the presence of this distinguished assembtage, and especial-
ly the approving smiles of so many of Virginia's fair daugh-
ters, would be recompense most ample for all that I have done
or suffered in opposing the foe whose watch-word, at the gates
of one of the fairest and richest cities of our beloved U'nion,
was BEAUTY and BOOTY."
It is, therefore, sir, that, in receiving this sword, I regard
it not more as a mark of approbation for the part I bore in the
scenes so richly inscribed upon it, than as a pledge on my part
for renewed and increasing devotion to my country and to her
cause, so long as that cause shall be Liberty and Union.
And when, in Nature's rapid course, the hand which now
receives the glittering blade shall no longer be able to strike
for Liberty and Virginia,
The land of the free and the home of the brave,"
it shall pass to my sons' care, with the prayer of their father
that it roay never be drawn but in Freedom's cause; and
when so drawn, it may never be sheathed while a tyrant Ioe
Could any thing, Governor, increase the obligation already
imposed on me by the vote of the Legislature of my native
State, superadded to that solemn oath by which, mrere than
five and thirty years ago, in high Heaven's eight, and in view
of this Capitol, I vowed fidelity to the Constitution and faith-
ful service to my country, it would be found in the hi.-hlv
complimentary manner in which your Excellency has on, ies,
memorable day-a day ever dear to all who love liberty and
revere the name of WAsHNmGToN-discharged the trust et-
joined on yoit by the resolutions to which you have just ad-
*Accept then, I pray yon, sir, for yourself, for the General
Assembly of Virginia, and for the good People of this Com-
monwealth, the grateful acknowledgments and thanks of your
and their faithful servant ant devoted fellow-citizen,
THOSE. AP CATESBY JONES,
United States Navy.
Resolution voting a sword to Htugh Nelson Page.
[Agreed to by both Houses, March 3, 1834.]
Resolved unanimously by the General Assembly of Virginia,
That4she Governor he requested to prbocure a sword, ornamented
with devices emblematical ofthe brilliant victory obtained on Lake
Erie by the naval forces of the United States, under the command
of Commodore PEssy, over those of Great Britain, under the
command of Captain BARCLAY, and present the same to Huor
NELSON PAGE, in the name of tho General Assembly, as a tri-
bute of its high approbation of the valar displayed by him on that
REPLY OF CAPT. PAGE.
In receiving at your hands the sword voted to me by the
Legislature of my native State, be assured I deeply feel the
debt of gratitude I owe, and ever shall, to that land which gave
me birth, and whose honor and prosperity it shall ever be my
pride and pleasure to defend.
That my dear Old Virginia should think that my feebleef-
forts have assisted in any manner to exalt her already high
character is more than I can suppose. I can assure her, how-
ever, thil she will never find ma wanting when my services
may be called inLi requisition.
General Peter B. Poruex, of the New York Volunteers,
Accept, Governor, the thanks of a Virginian for the min
ner you have executed the duty assigned to you-a duty
which, no doubt, has been as agreeable to you as impor-
tant to me.
Resolution voting a sword to R H Bell, Esq. late a Captain
in the Army of the United States.
[Agreed to byboth Houses, Pebruiry 2, 1835 ]
Resolved unanimously by the General Assembly of Virginia,
That the Governor be, and he is hereby, requested to present to
R. H. BELL, a citizen of Virginia, late a Captain in the Army of
thIe United States, a sword, with suitable devices, in testimony of
the high sense entertained by the Legislature cf this Common-
wealth of rhis gallantry anad good conduct in the battles of Crys-
ler's Field, Forty Mile Creek, and Lyons's Creek, and of his
patriotic services generally during the late war with Great
REPLY OF Ma. GREGORY,
ON BEHALF OF THE HEIRS OF CAPTA'rIN BELL.
YOuR EXCELLENCY: Circumstances have devolved upon
me the duty of receiving at your hands the sword which
some years since was voted to Capt. R. H. BELL by the Le-
gislature of his native State. I regret that this duty has devolv-
ed upon me, and especially the cause which has induced it.
In discharge of the duty which I have undertaken, I beg
leave, in the name and on behalf of the widow and children of
Capt. BELL, to return to our common State their unfeigned
thanks. And to you, sir, for the polite and appropriate man-
ner in which you discharge your duty, I, in behalf of the
widow and children of Capt. Bell, and for myself also, ten-
der you our sincere and entire approval. This sword is bat
a memento of the honorable testimony which the Legislature
of Virginia bore to the valuable services which Capt. Bell
bad rendered in the last war with Great Britain. If Capt.
Bell had lived to see this dlay, I doubt not he would have
been here, and, with a heart overflowing with gratitude,
have received this sword himself. And I feel sure that his
response would have been much more appropriate than any
thing I can say.
Capt. Bell has left a widow and several children, among
them a son, who has already taken his stand upon the thea-
tre of the world. Before he engaged in the business of life
which he intended to follow, and before he adopted it, he,
:hr..a,,h his friends, made application for ai appointment in
I.b, N.Nay of the United Slates-but he failed. With a mind
bent on elevating himself above the obscure condition in
whBch Nature had placed him, he determined to carve out for
himself a fa.,me lasting and long. And where else could he
look with so much propriety aE on the fame of his ancestors ?
His grandfather, old John Bell, of Charles City county, had,
eatly in 1776, received his commission of ensign, and march-
ed to the North. During that war he conducted himself in
such a manner as to be promoted in office, and to gain for
himself honorable distinction. In the progress of that long
and protracted war, the grandfather of him who is to receive
this sword was wounded, of which he lingered many years,
and finally died. During the last war, Capt. R. H. Bell
conducted himself in the most exemplary manner. Early in
the war he was wounded, of which he finally died. This
young man, desirous to emulate his ancestors, and disap-
pointed in getting office under his own Government, sought
it in a foreign country ; and, whilst I am exceedingly pleased
at receiving this sword, yet justice and candor require me to
say that it is to be transferred to a foreign service. Capt.
Bell bequeathed this sword to his eldest son, and although
I have never seen young Bell, I feel every assurance that it
can never, whilst in his hands, be disgraced. But, sir, there
is one consolation ; it is this, that although this sword is to
be transferred from the service of this Stale, yet it is not to
go into the service of any monarch or potentate, but is to be
wielded in behalf and defence of a sister Republic just emerg-
ing from the thraldom of despotism-I mean the Republic
of Texas; and God grant she may soon take her stand, as I
doubt not she will, among the nations of the earth.
Presented by the State of Virginia to Captain E. A. F.
VALLETTE, of the Urited States Navy, in testimony of the
high sense entertained by his native State of his gallantry and
distinguished patriotism, as displayed in the action on Lake
Champlain, September 11, 1814, between the squadronofthe
United States and that of Great Britain.
[Capt. PAGE received the sword on behalf of Capt. VAL-
LETTE, with a suitable response.]
Presented to THOMAS M. NELSOn, late a Major in the Ar-
my of the United States, in testimony of the high sense en-
tertained by his native State of his gallantry and good con-
duct in the battles of Chvteaugay and La Cole Mills, and of
his brave and patriotic services generally, during the late war
with Great Britain.
[B. HARRIaSON responded to the above, but his response has
not been furnished.]
Preamble and Resolutions voting a Sword to Lieut. Charles
[Agreed to by both Houses, February 3, 1835.]
Whereas the General Assembly of Virginia, by a resolution
bearing date the 10th of February, 1813, manifested their respect
for their fellow-citizen, Lieut. CHARLES W. MORGAN, who shared
in the gallant action between the United States frigate Constitu-
tion alu the British frigate Guerriere, by requesting the Gover-
nor of this Commonwealth to present to him an appropriate sword,
commemorative of that gallant exploit; and whereas it appears to
the satisfaction of this General Assembly that the materials of
which the said sword was formed proved to be perishable, and
otherwise unsuitable for the purpose; and whereas the said Lieut.
Charles W. Morgan bore an honorable and distinguished part in
the action which was subsequently fought between the frigate
Constitution and the British frigate Java :
1. Be it unanimously resolved by the General Assembly,
That the Gevenor of this Commonwealah be requested to present,
in the name of the General Assembly, to Lieut. Charles W. Mor-
gan, a sword, with an appropriate inscription, expressive of the high
sense entertained by them of his gallant and meritorious services
in both the actions above referred to.
2. And be it farther resolved, That tihe Governor ofthia Com-
rnonwealth be requested to transmit to the said Lieut. Charles W.
Morgan a copy of these resolutions.
REPLY OF P. HARRISON FOR CAPT. MORGAN.
To his Excellency the GOVERNOR OF VIRGINIA:
SIR: I have been requested by Capt. CHARLES MORoAN
to receive of you the sword presented to him this day in the
name of the honorable General Assembly of Virginia, through
Capt. MORGAN is unavoidably absent, because of his en-
gagement in the public service, under orders recently issued
to him by the Navy Department, which could not be neglect-
ed or delayed.
He requests me in his name to express to the General As-
sembly of Virginia, through you, the deep regret he feels at
being absent upon an occasion so greatly interesting to his
I have been instructed by him to return his thanks to the
General Assembly of his native State, through you, and to
express his feeling of profound gratitude for the high honor
they have been pleased to bestow upon him in the presenta-
tion of this splendid sword, and the expression of the senti-
ments of high praise contained in their resolution under which
it has been presented.
He begs meo, sir, to say to-day, through you, to the General
Assembly of Virgintia, that his feelings of gratitude are deep-
ly engraved upon his heart, and will be as enduring as his
life. He has instructed me to assure the General Assembly
that the sword presented to him by you this day shall be, as
his life ever has, devoted to the service of his country when-
ever she may require them. He has further instructed me to
tender to you personally his sentiments of profound respect
and regard, and thank you for the honorable menlion of his
name, and the pleasing manner in which you have discharged
the duty assigned you by the honorable the General As-
Resolution voting a Sword to the Son of Cot. George Armis-
tead, of the Army of Ihe United States.
[Agreed to by both Houses, March 9, 1836.]
Resolved unanimously by the General Assembly of Virginia,
That the Governor of this Commonwealth be, and te is hereby,
requested to procure a sword with appropriate devices and inscrip-
tions, and to cause the same to ae presented to the Son of Lieuten-
ant-Colonel Geomou ARMISTEAD, late of the Army of the United
States, as sn evidence of the high esteem and admiration enter-
tained by his native Smate for the courage and soldier-like conduct
of Col. ARSTtEAn in the cannonade of Fort George by Niagara,
and in the gallant defence of Port MoHenry on the fourteenth of
September, eighteen hundred aed fourteen.
REPLY OF C. H. ARMISTEAD.
Your Excellency the GOVERNOR : The feelings of gratifi-
cation with which my breast is filled nearly overpower me
at the receipt of this token in remembrance of the estimation
of the valiant deeds of a gallant father, for services rendered
his country beyond the precincts of this his native State, and
now a quarter of a century since. But, Virginians, upon
this soil he drew his first breath, and in as doing there was
sufficientguaranty that when the day came, and the country
required his bold arm, he would not be found wanting; and,
thank God, that such a father preceded me. It is asserted
that Republics are ungrateful, but Virginia, at least, is a
noble exception. Is she not pointing out to the world the
sons even of those men of whom she is most proud, and
whose deeds she is determined shall be matters of history;
and, in so doing, as in the days of the Revolution, is she
not leading the way, and encouraging the rising genera-
tion to similar deeds? Who is there that can bear wit-
ness to this ceremony that would not be proud to leave
such an inheritance to their children, besides knowing that
they have the gratitude of their country, and the inward
gratification of defending the Republic and keeping off the
hands of the spoilers This, this is the legacy of a sol-
dier; and is it not enough to winI The stake-his coun-
try's fame-is great enough; with such a prize before us,
would worlds prevent our endeavoring for it? I will an-
swer for Virginians, and the sons of Virginians. In the
mountains of Maryland, your sister State, the noble Poto-
mac finds its source, and waters your verdant valleys; and
when the clarion of war calls to the charge, we will come
with our best blood as freely to water your plains-with
such men as those who, with your gallant son as their
leader, kept that flag flying, the stripes and stars of which
shone so brilliantly amidst the" rockets' red glare and bombs
bursting in air." I trust that the day may never come
when this good steel will be called into requisition; but,
if it ever does, I hope that it may be proved with an arm
quickened by the same blood as that of my father, whose
bold deeds have brought to his son this proud day, and
whose glorious example will excite him to similar ones.
Mly ,rami,: haun upon this day has been increased by the
presence orf thi General to whom we all owe ao much, nnI
Iwho is a living witness that Republics ar- not ungrateful.
I C. HUGIHIES ARMISTEAD,
Resolution voting a Sword to Col. Archibald Haendcrsen, of Mount, John W,
the Marine Corps of the United States. Marshall, Capt. Chas.W. 2
[Adopted April 6, 1839.] Montgomery, Susannabh
VrniMorselt, B. I9. ,
Resolved unanimously by the General Assembly of Mrginia, Mille rJohn
That the Governor be, and he is hereby, requested to present to Muma, Lather
Col. ARCHIBALD HNDEoBsON, of the Marine Corps of the United Minson, LuthRober
States, and a citizen of Virginia, a sword with suitable devices, Morris, Robert
in testimony of the high sense entertained by the General As- Madison, Peter A.
sembly of his gallantry end good conduct, as a Captain of MIt- Martin, Albert Cas W
rines on board of the frigate Constitution, when engaged with the Morgao, Capt. Chs. W.
Cyane and Levant during the late war with Great Britain, and Monroe, Erastus MarS.
for other good conduct during the war with Great Britain. Marvin, Geo.
COL HENDERSON'S REPLY, BY GEN. R. JONES. Miller, Gen. David
GOV ERNOR: I much regret that the gallant Colonel to Martin, .
whom this sword has been voted by the Legislature of his Matthews, Henry C.
native State is unavoidably absent on this interesting occa- Morgan, Miss Margaret
sion and ever-memorable day. The dauntless soldier whose Murphy, John P.
lion-heart so often met his country's foe now melts in grief McRae, Geo. W.
over the fresh grave of a beloved brother, the late RICHARDn MeCrate John D.
H. HENDERSON. This lamented Virginian, though not call- McLean, Capt. Clinton
ed to the profession of arms, was at all times ready to serve Mclean, John, of N. Y. 2
his country in the camp as well as in the council. Many, McKeen, John
doubtless, within the sound of my voice will recollect with MePeak, Mrs. Mary
pride his patriotic services within the wallsofthis Capitol, as McClure, Charles
a member of the Convention for revising the Constitution of MeClane, Col. Archibald
Virginia; while probably some may be present who saw McCarthy, Jmhn M.
him in the ranks with musket and knapsack, hastening to McKenny, John
the defence of the Capitol which bears the name of our im- Nill, William 3
mortal WASHINGTON. N Wil 3
Col. Henderson having deputed me to receive, at the hands Nel MA. G. i,
Neil, Miss Elizabeth J.
.of your Excellency, the sword now presented, I proceed to Nelson, Thomas
read his written acceptance, which accompanied hia letter of
request: Oakford, J. S.
"However strong maybe the feeling which binds us to our Osbaurn,0O. C.
common country, there is one portion of it to which our early as- Osburn, J. H.
sociations attach us with a peculiar and endearing interest. It is
the place of our nativity, the home of ourchildhood, where we re- Paine, Enoch
ceived from parental solicitude the first lessons of patriotism, ho- Page, Mrs. Ann
nor, and virtue. Should any distinction be acquired in after life, Pitts, Hiram A.
there is no approbation so grateful as that which comes from Prime, William
those to whom we are drawn by ties of youthful affection. It is, Price, Lt. C.
therefore, most gratifying to me to receive from the Legislature Plumb, Jr. John
of my native State this testimonial of their approbation-this high Polk, George AV.
distinction bestowed on one who has done so little to merit it. Phillips, 1toratio H.
His ardent hope, however, is, that it may pass to his sons, and Philips, David
may be used hereafter, in his country's cause, by some one of Patton, Thomas R. 2
his descendants, not less patriotic, and much more capable, than
be who now has the honor to receive it." Rhodes, Foster
1 Rosa, J. Jenkins
LIST OF LETTERS
Remaining in the Post Office, Washington, April
L- Persons inquiring for Letters in the following List will
please say they are advertised.
Anderson, Mrs. Eliza M.
Addison, Daniel D.
Adams, John Q. of W.
Alien, E. H. 2
Anderson, Captain Robert 2
Ames, James T.
Angel, Gen. Win. H.
Beall, Miss Susan G.
Biggs, William 2
Bell, John H.
Belt, Dr. William 2
Beans, Mrs. Harriet
Brown, Joseph R.
Burr, Henry 2
Burr, Samuel J.
Brown, J. R.
Brent, J. H.
Brook, Mr. (State Department
Brown, Miss Lydia
Burrows, Thomas H.
Berrett, John J.
Brackenridge, Rev. J.
Burrett, Samuel L. 3
Braxton, Rev. Thomas C.
Bowman, S. M.
Brien, Mrs. Eliza
Barstow, G. H.
Brownlow, W. G.
Carnes, Major Peter A. 3
Clark, Miss Frances
Clarke, Winm. H.
Cood, Wm. 2
Chiles, John R. 2
Cox, Joshua P.
Chew, Mra. Tabitha
Clark, John T. C.
Clark, Dr. Win. E.
Childs, Timothy 4
Chambers, A. B.
Collins, Edward K.
Cassiday, James E.
Curtis, Lt. J. W.
Canfield, Capt. A.
Chahoon, A. 0. 2
Chandler, Lucius H.
Cochran, John J.
Dunn, Francmis A.
Dox, John N. 2
Dade, Mrs. Gwynnetta W.
Dodge, Mrs. Catharine D'W.
Doll, Win. H.
Drew, R. Harrison
Dunn, J. C. or his successor
Datis, James C.
Daley, S. W. T.
Davis, S. H. 3
Duncan, John M.
Doniphan, Thornton A.
Deaderick, Jas. W. S
Duval, Win. B.
