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Joseph Gales ( Washington City D.C )
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No. 5S97.

Pateo-For a year, six dollars-For six months, four dollars.

FRIDAY, MARCH 12, 1841.

The Hon. S.r% tir, i L. SOUTiIAtD was )eterilday,
on the retirement of the Vice President of the
United States for the remainder of the present
Session from the Chair of the Senate, elected
PIIEasIDEN pro tempore of that body. We were
happy to see this distinction conferred on a mem-
ber whose long course of service, ability, and per-
sonal character, place him so justly high in the
public esteem.

The SENATE, it is understood, have had before
them some nominations to fill vacancies in differ-
ent public trusts, and have confirmed some of
them. The particulars of such appointments have
not, however, yet reached us.

The Galveston paper of Feb. 4 says: "Con-
gress adjourned on the 4th instant. The private
treaty with England guaranties peace between
Texas and Mexico in 30 days after its ratifioa-
lion, now made, reaches the capital of Mexico;
Texas agreeing to pay Englatnd, as her part of
Sthe debt due Mexico, X1,000,000 in 50 years."

U. S. SHIP POToMAc.-The following letter
from the United States Consul at Montevideo to
the editors of the Baltimore American contains
the gratifying assurance that the Potomac has re-
ceived no injury whatever by having been aground
in the river Plate:
W Maontevideo, December 30, 1810.
GENTLEMEN : Fearing that reports may be circulated in the
United .States calculated to alarm the Public for the safety of
the United States ship" Potomac,"LAWSENCe KEARNEY, Esq.
Conmmander,bearing the broad pennant of Corn. RIDUELY, I beg
leave to state that she got under Way from the outer joads of
this harbor on the 13th inst. having an experienced branch pi-
lot on board, and proceeded up the river for the purpose of wa-
ipring arnd that she wounded the same day on the Banks of
Sin Greg.',-ia, aout l8 leagues to the westward ofthe.Mount.
Cpliam Klarrrev immediately despatched a boat to Buenos
Ayvi awii h the information of the circumstance to the Com-
ni.ud,,,e, arti another to this Consulate, when vessels were
Sent from each place without delay to his assistance. The
guns, shot, spars, and all heavy articles were placed on board
the said vessels, which raised the ship, and prevented her
fr9m straining. The tide being very low, she remained
aground till the 24th inst. when the river became high, and
she was hove off; and I am happy to say (using Capt. Kear-
ney'sown words) "without having sustained the slightestinju-
ry." Dring the time she was aground, the weather remain-
ed uncommonly mild, and the river remarkably tranquil. We
look for the return of the "Potomac" so soon as the wind
changes, which is now blowing strong from the eastward.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
United States Consul.

The following is a copy of the act passed at the
late session of Congress making temporary provi-
sion for lunatics in the District of Columbiai:
Be it enacted, ifc. That the Marshal for the District of
Calurnlta b-u, and hn is hereby, autborisesito send to the la-
niatic asvluin, im Baltimore, all such lunatic persons as are
now confined in the jails of Washington and Alexandria
counties, and all such as may hereafter becommitted as luna-
tics, who are paupers, by order of the Circuit or Criminal
Court, they being paupers of the said District of Columbia,
and their support being legally chargeable thereto; and that
he pay the expenses of their removal and of their maintenance
in said asylum, and be allowed for the same in the settlement
of his accounts at the Treasury of the United States: Pro-
vided, Said expenses shall not exceed, in the whole, the sum
of three thousand dollars per annum.
See. 2 And be it further enacted, That this act shall con-
tinue in force until the fourth day of March, in the year one
thousand eight hundred and forty-three, and no longer.
Approved, February 2, 18411.

The Paris correspondent of the New York Sun alludes to
the Consulship rendered vacant by the death of Mr. BRENT,
and says:-" Among the candidates named in our circle for
this, there is none who appears to have more of the good will
and good wishes of the public than Mr. ROBERT. WALSH,
formerly of Philadelphia. He is a gentleman that I know
only by reputation, never to my knowledge ever having seen
him; but his residence here, his amiable qualities, his talents,
and the cordial reception which his family has always given
to Americans to whom he has been known, have secured
him the respect and esteem of all."

SODDEN DEATH.-At a large Ball lately given in Portland,
(Me ) in the Exchange Hall, before the dancing had begun,
Mr. WILLIAM PARKER, having led his partner to the floor for
the purpose of taking part in the first dance, fell suddenly to
the fi )or, anti was carried out of the room. A surgeon was
immediately called, and he was found lifeless. Hisdeath was
occasioned by an organic disease of the heart,

A RAcE.-Last Saturday, in the violent gale, as the train
on the Long Island railroad arrived at Hicksville, on the
rear of the train were a couple of baggage cars, which
were detached just before going into the depot. The fury of
the winds immediately seized the two cars and sent them back
upon the road. As soon as possible, a locomotive was start-
ed in pursuit, but it was only after a race of seventeen miles,
in a thicket of trees upon a curve in the road, that the fugi-
tives were overtaken.-Journal of Commerce.
DIsTRESsINo.-On the night of the 24th ultimo, the store
and dwellingof REUBEN WhtARTON, in Liberty, Kentucky,
Was entirely consumed, with all it contained, and Mr. Whar-
ton perished in the flames, in endeavoring to save his money,
books, &c. all of which were destroyed by the devouring dle-
ment, and the balance of the family with difficulty made their
escape, without even their clothing. While the ashes of a
husband and father are mingling with those of all his earthly
possessions, a widow and eight children are left, seven of
whom are helpless females, to suffer under this awful calamity.

A The steamboat JOSEPH JOHNSON,
plying between the above places, will,
S Sen and after Thursday, the 11th March,
~run as follows, viz.
Leave Washing-on at 9 and It o'clock A. M.
and at 3S and ti P. M.
Leave Alexandria at 8 and 10 o'clock A. M.
and at 2j and 4j P. M.
She will also make a daily trip between Georgetown and Alexan.
drialeaving the latter place at a quarter before 12 o'clock A. M. and
the former at 1 o'clock P. M. IGNATIUS ALLEN,
mar It Captain.
FOR SALE.-By virtue of deeds of trust from John B.
Steenbergen and wife, and in pursuance of a decree of the Cir-
cuit Superior Court of Law and Chancery for Shenandoah coun-
ty, rendered in the case of the Bank of the United ies a.t.iin.>[
.J3hn B. Steenbergen's trustees, the undersigned ,if fr i, .'r ,,:
sale the most valuable lands, owned by the said John B. Steen-
bergen, lyingon the Shenandoah river and Smith's creek, in Shen-
andoah county.
The celebrated Mount Airy estate, not exceeded for fertility
of soil, for health, or beauty of scenery, can be so laid off as to
contain 750 acres of the richest low ground, 600 acres of first-
rate limestone upland, and any quantity of woodland that may be
desired. The buildings are large, convenient, and in good re-
pair. Servanta' houses, stabling, and all other out buildings ne-
cessary for an extensive establishment, are attached and in good
There are a number of other fine farms still for sale ; some of

them having portions of rich low grounds and fine uplands ; others
consisting entirely of limestone uplands, mostly well-watered,
and having comfortable improvements.
Possession of any of the lands sold can be had immediately
If not sold at private sale in a i reasonable time, they will be offer-
ed hereafter at public sale, and the beautiful Mount Airy estate
will then be divided into small farms.
Terms of sale : One-fourth in esash, and the residue in liberal
payments. A. S. TIDBALL,
Ja 16-awcptMayl Trustees, Wiaotester, VY.a,


After the Journal was read, the VICE-PRESIDENT
announced to the Senate that he should vacate his seat dur-
ing the day, in order that the Senate might have an opportu-
nity of electing a President pro tern,
The Senate then proceeded to the discussion of the reso-
lution dismissing Blair & Rivea as printers to the 27th Con-
gress, when
Mr. BERRIEN rose and addressed the body at some
length in favor of the resolution, and in reply to the several
arguments urged against its adoption.
Mr. BEN TON made a brief remark in reply, when the
question was taken on the adoption of the resolution, and
decided in the affirmative as follows. Yeas 26, Nays 18.
Mr. CLAY then rose and moved that the Secretary of the
Senate be directed to deliver to Blair & Rives their official
Mr. BENTON asked for the yeas and nays, when there
appeared as follows: Yeas 26, Nays 18.
So the motion was carried.
The VICE-PRESIDENT then, in pursuance of the no-
Aie he had previously given, withdrew from the chair a sae.
siding officer for thie residue of the present session.
On motion of Mr. CLAY, the Senate proceeded to ballot
fr President pro tern.
On the ballot forty-six votes .were cast-of which number
Mr. SOUTHARDa, of New Jersey, received 26
Mr. KtNo, of Alabama, received 15
Scatlering -2---- -2
Mr. SOUTHARD having been declared duly elected,
was accompanied to the chair by Messrs. CLAY and PRES-
TON, when he rose and addressed the Senate in substance
as follows:
SENATORS: A custom which has existed since the es-
tablishment of the Government requires from me, on this oc-
casion, an acknowledgment of your confidence and respect.
A feeling stronger than any law of custom demands the
expression of my thanks. For eight years successively I
have been a member of this body, associated with you in
the obligations of duty, in the conflicts of opinion, and in the
struggles of debate; with few exceptions, my conduct has
been known to you all. Under such circumstances, I must
be far less sensitive than I feel myself to be, in regard to the
opinions of my associates, if I could receive such a proof of
your confidence without the deepest sensibility and the most
grateful feeling.
You have imposed upon me duties, to the discharge of
which you may, I fear, discover that I am incompetent.
Forms I have not studied; precedents I have never ex-
amined, and with the rules of order 1 have only made myself
so far acquainted as to be able to keep myself within their
limits. Experience in the duties of the Chair I have had
But my omission to learn is not without excuse; the dig.
unified order and decorum which pervade this body, the skill
and intelligence with which the business of this Chair has
been administered, and that feeling of respect in which each
member has his full share, have secured, within and with-
out this Hall, a profound respect for its constitutional dig-
nity and authority, and have left to the individual members
little desire to acquire a knowledge of technical rules.
I must seek, then, in the conduct, character, and feeling of
this body, an apology for any deficiencies which may be found
in the execution of the trust with which I have been honored.
In entering upon it, but for a short period, I have no promises
to make, no pledges to give. The task required of me is not
hard to he understood, though it may be found difficult in
practice. I am aware, as you all are aware, that it ir,,
a study of all the rules of order and modes of proceeding,
legisfative, executive, and, if need be, judicial; promptitude,
decision, and firmness, which must not hesitate to apply the
authority of the body without considering on whom its pres-
sure may fall; but, above and beyond all, an unwavering,
unsleeping impartiality toward each and every member. A
failure in the former may be overlooked or pardoned; but
no mantle is broad enough to. cover the latter.
Should I fail in the former, I know that I have a refuge in
the generous confidence and liberality of generous men ; but
if I transgress in regard to the latter, you ought not to extend
to me that charity which suffers long and forbears much.
I will not detain you with any remarks as to the importance
of this body, or of its action in this Government. There is
no act, no decision, here, however trivial or unimportant
it may appear at the moment, which does not, in its ultimate
consequences, operate on the great and permanent interests
of the nation, and which may not, at some moment, be
made to bear on those free institutions in which we find
our best, and may I not say last, hope of securing liberty to
man. Let each of us, then, in our respective positions,
look to it, that our own hands be pure, and our conscience
clean, where the great interests of our common country are
On motion, the Senate went into the consideration of Exec-
utive business, and, after some time spent therein, the doors
were reopened for a few moments, when the Senate ad-
journed. ___


No. 21. Martin A. Lee et al. vs. Enoch S. Kelly; on ap-
peal from the Circuit Court U. S. for the Southern District
of Alabama. Mr. CHIEF JUSTICE TANET delivered the opin-
ion of this Court, dismissing the appeal in this case with costs,
and remanding the cause to the Circuit Court for further
proceedings; the decree of said Circuit Court being an inter-
locutory, and not a final decree, in the sense of the acts of
Nos. 35 & 36. Moses Groves and James Graham vs. Robert
Slaughter; in error to the Circuit Court U. S. for East Lou-
isiana. Mr. JusrtIcE TuoMPSOrN delivered the opinion of this
Court, affirming the judgments of the Circuit Court in these
cases, with costs, and six per cent. damages.
The State of Rhode Island, complainant, vs. the Common-
wealth of Massachusetts, respondent- in equity. Mr. CmF
JUSTICE TANEY delivered the opinion of the Court in this
case, overrling the demurrer, and directing the defendant to
answer on or before the 1st day of August next.
The Court adjourned to the time and place appointed by
On theft 9h inst.on motion of Hon. J. O.. ADAMS, CHARLES
HoeatNS, Esq. of Vermont, was admitted an attorney and
counsellor of this Court.
N. B. Letters and packages addressed to the Clerk of this
Court will not be taken from the post office unless the postage
is paid.
M EXICAN CLAIMS.-Claimants on the Government
of Mexico are requested, either in person or by their
agents, to attend a meeting at the office of Richard S. Coxe, Esq.
on Saturday, the 13th instant; at which time matters of impor-
tanre will be submitted to their consideration.
mar 12-3t
C COUNTRY SEAT' 'O)R SALE.-I will sell the
country seat adjoining to Kalorama, on the height north-
west of the President's House, anl within a mile of it. The
dwelling-house is a substantial brick I .,i.I,,g, with ten rooms
in it, with adjoining kitcl,en, servants' rooms, dairy, smoke-house,
a large larn, with stables, &c. The land contains about twenty
acres. The garden and orchard are well supplied with choice
fruit of great variety, as apples, pears, cherries, peaches, apri-
cots, American and European grapes, strawberries, raspberriest
currants, &c. A pump with the best water, and plenty of it, is
near the building. Forty to fifty acres of the adjoining land
may be had if required.
Apply at my Exchange Office, on Pennsylvania avenue, near
l2th street.
mar 12-t6tTTHl S. W.PAIRO.
of a decree of the Cirguit Superior Court of Law and
Chancery for Frederick county, in a suit where, the Farmners'
Bank of Virginia is plaintiff, and John R. Cooke and wife, and
others, are defendants, the undersigned will proceed to sell at

public auction, on the premises, on Saturday, the 3d day of April
next, 423 acres of fine limestone land, lying near the town of
Winchester, being part of the beautiful estate on which the said
John R. Cooke formerly resided, andl including all the improve-
ments and best land; a fine stream of water passes t'irough the
lands, and there are two fine orchards on the estate. Before the
day of sale the lands will be surveyed an'- the corners marked.
In the mean time, Lewis A. Smith, E-q. residing on the lands,will
show them to any one disposed to purchase. Possession, except
the lands sown in grain last fall, will be given immediately.
Terms of sale, one fourth of the purchase money to be paid in
cash, and the residue in three equal annual payments, with interest
from the day of sale. Sale to commence at It o'clock A. M.
mau O--ot4 Commriai owners,


The steamer President is detained until to-mor-
row morning, in consequence of the storm. She
will depart freighted with but little more than dis-
astrotis intelligence in regard to our monetary
The -city, too, is full of rumors in regard to the
intelligence taken out connected with the vexed
questions between the two countries. The majority of people,
in the general want of confidence created by political and
financial difficulties, seem to be ripe for a panic, and jump at
rumors and strange conclusions with an extraordinary avid-
ity. In regard to the news sent to England hby special mes-
sengers, you in Washington are wiser than the wisest of us,
though many here lock as wise as owls, and know more, by
their lIoks, than President, Cabinet, and Ministers together.
The intelligence which goes out to England in the newspa-
pers and letters is nevertheless gloomy enough, and dishearten-
ing to many who had hoped, long ere this, for the re-establish-
ment oftrad aid or.nfidenee. Orders forgoods will becounter-
manded, and, ia than iall, the exhibition of the almost un-
-paTB rh-erf-enTw,Iion ..,f the stock market ofthe country. The
stock-jobbing operations which have had such an effect upon
this side of the Atlantic must have a worse upon the other,
where the operations of the Bulls" and Bears" are not so
well known as they are here. The decline to-day was, upon
the average, one-half of one per cent. U. S. Bank went
down to 151. Exchange on London, the rates of which were
fixed yesterday, sold at 71 a 8 per cent. There was no de-
mand for specie, and none of any consequence is to be ship-
ped. The steamer will doubtless leave to-morrow, unless the
storm should increase.
In additIon to the panic in regard to foreign matters, we
have a momentary one in reference to our local and State
currency. The rales of exchange, which have been affected
so much by the recent suspension of specie payments, have
affected the value of other bills than those issued by the Uni-
ted States Bank. The brokers have gotten up a fever which
will not last long, I hope,lin reference to the Red Back mo-
ney," so called, and the consequence is, that this money,
which makes'almost the only circulation we have, is selling
at a ruinous rate of discount. This, too, must be but a
panic, as the circulation of the banks is not large, and the bill-
holders are well secured by property left with the Comptroller.
The Hudson river is not yet open, but an effort will be
made to push a steamboat through the ice during this week.
The State Senator from this district, Mr. TOMPKIrNS, has
resigned his seat, for the reason that his private businewas
leaves him no time to attend to public matters.
There is no news of interest from the North or Easl.
All eyes are turned to Washington, and will be until the Se-
nate adjourns, vacancies filled, and new appointments made.

The steamboat General Taylor, Captain PECK, arrived last
night from Florida. We hasten to lay before our readers the
following letter from an esteemed friend, giving an account
of a recent skirmish with the Indians :
GENTLEMEN : I hasten to inform you, ere the express starts
for Pilatka, of the re-appearance of the Indians .hr,i i' i,.'
at Orange Creek, within three miles of this fort. Lieutenant
ALBERTIS, of the 2d Regiment of Infantry, who was detach-
ed from Fort Russell some few days since to garrison Fort
Brooke, about five miles distant, was startled about 11 o'clock
this morning by hearing the wild cry of the lidian bandits
in the direction of Fort Russell. Taking with him twenty-
fonr men of his small command, Lieutenant A imuinr- Iteu-
ly lft Fort Brooke, and, following the direction -.. ihe cii ,.
encountered the Indians in force at Orange Creek hummock,
only three miles from Fort Russell. On perceiving the In-
dians, Lieut. Albertis opened a heavy fire upon them, which
continued for an hour ; but as the Indian force continued to
increase, numbering about one hundred, and Lieut. Al:uertis
having fired away all his ammunition, he was compelled to
retreat back to Fort Brooke, bearing with him five of his men
severely wounded. Having deposited the wounded in a bWock-
house, together with the females of the post, and established
a guard with orders to fight or die, should the post be atttck-
ed during his absence, Lieutenant Aiberti again issued
forth, accompanied by only seventeen men, with the deter-
mination to cut his way through the Indians, in order to
communicate with Capt. Barnum, the commander of Fert
On arriving once more at Orange creek, the Indians emerg-
ed from the hummock and offered Lt. Albertis battle in the
broad pine barren. That officer, with bravery almost unpar-
alleled, with only seventeen men, again fought the enemy
nearly an hour, and at times although hemmed in by him,
made his way through the whole force of Alex. Tustenuggee
to the post of Fort Russell, losing along the gauntlet of fire
only one man. The commanding officer of Fort Russell im-
mediately left in pursuit of the enemy. Our wagons have
already brought into Fort Russell 2 killed, 1 corporal and
I private; 6 wounded, 1 sergeant, 1 corporal, and 4 privates;
one is missing.
Killed-Corporal Lang, Co. G. 2d Inf; Private Hook, Co.
H. 2d Infantry.
Wounded-Norman Luke, Ordenly Sergeant, Co. K. 2d
Inf.; Corporal Hanford, Co. K.; Privates Holmes, Co. K.;
Newton, do. Bowden, do. MeQuilling, do.
Missing-Private Merrick.
The loss of the enemy cannot be ascertained, as the Indian