Duvall, R. D.
Dashiell, Thos. B.
Ege, A. Galbraith
Everett, Miss Mary E.
Frink, J. 4
Ferris, Charles G.
Grant, M. V.
Gates, Mrs. Mary Ann
Greel, A. M. 2
Grubb; Miss Sarah G.
Gwynne, L. M.
Grimes, Win. H.
Gray, W. Parley
Giaves, Miss Margaret
Grant, jun. John
Greenfield, Miss Catherine
Hall, Dr. Benj. H.
Hall, Miss Margaret
Hall, Mrs. Henrietta M
Hughes, Miss Anna M.
Hatch, Orville W.
Hall, A. A.
Hubbard, Miss Mary E. 2
Halsey, James 2
Hodgkinson, Miss Mary
Henry, Mrs. Susan R.
Haddock, Dr. Charles C.
Hunter, John B.
Higgins, Mrs. Rebecca
Henry, William 3
Hamilton, Gen. James
Jones, John Ritchie
Jones, Miss A.
Jones, Col. William
Jones, James V.
Jones, Miss Mary
Jones, Miss Hannah
Johnson, Thomas W. 2
Kalklaser, John .
Kennon, Capt. Beverley
Kane, Franklin M.
King, Mrs. Marian E.
Knox, Dr. John R.
Lee, John 2
Levert, Dr. Henry S.
Lancaster, Capt. Joseph B.
Locky, A. K.
Little, John H.
Leonard, John A. B.
Luzenburg, Dr. Chaa. H.
Moore, Jacob B.
Moore, jr. James 8
Anderson, Samuel J. 2
Allen, Mrs. Martha D.
Alverson, L. M. 2
Alexander, Mrs. Jane A.
Addoms, Charles 3
Barker, P. B. 2
Burbridge, Miss Louisa 2
Browning, Lieut. Robert L.
Buckner, Capt. Simeon
Bayard, Samuel J.
Bryan, George S.
:) Bogle, John
Bishop, Mary Jane
Brannan, Benjamin F.
Boardman, Gapt. Win.
Brewster, D. P.
Braiden, Miss E.
Bailey, Rev. R. W.
Bayard, Mrs. Richard
Butler, P. M.
Backhouse, Ed. T.
Cochrane, Ir. Richard E. 2
Chapman, Geo. B.
Coquillaird, Alex. 2
Campbell, R. G.
Conner, Mrs. Sarah
Churchill, Col. Sam'l B.
Chapline, Mrs. Hamilton
Creighton, W. H.
Collins, Hugh W.
Carter, Mrs. L.
Clopton, Samuel C.
Carlisle, Jr., John
Chapman, L. T.
Cleveland, Richard J. 2
Coffee, Gen. Thos. J.
Durkee, Zeba 2
Dorsey, Joshua Howard
Dipuy, Rev. Chas. M.
Drummond, Eliz'h or Jane
Dexter, John C. 2
Davis, Jr., J.
Davis, Dr. D. B. 4
Drumnmond, Mrs. Heater Ann
Dearborn, H. A. S.
DeKay, George E.
Datehstein, John G.
Dorsey, John L.
Denny, Harmar 2
Davis, Dr. E. S.
Duvall, Win. T.
Exall, Gee. G.
.Edwards, Henry W.
Farmer, Joseph 2
Fuller, William 2
Goodwin, Mrs. Elizabeth
Godwin, Gen. A.
German, Noble T.
Gminnell, B. B.
Gibb,.ns, Miss Louisa
Graeie, Win. R.
Gai vin, Rev. Isaac
Greenough, F. W.
Houghton, Col. R. B.
Harris, Arnold 3
Hamilton, James A.
Handy, Mrs. Henrietta
Henderson, jun. John
Harper, Col. Robert
Huselman, Charles Lewis
Hinton, GeOn. 0.
Herbert, Dr. P. W.
Hickey, A. L.
Johnston, Col. John
Irwin, Gen. James
Israell, Charles H.
Imbric, J. S.
rvin, Dr. William
Knox, Rev. James
Keyes, Benj. E.
Knowles, John Thomas
Kemble, Miss Mary
Kelly, William 2
Lawrence, Henry J.
Lyon, David S.
Levy, Capt. Uriah P. 2
Listen, Col. J. A.
Leonard, B. G.
Massey, John W.
Murray, Mary Jane 2 ,
Maxwell, J. P. B. 3
4Moeley, Dr. Win. C,
Rose, Col. William
Richards, Samuel T.
Rogers, sen. John A.
Robinson, Miss Mahala
Randall, Maj. Daniel
Randolph, Miss Harriet W.
Reynolds, Miss Rebecca
Reintzell, Anthony 2
Smilib, Capt. Geo. 2
Steele, Rev. Ashbel 3
Stith, Thorogood Y.
Smith, Joseph L.
South, George W.
Sweet, Parker H.
Smith, Rev. James 2
Smith, E. W.
Sweet, Mrs. Ann
Smith, F. 0. J.
Sloan, Colonel John T.
Shiles, John W.
Staines, Mrs. Julia
Stewart, Major Win. M. 2
Sanders, Capt. John
Spencer, Henry E. 2
Sehermerhorn, Rev. John J. 2
Sargeant, J. 0. 3
Sharp, Miss Caroline
Todd, James 3
Thorn, Mrs. Elizabeth
Todd, Dr. John
Taylor, Major C. 2
Thomas, General James
Taylor, Mrs. Lucy H.
Terry,.jr. Eli 2
Wood, Mrs. Elizabeth
Wil(ls, Captain D. Aw
Welts, Win. A.
White, Joseph R.
Ward, Dr. Levi
Wood, Mrs. Abigail
Wolf, John P.
Worden, 0. N.
Waring, Richard M.
Warren, Henry 2
Wallack, Jr. James W.
Walker, Thee. Lee
Wilson, Oliver C.
Williams, Miss Julia
Wymnan, Wm. 2
Wever, Caspar W.
Yerger, J. S. 6
Young, Win. S., U. S. N.
C.W,. Q.P.O. W.S.
J.S. T.D. To "Primitious."
L.M. L.M.O 0. N.
The inland postage not being paid on the following addressed
letter, it remains in this office :
Mrs. Mary Shaw, Buenos Ayres, South America.
j- The inland postage on all letters intended to go by
ship must be paid, otherwise they remain in this office.
April 1, 1841. J. S. GUNNELL, P.M.
CLASS No. 2, FOR 1841.
To be drawn at Alexandria, D. C. on Saturday, April 17, 1841.
By authority of law, for Internal lmnrovement in Alexandria, D.
C. State Treasury, Delaware College, and Common Schools,
in the State of Delaware. Useful Manufactures in the State of
South Carolina. Green and Pulaski Monument in the City of
Savannah, and State of Georgia. Public Institutioens in the
States of Louisiana and Kentucky.
D. S. GREGORY & CO., Managers.
1 prize of $60,(000 5 prizes of $1,750
1 do 30,000 10 do 1,600 .
1 do 15,000 10 do 1,250
1 do 10,000 50 do 1,000
1 do 8,000 60 do 600
1 do 7,000 50 do 400
1 do 7 6,000 150 deo 300
1 do 6,000 100 do 300
I do U0- ,00,01100 'do 250
1 do 4,000 170 de 200
4 do 2,500 124 do 10
1 do 2,311 124 do 00
I prizes of 2,000
Besides prizes of 80, $70, $60, $50, $40, 25,$20, 15, $123 610.
Sixteen drawn numbers out of seventy-eight.
Tickets $20- Halves $10-QuaMters 5.5- Eighths g2 50.
Certificates of packages of 26 whole tickets, $260
Do do 26 half do 130
Do do 26 quarter do 65
Do do 26 eighth do 32 50
*** Orders for Tickets and Shares and CuntircaLea of PaeCslges
in the above brilliant scheme will be prnimpily iiended to, and as
soon as the drawing is over an account o( it will be forwarded to
all who order from us. Address
D. S. GREGORY & CO. Managers,
mar 9-2aw3wd&cpif Washingtotr.
THIS DAY, (APm t 1,)
No. 11-ExtRA, Draws.
Tickets 12-Halves $1-Quarters 50 cents.
ON FRIDAY. (APRI. 2,)
MARYLAND CONSOLIDATED LOTTERY, No, 10, "
Will be drawn in Baltimore.
2 Capitals of $10,000.
$3,000-$2,088-10 of $-2,000, &c.
Lowest Prize nettil 5.
Tickets $5-Halves $2 50---Quarters S1 25.
$30,000-25 prizes of $-2,000.
ON SATURDAY, AFi.L 3,
VIRGINIA WELLSBURG LOTTERY, C.ASs D,
Draws at Alexandria, Va.
$.30,000-$ 10,000-$6,000-15,000-3 000-
$-2,500-$2,195-25 of $1,000, &c.
Tickets IlO--Halves 35-QOnarltes 32 50.
Forsale by D. S. GREGORY & CO.
Managser, Penn. avenue, nest door eae of Gadaby's
april 1-3tdf Hnili. Wiuhinstne
OR SALE, a pair of handsome gray hborses, well broke
to single or double harness, very gentle, uand travel well
together, the one 6 and the other years old ibhis spring I they
are well maLched, and wairanitd perfectly sound. Inqaire of
Col. Henderson, Marine Barracks, Washington.
Mender hall, Dr. G.orgs
M.u.Jy, S.meon r. 4
M.er, Fi.anklin .
M,,ibv. Di. I. H. 3
Millkin, J.i* .l;.i
Murlon, VW illiam
Morgan, J. B. of N. Y.
Morton, James P.
Marshall, Alfred 2
1 r,,n, Mi-.a MaryAnq
Miller, John G.
Miller, W. A.
McPherson, Win. M. 2
McAfee, Miss Mary
McCarty, Gen. Jonah
MctLanahan, Miss Isabella
McElvaine, Col. John
.McMillan, Dr. J. 2
Norman, John A. L.
0' Neal, William
0' Neil, Mrs. Mary E.
Plummer, Hiram 2
Parker, Win. H. 3
Pollen, Ann S.
Peters, Mrs. Louisa
Rathbone, Wrn. P.
Richardson, Edward 2
Randel, Jr. John
Randolph, Richard Q. 2
Rummage, Miss Lydia A.
Reynolds, Joseph P.
Rsndol ph, M.
Ringgold, Col. John
Riner, Gen. Joseph
Russell, Col. Win. H. 3
Smith, Miss Eliza
Shurtliff, J. B. 2
Stockton, Captain R.
Shearmano, J. A.
Stanley, Mrs. Edward
Stark weather, Colonel Samuel
Shepherd, Win. Albert
Sweeny, Dr. H. B.
Stokeley, Samuel 2
Sewall, Miss Caroline
Stratton, Charles C.
Shattuck, Cortlandt W.
Stevenson, J. D.
Sturges, Handy J.
Snyder, Mrs. Mary M. 2
Truslow, John W.
Talburt, George W.
Turner, Lt. C. C.
Thomas, J. B.
Terry, Joserh H., U.S. N.
Throop, J. V. N.
Teriett, Lt. George H.
Wilson, Thomas M.
Weodbridge, Jr. J-mes
Williams, Thomas J.
Wellman. R. N.
Wurrner, W. A.
Warfield, Miss S.
Westbrook, John 2
Walker, Rev. Win. F.
Williams, Henry F.
Weston, Dr. J. D.
Webster, Mrs. Caroline T.
Willson, A. G.
Watson, John J.
Wais.,n, Col. Edward H.
%V iJioi, John
Yerkes, Andrew 2
IN SENATE-MARCH 2, 1841.
The bill making appropritsons f-r the civil and diplorr, tc
lrp'nseu of the ernimertt [br the year Ill hteing urinldcr
eo isideraii.in, arJ the motion prndtiig being to lJUnti the sa-
lanrps ofc-,llectol so as not t.,' r cced 11 any case the su e '
SMr PRENTSS sad thai he w,.hed to say a w.d .ir
two in .rItplaulon arind oiidll:>)in ol the vote he sLJ'ul
gie. HI,' wai ware 'h.i ai-i..n w.,s more needed tihir. dies
cussion Ut thiat iate tag ft" ith, ef.i.,n, and he should not
peruiu hi.nerlt I eay aniiy ihirig. 'spcially when so much
importail, bui,, -, itria iin, uidjJsp.j. I of, if circumstances
would allow of his remaining silent. He would assure the
Senate, however, that his remarks would be very brief, and
that he shoI'dtake up but a f-w moments of their time.
Mr. P. said he should vote for the amendment proposed,
and shouolI also vote to retain all the provisions of the bi I of
a character similar to the amendment. He should do this,
he might be allowed to say, not from any motives of popu-
1 rTy, but from a deep sense of duty, from a settled convic-
tion that he should I in that way best falfil the high obligations
resting upon him in the high public station he was permitted
to hold. He would] not be understood as undervaluing popula-
rity because he disclaimed it as a-rule ofconduct; but he was
quite to) humble and unpretending an individual to count
greitly upon it, or to seek for or desire any which did not
ari.e i ron the pursuit of right ends by right means. What-
ever popularity that would bring might be as grateful to him
as to any one; but he neither coveted nor was ambitious ef
any other. Both the amendment and the provisions of the
bill to which he had alluded rested upon a principle he had
always advocated and had often voted for; and he could not
allow himself to falsify all that he had said and all he had
done on f.)rmer occasions. tie had, at a farmer time, de-
clared his doctrines upon the general subject, and he lad
unrlirinly acted in conformity with the doctrines so declared.
%Vn.l lhisee doctrines were would appear from the remarks
he had made in 1838 on the proposition to increase the sala-
ries of certain judicial officers of the United States, a part of
which remarks he would take the 1,berty to read. On the
occasion referred to, he expressed himself to this effect:
It is undoubtedly correct in theory, and wise in practice,
to allow such salaries as will enable you to command compe-
tent talents, and to fill your offices with able and meritorious
men; and if the reason of the theory formed a rule which
was iriari bli ob-.civ d in .akt;_, appointments, there would
be so | I ,j.,tl i-'.-u..-e [t i.a.i, for the unreasonable ex-
tent to which you have carried your liberality. Bat how is
the practice I Are appointments made with a sole view to
merits and qualifications I Is it not to be feared that, in ge-
neral, offices are bestowed more as a reward for partisan ser-
vices, than with any reference to merits and qualifications '1
Is there not cause to apprehend that even your judicial offi-
ces, which ought to be filled with the'most learned, ab!e, and
upright men, wbh .uit c: nrl to party distinctions, must first
be earned by lavish devotion to the party in power, and by
elavishi labor in the service of'partisan warfare' The theory
or principle which ought to be the rule and guide, seems to
be entirely lost sight of, or to be wholly inapplicable to these
degenerate and evil times.
I hold that it is unjust to tax the People by unnecessary
expenditure in any way; hut expenditure in extravagant sa-
laries is not only wrong in principle as well as policy, but has
an evil and pernicious tendency. It is not only a violation
of the true principles of this Government, and the duty we
owe to it, but it is a violation of the duty we owe to the
States, to allow salaries which will enable officers to riot ini
luxury, or to live in a style of ostentation and extravagance
unsuited to the manners, habits, and customs of the People
in the States where they dwell. In establishing the amount to
be allowed officers of this Government, regard ought always to
be had] to the salaries allowed in the States wherethe duties of
the offices are to be performed. The State Legislatures
know the expense of living, as well as the habits and customs
of the People, in their respective States, and the salaries es-
tablished by them are in general regulated by a just regard
to economy, and to what is reasonably due to persons em-
ployed in the public service.
If you exceed very considerably the salaries allowed by
the States, you not only give direct encouragement to extra-
vagance, ,but make the offices under the General Government
the principal objects of ambition, and create and keep up
among the People, as a natural consequence of your profu-
sion, constant party agitation and violent party excitement.
The officers of the General Government become prominent
and active leaders of parties, mingle conspicuously in all the
political conflicts of the day, and, by the means which their
extravagant salaries provide them, are enabled, if they are so
disposed, to plan and execute corrupt andi profligate partisan
purposes. In this way the General Government may acquire
and exert a commanding and predominant influence in the
elections-an influence no less dangerous to the independ-
ence of theStates, than injurious to the character and best
interests of the Union.
I have no disposition to deny to any officer of the United
States, much less to a judicial officer, an adequate, and even
a liberal c.,'mpensatior. for his services; but lam opposed, on
general principles of policy, as well as justice, to allowing, in
any case, a compensation obviously far beyond what is de-
manded by the nature and amount of services to be perform-
ed, or by any other considerations properly appertaining to
ti0 eubject. 1 would prToceC on the principle -of queatuems
meruit, and allow to every officer what ho deserves to have,
considering the dignity and responsibility of the office, the
labor to be performed, and tke expense to be incurred, having
regard always to the rate of compensation given to officers in
analogous stations in the State where he is to officiate."