Messrs. GALES & SEATON: By the arrival of the barque
Hobart at New York from Liberia, on the 28th ult. we have
received despatches from Gov. BUCHANAN, giving the most
cheering intelligence in regard to the general affairs of the
colony. The health of the colonists was good. A general
peace prevailed among all the neighboring native kings. The
trade of the colony was extending in the interior, while in-
creased attention was given to all the pursuits of agriculture.
The Governor has sent us a statistical table, showing the
number of acres of land under cul:ivation in several of the
settlements on the St. Paul's; the quantity of every kind of
produce raised in 1840; the number of the various kinds of
domestic animals and fowls; the number of acres in sugar
cane; the numbeimof coffee trees planted, &c. Arrangements
have been made to furnish similar and complete returns an-
nually from all the settlements. Full returns have also been
received of the disbursements and receipts for the past year.
The sums required for the various necessary improvements,
and fir discharging the old debts, have been large, but were
indispensable to the prosperity of the colony.
The accounts furnished and the various letters received
from colonists confirm the high opinion we have heretofore
.e't-aitJ,,d .f IhN ability of Gov. Buchanan to conduct the
cornplic'iJd ln,,ies 'aith which he has been charged.
The Gv;ernor had recently vi-ited the emigrants sent out
last winter, who suffered so much from the ,cI lN 01iamig CR.6.
They are located on their farms at Bexley, -,r ihe' Si J-A:t-i., ,
are enjoying excellent health, making rapid progress in their
improvements, and delighted with their location. He speaks
of that part of the country as high and r .liti, the soil rich
and easy of cultivation, the water good and abundant. He
has erected houses both at Bexley and on the St. Paul's, and
can now furnish good accommodations for 100 more emigrants.
The ?, :,rn,-ill has been put into operation; but the want
of an experienced sugar-maker was most seriously fidlt, and
presented the Governor from sending home, as he expected,
several hogsheads of sugar. The Hobart brought 5 lbs. su-
gar, of very fine quality; also, a quantity of sirup. The
Governor was directed to send us samples of cassadas,
sweet potatoes, oranges, lemons, limes, and also slpecimtefis of
wood suitable for cabinet furniture, together with part of a
cargo of palm oil and cam-wood, all of which have been re-
ceived, and will soon be exposed for sale by our agents, the
Messrs. A. G. & A. W. Benson, No. 30 South street, New
There was no American armed vessel on the coast as late
as Jan. 1. The movements of the British are deeply inter-
esling. The great slave establishment of Pedro Blanco, at
the Gallenas, was destroyed by the crews of the Wanderer,
the Rolla, and the Saracen, who entered the river in boats.
The slavers were completely surprised, and fled in consterna-
tion, without making een the slightest resistance, taking off
all their slaves except about 150. The native chiefs, on con-
dition of being allowed to plunder the ware-houses, agreed to
deliver up the slaves who had been entrusted to their safe
keeping,labout 900 in all, who were sent to Sierra Leone. Af-
ter keeping possession of the place some days, the baracoons
and remaining articles were destroyed, including 2,000 pun-
cheons of rum I
Through this "hell" hundreds of thousands of the natives
have passed to death and bondage. A British trading estab-
lishment is about being commenced there.
Theo. Canot, a naturalized citizen of the United States, a
slave trader, established at New Cestus, hearing of the fate
of the Galleons, to avoid similar disasters, made proposals to
Captain Seagram, of H. B. M. ship Termagant, tosurrender
his slaves, andl carry on legitimate trade under the British
protection. This proposition, of course, was gladly accepted,
as the arrangement secures to the British a commanding
point nearly midway between Monrovia and Cape Palmas,
Canot delivered to the British officer about one hundred
slaves, and freed about forty of his servants. He has since
visited Monrovia, had a long conversation with the Govern-
or, and declared he had abandoned the slave-trade forever.
He left with the Governor several freed slaves, who have lo-
cated themselves in the colony. He made a communication to
the Governor, of which we have a copy, acknowledging the
authority i.f the colony and declaring his submission to the
laws. But these proposals were considered insincere, as re-
port says he is to proceed to England and perfect arrange-
ments with the trading company, fbrining on the plan of Bux-
iJn. .it r the protection of the British. GGoernment. It is
i ,,, i.d ,t,it ie will connect himself with the British, as he
had already hoisted the British flag on his fort or baracoon.
Should the fears of the Government be realized, and the
British establish settlements within Liberia, the effects
may be seriously inconvenient to our infant Commonwealth.
Although this policy would ill comport with the professions
of ihe British with relation to Africa, we confess that, from
the first moment we heard of Buxton's plan, we have feared
the dismemberment of Liberia, and have exerted ourselves to
raise the means to enable the Governor to extend his pur-
chases on that coast. In this we have been but partially euc-
cesful Deeply as these proceedings may affect the Ameri-
can Colonization Society, they are no less interesting to our
country : for, although we may be indifferent to these move-
menits, we shall, at no distant day, find ourselves totally ex-
cluded from a trade that would give employ to more of our
shipping than all the North of Europe, unless immediate and
effectual measures are taken to prevent such a result.
We shall publish the very interesting documents received
by the Hobart in the next No. of the Repository. In the
mean time we appeal for aid. To enalel the Governor to visit
the coast to r,-.' -'i, .v %t,o. the native kings for the purchase
of territory, a i ,' -,is INDISPENSABLE. He urges that
one may be sent him forthwith. W:Il not the frierida of the
cause enable us to comply with his wishes I About $10,000
will be required for this object. This sum promptly raised
would be mote important to the cause than $100,000 six
months hence, as it would enable us to secure that portion of
territory necessary to preserve the integrity of Liberia. We
hope every friend of the cause will immediately make an ef-
fort to raise money for this purpose. We appeal to Ladies'
Auxiliary Societies, and to all others, to aid us in this impor-
tant crisis. S. WI LKE-ON.,
Chairman Ex. Com. A. C. S.

warriors were seen to drag off their dead and wounded as IRGINIA LAND FOR SALE.-Intending to re-
fast as they fell. Yet, my word for it, Alex. Tustenuggee, V sume the mercantile business, I offer for sale two valuable
at the head of his hundred warriors, while contemplating his tracts of land in Fauqaier county, Va., viz.
slain, cherishes at this moment feelings most bitter against The MOUNTAIN VIEW FARM, my present residence, con-
Lieut. Albertis and his "seventeen imen." training about o00 acres, situated on the Turnpike Road leading to
P. S. No Indian news from Tampa. The Indians come Alexandria, within three miles of the nfliourishing town of Warren-
in have inot yet gone West. ton, the seat of Justice for the co,-nty, where there are good male
-_ and female schools, several churches, and good society, and only
JuSEPHI S. WILLIAMS, a few iiles from the Fauquier White Sulphur Springs. Theland
is of good quality, well watered, is in a productive state ofcultiva-
ATTORNEY AND COUNSELLOR AT LAW, tion, and highly susceptible of further improvement, by the use of
And General Collecting Agent, clover and plaster, which acts finely on it. The improvements,
LINDEN, MARENOO coUNTY, SOUTH ALABAMA. located near the centre of the farm, area comfortable frame dwel-
dee 19-6mcp ling-house, containing ten rooms, well finished, and conveniently
JAMEiS DUNLOP, arranged; stone kitchen, brick meat house, dairy, ice house, corn-
dAMES DU LO house, carriage house; a large and convenient barn, 70 by 35 feet,
Late of Chtambersburg, Pennsylvania, the basement story of which furnishes .,..i.I-;ii ..,...I .:,. t,
AND for stock; a good garden, a puimpi in. i- 'l. ,h i,.- r fi.,,'.r,
A. J. DURBORAW, springs of pure water convenient. There is also a large and sva-
ATTORNEYS-AT-LAW, PITTSBURG, PENN. luabli orchard; atboutthree hundred of the trees, planted by my-
sept 12-cptv self, selected with great care from the nurseries of New Jer-
AWN-----h-unerigedhae -oneced--sey, Baltimore, and Alexandria, of the choicest kt nds,andin great
AW NOTICE.-The undersigned have connected thm.- variety, are now coming into full bearing, and will soon be a source
S selves as partners in the practice of the law. Thoy will ofconsiderable profit. This land, being rolling upland and kindm-
attend all the Courts held in Hamilton county, Ohio, and the Cir- ly to the growth of grass, is adapted either tdO farming purposes or
cuit and District Courts of the United States at Columbus. grazing, or to both combined. The fields are conveniently ar-
B SrORER, anged, and well taken in clover and other grasses; and about
WM. KEY BOND. one hundred and forty acres in small grain will be sown with clover
CINCINNATI, (Ohio,) Sept. 1. 1840. sept 12-eply and timothy seeds this spring.
p ITTSIFIELI) BOARDI)NG SCHOOL FOR This Farm, located, as it is, in a re-ion ofcountry unrivalled for
YOUN G ILADIlES,--The summer session will corn- health and fine scenery, together with its other advantages, pre-
mance on Monday, May 17th, and will continue 21 weeks. sents a chance to those who may desire to secure a pleasant reli-
Reference as to the character of the school may be made to dence in this salubrious and beautiful country rarely to be met
Hon. N. P. Tallmadge, of the Senate, orto Hon. G.N. Briggs and with.
Hon. G. A. Eastman, of the House of Representatives. The other tract, called GREEN HILL, formerly Duffey's, con-
Application for admission, or for circulars, to be made to tains about 350 acres, adjoins the above; is bounded on its western
N. S. DODGE, line by the Turnpike ; has a good dwelling. The land is good,
mar 9-4tifd&2tcp Pittsfield, Mass. and that portion of it in cultivation has been under rapid improve-
'OTICE.-The subscriber, residing in an agreeable and meant by the clover and plaster system. Mill Run passes through
neighsubcrhood e resiupr parf Esecounty it, te low grounds on which tfbord extensive and inexhaustible
1L7 healthy neighborhood in the upper part of Essex county, meadows. There is a site on it fora country Mill., which, from its
Virginia, wishes to employ immediately a lady qualified to teach oin would omnd a good custom, nd give handsome re-
the~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ..i-anFrnhlgugsaduscntepaoreke poaitiomn, would conimand a good custern, and givehnsm e
-theUgl,, and French languages and music on the piano, to take turns upon a small investment. This Farm, in the hands ofa prac-
charge of a small school in his family. tical and industrious man, cr.uld be 'made very valuable. These
All post paid communications addressed to the subscriber, con- two tracts combined would make a first-rate Grazing Farm. They
training testimonials of character, qualifications, and terms, willbe will be sold separate or together, to suit purchasers.
promptly attended to. I also offer for sale several valuable LO IS in the town of War-
Address Loretto post office, Essex county, Va. renton; and if desired by the purchaser, I will sell with the Home
fubs 13-ep2aw4wr WILLIAM GRAY. Tract fifteen valuable servants, the furniture, a good family car-
A TEACHER WANTED.-To a gentleman who pos- riage, the stock of horses, cattle, sheep, &e. and all the farming
sasses a thorough knowledge of tIme English language, and implements.
of decent classical attainments, a desirable situation is now pre- Terms: The town lots, negroes, &c. cash; the land en a long
sented. The subscriber is authorized to say that a salary of $400 credit for a large portion of the purchase money, the payments
will be given to a gentleman who can come well recodmmendedas .r-,' well secured.
a teacher, and whose moral character is above the shafts ef envy P r further information, address the subscriber, ifby mail, post
or suspicion, paid, at Wasrenton, Pauquier county, Virginia.
Letters addressed through the post office at Pomonkey,(postage JACOB DOUGLASS.
paid,) will meet with prompt attention, by mar 9-eo3t&wtfcp Mountain View, Va.
mar 2-7tep Pomonkey, Charles county, Md. having been, in conunexion with Mr. COLE, elected State
1n d DOLLARS REWARD.-Ran away from the printer by thie Legislature of Indiana, and, consequently, obliged
100V V subscriber, about the 1ts July last, a man named to move to Indianapolis, offers his interest (one-half) of the Wa-
SCIPIO GANTT, supposed to be from 48 to 60 years old, 5 feet bash Courier, Terre Haute, FOR SALE. The Courier, it is be-
8 to 9 inches high, dark complexion, and spare; had on when he lived, has the largest circulation and the best advertising and
left, domestic cotton shirt and pantaloons, and took with him one job patronage of any newspaper establishment in Indiana, and it
blue cloth coat, dark cloth pantaloons, and old fur white hat.' He ia located in one of the most beautiful towns, and in the midst of
has been seen at different times in the Pomonkey and Mattawo- one of the richest and most fertile agricultural regions in the
man neighborhood within the last three weeks. He has acquaint- West. One thousand dollars of the purchase money must -be-
arices in Washington and Alexandria, D. C. The above reward paid down, anda liberal credit wil: i;.rr .:.- 1.-i balance.
will be given if taken and secured so the undlersigned gets him, For further particulars apply to 1 ii,,., ,,s-t. ., at the office of
in a free State; fifty dollars if taken in Virginia, the District of the National lantelligencer, Washington, or to the subscriber,
Colmnbia, or Maryland, excepting Charles county, snd twenty-five Terre Haute.
dollars in that. ROBERT GRAY, B editors will confer a favor by noticing.
nar e 2 G awlnMo Oharle county, Md, I feb17-eo8woop JOHN DOWLING,


On the billproviding for an issue of Treasury Notes.

Mr. CHAIRMaN : No person can feel less desire than I do
to throw difficulty in the way of the present Administration,
in providing the means for carrying on the Government dur-
ing the present year. A very small portion of that time, how-
ever, belongs to it, and it will not require any great amount
of money to enable it to retire with decency, no matter what
may become of the Administration which will follow. But,
sir, I have very serious objections to the mode of raising mo-
ney proposed by this bill. The manner of doing a thing may
be more important than the thing itself. I regret, therefore,
that it is not in my power to Vrote for the bill on your table.
In the first place, I cannot, consistently with the opinions
I have heretofore expressed, vote for the issue of Treasury
notes under the present circumstances. They are in truth a
loan, a dsbt, and yet they do not profess to be so. They are
not only loans, but loans in the worst form, even if they were
not loans in disguise. During the late war, when contending
under great disadvantage with a powerful enemy, already op-
pressed with the heavy debt of the Revolution, and with fee-
ble resources compared to our present ability, the issue of
Treasury notes was resorted to. But this was from dire ne-
cessity, because we could not effect loans on reasonable terms
or in time to meet our pressing wants, And can it ha possi-
ble that, after more than twenty years of pea,'e, without a
public debt, (as the President tells us in his message,) and
with national resources augmented beyond any example in
history, we are now reduced to the same severe necessity that
we experienced during that gloomy period 1 If it be so, the
present Administration must bear the blame. But, sir, al-
though our finances are deranged, our Treasury empty, yet
our credit is still sound ; we can have no difficulty in borrow-
ing what money we may need, and on better terms, and at
less expense, than by the issue of Treasury notes. 'I his lat-
ter mode may suit the policy of the Administration which has
so studiously labored to disguise the fact of our being in debt,
and being obliged to borrow, because this would instantly in-
duce the People to inquire, and lead them to the painful con-
clusion that their affairs have been most abominably misma-
The President, in his message, gives us a most agreeable
picture of our finances. He tells us that there will be a mil-
lion and a half in the Treasury on the 1st of January ; that
the receipts of the year will be sufficient to meet all the cur-
rent expenses, and leave a balance of a million and a half of
dollars in the Treasury at the end of the year. He is fortified
by the report of the Secretary of the Treasury, although on a
close inspection of this report some misgivings may be disco-
vered. Now, is this view of our finance correct t It is ad-
mitted on all hands not to be. And yet here are documents
coming from the highest authority, printed at the public ex-
pense by tens of thousands, multiplied by the press every-
where, reaching every log cabin in the most secluded valley
of the mountains, and travelling to the furthest West, and
yet thesedocuments are only calculated to deceive! Foryears
past this deception has been practised. The People have lost
confidence in these State papers, which ought to be stamped
with the highest authority. The opinion now very generally
prevails that they are only regarded as the means of slurring
over and concealing the faults of those who have been entrust-
ed with the management of our affairs, and not to give plain,
iiit-li;,,i-l correct, and satisfactory information to the Peo-
ple, in order that they may blie enabled to determine whether
their public servants have done well or ill, and whether it
may not be advisable to make a change. This machiavellian
character of our public documents is, perhaps, one of the prin-
cipal causes of that dissatisfaction which they have so decid-
edly manifested. Suppose, sir, that the minister of a Euro-
pean monarch were to lay befoie his master a false and de-
ceptive budget, would it not be regarded as a high offence, as
a sort of treason 1 It would certainly be visited by the just
displeasure of the offended sovereign. Here the People are
sovereign, and have a right to know the truth, and the exact
truth. And yet the President in his message, and the Secre-
tary in his report, documents intended for the widest circula-
tion, tell one story, and immediately after, as if for the private
ear of this House, and out of hearing of the People, the Sec-
retary comes and tells a very different story. We are to!d,
in a side whisper, that the Treasury is empty, taut that tan
issue of Treasury notes to the amount of five millions is ab-
solutely necessary to meet the demands on it during the first
quarter oftheyear. After that, money willecomein plentiful-
ly; and, if it does not, to them it will be a matter of indiffer-
ence, as by that time they will have been relieved from the
cares and anxieties of State affairs.
This story of five millions of Treasury notes for the first
quarter has now been r-..s,l;,,lv repeated for the last three
sessions. So fearful i- I',n- f-.'cretary of disclosing the real
nature of this demand, that, in the first instance, it was in-
geniously called thie exchanging the noles of the Govern-
ment for specie It was thought that this would serve as an
effectual mask to conceal its ugly and unpopular features. It
was not the creation of a debt; it was simply procuring spe-
cie, by giving for it a piece of paper with a promise to pay
written on it. Was that paper any thing mIre than evi-
dence of debt, like the note of a private individual I Its
value would depend upon the ability to pay back the amount
for which it was given, and not upon its intrinsic value.
But these notes are not only equivalent to specie, but supe-
rior, because they bear interest! They vre not only good
bona fide bread and butter, but have a little sugar sprinkled
over them besides.
Now, sir, I think it proper and necessary that the People
should know the true situation of their Treasury. They
should at least know whether they are in debt, or free from
debt. This is necessary in order that their representatives
may be required to retrench expenses, if it can be done with-
out injury to the public service, and, if not, that suitable
means may be adopted to procure a certain and sufficient
supply. Attempts have been made during this debate to de-
fend the Administration from the charge of extravagance,
and perhaps it has been proved that the last year was not
quite as extravagant as the preceding years. But it has been
demonstrated by the gentleman from Tennessee, (Mr. BE.Lt.,)
who has investigated this subject with great ability, and also
by the gentleman from New York, (Mr. BARNARD,) and the
gentleman from Maine, (Mr. EVANS,) who have gone into
details and analyzed the Secretary's report, that the necessa-
ry and usual expenditures for national defences have either
been suspended, or remain a charge to be met by the new
Administration. Instead of meeting this and explaining it,
several gentlemen on the side of the Administration have
attempted to give an unfair representation of the ground
thus taken. They cry out that the Whirs are now for la-
vish expenditure, and charge the late Administration with
parsimony, while before the election the charge of extrava-
gance was continually rung in the ears of the People. This
miancauvre is too obvious to deceive any one. The Whigs
are consistent-they want no lavish expenditure; they want
no increase of expense in furnishing the President's house.
Gen. Harrison will think it good enough for him ; and I
have no doubt he would rejoice if the money which was laid
out in its splendid curtains, and golden spoons and dishes,
were now in the Tieasury.
The whigs go for economy and reform, but have no wish
to see a false economy in providing far the safety and wel-
fare of our country, for the improvement ot our Navy, the
completion of our fortifications, and for national works un-
dertaken at the public expense. The gentleman from New
York, (Mr. VANDERPOEL,) who labored so much in the de-
fenae of this condemned Administration, referred, among
other items of extraordinary and unavoidable expenditure,
to our Indianrelations. I might refer him to the electioneser-
ing relations, equally expensive, and equally as fruitless as
the Florida war. One thing is undeniable: the of
the Government within the last six years have all at once
doubled the expenses of the preceding thwenty years, without
any national debt to pay, whtle at the saur.e time there has
been a great reduction in the expenditures for national pur-
poses. These are facts which are not easily explained. The
burden of this extlanaiion lies on the Administration. A
proportional increase in our expenses was to be expected,
but, after making this allowance, and for the Florida war
and Indian relations, still the increase is to me perfectly
unaccountable.'" They have not explained to ua why the
expenses of the Government under Monroe and Adams were
hut twenty-three millions, with an annual debt of ten mil-
lions to be paid out of this sum, while under the present and
late Administrations they were from thirty to thirty-nine
millions, after the debt was paid off! The weight of this
explanation lay upon the late Administration ; it could not
bear it, but was crushed under it, never to rise again, unless
in some new form, or some new combination, which will
conceal its identity.
Even at the last session, the true character of these Trea-
sury notes was attempted to be concealed. Truey wer, nu
a loan, it wassaid-thry were only Treasury notes. Instead
of being exchanged for specie, they were taken at the banks,
which gave their own notes in exchange, even after they had