Such, Mr. P. said, were the opinions he had uttered upon
this floor not quite three years since. He had been guided
by them at all times, because he thought they were tight;
and he would repeat that he could not falsify or contradict
his expressed opinions and recorded votes, unless there were
new and strong circumstances to justify him in so doing. He
was not ignorant that a thing which was positively right
might be relatively wrong. He knew that circumstances
might be such, or might have so changed, as not only to jus-
tify, but to require opposition to a measure which might be
altogether right in the abstract. But no such circumstances
attended the proposition before the Senate. It provided re-
gulations which would be salutary at all times; it rested up-
on general principles of fitness and expediency which were
as true to-day as they were yesterday, or at any period past
and gone, and would remain equally true in all the transi-
tions of future time. The going out of one Administration
and the coming in of another did not alter or change its rela-
tions. What Mr. P. would do in such a matter under one
Administration he would feel himself bound to do under an-
The bill before the Senate having passed the oaher House,
afforded, Mr. P. said, a most favorable opportunity, which he
wsn glad to avail himself of as far as he could, to give practical
effect to the doctrines he had professed. The bill proposed to
fix the maximum of compensation to any district attorney or
marshal at six thousand dollars, and the maximum of com-
pensation to any postmaster at five thousand dollars. The
amendment which had been offered proposed to extend the
provisions of the bill to collectors of the customs, so that the
compensation to a collector should in no case exceed six thou-
sand dollars. Neither of these offices, in general, certainly
none of them except the one first mentioned, necessarily re-
quired, as some other offices did, the highest order of talents,
or any very extraordinary attainments. Numerous individu-
als in the country were competent to discharge the duties of
these offices; and, in fillir.,t the offices, regard might properly
be had, chiefly, to fidelity, responsibility, and habits of indus-
try and .lllgiLi.'v rather than to exalted intellectual powers,
extensive acquirements, or great experience. Could any one
say that six thousand dollars was not an adequate, and even
a liberal compensation to a district attorney, marshal, or col-
lector, wherever he might reside; or that a postmaster, in
any place, deserved to have more than five thousand dollars
Look (said Mr. P.) at the salaries which were allowed the
highest officers, such as the Chief Magistrate and the Judges
of the Superior Courts, i-n one of t he richest, largest, and most
populous States in the Union. The Governor of New Yoik
an officer of the first and highest dignity in the State, ,,l.j-t
to much expense and great responsbility, received a alsarj c.m
four thousand dollars. The Chancellor and the Chief Justice
of the State, both offices of the highest trust and responsibili-
ty, requiring eminent talents and profound learning, with
great professional attainments and experience, anl imposing
constant labor throughout the year, had each a salary of two
thousand five hundred dollars. Now, by this bill, a district
attorney or marshal, and, by the amendment proposed, a col-
lector, might obtain two thousand dollars more than was al-
lowed the Governor of New York, and three thousand five
hundred dollars more than was allowed the Chancellor or
Chief Justice of the State. Even a postmaster, by the bill,
might get one thousand dollars more than the Governor, and
exactly twice as much as the Chancellor or Chief Justice.
But extend the comparison to ihe salaries allowed the high
officers under the General Government. A district attorney,
marshal, or collector, under the restrictions proposed to be im-
posed, might ohi,.in, and ,-,ne ,,'f the>m ,nould obtain, a corn-
pensation -qual 1to 1lit which t % l|..iweI to the Secretary of
State, or to the Secretary of the Treasury, an office beyond
all question the most laborious in the Government, or to any
of the other Heads of Departments; a compensation greater
by one thousand dollars than the ChiefJustice of the United
States received, and two thousand dollars more than was al-
lowed the Attorney General of the United States. Even a
postmaster might get, and some of them would get, a compen-
sation equal to that of the Chimf Justice, and one thousand
dollars more than that of the Attorney General. Could it
possibly be that the limitations proposed to be enacted were
unreasonable orilliberal 7 C uld it be seriously urged by any
gentleman that any of the officers who might be affected by
the proposed regulations were, upon any just consideration,
or even the most liberal view of the matter, entitled to a higher
compensation than the highest officers known to exist under
this Government Was there any thing in the nature or du-
ties of the offices of district attorney, marshal, collector, or
postmaster, or in their ampdrat'e j,,,.r.inty or importance, that
called for or would jtiflly a mvie ,..utj'iful recompense for
their services !
The emol,,ments. Mr. P said, which Bere annually re-
ceived by some uf ihe officers rf ihe ULie.l States in large
cities had been cond-mrnedl and detiuunoi, lIuth by the public
preas and popular opini.,n, as exiravngan', nl republican,
and of an influence and tenlencv leridc(dly unfavorable and
vicious. The sober sense of the Proplel would not tolerate
either the hastyl accumulati.,n and sudden 1.ving up of opu-
lent fortunes in the spaceuf 'i few years hy the holdiers ul p,.b-
lie office; or, what wis worse, the prodi..al diseipaim.n of in-
ordinate official incomes in luxurtious indulgenccs to the pre-
judice of all just frugality and of all sound morality in indi-
vidaal and social life. Mr. P. wished to bring back the Gov-
ernment to the simplicity, the purity, and the economy which
belonged to it in the days of Washington. He was anxious
to restore it to its primitive, its original condition in these re'
spectsie. He wanted tosee a frugal, just, and at the same time
enlightened and liberal administration of the Government;
such an administration as characterized the Government in
the early days of the Republic, when merit-real, substantial
merit-was the passport to public favor and confidence, and
money was not extorted from the People to be embezzled by
faithless agents, or wasted away in lavish and useless expen-
ditures. He wanted to see the time when an end would be
put to wasteful profuion and extravagance, and when men
would no longer b r 'it||inri d to public trusts whose preten-
sionsconsisted in l]itle- Isr than ill-judged and noisy violence,
or in ostentatious devotion to the affairs of the Public after
proving themselves incapable of ( .i,,iucin,' their own, or
having none to attend to. Bad principles and vicious policy,
with narrow, bigoted, and demoralizing party politics, had had
the ascendency long enough, and had made inroads wide and
broad enough upon public virtue and private morals. But,
notwithstanding the progress of these influences, and the
alarming advance of others of a disorganizing and destruc-
tive nature, undermining the rights of property and threaten-
ing the quiet and tranquility of the country, the People, af-
ter all, excepting always the incorrigible agitators and ever-
restless disturbers, with their misled followers, were on the
side of order, subordination, law, liberty, and peace, and in
favor of a return to those principles which were the only sure
foundation of good government as well as of free and civilized
society. The People had seen the necessity of a reform, were
resolved to have reform, and would be satisfied with nothing
short of real, actual, substantial reform.
Among other reforms, Mr. P. said, none was more obvious
or necessary than the retrenchment of all extravagance in the
expenses of the Government. For one, he meant to give all
the aid in his power to the work of reform, now and at all
times; and he was gratified to witness, even at so late a day,
some symptoms of contrition in those who still retained, and
would retain for a short time longer, the administration of
public affairs. It was the saying, if hlie remembered rightly,
of one who had improvidently wasted his substance in riotous
living, and outlived both his fortune and his health, that no
one had sinned with so much repentance, or repented with so
little amendment, as himself. It was to be hoped that the
Administration which was about to wind up its affairs, and
retire from office, might be able to take to itself at least as
much consolation as this, small as it might be; though the
evidence of repentance, however deeply repentance might
hava been felt, it was to be feared, had not been often or
very strikingly visible to the country. Mr. P. was glad,
however, to see the work commenced with some appear-
ance of sincerity, even at the eleventh hour; and he re-
joiced that they were favored, late and unexpected as it was,
with an opportunity to accomplish, under the closing auspices
of this Administration, so much good as he believed the en-
actment of the provisions of this bill into a law would be sure
Mr. CALHOUN said he always listened to the remarks
of the Senator from Vermont (Mr. PRENTISS) with great
pleasure; he had ever found them replete with sound prac-
tical sense. On no occasion, however, had hlie been more
highly delighted than on the present. He sincerely hoped
the course suggested by the Senator would be carried out
by all parties; it was alike honorable to his judgment and
patriotism. He now began to entertain some hopes that
wanton and profligate expenditures, enormous salaries and
fees of office would no longer be tolerated. If Senators
would turn their eyes for a moment to the monstrous abuses,
the prodigal waste of the public money that grew out of
the system of a high protective tariff, they would shrink
aghast at the disclosures. Now was the time to bring the
General Government back to that purity and simplicity
which the Constitution originally contemplated-to reduce
the revenue to the actual wants of the Government-to
take from all public agents those enormous fees and emolu-
ments that had been suffered to accumulate in times of
surplus millions. If they desired to allay high party ex-
citement, that was the way to accomplish it. The enor-
mous fees of some of these offices acted as lures to the
ambitious and unprincipled to enter the arena of politics, and
just so long as they were permitted to be received they would
act like the high prizes in the lottery to tempt adventurers.
Besides, (said Mr. C.) every dollar thus saved by such steps
would be adding to the public treasury, and doing something
towards placing the country in a proper state of defence,
such as would enable her to take her stand among the proud-
est nations of the earth.
Mr. C. here made allusion to the remarks of Mr. PRESTON
during the morning hour in relation to the national defences,
in parts of which he said he most heartily concurred. He
thought, however, before any system of dlefence was adopted,
that it should receive the sanction of our ablest military
and naval officers, as the improvements that had been made
in the science of military and naval tactics would render such
a course prudent, at least, if not in lispensable on their part.
The question was then taken on the amendment, by yeas
and nays, and unanimously adopted, as follows:
YE tS-Messrs. Allen, Anderson, Bates, Bayard, Benton, Bu-
chanan, Calhoun, Cheate, Clay, of Ken., Clay, of Ala., Clayton,
Cuthbert, Dixon, Fulton, Graham, Hubbard, King, Knight, Linn,
Lumpkin, Mangum, Mersick, Mouton, Nicholson, Norvell, Pierce,
Porter, Prentiss, Preston, Roane, Southard, Smith, of Indiana,
Smith, orf Conn., Sturgeon, Tappan, Walker, Wall, Williams,
WASHINGTON BRANCH RAILROAD.
WOTIC E.-With a view to the accommodation of passengers
1 from the South, the hour of departure of the Evening Train
for Baltimore will, on Saturday next, 3d of April, be changed to
5J o'clock, of which travellers will please take notice.
Passengers by the 6 o'clock train from this city can connect as
heretofore with the morning train of the Annapolis and Elkridge
Railroad; in addition to which, a car (for the exclusive accommo-
dation of passengers wishing to connect with the evening train to
Annapolis) will bhe attached to the tonnage train which will leave
this city daily (except Sundays) at 3 P. M.
By order. SAMUEL STETTINIUS,
april 1-tf Agent.
IWASHINGTON LIBRARY COMPANY.-An
election of seven Directors for the Washington Library
Company will tie held on Monday, April 6th, at the library room
on 1 th street, between the hours of 3 and 6 P. M.
Judges of Election-Messrs. Edward N. Roach, Win. McL.
Cripps, and Ignatius Mudd.
By order of the Board.
april 1-3t JAS. P. HALIDAY, Sec.
ONDON TWEEDS, GAMBROONS, DRIL-
LINGS, &c.-WVe have just received a handsome assort-
ment of London Tweeds, slain and ribbed Gamnbroons, and plain
and ribbed Linen Drillings, all colors, and of a superior quality,
for gentlemen's wear.
Also, a lot of Black Summer Cloth, very cheap, and superior
London Quilting, to which we respectfully invite the attention of
N. B. Also, super wool-dyed black, blue, and invisible green
Cloths and Cassimueres. Those in wat will d(o well to call at No.
2, west of 7Lth street, and opposite the Centre Market, at the old
april 1-dlw G. W. PHILLIPS & HALL..
EW SPRING GOODS, Cheap fbr Cash or to
Punctual Customers.-We have this day received
and are now opening a large assortment of Goods suitable for the
approaching season ; such as-
50 pieces Plain and Figured Mousselines de Lathes
10 do Tarentules, a mew article for spring dresses
15 dresses of Lot de Smyrna, plain colors
50 pieces Plain and Figured Lawns
15 do Super Stripe do
20 do Manchester Ginghanis
20 do Chene Prints
10 do 4-4 do
6 do Figured and Striped Blue Black Poult de Sole
50 do lain do do
20 do Striped and Plain Light Colored do
10 do Figured do do
20 do 6-4 Black and Blue Black Bombasin
10 do Colored Lawn, for bonnets
3000 yards Bobminet and Wire Ground Lace, very cheap
100 dozen Plain andl Worked Cotten Hose
20 do Hemstitched Linen Cambric Handkerchiefs
All of the above goods were bought low, and will be sold at
very reduced prices at the store 2 doors west of 7th street, and
opposite the Centre Market.
april 1-eolw G. W. PHILLIPS & HALL.
T| HOMAS T. BARNES has lust received the following
Rich Figured Plaid and Plain Silks
Black and Blue Black Poult de Sole
Best quality Italian Lustring and Gros de Rhino
Splendid Mousselines do Laines and Shalleys
New style Second Mourning do
50 dresses beautiful Satin-stripe Mousselines de Lamhes at
84 50 per dress
1/00 dresses beautiful, all wool, Mousselines de Iaines at
$3 per dress
New style Painted Lawns and-Jaconets, cheap
Do Second Mourning and Black Lawns
Painted Cambrics and Chintz
Bliiiish and American Calicoes
Manchester and Searsucker G.',!l h ',
Black and Second Mourning undressed Ginghams
Superfine and low-priced Bombasins, cheap
Plain and Figured Swiss and Book Muslins
Superfire Cambric and Jaconet Co
Chene Satin, Silk and Filet Shawls and Mantillas
Satin, Silk, and Gauze Handkerchiefs
Ladies' and Gentlemen's Kid and Silk Gloves
Filet Gloves and Mits
French and English Silk Hose
Superfine and Low-priced Cotton Hose
Embroidered White and Unbleached Hose
10 cartoons new style Plaid and Figured Ribands
20 cases Ladies' and Misses' Florence BraidBonnets
5 do White and Colored Hoods
15 boxes Artificial Flowers
200 Parasols and Screens. april 1-d3t
AENABY BUDGE, a new story by Charles Dickens,
(Boz.)-The proprietors of the NEW WORLD newspaper
take this method to announce that they are about to commence,
in both editions of the New World, folio and quarto, a new story
by the popular author of the Pickwick Papers, Nicholas Nickleby,
Oliver Twist, &c. on Saturday, the 27th day of March. Subscri-
bers in the country are requested to forward their orders as soon
as possible. The price of the New World is $3 per annum, pay-
able in advance. Postmasters are authorized to forward the
amount free of charge.
Address J. W I NC H ECTFER, 30 Ann street, New York, or If.
TAYLOR, bokseller, Washington. mar l1-eolmif
It is astonishing that an intelligent people, like those of
the United States, should be gravely discussing the question
whether Congress have the constitutional power to establish
a national bank. This and many other subjects may pre-
sent a question of expediency; ut as to the right, the con-
stitutional powerto establish such institution, the discussion of
the question comes, to may mind, as near the ridiculous as any
thing that can well be imagined. To see men-men whose
pride and dignity would be wounded by supposing themselves
engaged in any thing farcical-to see them gravely, even
solemnly discussing the proposition that "two and two make
four," is truly enough to make dead statues leer and nod,
and say "yes, yes-very profound-very conclusive !"
The Constitution I What is it' I A mass of hieroglyph-
ics dug up in Herculaneum 1 No; but a set of rules of ac-
tion laid down by a few plain men, such as GioneG WasH-
INGTON and JAMEs MADISON, and which are, really, as easily
understood as a contract about an acre of land or a yoke
I have not read much on the subject of the currency, nor
do I wish to. The Constitution on the subject is very short
and very plain. It says Congress shall have power, 1st, to
" regulate commerce among the different States; and, 2d, to
"provide for the general welfare."
Now suppose even that the idea of a national bank never
did enter into the minds of the framers of the Constitution.
Suppose such an institution as a bank had never been heard
of. And suppose, further, that, a hundred years after all the
framers of the Constitution were dead, a state of things
should arise in the commerce and fiscal concerns of the na-
tion as to render it for "the general welfare" to establish
such an agency as a national bank-I ask if it would not
be the right and the DUTY of Congress to establish such bank 1
Is not such bank, with proper and safe regulations, absolutely
necessary to, 1st, regulate commerce among the several
States," and, 23J, for the general welfare I"
The constitutional power to do this cannot be questioned.
General WASHINGTON was one of the framers of the Con-
stitution, and, as all know, was a man of great caution and
judgment; and he signed the first charter for a national
bank, making it a law of the land. The only question is a
question of expediency : and it is quite too late to discuss
this. The trade-the finances of the country are rostratee.
Nothing can revive them but a national bank-nothing-no-
thing. Trade must have a regulator--a centripetal point
and power-and the paper currency of the country must
have something of a universal standard of value in thecoun-
try-and the issues of State banks something of a correc-
tive. Nothing can furnish all these but a national bank,
having the CONFIDENCE of the Government and the nation.
The LIBERTIES of the nation demand this as a place of de-
posite'and disbursement. The Executive has the sword-
and that is enough for any one man.
Such an institution is a-matter of NECESSITY. It is of no
use to war with NECESSITY. It will wear out the public in-
dustry and prosperity-and, finally, the public virtue and
the liberties of the country. The force of circumstances is
not to be resisted-especially when they are every day in-
creasing with the hugely increasing growth of the country.
Messrs. Editors, you know me well, and you know that I
am a plain, retired, and humble man, never having had any
thing to do with banks or bank men, and never expecting to.
I write these thoughts, feeling much concern for the pros-
trate condition of the country. PHILOCLES.
FOR THE NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE.
Messrs. EDITORS: Permit another Western man, who has
just read in your paper of this morning the Extract of a
letter from a citizen of Illinois," to say a few words, as briefly
as possible, suggested by its perusal.
While the writer of this is ready to admit the truth, lamen-
table though that truth may be, of much that is said of the
corruption of political parties, he at the same time is taught by
all history and experience that it is impossible to preserve
liberty and popular institutions of Government without that
strict, active, and constant watchfulness which is to be found
only among men who know and feel that "eternal vigilance
is the price of liberty," and which can be efficiently exer-
cised in such a country as this only by the systematic co-ope-
ration of all good and patriotic men.
How, then, if this be true, unless by the existence of a
party, and a powerful, patriotic, and" independent press, is
such effective vigilance to be exercised 7 Many good and
well-meaning men seem to suppose that now that we have
triumphed over a most corrupt and powerful faction, we should
put an end to all party organization, lay down our arms, call
in our sentries, and repose in peace and fancied security. A
delightful prospect this to all who prefer quiet anti peace to
the turmoil and labor of political strife, but how delusive and
The election of our present able and experienced Chief
Magistrate, and the placing in power those intellectual giants
who form his Cabinet, has given confidence and hope to the
country. The driving out from the sacred temple of liberty
the money-changers who had so long polluted it, great and
glorious achievements as they are, is no more a consummrna-
tieon of all the patriot's wish than the driving of Proctor's ar-
my from the soil of our country by General HARRIsoN was
an accomplishment of his great designs. It was only after
he had pursued the British general for days, and, by a bold
and brilliant action, captured his whole army on his own soil,
and deprived him of the means of harassing our infant set-
tlements, that the West was blessed with security and pace.