stopped specie payments. It was one of those humbugs which
characterized the late Administration. But the necesily fir
disguise has ceased, and it is admitted that they are loans, but
not quite a debt. The mask is partially removed, half con-
cealing and half disclosing the features behind it. They are
a temporary loan! Mr. Van Buren, by way of casting the
shadow before the coming event, has bestowed upon us a ve-
ry impressive parental admonition against the creation of a
permanent national debt. And who ever thought of doing
this I Great Britain may be said to have a permanent na-
tional debt; and the saying has been attributed to Alexander
Hamilton, "that a national debt is a national blessing." If
he did use such an expression, it was condemned as soon as
Uttered, and ha( never bAen received into the creed of any

party in this country. It was never supposed by us for a mo-
ment that any of our loans were permanent. Theldebt of
the Revolution, and that of the late war, awakened the deep-
est solicitude for their speedy eitminguishmenl. What, third .
is a temporary loan I A loan for one year is as much a loan
asone for five years, and both are temporary.
On the passage of the bill there will be five millions of
Treasury notes out, as soon as the notes now called for shall
be issued. And this has been renewed from year to year,
and it is called a temporary loan, to distinguish it from a loan
for a longer lime than a year. The debt is renewed like a
note in bank, which may be renewed for seven years, and still
be called a note of ninety days. Let things, then, be called
by their right names; call a spade a spade, and the issue of
Treasury notes the creation of a debt. If the nation it in
debt, let the nation know that it is in debt. Let it be known
that we are obliged to borrow; and if it be necessary to au-
thorize the Secretary of the Treasury to negotiate a loan, kt
him be allowed to have recourse to the issue of Treasury
notes in the last resort. There could be no iltficuly, I re-
peat, in affecting a loan at a lower rate of interest than six
per cent., the amount payable on the Treasury notes. The
credit of the nation is still good as to its ability to pay, send'
its character for integrity will, of course, rise under the new
Administration. From every indication which 1 see, the pub-
lic confidence in it will not be surpassed ty that rtposed in
any Administration since the da)i .V, W, i, -N.
It has been shown by those gentlemen who have so ably
analyzed the Secretary's report, that the sum of five millions,
in addition to the current revenue, will not be sufficient for
the presenfyear. They have shown a large amount of debt
which must be provided for now, or at no remote period here-
afte l 1, aaait have struck esery .,ne ac &,ry mhat
there should be a differtrn, l.tiween tLh 'Fi.ilini, n ii0 t h-n.
I have just alluded, in :f,i.-.r is.fc tii Ul.ditr li.i'd.riis rit ili"
report, to so large ait iunhuLh as si milii'iih. N,., onEr ill
question the acuteness .i"f their -,r:iptpin. Thel Sicretry
must be either remarked ti tlur lii, tsl, ni ..r n,-otd. ue,,r, or
very unfortunate in the manner of expressing his ideas. But
no one can speak with certainty of the amount of outstand-
ing claims which will be presented at the Treasury during
the present year. I approve the amendment offered by the
gentleman from Maryland (Mr. JENIER) authorizing the
loan of ten millions of dollars, it' required, for the use of the
Government. The first quarter of the next year should be
provided for, not to speak of the prudent precaution hereto-
fore pursued, but of late years discontinued, of always having
at leastfive millions in the Treasury to meet lini in t ,,..L1n-
tingencies-that is, of always having enough ainld l,'.- .,'Fe
The Secretary estimates the probable receipts from the customs
at sixteen millions of dollars, and the gentlemarnjfrnom N. York
(Mr. VANDERPoEL.) declares that it wdil excited that amount;
that he is assured, by private letters from the city of New
York, that there will' be very large inmportations. But this,
after all, is but conjecture: for many circumstances maoy o-
cur to check importations. The further reduction of the
amount of duties on some articles towards the end oftheyear,
together with specie-payments, may lessen the receipts. The
severe lessons taught by excessive importations will have an
effect both at home and abroad. T e banks will be cramped
by their effort to resume and maintMn specie payments, and
it will not be in their power to extend their discounts. The
business of the coming year may be a sound and safe busi-
ness, but necessarily limited. It is not in a year, you may
rest assured, sir, that this country can regain the full tide of
its prosperity. It is very possible that the receipts from cus-
toms may fall considerably below those of the last year.
I will ask, Mr. Chairman, whether it is fair for the out-
going Administration to leave their successors without ample
funds to carry on the Government, and to meet all the ap-
propriations of CongressI The power is still in their hands,
and surely the intimations coming from those who will share
the confidence of the new Administration ought to have some
The supporters of the Administration have charged upon
us the desire to call a special session of Congress, and the
charge is thrown back, on account ot the apparent unwilling-
ness to provide sufficient means for the new Administration.
I do not suppose it is the wish of any one to call an extra
session ; hut it may be the desire of ea(h party to shifto frin
itself the responsibility of such a measure, should it become
indispensable. I hope it will not be necessary; it will I-e
expensive and inconvenient, and nothingbut the irost urgent
necessity will justify it. But it is not the province of this
House to determine upon that necessity. The CunstiiLution
has assigned this duty to the diC,'-ruiiu of the Executive, and
Vi bass u,, r htt',L to -.ri.-i, ll ur dicllta I, ithdLL b .t, i.iA' ith
tG.' ernioirr, ii osi[.r iaile a.ti[..n. U niil i.e 1F I,'i--J. it
shall eutcr upon the duties of his office, aud the heads of
Departments shall have examined into their situation, it is
impossible for him to know what necessity there may le for
such a measure. Unforeseen events may happnii to render
it wise and prudent. The public voice may demand it in or-
der to draw the exact line of distinction between the last and
the present Administrations. At all events, the necessity and
propriety lies with the Executive, and not vith this i body.
And why should not General Harrison have the same
privilege as Mr. Van Buren Soon after that g, nilenan
came into office, he was induced, reluctantly, to call an extra
session. He was not blamed for this, but it was siuppsemi
that,'hiri.c would be done for the country. The nation
was disappointed ; instead of proposing any measure to relieve
the distresses of the People, the President made the novel
and ominous declaration, which has stuck to him iektt
the garment of Nessus, that the People are in the habit of
expecting too much from the Government; that it is erncough
for the Government to take care of itself, ar;d the Peoptle
must take care ofthemselves,! This Congress extraordinary
did nothing but pass a Treasury note lull,. 1H. i.i ih.fol-
lower in the footsteps had received a letter from, Gei m dl Jack-
son, after the explosion of the pet bank bubble, ii ,.-. him,
above all things, tobeware of Treasury rinotes. I f. rh th
mountain was in labor and brought fuorth a mriouse. Tho
People expected too much from the Gocrernmtew VWhin
the Executive called itself the Government, atnid cortr-lhid
the action of the Legislature, it was natural for the People
to look up to it for more than it could perform. The Exctu-
tive could lead the People into difficulty, but coull not lead
them out again. It was a different matter with Congress,
which was the People represented by their iTiircediaie alg Tis.
The law-making branch of the Government, through which
they express their will, is, or ought to be, in then- hands ot the
People; and to tell them that they expect tont much of the
Government, is to tell them that they expect tor) much from
themselves. The Executive had assumed powers which did
not belong to it; it had attempted to interferewhero it had no
right to interfere, and mischief and misfortune had ninowcd,
and then it suddenly discovered that the powers whi h it haad
usurped are to be found nowhere. It was most unfortuorte
that this discovery had not beet, made before the commence-
meat of those experiments, which have thrown our country
into almost irretrievable disorder. Happily, they haveput an
end to that centralizing despotic, unit-power grasped by
General Jackson, but which his successor could not retain.
And if Mr. Van Buren was justified in calling an extra
session, how much more will be General Harrison 1 The
disasters which rendered it necessary for Mr. Van Burrn to
resort to this measure were brought about by the conduct of
the preceding Administrativn, of which he wes particepa-
whihe, if General Harrison be compelled to resort to this mea-
sure, it will be in consequence of the m:slortunes brought on
the country by his predecessor, whose measures he had con-
demned. What were the causes, proximate and remote,
which led to the call of an extra session by Mr. Van Bure t I
It was the stoppage of specie payments by all the banks in
the Union, the failure of the pet bank system, the danger of
losing the public money pluacid in their keeping by General
Jackson on his own responsibility, contrary to -he will of Con-
gress, and in violation oftheConstitution. If this was after-
wards involuntarily sanctioned by Congress, it was but an
aggravation of the offence. The consequences c-f these arbi-
trary acts had been foretold again asd again, but the warn-
ing was despised. Ti. p.tb it d. eumst',s, the t' *. -e of the
President, the reports. I ii,. S.ri,turi f thi "1 r- ...tly, who
had become his officer, and no longer the officer oh C..nrrt s,
as in the olden time, continued to deceive the Peol.t ta it,.i
last moment by false representations of the operation of the
pet bank system. At the very moment of his :sitsr-, from
office, the General, in imitation of Washington, v. rl It.,ih his
farewell address, in which he proclaimed, like a sentinel to
the watch-tower, "all's well," when in truth all eas not welt.
Instead of furnishing a better currency than the Bank of the
United States, instead of preventing the expansions and con-
tractions of the currency, it did nothing but expand. The
number of banks increased from three hundred to six hun-
dred, and their issues were rnlaur'id i i pT.ti-liin. There
was nothing but expansion, srand x[.asiion, until the bubble
became so thin that men of common sagacity must have
seen that it would burst. Seculat;,ris in the public lands,
as well as every kind of slsculsihon, and the importation of
foreign goods, were stimulated to phr',nzy. Suenly this was
the work of the party which placed Mr. Van Buren in pow-
er I By the means of that party discipline which had been
established, the executive and legislative power had become
almost consolidated in the hands of Mr. Van Buren, and if
the partly is not responsible, or at least its leaders, I know not
who is responsible. They had the making of the laws, anoi
the execution of them, and if Government be potent for good,
it is also potent for evil. If General Harrison shall be corn-

peeled tocall a special session, the necessity for it must bn
traced to the present Administration, as the immediate as well
as the remote cause of the difficulties in which our country
has been unhappily involved. I hope the measure may not be
deemed necessary, and something may be done by placing
ample means in the handsofthe new Administration.
This debate has taken a wide range, far beyond the limits
of the topics immediately connected with the bill. Gentlemen,
have laken the occasion to express their opinions upon a va-
riety of subjects, probably from a belief that no otter optor-
tunity may offer, and because they may as well be expressed
rSo tho fourth Iage.1



On the bill providing for an ies
The House being in Committee o
of the Union, (Mr. CASEY, of lllin
bill providing for an issue of Trease
tion being on the motion to strike o
Mr. ADAMS rose and said--
gentleman who has just taken his
it had not been my intention to add
the bill now before it. It is not no
into all the topics of controversy w
eds; it is my intention to make only
In the first place, in reference to
to vote in favor of it on the first day
of the Committee of Ways and Mea
been prepared to vote for it from
vote for it with as much expedition
upon a bill making appropriations fo
and the other House of Congress--
half an hoet in each House. This
lions of dollars for the purpose of c
gagements of the nation-to pay th
pay every man or woman that may
the Treasury-and, in voting for
myself as voting for a grant of moen
To me it is a matter of perfect indifl
this bill, who or what the Administ
give the nation the means to pay
too, without stopping to inquire how
to be in such a condition as to requ
and of other bills of the same kin
constantly. I consider myself as v
dent of the United States and the
rT to boast, as they have done,
the nation has been fully and fait
dent of the United States has mad
it has been correctly made or not,
I will not enter now; but I say, if
been done by donations of money
House of Congress; that it has been
I, for one, beleve might not have i
fore, that I have been, and now am
and that I shall vote for it whenev
I should probably have preferred th
my friend (Mr. BARNARD) as to
money, and most especially as to th
engagements which it contracts-th
far the payment of these five million
principal, should be provided at tt
been the great defect in all the Trea
three or foaryears; they have all g
ciency in the Treasury; they have
burdens ; and they have postponed
of paying that very debt-not only
notes themselves, but the debt which
of those notes. There is a prine
from which I, for one, would never
sent; I never would borrow in an
of shinplasters, Treasury notes, b
you may call it-I never would bor
hiding the means of paying it. An
principle on which the funding sys
ton was founded at the commencem
Government. He laid down, in h
principle-and that principle is the
to be vital and essential to the just
rowing money by Governments-th
ney you shall provide the means (
tion-principal and interest. I sa
have preferred, and should now pre
ion of this and the othiy House of
public loan in a regular form, i
should be made for the payment, not
themselves, but of all those arreas
they were intended nominally to
done hereafter.
Now, probably it would not have
have said another syllable, if topic
into this discussion upon which I
say q few words. We are about
new Administration. A new Pres
city ; and it is expected that, with
month, he will assures the position
of the country. From that circums
the introduction of a new Presiden
who now fills the Executive chair-
one conclusion. I do not know th
it may not meet the views of a v
House; but I have drawn the cone
People of the United States have
system of administration pursued
President is not satisfactory to the
that they choose to have a change.
inquiry now whether that conclusion
however, that the People have com
them in it. I do not think that th
of the present incumbent is profit
pie of this nation, but that a chan
And there I stop-for my part, it
have said who shall be at the head
^ is to take the place of the present
decision. But, sir, I do not know
dence of the head of the new Adat
what his system of administration
ministration is, of course, a very co
cated thing, It involves all the s
brought into discussion on this bill
ion, were not proper to be brought
this bill. Nay, it involves more ;
subject of the finances-it involve
the Treasury, but of our foreign a
fairs-of the relations between th
several States-of our relations
public lands-in short, of every th
the transaction of the public afi
of them are parts of one system;
if not all, will be brought up for c
this discussion is premature-that
not yet come. You are discussing
-whether we are to have an extra
done with the public lands-wha
State debts-what shall be done
shall be -done as to a national
not know what is the opinion o
the United States, who is, on the
the Executive chair. I find in
which I have great respect, as I pr
of the members of this House have-
United States, which defines the p
duties of the President of the Unit
is declared that he (the Presiden
give to the Congress information o
and recommend to their considerate
shall judge necessary and expedient
nary occasions, convene both Ho
&c. What does this say 1 Why,
the circumstances of the present tir
Hareson shiall be inaugurated in tl
nf the Capitol, or wherever it may
determine, amongst other things,
extra session of Congress exists, an
he will say so, and act accordingly.
this ; anid if he does not find such
say so. What, then, is the use ofo(
ter week whether it iw ori not neces
eion 1 I mention this merely as o
through the whole of those topics
here fir the last three or four wee
thing in regard to all of them. W
to which, io the first place, we pug
views of this gentleman who is co
sion o( the powers thus conferred u
a>oinff in this House what has bee
it, I L. I,.wr, too; for we are all in
much addicted to what is called sett
tion; we have been doing that. W
inets--we have all turned eabiniet-m
hoped that, amidst this immense m
might have found a little more ch
manufacture-) than we have found.
makers. Well, we ask one and, he
up in a'morning and go to breakfast,
of State 1" Who Secretary of'
Posrtmaster General'; Who Sec
sno0n. One says, one day, It is
s" No, it is another man," andi so o
which I have seen in the newspaper
certain appointments to certain ge
meat of certain positions to individ