We have to deal with a powerful and vigilant foe-with
men who regard office as a means of plunder-who look upon
the revenues of the country as their "spoils" indeed. Their
followers, legion in name, honest and deluded though they
be, are still devoted and obedient-they are not disbanded.
The late election has been, in cQmparison with what may
follow, a mere skirmish of outposts"-a preliminary action
to the grand battle which may yet be fought. Let us, then,
while we oppose the proscription" of any man for a proper
expression of opinion, and striving to avoid the corruptionss"
of party, like faithful sentinels, keep watch lest the enemy come
upon us while we are sleeping. There is no rest, no exemp-
tion from this duty.
Do the people of this country desire the calm and repose
which never can be found among a free, self-governing people'?
They may find it, but it will be the repose into which the
vampire bat of Madagascar fans his sleeping victim. It will
be a calm indeed, bat such as is known only to those who
live under a despotism.
AN AMERICAN CITIZEN.
WASHINGTON, MaRcH 29, 1841.
CHINA, GLASS, AND EARTHENWARE.-
HUGH SMITH & Co. Alexandria, have on hand and offer
for sale, on favorable terms, a full and complete assortment of
China, Glass, and Earthenware, purchased for them by their
agents in England from the best manufactories, and of late im-
portations. Purchasers are invited to call and examine ware and
Dinner sets-White, Blue, &c. &c.
Tea Sets-Plain and Gilt
Glass Ware-Cut and Plain
Best Plated Castors
Britannia Tea Sets-Best English.
G AMBROONS, ERMITNETTS, ,sc. for Spring
wear.-On hand, of late arrivals, for gentlemen's and boys'
spring wear, the following desirable goods-
Summer Tweeds and single milled Cassimeres
Ribbed, plain and fancy Gambroons
Crape, Lastine, and assorted colored Ermtnetts
Melbourne Ribs and Kentucky Jeans
Black, green and brown Summer Cloth, at 62, cents
Bleached, brown and fancy Drillings
German, French and Irish Brown Linens
Satteens, Jeans and stripes, in every variety
1 case superior American Nankeens, &c.
Silk, Satin, and Merino Vestings, in great variety
London, Welting, and Marseilles do do
ALSO: Superior linen and lori .i, i m, ti.r,.;
Cotton Shirts and Drawers, Stocks
Gros de Rhine, Italian and fancy Silk Cravats
Pocket Handkerchiefs, plain and twilled
Ribbed and plain black and white Silk Hose and half Hose
Long and short white, unbleached, and colored cotton do
Lamhewool, Vigonia and worsted do
Kid, silk, thread and cotton Gloves
Patent gumelastic and cotton Braces
1 case superior silk Umbrellas
2 do do gingham do
The subscriber, having exercised more than ordinary care in
the selection of the above goods, can assure gentlemen of his abil-
ity to supply them on the best terms.
JAMES B. CLARKE,
No. 2 from 8th st., and opposite Centre Market.
A CAR D.-Dr. CHARLES BELL GIBSON respectfully
announces to the citizens of Baltimore that the professional
connexion between Professor Smith and himself having ceased by
limitation, he will continue to practise Surgery, Medicine, and
Obstetrics. Office No. 68 North Charles street, Baltimore.
1:V Surgical cases at a distance requiring advice or operation
will be promptly attended, mar 3l-w5w
"Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and
THURSDAY, APRIL 1, 1841.
THE PRESIDENT'S HEALTH.
We learn from the Physicians attending the
PRESIDENT that, at eight o'clock last evening, there
was a slight improvement in his condition.
MARYLAND.-The General Tax Bill has passed
the House of Delegates of Maryland by the deci-
sive vote of 53 to 22.
LIBEL-HEAVY DAMAGEs.-In the New York
Circuit Court on Tuesday a cause was tried enti-
tled "Daniel D. Nash vs. Seth W. Benedict," in
which the plaintiff, a Police Marshal, recovered
$1,500 damages. The alleged libel was published
by the defendant in the Anti-Slavery Almanac,
charging the plaintiff and others with being kid-
nappers ; asserting that they had, on a Sunday in
November, 1836, stolen a colored man away from
his family in the city of New York, and hurried
him into slavery.
A NATIONAL LEGAcY.-Among the many in-
teresting letters lately developed in Mr. SPARKS'S
Life of Washington, is the following, said to have
been written in reply to a proposition made to
WASHING'rON, at the conclusion of the war, by
certain officers of his army, to accept a crown.
The following sentiments show the republican
spirit that animated the man :
Sin: With a mixture of great surprise and astonishment, I
have read with attention the sentiments you have submitted to
my perusal. Be assured, sir, no occurrence in the course of the
war has given me more painful sensations than your informa-
tion of there being such ideas existing in the aray as you
have expressed; and I must view them with abhorrence, and
reprehend with severity. For the present, the communica-
tion of them will rest in my own bosom, unless some further
agitation of the matter shall make a disclosure necessary.
I am much at a loss to conceive what part of my conduct
could have given encouragement to an address which, to me,
seems big with the greatest mischief that can befall my coutn-
try. If I am not deceived in the knowledge of myself, you
could not have found a person to whom your schemes arc
Let me conjure you, then, if you have any regard for your
country, concern for yourself or posterity, or respect for me,
to banish these thoughts from your mind, and never commu-
nicate as from yourself, or any one else, a sentiment of a like
nature. I am, &c.
IMPOST ON LUXURIES-DISTRIBUTION.
FROM THE LYNCHBURG VIRGINIAN.
The Charleston Southern Patriot has been a
uniform supporter of the two preceding Idminis-
trations, and is edited by a profound poliffTal eco-
nomist, (Mr. CARDOZO,) whose opinions on ques-
tions of this character are entitled to all the,respect
with which they are uniformly received Gy the
community. In reference to two of the important
questions of the present day, he makes the fol-
lowing judicious remarks, which we transfer to
our columns with the more pleasure because of
the studious effort which is now making in the
South to render them unpopular and odious; and
this, too, in the teeth of the fact, that one of them
(the impost on luxuries) was, in the days of Nul-
lification, the favorite policy of the opponents of
a protective tariff; while the other (the distribu-
tion of the proceeds of the sales of the public lands)
was, ten years ago, sustained by overwhelming
majorities of all parties. The Patriot says :
The two leading measures which appear to divide parties
in Congress are duties on certain imported articles of luxury,
and the Il-i,l-raitn among the States ot the revenue raised
by the sale of the public lands. We cannot conceive the
force of the objection to a tax on luxuries. We are unable
to comprehend the wisdom or justice of that policy that per-
mits the consumer of silks, wines, laces, and all other articles,
of itturieuscxpenditureto escape all impost .whatever on them
while the poor man who consumes sugar and cloth is heavily
assessed by a high duty on their importation. This inequali-
ty should riot exist under any circumstances ; but while the
revenue is deficient its rectification should not be for one mo-
Another measure of importance which has been largely
debated in Congreseis the distribution of the proceeds of the
public lands among the States. It would appear on a super-
ficial view of this measure to be iniudicious, if not contra-
dictory in policy, to divert a portion of the public revenue de-
rived from the public domain from its ordinary purposes, while
the Government income is not equal to the expenditure. But
more mature reflection will satisfy the mind that the present
position of the country creates an exception to ordinary rules of
financial policy. The States are heavily burdened with debt.
The payment of the interest alone to their European creditors
amounts to a very large sum annually. The distribution of the
proceeds of the public lands will relieve them of the necessity
of imposing direct taxes where they do not exist, or increas-
ing them where they do prevail, to meet their foreign engage
In reference to the results of the adoption of
the policy of distribution, the Patriot makes the
following remarks, the justice and foice of which
cannot be rendered more manifest, Lht may be
impaired, by comment:
/" Now, what would be the worst possible effect from such
a measure on the finances of the General Government I It
would, perhaps, compel Congress to fund the Treasury notes
and change the character of the public debt. Suppose a debt
of twenty millions of dollars incurred to meet present and
future deficiencies in the Treasury, what is there in this to
alarm the fears of any statesman not so timorous in his policy
as to be frightened by shadows '1 Is it to be imagined that
the Treasury could not effect a loan on as advantageous
terms as it is able to borrow by an issue of Treasury notes,
for what is this species of obligation but a public debt in dis-
Extract of a letter from an old subscriber to the Editor of lhe
One of the singular circumstances, after all the muta-
tions of men and parties, is, that the only papers I take
are the 'Petersburg Intelligencer,' the 'National Intelli-
gencer,' and the' Raleigh Register.' And it is an assurance
that I cannot be far wrong when I find myself generally con-
curring with 'hose three newspapers, which 40 years ago were
considered Republican, and friendly to the interests of Agri-
culture, Commerce, and Manufactures."
A great fire occurred at Dundee in December last. The
venerable Cathedral, which had weathered the storm for 700
years, and two of the other churches, were entirely con-
DEATH op MR. CsITTv.-This distinguished law writer,
whose works on Pleading, Bills of Exchange, and Practice,
have been so extensively used in our country, died on the
17th of February, 1841, in London, in the 663th year of his
MINE ON FinR.-The Pottsville (Penn.) Emporium gives
the following account of another Coal Mine on fire:
We are informed that the Mine of Messrs. Stees and Oli-
ver, near Pinegrove, which took fire about a month since,
continues to burn with increased fury. The vein is a very
large one-we believe the Mammoth vein-and consequently
must prove very disastrous to the proprietors of the land. The
mine beyond New Castle, which we h ,ve o frequently no-
ticed, continues burning as usual, ant the craters upon the
summit of the mountain are still increasing in size andI
DESTraUCTIvE FilE.-On Monday week the new and exten-
sive bagging factory of Mr. GOLDEN, (at New Albany, In-
diantia,) with all its machinery, was consumed by fire; which
calamity has deprived of employment nearly a hundred hands,
most of them said to be widows and orphans. The entire
loss of property is estimated at $40,000, on which there was
insurance to the amount of $10,000.
THE ExProaRING SQUADRON.-Capt. WOOD, lately arrived
at New Bedford, reports that he left the Exploring Expe-
dition at Oahu on the 16th of October.
THes ORANGE TREES OF FLORIDA.-The St. Augustine
News says: "Notwithstanding the severe cold of the past
winter, we have a fair prospect of abundant fruit next fall.
Those trees which, from age and hardihood, escaped un-
scathed, are now covered with blossoms, promising a yield
that in some measure will compensate for the labor and
attention bestowed upon them,"
To Disbursing Agents whose accounts are rendered
to the First and Fifth Auditors.
Comptroller's Office, March 30, 1841.
SIR : You are hereby required to render your
account of disbursements for the current quarter
as soon after its close as practicable ; and, in so
doing, you will present with and refer to in your
account current two abstracts, one referring to
vouchers for payments made for demands which
accrued prior to the 4th instant, the other to
those subsequent thereto. You will, in all cases,
report the amount of funds in your hands on the
Subsequent quarterly accounts are to be ren-
dered as required above, should they embrace
payments for demands which accrued prior to the
You will be governed by the above, in lieu of
the Circular of the 22d instant. .
Very respectful, your obedient servant,
J. N. BARKERI, Comptroller.
Notice to purchasers of Reservations under 19th Ar-
ticle and Supplement of Choctaw Treaty of 1830.
The office (at Columbus, Mississippi) of Commissioner to
examine and report on the above class of claims has been
discontinued by direction of the Secretary of War. Deeds,
or other papers connected with them, which require the action
of the Executive, will be transmitted to the Secretary of War,
or to the office ot the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
OFFICE INDIAN APAIRas, March 31, 1841.
T. HARTLEY CRAWFORD.
THE ERICSSON PROPELLER.
The following Letter from one of the most in-
telligent captains in our Navy gives an account of
the first experiment made upon the new invention
called the Ericsson Propeller:
NEW YORK, MARCH 11, 1841.
DEAR SIR: The many conversations which I have had
with you on the subject of the Navy, the interest you have
always manifested for its improvement, and because you have
expressed favorable opinions in regard to the plan proposed
by me for our ships of war, I need not make any excuse for
writing this letter.
My reason for sending it to you through the medium of the
newspapers is simply to gratify the great interest and curios-
ity that the Public here have in the success of the Ericsson
We made to-day on board the ship Clarion a most suc-
cessful experiment with the propeller in presence of some
officers of the Navy, captains of New York packets and
The Clarion is owned by the Messrs. Glover, of this city,
who have, in the most liberal and enterprising spirit, been the
first to apply the propeller to a sailing ship.
Her draught of water during the experiment was 10 feet 6
inches aft, and 8 feet 6 inches forward, beam24 feet 6 inches,
with a full bow and clean run.
The engines worked as high as 41 revolutions with only
six pounds of steam to the square inch in the boilers, on-
ly one-third of the cylinder being filled with steam. The
whole pressure in the boilers was not admitted into the cylin-
ders, but throttled, so as not to enter at much above the atmo-
Diameter of cylinders 24 inches, stroke 2 feet 8 inches,
two boilers 10 feet long, 5 feet 8 inches wide, and 6 feet 6
inches high; whole weight of machinery, including propel-
lers and boilers, is 211 tons; diameter of each propeller 6
feet 6 inches ; speed of vessel when the engine made 41 rev-
olutions was about 71 miles per hour.
You will bear in mind that this application of steam is in-
tended as a mere auxiliary power, and that 7j miles may
well be considered as a great result, especially as you will
see that, to obtain that speed, the cylinders were only filled
one-third, and that with steam no higher than atmospheric
I need hardly add that the speed of the Clarion can be rea-
dily increased by using more steam.
I hope that this last experiment will dispel all doubts as to
the capacity of the propeller and its complete adaptation to sea-
going vessels, particularly as thie whole machinery is so light,
and occupies so small a space.
In great haste, I am, very truly and respectfully, your
R. F. STOCKTON, U. S. Navy.
Corn. CHARLES STEWART.
A SnowEn or AsaHEs.-The last number of Silliman's
Journal contains the following memorandum, handed in by
Rev. Peter Parker, M. D. who was a passenger in the ship
Niantic, from Canton, for New York:
"Ship Niantic, L. F. Doty, master, April 5th, 1840, being
in latitude 7 deg. 5 min. north, longitude 121 deg. 10 min.
east, at 2h. A. M. sixty miles west from Mindannao, one of
the Phillippine islands, came up a fine breeze from the north-
east, which was attended with a shower of dust, resembling
that of ashes. It came so thick that it obscured the moon
and stars, which were all out very clear before; it filled the
sailors' eyes so full that they were obliged to retreat from the
deck below. It lasted about one hour, and cleared away.
At daylight the Niantic looked like an old furnace, com-
pletely covered, from the royal mast head down to the water's
edge. The decks I should judge one quarter of an inch
thick with the ashes; we took up one half bushel, and might
have saved three or four. It fell in small quantities, at dif-
ferent times, for two or three days after.
On the 14th April spoke the English bargue Margaret,
whaler; reported likewise on the 5'h April had a similar
shower of ashes, being at the time three hundred miles north-
northeast of us. He informed me that, on the 12th April,
he visited several villages on the island of Madura entirely
deserted by the people, from one of which he had taken two
brass cannon and several other articles. This led us to think
that some volcanic eruption had lately happened in that neigh-
borhood. After the 9th, perceived no more in proceeding
AMELIORATION OF THE CONDITION OF THE WORKING CLAS-
SES or PaRcsta.-The Government of Prussia has lately pub
listed a law for the amelioration of the working classes in
The law prohibits the employment of children under nine
years of age in any manufactory or workshop, nor are they
to be employed before they are sixteen, unless they have been
regularly to school for three years, and understand their own
language correctly, and can write a good hand. Until they
arrive at the age of sixteen, Ithey are to labor only ten hours
in each dlay, not to commence earlier than five in the morn-
ing, and to end as early as nine in the evening. Young
working people are to have half an hour during the forenoon
and afternoon, and one hour at noon, for recreation-and
they are prohibited from all labor on holidays and the Sab-
bath. Severe penalties are annexed to the violation of the
SEVERE COLD IN EonoPE.-The cold of the last winter was
unusually severe in all parts of E.rope. Three thousand
persons are reported to have died in Sweden. In Bohemia
and Moravia il the ponds were frozen to the bottom. In
Hungary, 80,000 horned cattle, together with great numbers
of birds and animals in the forest, have perished. Similar
accounts of -he severity of the weather are received from
many other parts of Europe.
The Postmistress of Cappoquin, in Ireland, lately gave
birth to a daughter which had a red mark on its left cheek.
This for a few days did not attract any particular notice, un-
til the attendant, on more minute examination, found in the
mark an, exact resemblitnce of the new Post Office stamp-
Prince Esterhazy possesses, in addition to his three palaces
in Vienna, and his dominions in Bohemia, one-thirteenth
part of the whole Kingdom of Hungary. He has thirty-six
estates, each containing from ten to twenty-four villages;
which, together with 100 square English miles of forest, make
collectively nearly 1,200 square miles; and Hungary cover-
ing a surface of 17,000 proves the position. Nor is this gigan-
tic and overwhelming landed property his only source of re-
venue ; the number of his peasants, (here called subjects,)
amounting to 360,000, with all their liabilities, which I have
explained at length elsewhere, and a constant capital of
220,000 sheep, producing yearly 400,000 lbs. of wool, (most of
which is of superior quality,) remaining to be supperadded ;
and yet, nevertheless, this colossal heritage, exceeding in ex-
tent the Grand Duchy of Modena, as well as severll of the
petty German states, does not carry his actual revenue to a
higher aggregate than one and a half millions of florins
(150,000) thus making the annual tax of the land average
only 6d. an acre.