appointments, was the statement tt
nia(Mr. WisE) was to be the lead
I th ,ught tiht as I have been and
ji, il [h. r,, ray own man, and noot
I sh-.ui )be ",- tl7ad tloar ray mviell'u"n
M in I' Vir.,nia as un ,rd.. i i f
k ,Usp, ITrj.-t e-t-cially ,Cr',m what I
character tbr a year or two past, we
(ant and very vital thing to my poll
opposite pole from that gentleman.
been so chivalric, he has been so efti
psiog the abuses of the present Ad
ard to himself, and, as I thought, lay
Mock of credit with the People of ti
overlooked and forgiven many thin
altogether at variance, and in refers
I al iyssahall be at variance with tt
When he first re-avpeared in thi
of considerable tribulation to hims
gretted more than I did, I thought
very distinctly, very unequivocally
newspapers I have referred to had g
of this House. He assumed the tou
lag to that station, and I noticed it
marks'that took place between him
Mr. W)sB here rose, interruptin
(as the Reporter understood, thong
he heard, owing to the fact that Mr
side of the House,) the gentleman
inferred that I assumed any such t
opinion, but I understand him tp h)

are unable to fulfil their engagements, they have a right to
come upon this Union and demand aid to enable lhem to
discharge their obligations-to what extent, 1 will not un-
dertake to say. But 1 say they have a right to come and
demand aid of the nation. For, what is the alternative l
Supposing they have been i,,li, ,*.:,--,,,2 they are
insolvent. What is 'he con 1. I I,) i il in their
engagements-they destroy the character of this nation-iea
credit throughout the world-not only their own, but there
is not a State in this Union that can become insolvent
or declare itself unable to pay its debts, but what
infamy must redound upon the whole nation all over the
world. What will their creditors abroad say if one of
the States should declare itself bankrupt or not able to
pay its debts They will passjudgment upon the wholena-
tion, and justly too. It was your duty to have done that
which has got them into difficulty, and they have got into
difficulty from good motives and for good purposes. Of all
these State debts, very few of them, if any, are to be charg-
ed as extravagant, wasteful expenditures. They have all
been contracted for internal improvements. 1 say then
that, under the coming Administration, this matter of the
financial condition of the States of the Union must come
before this House in the gravest form, and must come
under the recommendation of the President of the United
States. It is impossible that Gen. Harrison should take pos-
session of the Presidential chair without being aware what
these debts of the States are, and without having some sys-
tem (though what it may be I know not) which will govern
his Administration in regard to it. Will it be by a distribu.
tion of the proceeds of the sales of the public lands I I
know not. Will it be by raising revenue from duties on pro-
tected articles I I know not. Whatever plan he may have-
(if I should be here in this House)-a plan which he should
consider practical, and which he chooses to adopt as the rule
of his administration on that point, I will support it if I possibly
can ; it I can reconcile it to any of my views of the Consti.
tution, of law, of liberty, of the comfort and well being ofthis
People, I say I will support it, be it what it may. 1 have net,
therefore, made tp my mind on the question of the distribu-
tion of the proceeds of the sales of the public lands--or upon
any other matters to which I have referred, andl which hive
been introduced into this debate.
Mr. Chairman, I have gone further into this discussion
than I intended. I have been drawn into it by the effect of
the reference I made to the duelling law. I say now to the
chairman of this committee, that whatever appeals have been
made to him on calls to order to arrest me in my remarks, I
thank him for the manner in which he has sustained and vin-
dicated the right of free debate in this House on the present
occasion. I say that what I have said has been from motives
of pure public spirit, without any disposition at all to offend
any gentleman here, least of all, the gentleman from Virginia,
(M r. WIss,) whose talents I admire, and whose public services
I cheerfully acknowledge. I have felt it to be my duty to say
what I did say, because I believe that the application of the
principle of duelling as regards different portions ofthis House
is such, that the principles of the gentleman from Virginia
must be discarded ; that duelling must be considered
ai a crime; and that it must not be countenanced by
professions os to the existence of any necessity lor it.
It was my intention simply to state the reasons why I am not
disposed to phce myself under the standard of the gentleman
from Virginia, if he should assume it hereafter as leader of
this House. I thought I saw there was a disposition of that
kind. The gentllman professes great friendship for the
coming President; but he lays down the principles of his
administration, intimating that he would not support that ad-
ministration unless those particular principles were carried
out. Without knowing what the views of General Harrison
are or will bL, I was very confident that the princil hua thus
laid down as the rules ofhis administration would not be those
which the President elect would] adopt or (Pactise upon. And
I felt disposed to say that, as the gentleman from Virginia as-
sumes to be the leader of this House under General Harri-
son's administration, I, for one, would not follow his lead nor
that of any other man professing similar princi, les. I have
no more to say.
Mr. WISE said, (in reply to Mr. ADAMs :) Mr. Chairman,
when the gentleman from Massachusetts commenced his re-
marks, it was obvious to the House that I was excited. It
would be hypocrisy inme to pretend that I did not feel both
anger and resentment. Had the gentleman only gone as far
as I expected-had he made only an ordinary attack-I would
have replied to him. But, sir, his attack has gone so far be-
yond the bounds of moderation, courtesy, and order-it has
been so unjust, so unfounded, to personal, so malicious, so
little, so barbarous, so unprovoked-that, had he been a man
of my own years, I should have sat silent after the delivery,
and not have noticed it in this House. And, sir, for the rea-
son that he is the very opposite of a young and vigorous
man-that, in station, he is far above my humble position-
for the reason that he is the son of a Revolutionary patriot
who was President of the United States, and has himself
been President-that the honor of my country is involved in
his reputation and his conduct-that he is a man of venera-
ble age, as I have before characterized him with perfect respect
-for these reasons my hands are tied, my arms are bound,
and I am deprived (if the privilege of retort.
The gentleman is gratified. He has been indulged by the
Chair and the House in making this attack upon me, thus
tied and thus bound. He has even thanked the Chair for the
indulgence of making this attack upon a young man who
would not from self-respect reply-who ought not in turn to
be indulged by the House in replying in the spirit and in the
terms in which the attack itself was made. If this be a
gratification to the gentleman himself, I am sure it is no grati-
fication to his friends here, and, if his speech be published as
intended, it will be no gratification to hisfriends elsewhere.
I cannot reply, sir, because I honor and respect Qld Massa.
chusetts too well not in this very instance to repel the impu-
tation cast upon her representatives by the gentleman-that
they are constantly insulted and brow-beaten by Southern
gentlemen here, who are represented as base enough to take
advantage of public sentiment at home anti in the North on
the subject of duelling Insult the venerable gentleman !-
Istrike him !--No, no, no. Sir, I would much sooner strike
down the arm raised to wound hihn! And if ths be a victory
for him, he is welcome to enjoy its fruits. I am at this mo-
ment a happier man than he is.
N pursuance of law, I, MARTIN VAN BuREN,.President of
the United States of America, do hereby declare and
make known, that public sales will be held at the undermen.
tioned Land Offices in the State of Michigan, at the periods
hereinafter designated, to wit:
At the Land Office at GENESSEE, commencing on
Monday, the twenty first day of June next, for the disposal
of the public lands lying within the limits of the undermen-
tioned townships, to wit :
North of the base line, and east of the meridian.
Townships twenty-nine and thirty, of range one.
Townships twenty-nine and thirty, of range two.
Townships twenty-nine and thirty, of range three.
Townships twenty-eight, twenty-nine, and thirty, of range four.
Townships twenty-eight, twenty-nine, and thirty, of range five.
Townships tenty-eight, twenty-nine, and thirty, of range six.
Townships twenty-eight, twenty-nine, and thirty, of range
Township twenty-eigbt and fractional township twenty-nine,
bordering on Lake Huron, of range eight.
Ftactional townships twenty-eight and twenty nine, bordering
on Lake Huron, of rang nine.
At the Land Office at IONIA, commencing on Mondar
the fifth day of July next, for the disposal of the public lands
lying within the limits of the undermentioned townships, to
wit : '
North of the bass line, and west of the meridian.
Townships twenty-one, twenty-two, twenty-three, twenty-fonr
twenty-five, twenty-siji, twenty-seven, thirty-one, and thirty-two,
of range six. '
Townships twenty-one, twenty-two, twenty-three, twenty-four,
twenty-fire,, twenty -six, thirty-one, and thirty -t we, of range seven.
Townships thirty-one and thirty-two, of range eight.
Fractional townships thirty-one and tthirty-two, bordering on
Grand Traverse bay, of range nine.
Fractional township thirty-two, bordering on Grand Traverse
bay,-of range ten.
Fractional townships tbirty-one and thirty-two, bordering on
Lake Michigan, of range eleven.
Fractional township thirty-one, bordering on Lake Michigan,
of range twelve. *
Lands appropriated, by law, for the use of schools, milita.
*y nr other" purposes, will be excluded from sale.
The sales will each be kept open for two weeks, unless
the lands are sooner disposed of,) and no longer ; and no pri-
vats entries of land in the townships so offered will be ad-
mitted untilafter the expiration of the two weeks.
G~ven under my hand, at the city of Washington, this
eighteenth day of February, anne Detaini 1841.
By the President :
Commissioner of the General Land Office.