L ATEST FASHIt)N-d'Orsay Hat.-This truly is
sa4ioble fashion, both in origin and shape-introluced by
Count d'Orsay, the most fashionable don of the British realm-of
lofty dimension-of the highest finish. This fashion is introduced
at a most propitious moment fora summer hat. Its towering tip
(at least an inch taller than the former fashion) is well calcula-
ted to screen the centre of the cranium from the scorching rays
of the summer sun. Its interior capacity contains an additional
quantity of atmospheric air, lessening perspiration, which adds
greatly to the comfort of the wearer.
The new patent bat block is peculiarly adapted to the manufac-
turing ofthis hat. S.W. HANDY,
april i--r, BitAeetr G ,-I.,'a and Browr's H,.:cls.
SPE'IE CHECKS AND DRAFTs WANTED.-
Specie drafts and specie Treasury notes, and Eastern drafts,
wanted. For wbfch the highest premium will be paid by
THOSE. W. PAIRO,
april l-3t Pean. avenue, near 12th street.
S l l l I l l I I I I II I I . .. Ni
TRIBUTE OF RESPECT.
At a called meeting of the JErFERSON SOCIETY of the
University of Virginia, March 23d, the President announced
the death of JAMES E. RUFFIN in the fol-owing words:
Gentlemen : We have convened to murn the loss of a depart-
ed friend. Thrice during this ill-fated session have we been
saninomed to do honor to the memory of the dead. Again the
fell destroyer ihas v;sted us, plucking from the stem the bright
bud of youth. JAMES E. RUFFIN is now no mere ; he who but a
few months since was seen participating in the discussions and
duties of this hall, has met an untimely end ; his bctdy now rests
in the cold cavern of the tomb," but with us a vivid recollection
of his many virtues will forever live. Here, where he was
known and beloved, and where the weight of his intellect has
been felt, ino eulogy is necessary, nor marble slab nor sculp-
tured bust" required to plant his name in our memory, for truly
His virtues claim the rapturous lay,
To him will genius homage pay."
Though it was not my good fortune to have more than a slight
acquaintance with the deceased, his premature death cannot fail
to elicit the deepest feelings of sympathy. When we Treflect
that he but a short time since was in the very bloom of health,
with high hopes and brilliant prospects, welcoming him to the
practice of a profession which his talents had promised to adorn,
to witness these high hopes thus marred, and his prospects thus
blighted, we can but conclude that "the ways of the Almightv
are truly inscrutable." To his numerous friends that he haas left
to deplore his It,C, i l,...-L ine alone can mitigate their grief,
there are many eonid.-.rrdt)r. of an assuaging character; for to
us all he has bequealled the rich example of tiue Artue and pure
morality; and ta us who have for some time been separated from
him, it efforda great consolation to know that in his last days he
was surrounded by fond and feeling friends, and that he died at
the home of his youth.
The President also offered the following resolutions:
Resolved, That in the death of JAMES E. RuFFIN the Jeffer-
son Society has lost one whose noble bearing, expanded mind,
and esteemed virtues justly entitled him to be ranked among the
proudest ornaments of our association.
Resolved, That we tend to the family and friends of the de-
ceased our heartfelt sympathy for the great loss they have sus-
tained by his untimely end.
Resolved, That, in token of respect to his memory, we ear
the usual badge of mourning for three months.
The resolutions having been unanimously adopted-
S On motion of Mr. BARKSDALE,
Resolved, That a copy of resolutions, accompanied with the
President's remarks, be sent to the family of the deceased, and
be published in the Collegian and the Richmond, Washington,
and Charlottesville papers.
JAMES F. JONES, President.
DAsBNeY H. MAURY, Secretary.
Sale This Day.
QATV OP DESIRAU 1E AND GOOD FURNI-
TURE.-On Thursday next, the ist April, at 10 o'clock
A. M. we shall sell, at the residence of Louis Vivan, on Pennsyl-
vania avenue, a little west of the War Department, all the house-
hold Furniture of that establishment, viz.
Mahogany hair-seat sofas and chairs
Handsome Brussels carpets and rugs, side table
Manlel and astral lamps, plated candlesticks, &c.
4 moreen and muslin window curtains and ornaments
Piano forte, mahogany sideboard, mantel glass
Plated coffee and tea set, covered waiters, dishes, &c.
)Do branch candlesticks, cut i..:.:,. r,. A.:.
Cut finger glasses, ivory knives 5n I l--rlt,, a rp Lm s
Set dessert and tea china, cane-seat chairs
Mahogany dining, pier, and card tables, mahogany chairs
Bedsteads, good beds, bureaus, and wardrobes
With kitchen furniture, &c.
Terms of sale : All sums of and under $25, cash I over $25, a
credit of 2 and 4 months, fur notes .a3t,;, ri.,ri ndilorsrd, bear-
ing interest. E.. II IER & CO.
mar 29-dif I Auctioneers.
OAL COALlI-Just received and now ready for de-
livery a cargo of superior Red Ash Coal. Apply at the
office of the s rt.r.nt. r, en 7th street, near the Canal.
april -3Lt [Mtadisonian] A. SHEPHERD.
D"oI l.F IPATENT PEBRYIAN FILTER
I N KSTAN D;-Perry & Son having effected consider-
able improvement in tlieir Filter Inkstand. have now the pleasure
to announce that a second patent has been granted to them for
such improvement, which they have united with their first patent
under the title of Double Patent Filter Inkstand." The eu-
logy bestowed on the Patent Filter Inkstand by the pubic jour-
nals, and the preference obtained for them over the common ink-
stands, were almost unprecedented. The present novel and sci-
entifi method of Eii"-1.l iri ceIar irk I., lth .J'1f- .1i cm., ani.d re
liningg it ;1 'lIt rCbevr..r, '. exia're e, iin lv -inpi. th.' 'ii r r.p ng
naiw ferft.rr.-ed b, cIrlm y l i,'.i g o p i h- l in, t .d 1 -tila .,a -,1 J rl, ll- I
shutting it down to withdraw it; in ih.. a14st.e cannon oveifl .w,
whatever may he the change of tempeI',re, anl I n is proIe,'td
'rin dust or olherini.,ry in any place or .hmatea. WVeIsn inta ik-
stand ies fille-, m ,i always ready for u-e, and iho rtisr will hayo
B regular and daily supply of olear irmk lor 'fo.,r or a months.
Just received and for sale at the nlt,...n y Sit.:.re j
Where may he found French, Englisph, ani American Siation-
cry, and waranted equal t any in the marke, wvholesale and
retail, mar 31
S i5TOR or OORRESPONDRNCI:
NJw YORK, MARCH 30.
The opening of the river to Albany has had
good effect upon the trade of the city even so
soon. Seven hundred passengers landed from the
North river boats this morning.
The Albany Evening Journal of yesterday con-
tains a message of Governor SEwAnn in reference
to the difficulties between this Stati and Virginia. Governor
SEWARD speaks of the decision of Gv. GILMER, declining to
give up the fugitive from justice after acknowledging the re-
gularity of the demand, as extraordinary. I hae," says he,
"deemed it my duty under these ,..traoidiuary circumstances
to inform the Governor of Virginia without delay that the
decision in question (the non-compliance with the demand
of the Governor of Virginia) cannot be reversed." I refer you
to the message of Gov. SEWARD accompanying this letter for
further particulars. The prospect is that the Legislature
of New York will now take the matter in hand; with
what sueceass cannot hardly be guessed aLt. But for the ac-
of the Virginia Legislature imposing onerous and offensive
re-ineht.jns upon N w York vessels, and the subsequent refusal
of Guv. GILMER to deliver up one charged with a criminal
act under the laws of every State in the Union, there would
have been a better temper manifested by the People here in
regard to the difficulties. As things are, I hope for the best.
Virginia and New York have too many interests at stake as
States regarding individual rights, and far too much at issue
as members of the Confederacy, morally and politically, to be
engaged in a mutual warfare. Better to forbear than to push
matters to extremities. Better to suffer wrong than to do
wrong. The people of New York, from the best information
I have, were not disposed to sustain Governor SEWARD in the
positions assumed by him at the outset of this controversy;
but Virginia, unfortunately, has taken the advice of some of
her factious partisans, and gone as much beyond New York
as New York has gone beyond the bounds of what is esteemed
as right and proper by Virginians themselves.
Mr. WEBsTER came to the city last evening from Philadel-
phia, with his accomplished and amiable lady. They are
brought here at this time, it is understood, by the indisposition
of Mr. LE Roy, the father-in-law of Mr. WEBSTER, an aged
and respected citiz-n. The stay of the Secretary of State
will be very brief.
The Whigs had a great meeting here last evening, at the
National Hall. The nomination of Mr. Pionusx, as a can-
didate for Mayor, was confirmed heartily and unanimously.
The election "comes off" two weeks from to-day.
There is no news in the city of importance. Stocks have
sold at better rates to-day than for some days before. U. S.
Bank advanced one per cent.
HARRISBURG, MARcs 29,1841.
In the letter I sent you last evening I inadvertently com-
mitted an act of omission by not stating the effect of the
eighteenth and last section of the bank bill. Let me now sup-
Section 18 provides that no bank shall pay out any other
than its own notes, unless it be in conformity with some spe-
cial contract, or with the consent of the party to whom the
same are tendered. Any violation of the provisions shall for-
feit $500, recoverable by law, one-half to go to the infor-
mer, and the other to the poor where the offence may be com-
At his residence in this city, on the 25th ult., (after a pain-
ful and protracted illness, which was borne with Christian
resignation,) Mr. THOMAS PICKRELL, in the 56th
year of his age. The deceased has left the consolation of
undoubted testimony that he has gone to reap the unmerited
reward which was purchased by the meritorious Saviour uf
At Balimore, on Monday evening, after a protracted ill-
ness, Capt. STEPHEN H. MOORE, in the-58th year of
his age. Capt. M. was one of those who promptly and gallantly
volunteered to march to the frontier lines during the late war,
and was present and participated in the storming of York,
(Toronto,) Upper Canada. He was at the side of the gal- a'
lant PItxE at the time he fell, and had the misfortune to lose
one of his legs on that occasion. He was much respected
by a large circle of friends, and held, at the time of his 'eath,
the office of Clerk to the Commissioners of Insolvent Debt-
ors, and also Chief Clerk of the First Branch of the Coun-
cil, both of which offices he had filled for several successive
DEBATE ON TREASURY NOTE BILL.
SPEECH OF MR. SHEPARD,
SOF NORTH CAROLINA,
On the bill priding for an issue of Treasury Notes.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, FEBRUARY 4, 1841.
Mr. BARNARD, of New York, proposed to make a loan of
Mr. SiANLY, of North Carolina, offered an amendment to
ly a duly of 10 per cent. ad valorem on silks, 20 per cent.
on win.,, and 20 per cent. on linens.
Mr. S HI lEPA R L) addressed the committee as follows:
Alr. Criarm.r, I am reluctant to continue thisdiscussion ;
but hionorable gentlemen have advanced doctrines which I
con-ider of a dangerous tendency, and I cannot forbear to
express my own opinion. Since the commercial revulsion of
1837, the income of this Government has not been equal to
its expenditure. In the years of plenty, the surplus revenue
was divided among the States; and now, in the day of com-
parative famine, no willingness is manifested to curtail ex-
penses, but a proposition is made to increase the burdens of
the People. The member from Maine (Mr. EVANs) has
asked, "in what branch of the public service can reduction
be made I shall not set up for a political puritan; but I
point to the unnecessary length of our sessionsi, to the dis-
graceful amount of contingencies, the enormous increase in
the cost of collecting the revenue; and I believe that a faith-
ful examination would unfold much more that requires the
knife and the caustic. Economy, hos ever, should not ap-
proach stinginess ; for this would ultimately prove the gross-
est extravagance: let worth and talent be well rewarded; and
if sinecures be abolished, salaries reduced in proportion to
the service rendered, and no expenses incurred for the special
benefit of individuals, or sections, I indulge the hope that, af-
ter the revival of trade, the revenue will be amply sufficient
for all the wants of Government. Gentlemen have poured
forth cataracts of eloquence on thesubject of corruption ; but
they err in laying the whole blame on either of the great par-
ties; it is immaterial who is the President, or what faction
has the ascendency ; if much money replaced tinder the con-
trol of politicians, there is reason to fear that it will be used
to advance the schemes of party, and to promote the interest
of cunning leaders. It is wise, therefore, to save our rulers
from temptation; it is just to let the People hold their own
property, to take the smallest portion of their earnings that
the public service will admit.
I am opposed to the levy of new taxes until an honest
effort be made to economize, and I will not consent that three
articles shall be selected at the present time for the partial le-
gislation of Congress. A new President will shortly be in
office; those who have assumed all the wisdom and virtue of
the land will have the reins of Government, and they should
bear its responsibilities. At the next session the whole sys-
te n of taxation must be revised, and there is no necessity for
anticipating the. deliberations of our successors; let timely
warning be given to all the great interests of the country;
let the public mind be drawn to this important subject in all
its relations, and I hope that the question will be settled on a
basis satisfactory to all, and oppressive to none.
A tax on imports is easy of collection, and borne without
murmur by the mass, because its subtle operation is not per-
ceived, though it is not the less powerful in its effect, or less
liable to abuse, and should be watched with jealousy. The
consumer pays the duty; and, if the article be limited in
quantity, or of indispensable necessity, this would be the end
of the matter, and one man would not have more right to
complain than another. But where the consumption depends
on the price, the impost has a much wider bearing. If cloth
and molasses be cheap, more of these comforts will be used
than when dear; a duty of 30 per cent. ad valorem on
tOe former, and of 5 cents on the latter, must diminish im-
portation, or keep out of the country much that would other-
wise enter. The foreigner is not the only person who would
be injured by this result. His merchandise comes here in
exchange for our productions-the trader of the city is a
mere agent of the industrious classes; he buys the corn, cot-
ton, the tobacco, the naval scores, the manufactures of do-
mestic labor, and gives them for the products of other climes
and other people. All commerce is resolvable into the great
principle of exchange; if the country sells nothing, it can
buy nothing; it it exports nothing, it can import nothing;
and that which comes here in the shape of foreign goods is
only another form of our own property, and is as much Ame-
rican industry as the grass of our fields or the cloth of our
factories. Any distinction between them is fallacious and
If a tax, therefore, on foreign merchandise diminish its
consumption, domestic produce, which is exchanged for that
merchandise, is indirectly affected. If we buy less A the
foreigner, he is compelled to buy less of us; if we cease to
take that which he can give, the market for the products of
our own labor is lessened in like proportion. The exact de-
gree to which the producer is injured by the customs cannot
be estimated with certainty; for trade, when driven from one
Spath, will generally find another; but, as the natural course
of things is the most profitable, any law which obstructs the
free interchange of commodities, and aims at the establishment
of an artificial system, must be burdensome to those classes
on whose industry the experiment is made.
But, sir, let us leave theory, and take a more practical view
of the subject. In 1839, the exports of the United States
were valued at $103,533 891; of which $63,430,845 went to
England, and $16553,667 to France: in that year, cotton
was shipped to the amount of $61,238,982; of which $16,-
137 365 went to Great Britain, andti $13,323,142 to France--
$9,83-2,943 of tobacco was exported ; of which $5,362 331
went to E&ngland, and $901,950 to France-$2,460,198 of
rice was shipped-8688,800 of naval stores, of which $501,-
584 went to England. It thus appears that cotton, tobacco,
rice, and naval stores constitute more than two-thirds of the
exports of the country, ($74,220,923,) and that England and
France are the great markets to which these productions are
carried. Indian corn and timber would swell this sum con-
siderably; they are left out of the calculation because they
are not exclusively the product of the six or seven States
which raise the great amount above mentioned. The imports
of the same year amounted to $162,092,132; of which $71,-
600,351 came from England, and $33,284,119 from France,
consisting principally of the manufactures of wool, cotton,
iron, linen, silk, &c. These facts prove that an immense
trade exists between the countries, founded on the mutual
wants of the people and the variety of their industry-h trade
tfat would keep pace with the increase of population and the
growing demands of civilized life if not disturbed by political
quackery. England requires the raw material, but her cli-
mate forbids the culture. America needs the produce of Bri-
tiih workmanship, but she cannot struggle with matured
skill, vast capital, and low wages. Such ties bind t .-;-h-r
the nations of the earth. The gifts of Providence are widely
distributed, perhaps to show man that his real interest and
substantial comfort are promoted by peace and harmony.
Ir, for any purpose, a tax is laid on iron and woollen, so that
the foreign manufacture is driven out of the market, or its
consumption diminished, the foreigner will take less of cot-
ton, tobacco, naval stores, or other domestic articles, which
were exchanged for his own. The revenue of this country
is principally derived from duties on the manufactures of Great
Britain: her cotton goods, her wool:an cloth, her iron, her
glass,and her sugar have been the greatohbjects of attack-they
havesustained the burden of the Federal Government, though
this very England consumes nearly two-thirds of our domes-
tic productions. In aiming a blow at the foreigner, you strike
one of your own citizens; the tax collected is paid by the
consumer, but the effect reaches the producer, and all inter-
ested in his prosperity. This producer is the agriculturist of
the Southern States-the cotton grower, the tobacco planter,
and the getter of naval stores: the raiser of Indian corn is al-
so concerned; for his market is among the planters devoted to
other products; and every citizen of those States, whatever
may be his occupation, is benefited by maintaining the value
of the staples which give strength and wealth to the Southern
If this reasoning be sound, the Federal Government indi.
rectly taxes the industry of a few States. This will bring no
complaint from me, whilst the burden is reasonable, and the
money is used for wise and constitutional purposes. But tax-
ation should be equal. All receive protection from the Gov-
ernment, and all enjoy its inestimable blessings. A tax is
levied on the agriculturist, though his property requires no
more vigilance than that of other citizens; and why should
the domestic manufacturer escape 1 Is he a better man, or a
braver sohlier I Does he contribute more to the wealth of the
country 1 Is he more liberal in his means or policy And
yet he is the favorite of the Government, living without tax-
ation, possessing the home market by warring against foreign
articles, and, as I will proceed to show, having the advantage
of free trade with foreign States.
By the compromise act" of 1833, silks and linens were
admitted free of duty. This was done, contrary to the wishes
of the planter, for the benefit of the manufacturer: he did not
produce silk and linen goods, and insist that the whole tax
should be laid on iron, cotton, woollens, and other necessaries
of life, because, in these things, he wasa rival to the foreign-
er. The consequence is, that the trade between France and
the United States has greatly increased. In 1830, the silks
imported were valued at $5,774,010; in 1835, they went up
to $16,247,782; in 1839, to $21,350,669. The whole expor-
tation ofcotten to France has also increased ; amounting, in
1832, to little more than $7,500,000, and now to $13,323,142.
Here is, a powerful argument in favor of free trade. Restric-
tion is the malaria of commerce; its fetid breath deadens en-
terprise, and, when it passes away, every thing springs into
life and activity. What was intended to be a gratuity to the
manufacturer has become useful to the cotton planter.
France consumes nearly a fourih iof the crop; she is steadily
impr.-,ing in skill and means, and may become a rival market
io Eniiglanid I'r the great staple. But, if a duty be imposed
on linens and silks, this fair prospect may be seriously dark-
er,,d ; wise rul; ra will hesitate before they take a stepofsuch
imtni rtlaice Wnhit ur0u erg l nirce-ilv.
Glance your eye, sir,ov.'r the liht ofimportations. You will
find that heavy dulies are imposed on nearly all the articles
which come here in exchange for cotton, tibacc.r, &.,: except
worsteds, wines., and these two which are now sele,-tfd for
taxation. 'his i the only redeeming feature in the system
,of injustice; and yet gentllmen seemn anxiouni to ecnmr ic
their work. .iaw make it uiterlv hideous. If more revenue be
hao.,iljelv ni,'reasarv, i1 II at IeIasIL decent that S.,uhern Baer-
eCl'urt shitil. not Ieir th,) whol.- burd.-n, and I will direct
th.- ittnii,.ni ilf h.in.-iable me.irrlri Ilu a Irw object that have
secaprd noti.. '.
Sautoo and I a'lhm ar' I ltel. I;,r the speci .1 corntort of the
I ,ir-"S andl h. o'i-mijkere of Lvnn, in Masiacheh"tls; but
riw hdraand skind comein free, to ihe amount olf3 ,15,0'27
they are imported from Mexico and 'South America, in ex-
Sthjnge for those manufactures which the Government hasso
bountifully protected from European competition. Dies, to
the amount of $586,450, mahogany $504,826, barilla $lbO,-
637, also are admitted free of duty : they are used by the
manufacturer; they come principally from South Americain
exchange for the work of the favorite. Coffee, valued at
$9,744,103, is free: it comes from Brazil and Cuba; the
former is great market for the products of Northern labor;
and the only productions of the latter which are taxed heavily
in this country are sugar, which the creole ofLouisiana wish-
es to furnish 4t a high price, and spirits, which our rulers fear
might entice the People from a delicious beverage, called
"Yankee rum." Teas, amounting to $2,424,594, are also
free; they come from China in exchange for specie and tot-
ton manufactures. In 1839, there was exported $850 538 of
fish to Cuba, Hayti, and South America ; $600,455 of oil to
the same and the Hanse towns; $2 975,301 of cotton goods
to South America, principally ; $178,142 of spermaceti can-
dies to the same region; $361,840 ot furniture to Cuba, &c.;
$453,471 of soap and candles to South America; $134.588
of iron and nails to Cuba, &c ; $748,862 of manufactures
ofironm to South America and Cuba, &c ; and $197,162 of
gunpowder to Mexico and South America. Nutmegs, pep-
per, cocoa, to a considerable amount, come in free from Hol-
land and South America. Without going further into detail,
it will be seen that many other articles, besides wine, silk,
and linens, are admitted free of duty ; but they are essential
to the factories, or come in return for the products of manu-
facturing labor; and this may bea a good reason to continue
the bounty. More than two-thirds oifhe imports from Eng-
land are taxed, and one-third of those from France, whilst
the merchandise from other countries is admitted on more
favorable terms, or entirely free; the commerce in which the
a ricultural States of the South are most deeply interested is
saackled and embarrassed, whilst that which is carried on by
the industry of other sections is placed on the most liberal
footing. And this is done by a Government established for
the whole Union Sir, I will not a k the gentleman from
Pennsylvania (Mr. BRACKENRIDUE) to tell his constituents
that good policy atnd fair dealing forbid such legislation ; it
might be considered rude, as they doubtless think it just to
tax the whole world for their own benefit. But I wasgrieved
and astounded to hear the honorable member from South
Carolina, (Mr. TUOMPSON;) he has volunteered to lay a
burden on those whom he represents, and he will be spatter-
ed with praise fir his magnanimity; hut, sir, it is a virtue
that he has no right to practise, until he is prepared to defray
the whole cost.
The excuse for taxing wines, silks, and linens is, that
they are luxuries. The gentleman from Georgia (Mr. Nis-
BET) talked of the rich man riding in his carriage and flaunt-
ing in silk, Such language gave me pain. It may blind the
People of Georgia ; but it cannot exalt the reputation of the
gentleman. A tax on the rich will riot benefit the poor: the
fine lady will use silk, though its price be increased ; but a
heavy duty will debar the less wealthy from such apparel.
But this cry proceeds from a source that honest men will
distrust; it comes from those who established and fastened
on the country the restrictive system. Mr. Clay was the au-
thor of the act of 1824; and Mr. Webster was thechampion
of the law of 1828. By the former, a tax of 33J per cent. ad
valorem was placed on woollens, 3. cents per square yard
on cotton bagging, 3 cents per pound on cables and other
iron, 5 cents per pound on nails, 30 per cent. ad valorem on
scythes, spades, knives, and shovels; by the latter, the duty
on woollens was increased to 45 per cent. ad valorem, an ad
ditional tax of 10 per cent. ad valorem was put on axes,
drawing-knives, and adzes, 10 cents per gallon on molasses,
and, by this act or the act of 1820,10 cents per bushel on salt,
and 2J cents on brown sugar. These things were done to
benefit the manufacturer of Lowell, the irornmonger of Pitts-
burg, the grower of hemp in Kentucky, and the sugar plant-
er of Louisiana. The poor were taxed for their blankets, for
the ordinary comforts of life, for the utensils which gain their
livelihood, and the rights of all were trampled under foot to
gratify ambition and cupidity. The bare memory of such
acts must fill every sound heart with indignation. The au-
thors will find it difficult to assume the guardianship of the
poor; for professions will not save them from suspicion. But,
sir, 1 am willing to lay the greatest burden on luxuries ; and,
to test the sincerity of gentlemen, I ask them to lower the
tax on necessaries; let the rich pay well for silks, linens,
and wines, and permit coarse woollens, salt, molasses, and
iron to come in without any duty. WiU our opponents agree
to this proposition Will they do any thing that is really
beneficial to the psorer classestI No, sir, no; the cry about
luxuries is a mere plea for getting money to squander on
electioneering projects. If, however, gentlemen prefer an-
other principle, let an ad valorem duty of 10 per cent. he laid
on all importations, whether necessaries or luxuries; a com-
mon feature should pervade our system of taxation; we ought
not to legislate against a luxury to day, and make war to-
morrow on the common necessaries of life, or the Government
should recognize no distinction, and put all on the same foot-
ing. If I am not mistaken, the Northern capitalist is begin-
nming to manufacture silk goods; the day is past when he can
boldly ask for protection ; but if a duly could be laid, under
any pretence whatever, the infant factories would swell into
great establishments, and the whole People would contribute
to his wealth. This may be one of the secret springs of the
hypocritical movement for the relief of the poor.
Mr. Chairman, an attempt has been made to divide the
friends of free trade by appealing to the selhshness of the to-
bacco planter. We are told that a duty of 75 cents per pound
is levied on tobacco in England, and that France prohibits
the article, except a certain quantity for the King, who derives
a large revenue from its sale. These facts are considered
sound reasons for taxing wines, silks, and linens, in order to
f6rce England and France to admit tobacco on more liberal
terms. If there was the slightest probability of opening the
market, I should not hesitate to impose countervailing duties;
but I ask the gentleman from Maryland to mention a single
instance where they have succeeded. These nations them-
selves have been waging a commercial warfare for centuries;
their statute books are full of the most absurd regulations, in-
jurious to both parties; and now, when the error is seen, they
cannot be touched, because great interests are dependent on
the permanency of the laws. England and France are enor-
mously indebted, and they must impose heavy taxes to pay
the interest. Does the memberfrom Maryland expect tobac
co to be favored, when almost every thing that is eaten, drunk-
en, or used in those countries, is grievously burdened 1 Per-
haps England considers tobacco a "luxury," and thinks it
might that her aristocracy should pay for the enjoyment; or
she views it as a poison, whose u-e is destructive to health and
cleanliness, and should be discouraged. The climate of Great
Britain is good for tobacco, but its culture was forbidden more
than one hundred years ago. This circumstance may throw
light on her policy, and warn gentlemen of the danger of
converting a consumer into a rival producer. Now, sir, is
there much hope of driving France and England from their
ancient policy 1 Negotiation may ultimately succeed, but the
pride of those firm and gallant nations will be kindled at any
measure which bears the aspect of constraint, and the trade
may be still further shackled. Suppose, however, that retali-
atory duties should not be successful, and then the tax on
wines, silks, and linens will become a real injury.to the plan-
ter; these are some of the articles which come in exchange for
tobacco; and if their consumption be diminished, the foreign-
er will be less able to purchase the domestic product; so that,
in striving to get more, we may lose the advantages already
But, in quarrelling about tobacco, we may bring down the
value of another great staple. France and England will take
cotton in exchange for theirproductions; and is it wise or just
to embarrass a trade that is mutually beneficial, because the
rulers of Europe will not also receive tobacco 1 Sir, this
would not be dissimilar to the opium war on China. The
universal demand for the great expert may be a blessingeon-
ferred, in recompense for the deadly climate where it grows;
and I feel sure that the tobacco planter will not grumble at
the preference, or wish to pursue a dangerous policy at the
risk of injuring another citizen. Itcannot he that Maryland,
Virgitia, and the fairest portion of my own State, will desert
the principles for which they have long struggled; the gilded
bait now presented is deception of- the enemy to lure them
from the safe ground heretofore occupied. The outside is fair,
but within is concealed the instrument that will drag them to
destruction. If our ranks be broken, and the Government
once more begin to regulate industry, the stronger interests
will rule according to their passions and thei appetite: the
history of the past is an index to the future, and the tariffs of
18-24 and 1828show what may be expected from those who are
hungry and thirsty after plunder.
The principal object of these taxing schemes is to prepare
the way for dividing the proceeds of ihe public lands among
the States. When Virginia ceded the Northwestern territo-
ry, in 1784, she declared that thejands shall be considered
a common fund for the use and benefit of such of the United
States as have become, or shall become, members of the con.
federation or federal alliance of the said States, Virginia in-
clusive, according to their usual respective proportions in the
general charge and expenditure, and shall be faithfully and
bona fide disposed of for that purpose, and for no other pur-
pose whatsoever." At that time, before the existence of the
present Constitution, the Treasury of the United States was
supplied by assessment on lhe States, in proportion to the land
tax of each; and it is not surprising that the idea of a general
fund should be connected with the manner in which it was
usually raised. This explains the language in the latter part
of ihe paragraph above quoted, according to their usual re-
spective proportions in the general charge a'lhd expenditure,"
which has been seized on as an authority for giving to the
Slates the proceeds of the lands. A mind anxious for truth,
and nofin search of an excuse for bad policy, will be satisfied
that the expression common fund" evinces the intention of
Virginia to grant this territory to the States as a nation, not
as separate communities. From the time of the cession down
to a very late period, this opinion was universally entertained,
and its contrary was not heard of till politicians began to think
it a good instrument for delusion and bribery. The grant of
Virginia extended only to the sovereignty of the country ; the
land itself belonged to the aborigines ; it was purchased from
them by this Government, paid for by taxes levied at the cus-
tom-house, and in every view must be considered a national
property. But that portion of the Northwestern territory
which remains unsold is very small in comparison to the im-
mense domain which was acquired from France; and yet
honorable members who tse the cession of Virginia as an ar-
pu'r.ent do not di-iinguikh, and intend to r-r.lv the same- prin
ciple' al'distribuion i.,i he whole of that'i-i r..-gion. W brit-
tei-r prterice,. iheret-,re, may be set forth, nnd hoac-%r lab.
rious genole-innr i,. y be to disguise the reaJ character of this
measure, il conceal a doctrine of great magnitude and ofmo-
meniausn-mneqjuencps. Sir, ia it constitutional, or is it pro.
per, that Congress should collect money for the State Legis-
latures I' These are the questions involved in this discus
s;on ; and it is unworthy of a statesman to evade them, for
the decision must deeply affect the destiny of our institutions.
The Federal Government was established for the purpose
declared in the Constitution ; it was authorized to regulate
commerce," to declare war," "to raise armies," "to main-
tain a navy," to provide for the common defence," &c.; il
powers not delegated are reserved to the States, and it was
designed that all the duties of Government not imposed on
Congress should be performed by the local Legislature. The
excellence of the system depends on keeping each ot these
agents in its prescribed orbit. If the central body draw to
itself what specially belongs to the smaller creations, or if
these grasp at the means which give vigor and efficiency to
the great head, the whole government will be thrown into
contusion. The Constitution does not empower Congress
to become a tax-gatherer for the State Legislatures, and it
is niot necessary that we should assume this respectable posi-
tion, for the same authority is given to both, though the forms
may be different; and if money be needed for sectional oh-
jerts, it ought to be levied by the the local Government. But
a great arguer (Mr. WEEBSTER) has said that Congress has
power to dispose of the territory of the United States,"
without any limitation, and therefore we carn act on this sub-
ject according to our own discretion. if Ithis be sound reason-
ing, it is constitutional for us to borrow money and give it to
the Kingdom of France, for the power to borrow is alsounlim-
ited. The true method if construing the sacred compact of our
fathers is to take an enlarged view of the whole instrument;
the subordinate grants are ancillary to the great object; the
power of taxation was conferred to effect the maim purposes
of the Federal Government, and, in disposing" of national
property, we are bound to think of national duties, and to
refrain from interfering with local affairs, however expedient
it may seem to be. In their zeal to appropriate the public
domain and achieve a party triumph, gentlemen should re-
member that the proceedings of to-day will be an example for
to-morrow; a false construction of our great charter may be
the basis of future schemes, repugnant to the spirit of the
contract and hostile to the interests and feelings of large mi
norities of the People.
That portion of the opposite party which boldly avows its
principles and is not ashamed of its true name, I sincerely
respect; from the remainder, that is federal in doctrine and
republican in profession, that is endeavoring to cheat the
country by tricks and devices, we have not much to hope.
The former seeks to strengthen this Government by making
the States dependent on its bounty; formerly the plan was
to encroach on the jurisdiction of the States, but now they
are invited to assault the central Government, and seize its
property. When the Legislatures taste of the public land,
do gentlemen suppose that the appetite for spoil will be sa-
tiated 1 May not other demagogues outstrip their teachers,
and require a still greater share of the national treasury I
The Danaides were condemned to the endless task of pour-
ing water into a leaky vessel ; and a similar fate will attend
us if thirsty patriots increase in number with the usual ra-
pidity. Is it wine, then, for the honest friends of a safe and
efficient Government to throw away its means and impair its
necessary strength / Perhaps they suppose that depletion
will render indispensable their favorite measure-a protective
tariff. And is this the way to make the Government strong,
to fix it deep in the hearts of the People, to create in us love
anid reverence for the work of our fathers'! No, sir; Con-
gress only becomes a tool of the dominant party; it is used
for vicious designs; and though one section may receive the
shower of gold, another is burdened and oppressed.
But is this an auspicious period for the policy of distribu-
tion '1 In order to cast odium on Mr. Van Buren, gentlemen
have drawn a sombre picture of our condition. According
to them, the Treasury is in perfect chaos, the army disorgan-
ized, the Navy rotting, the Government heavily indebted ;
and yet they wish to dissipate the public revenue. Look
abroad, sir, at the events which are transpiring in other quar-
ters of the globe. France, armed to the teeth, increasing
her marine, arid indulging in dreams of gigantic ambition;
Great Brlin, dictating to Europe, plundering Asia, and ar-
rogantly searching our own ships on the high seas. At a
moment, England could pounce on Cuba and annoy the whole
Southerncoast, or a fleet of her steam ships might anchor in
the harbor of New York before the blow was even suspected.
Are we prepared to repel aggression 'I Have we availed our-
selves of the great improvements in naval science t No, sir;
American statesmen are too busy with the petty schemes of
personal aggrandizement; tney hunt after popularity as if it
were the philosopher's stone; and they are now striving to
bribe the country with that money which should be devoted
to its protection. Shame, shame on such agrari.in projects!
The annual income from the public lands may be $3,000,-
000; and, if it be given to the Legislatures, the whole reeult
is, that one agent is exchanged for another, and the People
themselves do not receive the benefit. Fennsylvania might
get $300,000; and some would call this a gratuity, for which
honor and glory should be awarded to the mant who has dis-
covered a new process of acquiring money. But if this fund
be taken from the Treasury, its place must be supplied by
new taxes, or old burdens will remain, from which the coun-
try ought to be relieved. Vennsylvania will pay back to the
United States as much as she receives; her people will be
taxed to return money which we gave to the Legislatures, and
no one but a demagogue can see the wisdom of this operation.
The share of North Carolina might be $100 000; and the
honest people of that ancient Commonwealth are made to be-
lieve that this comes from the abundant generosity of some-
body unknown, whilst, in reality, their salt, iron, sugar, mo-
lasses, cloth, &c. are highly taxed at the custom-house, to en-
able this Government to transfer a portion of irs re'-n U to
the rulers of the States. The deception thus i.rici]ieil is a
great objection tothis scheme. If thetax-payers knew whence
the money was derived, or directly felt the hand that was
rummaging their pockets, they would be more watchful of the
politicians who control the local powers, and wold hold them
to the strictest accountability. But if federal policy prevails,
we shall behold a universal scene of fraud and imposition.
The facility of getting the People's money without being
caught will open the door to the wildest schemes of expendi-
ture; and the poor creatures who hang about the legislative
hall, seeking pay for dirty services, will receive an ample share
of the public property. Why do we hear the groans that
come up from every portion of the land on account of debt I
Credit has been too easy; and the People, not feeling any
immediate burden, did not perceive the weight that every
day's misconduct "as accumulating. Such will be the issue
of any contrivance to blind the country. The honest and
manly way is to tell the truth, and to scorn the political leger-
,demain which has become a favorite substitute for virtue and
Mr. Chairman, I did hope that this session would be de-
voted to business. For years the bitter conflict of party spirit
has consumed the time of this House, and made us overlook
the serious duties of legislation. The country needs repose;
and, if the promises of the late canvass were remembered,
there would be a union of spirit ahd feeling to promote the
welfare of the whole nation. But, sir, economy is never
mentioned; extravagance has ceased to be frightful; reform
is the subject of ridicule; and the majority of this House are
taunted with parsimony because we are sincerely anxious to
curtail expenses, and avoid the necessity of new taxation.
The member from Maine (Mr. EVANS) boldly contends that
the expenditure has not been too large; the gentleman from
New York sketches a magnificent picture of improvements to
be made; whilst their friend from Tennessee (Mr. BELL)
gently chides them fir being so open-mouthed, but does not
commit himself in favor of economy, and complains of all
things which his opponents are endeavoring to do. These
are ominous signs. They exhibit a sordid hankering after
patronage, and shadow forth the career which honorable gen-
tlemen intend to pursue. The tumult of one election has
scarcely subsided when preparations are made for another
conflict of a yet more vindictive character. The coming Ad-
ministration ia considered but the herald of one that is migh-
tier and prouder than its representative; its influence will be
used, its offices will be distributed, and its measures will be
directed to elevate the man who brought it into existence.
Sir, is the country nothing, are the People nothing, that poli-
ticians have the audacity to make these selfish arrangements,
without reference to the glory and well-being of the Repub-
lic 1 Such daring innovations and reckless tampering with
great interests are worse than the mummery, the imbecility,
and pompons parade that now disgrace the land. But, if
these forebodings prove unfounded, and the new President
shall think and act for the whole nation, and not for a clique
or particular section, no member of this House will give him
a more cheerful support than myself. _______
ITTSFIELD BOARDING SCHOOL FOR
YOUNG LADIlES.-The summer session will com-
mence.on Monday, May 17bh, and will continue 21 weeks. "
Reference as to the character of the school may be made to
Hon. N. P. Tallmadge, of the Senate, or to Hon. G.N. Brigga and
Hon. G. A. Eastman, of the House of Representatives.
Application for admission, or for circulars, to be made to
smar 9-4tifd&2tep N. S. DODGE, Pittefietd, Mass.
IMPesR'rED JOHN BULL will stand the ensuing sea-
son at the stables of his owner, in Upper Marlborough, Prince
George's county, Md. at his usual price of $40 the season, and
$60 to ensure-and one dollar to the groom in each case, (to be
paid when the mare is served.) The season price will be payable
on the 1st of July next, when the season will expire.
It is deemed unnecessary to give at length the pedigree of John
Bull, at this time, as it has been so often published that all breed-
ers who pay attention to such subjects mmuast be familiar with it.
Suffice it to say, however, that he has been considered by good
judges, and knowing ones in turf history, to be a Horse of the
best blood ever imported, not excepting the great Priam himself;
being a greatgrandson of Old HighfJtyer, on his dam side; and
also, a great grandson of the Duke of Grafton's famous mare
"Prumella, who realized to her owner, as a breeder, little short of
100,000 sterling, and produced more race horses than any other
f mare that ever lived." If the well-authenticated "History of
L:le Trin :.f English Race Horses" has hot recorded "lies," then
0i" at,-.... ,tatement is undoubtedly true.
His owner thinks it due to the Public and to breeders to state
with candor, that, owing entirely to accidental circumstances,
Arising froni an attack of the disease usually known as "wolf's
f teeth," and frora the improper use of lime-water, another excit-
ing stimuli, uonvciectificalUy applied as a remedy, John Bull has
unfortunately been made a blind horse, not being able now to see
- from eitherof his eyes. Butas itis well known that blindness,
I as a constitutional disease, is not kh.iwn to any of his family,
Sbreeders may safely trust to him in this respect; more especially
. as it is known in the present instance to have proceeded from ac-
t cidentand mismanagement. In all otherrespects he is in fine
. health, and in more than his usual good condition. His eldest
colts are two years old this spring, and, far size, beauty, and good
Racing points, will eempare with those of any other horses, native
The season will commence on the first of April, and end on the
s firtof July. Mares, with orwitheut colts, sent freo a distance,
" shall be well fed and taken care of atthirty cents a day.
S Apply to Mr. FIELDERa SUIT, at Upper Marlborough, who will
- take good care of all mares sent from a distance.
- mar 9-cptf T. F. BOWIE.
FROM BRITISH JOURNALS,
Received from the European Correspondent of the
NEW WAR STEAMERs.-Of the five new war steamers of
a large class which have been built in her majesty's dock-
yards, and are to he immediately fitted for active service, the
first has arrived in the river, and is now lying at the Isle of
Dogs; where, on Wednesday, her boilers were put on board.
She is a most majestic vessel, of the same class as the Cyclops
and Gorgon, lately found so effective in active service. She
is to be fitted with two engines of 140 horse power each, and
her tonnage is ,a.iit, l.i1ii, She is named the Driver, and is
already commissioned, a great part of thie crew being now on
board assisting towards her completion. Herengines are fur-
nished with all the recent improvements, especially that im-
portant one which w;ll enable her to connect or disconnect
ether one of her paddles in an instant, and thereby change
her position with equal celerity. It is said that she will be
furnished with two long 98 pound guns on her upper deck,
working on swivels, besides other guns of a large caliber on
her lower deck. It will be observed that the steam-power of
the Driver is 20 horse-power, each engine, less than the Cy-
clops and the Gorgon; but the peculiar build of the vessel
and the improvements in the engines will, it is stated, place
heron a perfect equality with those war steamers. The Dri-
ver will be completed in three months, and the four others,
two of which are named the Styx and Vixen, will also be fit-
ted with boilers and engines in the course of the year, the
machinery for that purpose being already in a very advanced
THE ART OF PHYsicKING.-Few medicines are agreeable
to the taste; but one of the objects of the art of prescribing
is to modify their nauseous properties as much as possible.
In the domestic administration of medicines, this should not
be overlooked; Indeed, it is more essential than in medical
prescriptions, as the medicines are most frequently given in
Their simple form. Nauseous medicines have little taste when
mixed with some substances, and when they are taken the
moment they are mixed. Thus the taste of Peruvian bark
and that of rhubarb, when either is mixed in milk, is com-
pletely covered if the mixture be taken directly. The nau-
seous taste of castor oil is covered by warm milk, or by coffee;
and it is also much diminished whlen the oil is floated upon
some cold water, and a teaspoonful of brandy floated upon
the oil. The disagreeable taste of senna is considerably less
when the infusion is made with cold water, although it does
not lessen the activity of the drug. The taste of the ordi-
nary senna tea is covered by the addition of a few grains of
cream of tartar, or by the admixture of common Bohea tea.
Aloes are rendered more palatable by a little of the extract of
liquorice added to their solution.-Dr. Thomson's Domestic
Management of the Sick Room.
STEAM ENOINES IN BELG uM.-At the close of last year
there were 1,100 steam engines at work in Belgium ; two-
thirds of which were employed in the provinaeot Liege. A
large portion of the engines exceed 100 horse power; many
of them are of 150 to 200, and some of 300-horse power. The
whole consume together, annually, 180,000 tons of coal, be-
ing nearly one-fourth of the entire consumption of the king-
)om. Before the revolution in 1830, the consumption of
coal by steam engines did not amount to one-sixth of what it
is at present.
ProaRF.sS or GEOLOGICAL DiSCOVERY.-It is a well-known
fact that, during certain past ages of the history of our earth,
volcanic agency was developed on a scale of infinite grandeur
and importance, and that in particular a considerable portion
of the centre of France, including the whole of the ancient
province of Auvergne, as well as tlie country bordering on the
Rhine, was once the site of volcanic agency of exceeding
power and extent. We owe to the zeal and energy of two
English geologists, Messrs. Hamilton and Stricklaid, thedis-
covery of a series of dormant volcanoes, situated in Asia Mi-
nor, commensurate in importance with those of central France
and the Rhine. In a district in the vicinity of Smyrna, call-
ed the Katakekaumene, (a name indicative of its burnt and
parched character,) our spirited countrymen have discovered
a series of volcanic vents, which, though now in a state of re-
pose, were once awakened to the most fearful activity, and
must have presented a scene of devastation far exceeding that
of Etna and Vesuvius at the present day. It is an instructive
and an awful lesson to reflect that these once active fires are
hushed, but not extinguished ; and that the same Almighty
hand which called them first into being may again rouse them
to all their pristine energy and power of devastation.
THE THAMES TUNNEL -The shaft on the Wapping shore,
in which a footway descent is to lie made into the Thames
Tunnel, is proceeding very rapidly; and, as it is built above
ground, presents a very commanding appearance, and will lie
gradually sunk. The works below have been for some time
suspended, the Tunnel having been completed to within the
limits of the company's wharf on the Middlesex shore, far
beyond the low.-water mark. When the shaft is completed
on the north side, the excavations will be resumed; and, as
there is now no fear of another irruption, the remaining por-
tion of the Tunnel can be completed in a few weeks. It is
confidently expected that the Tunnel will be opened for foot
passengers on or before next July. The arches of the Tun-
nel are in a sound state, and bear evidence of the care taken
in the execution of this great and expensive undertaking.
WaGES OF MEMBERS OF PARLtAMENT.-It appears that the
custom of boroughs maintaining their representatives in Par-
liament had not ceased in the early portion of last century.
Hall, whose collections were brought down to about 1739,
speaking of Halstone, says: This place and others in Corn-
wall ate not able to maintain their burgesses in London du-
ring the sessions at their own proper costs and charges, (as of
old was accustomed,) in any tolerable post or grandeur; but
have found that profitable expedient (as many others) of mak-
ing country gentlemen free of their town, who bear the bur-
den and heat of the day for thorem; and many times, for the
honor of their corporations, distress their paternal estates to
exalt the reputation andl perpetuate the privi i-,. of a petty
society, made up of mechanics, tradesmen, and inferior prac-
tilionets of the law." The same author states that Pad-
stow, Lelent, and Marszaion formerly sent Members to Parlia-
ment, but were excused upon their petition on the score of
A letter from Acre, dated November 20, has reached us,
which speaks of a misunderstanding between Admiral Sir
R. Stopford and Commodore Napier, which is likely to lead
to a court of inquiry. It appears that the Commodore ask-
ed the Admiral, after the capture of Acre, if he was pleased
with his conduct; to which the Admiral is said to have re-
plied in the negative, as, although he had ordered him (the
Commodore) to lead in:o action, the Commodiro alloweil the
Caster to precede him ; and when he came to, he came to in
a position which kept three ships out of action, and left the
centre of the fortification uncovered, which wasagreat source
of annoyance to all engaged in the siege.-United Service
A return of the tonnage of shipping that have entered the
port of London for the last three years from foreign ports
has been recently published, giving the following results :
BRITISH. FOREIGN. TOTAL.
Ships. Tons. Ships. Tons. Ships. Tons.
1838 4,339 889,284 1,697 272,808 6,036 1,162,092
1839 4,876 987,485 2,351 354,281 7,226 1,341,766
1840 4,5t4 924,857 2,217 352,347 6,731 1,277,204
ECONOMY tI BuaNteG COALs.-The Welsh people have a
method of preparing their coal for the hearth by which the
quantity of fuel is doubly increased, and the duration of the
fire is said to be thrice as long as when coal alone is used.
To every bushel of the smallest coal, and the smaller the bet-
ter, they add a bushel of soft clay or river mud ; these are in-
timately mixed together, and formed into balls about the size
of an orange, which are dried atid rendered fit for use in a few
hours. The heat from a fire mads with these balls is regular,
ardent, and intense. If made with clay and coal it lasts 18
hours, but with mud and coal only about 12 hours. By this
method of preparation it is calculated that a bushel of coal
will go as far as four consumed in the usual way.
AFRICAN COLOtIZATiON,.-Mr. Gurley, secretary of the
American Colonization Society, delivered a lecture last night
at the Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly, on the views and policy of
that institution, and the benefits which he alleged were deri-
vable from the emigration of the free men of color from the
States to the African coast. The lecturer gave an animated
description of the colony ef Liberia, and took a rapid view of
the state of slavery before and after the independence of the
United States. Mr. Scobell volunteered to discuss the merits
of the question with the lecturer, and wished to be heard to-
morrow (this) evening in reply; but it having been announced
to the public that Mr. Gurley would lecture on two successive
nights upon the subject, it was ruled by the voice of the meet-
ing that he should be permitted to follow out his pre-conceiv-
ed course, and Mr. Scobell's objections be heard on a subse-
quent evening, when Mr. Gurley would reply. A lively in-
terest was excited on the contemplated controversy.
An ordinary watch will make 432,000 beats in the twenty-
four hours, and the balance or swig will perform a distance
of about seven miles in the same time.
ROYAL MARINES.-It is currently reported that this corps,
the first to be in the fight, the last to be out of it, will be ren-
dered still more efficient by being armed with the percussion
muskel, thus making their already destructive fire more rapid
and less failing.
At the recent Anniversary Meeting of the Literary and
Philosophical Society of Tynemouth, Miss Harriet Marti-
neau, who is now located in that pleasant village, was elected
an honorary member of that institution.
A TYRANNNICAL MAJORITY.-A man who was apparently
more of a wit than a madman, but who, notwithstanding, was
confined to a madhouse, being asked how he came there, an-
swered, Merely a dispute of words; I said that all men were
mad, and all men said that 1 was mad, and the majority car-
ried the point."
RECIPE FOR SPEAKINGg ENGLisH.-A servant girl in Edin-
burgh who spoke the Scotch so broadly as at times hardly to
be comprehended even by her mistress, on being asked how
she contrived to make herself understood when in service in
England, where she had previously been, replied, Oh, it's
quite easy; ye've nothing to do but to leave out a' the R's
and gie the words a bit chow in the middle."
Accounts received from Poland represent the situation of
that Kingdom as becoming hourly more deplorable. Every
week numerous arrests were taking place, and each day the
measures ordered by the Government were becoming more in-
tolerable and exasperating. In Lithuania a real or pretend-
ed conspiracy had been discovered, in consequence of which
200 young men, almost exclusively of the noblesse, had been
arrested, the chief of whom had blown out his brains.
AoaaaEssivE PRoo ESS OP RussiA -Within a period of fif-
ty-four years the total acquisiti onsof Russia equalled herwhole
European empire before that time. The acquisitions from
Sweden equalled the now kingdom of Sweden; from Poland,
a territory equal to the Austrian Empire; from European
Turkey, a country equal to Prussia, exclusive of the Rhenish
provinces; from Asiatic Turkey, a territory equal to the
German small states, Rhenish, Prussia, Holland, and Bel-
gium; from Persia, an extent of country equal to England;
and from Tartary a country equal to European Turkey,
Greece, Italy, and the whole of Spain. The Russian fron-
tier has been advanced by these acquisitions about 700 miles
towards Berlin, Dresden, Munich, Vienna, and Paris; 500
miles to Constantinople; 60 miles to Stockholm, and about
1,000 miles to Teheran. The estimated population of Russia
in 1689, at the accession of Peter I,, was 15,000,000; at the
accession of Catharine II., in the year 1762, it was 25,000,000,
and at her death, in 1792, it was 36,000,000; whilst at the
death of Alexander, in 1825, it was 58,000,000.
The venerable Earl Grey continues quietly located at his
seat, Howick, In the enjoyment of excellent health, and sur-
rounded by several members of his family. So little regard
has the Noble Lord for the Melbourne Administration,
whose measures he is not slow to condemn, that he has no in-
tention at present of repairing to town, and giving its mem-
bers the benefit of his countenance and support.
THE BRITISH SILK MANUFACTURERS.-The deputation of
silk manufacturersand journeyman silk-weavers, which wait-
ed a few days ago upon the Marquis of Normanby, through
whose hands some specimens of British manufactured silks
were conveyed to the Queen for her Majesty's approval, were
informed that it was her Majesty's intention to patronize
a fancy dress ball in May next, with the object of giving
encouragement to the production of British manufactured
silks. The trade has been in a depressed state for some time
THE ARCHIMEDES ScnEw.-The Liverpool Standard has
devoted considerable space to a clear and circumstantial ac-
count of this important invention. We have much satis-
faction," says the Standard, in stating that the Govern-
ment have at length decided on adopting it into the Navy."
We are not aware what grounds there may be for such a ru-
mor, but we believe that measures have already been taken
or. the Continent for the construction of several steamers on
the principle of the Archimedes. In Bremen a company has
been formed for the construction of several large steamers
propelled by ihe screw, and as soon as the vessels are ready,
they are intended to run regularly between that city and
A NEW AND RAPID METHOD OF SALTING MEAT.-A new
mode has been invented of curing meat in a very short time.
The meat to be cured is placed in an iron vessel of consider-
able strength, connected by a pipe and stop-cock with the
brine tube, also with an exhausting pump. The cover hav-
ing been screwed down on the vessel, the air is extracted, and
a vacuum established, whereupon the stop-cock being prop-
erly turned, the brine rushes in and takes the place of the air,
filling the pores of the meat, and penetrating thoroughly the
animal substance. Lest, however, some parts of the meat
might not have been impregnated with the pickle by this reaction
and the common atmospheric pressure, more of the liquid from
the tub, prepared to taste, with salt alone, or with saltpetre, or
sugar, or spice, or alum in the case of hides, is pumped in by
a small condensing engine (connected, of course, also with
the iron vessel) until a pressure of from 150 Ibs. to 200 lbs.
on the square inch be attained. Now, the animal substance
is allowed to remain under pressure for about ten minutes,
and the process is complete. The meat when taken out is
thoroughly saturated with the brine, the full flavor of which
is imparted to it, and well cured, as it is termed.
JOSIAH J. CROSBY & J. S. JONES,
ATTORNEYS AND COUNSELLORS AT LAW,
Montgomery county, Texas.
A CAR D.-The subscriber will hereafter regularly practise
in the Supreme Court of the United States.
mar 9-3w Baltimore.
AW NOTICE.-The undersigned have connected them-
selves as partners in the practice of the law. They will
attend all the Courts held in Hamilton county, Ohio, and the Cir-
cuit and District Courts ef the United States at Cslumbus.
WM. KEY BOND.
CINeCiNATi, (Ohio,) Sept. 1. 1840. sept 12-cply
L AND FOR SALE.-The subscriber wishes to sell part
of the farm on which he resides, known by the name of the
SLodge, situated in Prince George's county, Maryland, containing
about two hundred acres. Tnere is on this tract about forty
acres of good meadow land, and about the same quantity of
wood. This land is susceptible of improvement by the use of
clover and plaster. Distance from Washington about 6 miles,
and 3 to Alexandria. Terms: One-third cash, and the balance
at 1 and 2 years, with interest, to be well secured. For further
information apply to A. Addison, corner of 7th street and Louisia-
na avenue, Washington.
The above farm will, if not sold at private sale prior to the 17th
day of April, be then offered at public sale to the highest bidder
at 11 o'clock A. M. on the premises. .
mar 22-td2taw&cpts JOHN T. BEVANS.
COUNTRY SEAT F'OR SALE.-I will sell the
country seat adjoining to Kalorama, on the height north-
west of the President s House, and within a mile of it. The
dwelling-house is a substantial brick building, with ten rooms
in it, with adjoining kitchen, servants' rooms, dairy, smoke-house,
a large barn, with stables, &c. The land contains about twenty
acres. The garden and orchard are well supplied with choice
fruit of great variety, as apples, pears, cherries, peaches, apri-
cots, American and European grapes, strawberries, raspberries,
currants, &c. A pump with the best water, and plenty of it, is
near the building. Forty to fifty acres of the adjoining land
may be had if required.
Apply at my Exchange Office, on Pennsylvania avenue, near
mnar 12-6t TTHOS. W.PAIRO
OCAIIONTAS, A Legvimdi, with historical and tradi-
tionary notes, by Mrs. M. M. Webster. Contents.-The
Wife, the Mother, Matoa's lament at her mother's grave, Mateos,
a family sketch, Nantaquas, the exile, the return, the visit and
prophecy, the captivity, the landing, Pocahontas's baptism, the
marriage and departure of Pocahontas, an unlooked-for adven-
ture, the embarkation and voyage, the conclusion, notes.
Just published and for sale at the Book and Stationery Store ol
sept28 Between 9th and I10th streets, Penn.avenune.
D. S. GREGORY & CO. Managers.
$30,000-25 prizes of $2,000.
VIRGINIA WELLSBURG LOTTERY,
Class D for 1841,
To be drawn at Alexandria, Va. on Saturday, April 3, 1841.
1 prize of $30,000 1 prize of 2,195
1 do 10,000 25 prizes of 2,000
1 do 6,000 60 do 200
1 do 6,000 60 ds 150
1 do 3,000 88 do 100
1 do 2,600 | &c. &c. &.c
75 numbers--12 drawn ballots.
Tickets only $10--Halves $5-Quarters 82 50.
Certificates of packages of 26 Whole Tickets, $130
Do do 25 Half do 65
Do do 25 Quarter do 32 50
VIRGINIA MONONGALIA LOTTERY,
Class D for 1841.
To be drawn at Alexandria, Va. on Saturday, April 10, 1841.
1 prize of $35,295 26 prizes of $1,000
1 do 10,000 25 do 100
I do 6,000 30 do 300
1 do 4,000 30 do 260
1 do 3,2331 36 do 200
1 do 3,000 62 do 160
6 prizes of 2,000[ 62 do 125
6 do 1,500 62 do 100
&c. &c. &.
75 number Lotteiy-13 drawn ballots.
Tickets $10-Halves $5--Quarters 2 50.
Certificates of packages of 25 whole tickets, $130
Do do 26 half do 65
Do do 26 quarter do 32 60
MARYLAND CONSOLIDATED LOTTERY,
Class No. 13 for 1841.
To be drawn in the city of Ba'.imors on Wednesday, Ap. 21, 1841.
1 prize of $26,000 1 prize of 82,6281
I do 16,000 1 do 2,500.
I do 10,000 60 prizes of 1,000
1 do 6,000 28 do 260
1 do 4,009 200 do 200
1 do 3,000 &e. &c. '&c.
75 numbers-13 drawn ballots.
Tickets only $10-Halves 85-Quarters $2 50.
Certificates of packages of 26 whole tickets, $130
Do do 25 half do 65
Do do 25 quarter do 32 60
$30,000-100 prizes of $1,000.
VIRGINIA LEESBURG LOTTERY,
Class F for 184t.
To be drgwn at Alexandria, Va. on Saturday, April 24, 1841.
1 prize of 6$5,000 100 prizes of $1,000
1 do 3,00 10 do 300
1 do 2,500o 20 do 250
1 do 1,0171 84 do 200
175 number lottery, 12 drawn ballots.
Tickets $10-Halves $5-Quartere $2 50.
Certificates of package. of 25 whole tickets, t130
Do do 26 half do 65
Do do 25 quarter do 32 60
For tickets and shares, or certificates of packages in the above
splendid lotteries, address
D. S. GREGORY & CO.
f" Drawings sent Immediately after they are over to alt who
order as above. mar 23 -2aw3 wd&cif
JOSEPH B. VARNIM,
ATTORNEYS Ar LAw,
S'. Paul. Street, oppc',tle the Moani 11 1 U.
fRefre tou Hois, abll Frfri, i.jramgecr,
Honoratjie Lcit Wojdt-ury.
T bldcon tanipt,.I. i,Ei. l .
H.)..gh. Hur.r., d C. C-
%arn.im, Graham.& Brbt., New Yrk.
R .A .rt H I,.r & S ..n,
Governor [j V I. N-, h,
tie,,. G-. N Lln,!gm, )
gOI(EST HALt, INSTITUTE, for the educatIon
I. of young Ladles; the Rev. SAM'L. C. DAVIS, A. M.,
Rector.-This institution will be opened on the 8th day of Msrch,
184t, at the residence of Philip Briscoe, Esq. abcut 6 miles from
Charlotte Hall and Chaptico, St. Mary's county, Maryland. The
situation is a remarkably healthy and retired one. It is designed
for the education of youig Ladies in all the susil branches o
elementary, common, and ornamental learning.
The boarding-house will be under the management of Mrs.
Briacoe, assisted by Mrs. Davis.
The services of a competent instructress will he secured, and
the Rector will aid in the moral, religious, and literary advance-
ment of the pupils.
The terms will vary from $100 to $150 per annum for board and
For further particulars apply to the Rector personally, er by
letter, addressed to Forest Hall, Chafptico post office, St. Mary's
county, Md. [Globe] feb 19-w4tcp
P UBLIC SALE.-The undersigned, in pursueance of au-
thority vested in him, will expose to public sule, at Bald-
win's Tavern, in the village of Bladensburg, Maryland, on Fri-
day, the 2d day of April next,.st 12 o'clock M., if fair, if not, the
next fair day thereafter, a highly improved let of ground, pecu-
liarly adapted to the growth of clover and ti i 1i,., ,:.,,i ,irg
about 2 acies, on which is situated an excelle.' i,.r-.e -iwwlldng,
every convenient out-hmlse, and a large and r..m,,,..., m i br.e-
story brick granary. Thiis property is located at the junction of
the two principal streets of said village, and possesses many ad-
vantages as a stand for commercial business, to which purpose
it has been successfully applied for many years past. Persons
desirous of making a safe and profitable investment in real estate
would do well to attend the sale, particularly those who wish to
embark in mercantile operations. A small amount of the pur-
chase money will be required on the day of sale, and good and
sufficient security for the balance, payable in one and two years
with interest. Title indisputable. N. C. STEPHEN,
mar 18-ts (Marl.Gaz.) Bladensburg, Maryland.
VALUABLE LAND IFOR SALE.-The subscriber
offers at private sale all those several tracts of land lying in
Prince George's county, and commonly known as the Manor. An
opportunity is here offered to persons wishing to invest in real es-
tate rarely to be met with, as these tracts contain from five to six
thousand aeres, whizh have been divided into a number of lots,
containing from one to five hundred acres each. The roads from
Washington city to Piscataway, from Washington city to Notting-
ham, from Marlborough to Piscataway, from Alexandria to Marl-
borough, and many others; pass through the land, which is situated
about an equal distance from each place.
It is deemed unnecessary to give any further description, as
those wishing to purchase will no doubt examine foi themselves.
These lots will be sold on the most accommodating terms, as a
very long credit will be given for the purchase money, upon the
Purchaser giving security for the payment of the interest annually.
Any information on thIe subject will be given .n api-lieaii-rn
to the subscriber, near Bladenshurg, or to John Ca'.]cerl,Es.q. 1iv.
Ing on a partofsaid tract.
aug 7-2awtf CHARLES B. CALVERT.
ALUABLIE REAL ESTATE IN VIRGfNIA
FOR SALE.-By virtue of deeds of trust from John B.
Steenbeigen and wife, and in pursuance of a decree of the Cir
cult Superior Court of Law and Chancery for Shenandoah cun-
ty, rendered in the case of the Bank of the United States against
John B. Steenbergen's trustees, the undersigned offer at private
sale the most valuable lands, owned by the said John B Steen-
bergen, lying on the hhenandoah river and Smith's creek, inShen-
The celebrated Mount Airy estate not exceeded f.r i.rili'y
of soil, foir health, or beauty of scenery, can bhe so la-d .-if ,to
contain 750 acres of the richest low ground, 500 acres of first-
rate limestone upland, and any quantity of woodland that may be
desired. The buildings are large, convenient, and in good re-
pair. Servants' houses, stabling, and all other out buildings on.
cassary for an extensive establishment, ere attached and in good
There are a number of other fine farms still for sale; some of
them having portions of rich low grounds and fine uplands ; others
consisting entirely of limestone uplands, mostly well-watered,
and having comfortable improvements.
Possession of any of the lands sold can be had immediately
If not sold at private sale in a reasonable time, they will be offer-
ed hereafter at public sale, and the beautiful Mount Airy estate
will then be divided into small farms.
Terms of sate : One-fourth in cash, and the residue in liberi-
payments. A. S. TIDBALL,
J. MARSHALL, Jun.
ROBT. Y. CONRAD,
jan 16-2aweptMayl Trustees, Winchester, Va.
VALUABLE ALBEMARLE LAND tfor sale.-
The farm and residence belonging to the estate of the late
Professor DAVIS, adjoining the town of Charlottesvilte, is offered
The Farm consists of about 240 aspres of the best Albemarle
Red Land, well watered and in a high state ofimprovement, and
within a convenient distance is a tract of rather more than 60 acres
of woodland, sufficient to supply the Farm with wood and timber,
which will be sold with the main tract.
The Farm buildings are of the proper description and in geoode
order. The. dwelling-house Is of bri ttek, covered with tin, of two
stories, besides an elevated basement, with eight capacious apart-
ments, without reckoning the attic and basement, which latter con-
tains four rooms, two of them provided with plank floors, and a
third' constructed for and used as a kitchen. The whole house is
in good repair and has all the requisite offices attached. There is
also an overseer's house, &c.
Considering its vicinity to the University of Virginia, the excel-
lence of the society around, its convenience and beauty as a resi-
dence, and the agricultural facilities it presents, an estate so desi-
rable is seldom in market.
Persons wishing to purchase will be shown the premises at any
time upon application there, and may have further information by
addressing themselves (if by letter, post paid) to the undersigned
or to Messrs. Lucian and John B. Minor at Charlottesville.
If a sale is not effected privately before Saturday, the 19th of
June next, (of which notice will be given,) the property will then
be offered, at public auction, to the highest bidder.
The terms wilt be made accommodating.
f-3_ -., r will also be sold with the Farm, or separately, a tract
1 f L. *- I ,t.. acres of woodland, lying about three miles west )f the
University, near the Lyncbburg road.
MARY JANE DAVIS,
mar 25-2aw3w&wts ExecutrixcfJ. A. G. Davis, deceased.
WO HUNDRED DOLLARS REWARD.-Raon-
away from the subscriber, on the 10th January last, a ne-
gro man, whocalls hiimselfPHIL CARBERRY. The said negio
is about 35 years of age, 6 feet 9 or 10 inches high, of a dark
complexibm, ihin visage, and high forehead, and generally wears
his hair combed up above his forehead. The said negro had a
variety of clothing when hfi anhc.nie-l, rh-.flrty cnsiting ofhhome-
made white kersey. He l,.a a s ir.rng ,,rie .tce, and when
spoken to has a rapid mode of talking. 1 will give the above re-
warl if the said negro is taken and secured in any jail out of St.
Mary's county, and'S100 if taken in said county.
N. B. The above-described boy is a very good house carpenter
and joiner. WM. P. GREENWELL,
mar 22-law4w Leonardtown, St. Mary's county, Md.
IITV DOLLARS REWARD.-My negro woman,
CAMILLA DENT, went off on the night of the 9th Feb-
ruary, leaving behind her an infant. She is nearly black, about
23 years old, well made, with full face, quite likely and genteel
in her appearance ; her front teeth somewhat decayed en the
sides, leaving a space between them. She is about 5 feet 2 or 3
inches high, is a good seamstress and hose servant. I purchased
her upwards of three years since, of George H. Keern, Esq Bal-
timore, with whom she resided a number of years, and was raised
iy the late Thos. Mundell, Esq. near Piscataway, in "hia rcount).
I will give the above reward for her apprehension, ,i thtsy..nd
the limits of Prince George's county or District of Columbia, and
$30 if in said county or District, upon delivery to use or commit-
ment to jail so that I get her again.
N. B. Camilla took a gieat variety ,of clothing "with her; I
only recollect a black stuff and a black caliCo dress, with red
spots, a plaid blanket shawl, and straw bonnet, black and white
striped. H. C. SCOTT,
Upper Marlboro', Prince George's county, Md.
feb 13-w6w ____
Q DI )D LAIt. itA t EItWAEIA J -Iwrl give fifty dellara
.. %y for the apprehension and delivery or confinement in
jail of negro BEN DUCKETT if taken in Charld- 'ni)y. one
hundred if taken elsewhere in the State or in the im-itmc' of Co-
lumbia, and two hundred and fifty if taken in a nton-slvenholding
Ben is about 24 years of age, nearly or quite six feet in height,
copper color, straight and clear limbbeJ, small head, sleepy looking
small eyes, throws his head back when about to look at any object
even about his own height, his teeth are not very white; he is re-
markably quick, sprightly, and active when at work, a fine wood-
Dress, when he left hemn, a new drab pea coat lined in the
sleeves and back with osnaburg cotton, the skirt with cheek, white
yarn pants, coarse winter boots, one cut with an axe, (since closed.)
He has taken with him an old black frock coat and some other old
clothes. Ben went away on Toesday, 2d of February, 1841.
J. F. PRICE,
feb 9-Sawti For estate of M. Garret, Charles county, Mi.
NiE BUINDRKED i)LO.LAR- KHE.AKLI.-Ran
away from the subscriber, oe the 3't,i, ti cmct.e, negro tnoy
ISAAC, who calls himself Is.at Wilson, ab.ut t? years oif se,
of rather dark complexion; e is 5 feet 10 or 11 inches high,
a boy of good appearance, and has a down look when spoken to.
His clothing cannot be accurately described, as he has been living
with John M. Duvall, of Anne Arundel county, for the last ten or
twelve months. There is no doubt he has attempted to reach Bal-
timore, his father living there, belonging to Mrs. Sarah Hall, who
'recently moved from Prince George a county to that city. .
I will give the above reward for hi arprhlin.Ainn, in Baiter
where taken, provided hebe lodged in a-l oihji I githim again.
All communications respecting him m11 t- dreticirl i.-1 ISAAO
G. MAaOTUDEa, Beaver Dam Post Offic.,, Anne Arundel (Oahtiy,
fes 16-2aw2m ErLEANOR SANlORD.
THE THOROLU(;H-BREI1 TUR-" HORSE
PRINCE GEORGE, t.y old Indueiry. (his be.i ion,)
'ut .f This'le, by Oie's O.-ar, tihe damin f Argyle, Teeumseh,
&c. will make his second season at the an scriber's farm, near
Good Luck Post Office, Princr.- Geore-'s cr.urity, Mlarylind,
thirty miles from Baltimore, l.w-nty fr.-.m Annapolhs, aind fifteen
from Washington. Pr,n.-e Ge-otge i s a L. auiful dark bay, with-
outwhite, except a esmnll spot on his left hind fetlock, full six-
teen.hands high, witlhoul a blemish; and is eight year old this
Terrams: For blsot maires 325 the season 1 common $10 the sea-
Sson; 5') -enLt L4 tht gr."r,-. Sassont' rnnrimence ilia 1st of March
and end ihe l1i of Augusi. Pedigrti e ma fall lnm he seen by a re-
I/rence to theTurfRegigier. Mares grain fed for 25 cents per
day; good pasurage at 313 per monndth. The strielest alteltitin
Sgiven,but no liability for accidents or escapes
jan 28-wtLOfcp [Globe.] G.W. DUVALL.