Every person claiming the right of pre-emption to land in
any of the townships designated in this proclamation, in vir-
tue of the provisions of the act of Z2d June, 1838, as extend-
ed and modified by the act of 1st June, 1840, or of the
provisions of the latter act granting certain privileges to an-
other class of settlers, is requested to prove the same to the
satisfaction of the Register and Receiver of the proper land
office, and make payment soon as prarcicable af-
ter seeing this notice, and before the day appointed for the
commencement of the public sale of the land as aboverde-
signated ; otherwise such claims will be forfeited.
mar 13-wtds Commissioner of the General Land Office.
HUGH SMITH & Co. Alexandria, have onhand and offer
for sale, on favorable terms, a full and complete assortment of
China, Glass, and Earthenware, purchased for them by their
agents in England from the best manufactories, and of late im-
portations. Purchmsen are invited to call and examine ware and
I)|nner sets-White, Blue, &c. Ac.
Tea Sets-Plain and Gilt
Glass Ware-Cut and Plain
Best Plated Castors
Britannia Tea Sets-Best English.
mnr 9--dlmif
this day trout Philadelphia-
1 case superior 28, 30, and 32 inch Silk Umbrellas
I do well.assortedSun -screens
For sale lowby ,JAMES B. CLARKE,
mar 3-eo3tidf No. 2 from 8th t. & pp. Centre May,

hi nio s ly h o e fac that I lar collisions between members of this House. The genth. pie in that parWe the country from which I come, I will not,
R\ NOTE BILL. wed that tone man was all ready to go out on mere excuse for doing as-- as rfg.rds thepproaching Adinintrat.on, put myself under
I'. t ADAMS. I am glad to repeat the assertion I made when it would have given him great delight if some more Cilley the lead of any man who cons ders the duelling law in this
the gentleman put the question to me on a former occasion, scenes had been enacted in this House. District as having borne anbfter fruits whatever. It may
N Q.. ADAMS, I did not say, nor intend to say, that he had announced him- Mr. JENIFER here rose and called Mr. ADAMS to order-at not, indeed, be sufficiently fynt in its operation to prevent
.TTr, self, as from his installation, as the leader of this House. the same time appealing to the Chair to enforce the rules of the thirst for blood which ffllows offensive words; but I be-
sue of "T'reasury Notes. What I Iatid, and what I now say is, that the tone and man- the House. lieve it has prevented and will prevent any such occurrences
Sneer with which he came into this House after his absence, Mr. ANDREWS rose for a similar purpose. as vie have witnessed here. But as it bears upon the affairs
FEBUARY 4, 1841. were such as to assume ipaofacto, whether recognized by this Mr. THOMPSON, of South Carolina, said something, which, of the nation, I am not willingY-o'sit any longer here and see
IFFIhoA 4, 1841. House or not, the position of leader. That is what I said, amidst the great uproar, the Reporter could neither hear nor other members from my owsJ'tion of country, or those
of the Whole on the state ard that is what I repeat. And in saying this, I must return understand, who may be my successors B n, made subject to any such
noise, in the chair,) on the my sincere and cordial thanks to the gentleman for having Mr. WIsE hoped the gentleman from Massachusetts would law as the law of the duelli(; I am unwlting that they
ury notes; andthe ques- said, on that occasion, that he should be extremely averse and not be stopped. Let him go on; let him throw out his ve- should not have full freedom of speech in this House on all
ut the enacting clause- unwilling to quarrel with me. Those, I believe, were his nom-bitter, malicious, deadly as it was. If he (Mr. W.) occasions-as much so as the primest duellist in the land.
-Mr. CHIRM : Like the words, IN ri ot misrepresent them. would have an opportunity to reply, that was all he asked. I do not Want to hear perpetual intimations when a man
,seat, (Mr. J. GARLAND,) Mr. WISE here called upon Mr. ADAMS to designate the Mr. ADAMS. Certainly the gentleman shall have an oppor- from one part of the country means to insult another coming
rets the committee upon time at which this occurrence had taken place, tunity to reply to his heart's content. I stand upon ground from other parts of the country-as, I am ready to answer
ow my intention to e niter Mr. ADAMS. It was at the re-appearance of the gentleman.,which 1 do not mean to concede to him. I maintain that the here or elsewhere"-and, "' the gentleman knows where I am
rhich have been introduc- in his seat here after a long absence occasioned by sickness, duelling law is one of the best laws that ever was enacted, to be found ;" saying, as the gentleman from Maryland (Mr.
r a few remarks. I believe the committee have a pretty distinct recollection of Mr. ANDRIEWS here rose and inquired of the Chair what W. C. JOHNSON) did just now, that he would call to account
This bill : I was prepared what took place then, if the gentleman has not. was the question. He rose to a point of order, and he should any person who dared make allusion to what had taken place
y on which the chairman Mr. WISE was understood to say that he had no know- insist upon a decision, between him and another member of this House. I do not
an introduced it. I'have ledge of any re-appearance, or of any era which could be ex- The CHAIRMAN said the debate had taken an exceedingly intend to hear that, any more for myself or others, if I can
that day to this-and to actly characterized by the term re-appearance, wide range; and that the Chairman could not step it now, so help it. Therefore, I move to bring the matter up for full
sis generally bestowed Mr. ADAMS. I will not take issue with the gentleman on long as personalities were avoided, discussion here-whether we are to be twitted and taunted
Sth diture f this that point. The time when I first noticed the gentleman's Mr. ANDREWS. Does the Chair decide that it is in order with remarks, that a man is ready to meet us here or else-
-that u ly takes about assumption in this House--as I consider it, not as he announc- for the gentleman from Massachusetts to proceed in the man- where. It goes to the independence of this House; it goes
is a bill to raise five mil- ed it--of the position of leader which the newspapers had as- ner in which he is now addressing the committee'I to the independence of every individual member of this House;
mrrying into effect the en- signed to him, is not many days post ; it is within the recollec- The CHAIRMAN said that, whilst the gentleman from Mas- it goes to the right of speech ant the freedom of debate in
he debts of the nation--to tion of all the members now present and then present. It was sachusetts avoided personalities, the Chair, looking to the this House; and I telt myself bound to bear my testimony in
y have a just claim upon not at the last session of Congress ; and if he is in any man- range of debate which had hitherto been allowed, could not the most decided manner against the practice of duelling,
it, I do not at all consider ner hurt at the use of the term re-appearance," I will re- arrest him. or any thing in the shape of even a virtual challenge
ey tthe Admn istratin". tract it-and I will say it was his appearance on that particu- Mr. ANDREWS appealed from the decision of the Chair; taking place in tliis House, now and forever. If the
fferenee, so far as regards lar occasion. The gentleman, very much to my regret, and but, almost in the same instant, withdrew the appeal, committee thinks proper to put me down, after a debate
,ration may be. I vote to to that, I presume, of a majority of this House, and I trust Mr. ADAMS proceeded. The subject I have now touched of three weeks involving almost every topic under the sun,
its own debts; and that, I may say of the People of this nation, was for a considerable upon is not so wide and remote from the subject before the and in which not one man has been called to order, I must
w the Treasury this come rtion of the last session of Congress and of the present ab- committee as the gentleman from Kentucky (Mr. ANDREWS) submit. It snail go out to the country, and I am willing
tire the passage of this bill sent from his seat. I regretted it, notonly fromthecireumstance and the gentleman from Maryland (Mr. JENIFER) appear to that the sober sentiment of the whole nation shall be my final
idor which I habve vted itself and from my friendly feelings towards him, but from suppose. I am going to eivetothiscommittee, if I may be per- judge on this subject. I take issue now wilh the gentleman
voting to enable the Presi- the cause, which I understood to be very severe indisposition, mitted, my reasons for not being willing to put myself under from Virginia [Mr. WIsE] on that law, and on the practice of
Secretary of the Treasu- However, as I have said, if the word reappearancec" has the lead of the gentleman from Virginia, (Mr. WISE,) as the duelling. Let him say what he thinks proper on the subject :
that every demand upon any thing in it offensive to him, I withdraw it, I simply re- representative ot the next Administration in this House; let it go forth to the nation: let it go forth to his constituents.
thfalty met. The Presi- fer to a particular time which is within the recollection of and among those reasons is his deliberate and oft-repeated He once, in a public address to hbi constituents, used as a
de that boast. Whether every member now here and who was here then. And it opinion that the practice of duelling ought to be allowed in sort of apology, that his constituents demanded-that they
is a question into which was at the same time when the gentleman, amongst other this District between the members of this House, and that the insisted-he should fight whenever his honor was offended.
this has been done, it has things, said that General Harrison was under more obliga- duelling law, in making which I take to myself the pride of Probably I misapprehended him; if so, he can correct me.
n from this and the other tion to him than he was to General Harrison. I considered having had an effective instrumentality, and which I am bound Well-if his constituents call upon him to fight a duel, mine
!n done by donations which that as of itself not only assuming the position of leader here, not to see treated with contempt, has been productive of bitter insist upon me that 1 shall not; and so do the constituents of
been needed. .1say,there- *but asserting that there was a balanceofaccounts due between fruits. Andthis is not the first time that the gentleman has other members on this floor, from the sare section of country.
I, ready to vote for this bill, him and General Harrison which the gentleman expected to uttered auch sentiments; he has repeatedly before expressed Mr. WIsE here desired to explain, in justice to his consti-
vet the question comes up. receive atsome timeoir other. That was the time to which I his opinion about the bitterness of the fruits of that law. I tuents and himself, that he had never made such a declaration
the proposition n i sggested y refer, say, therefore, that I will not put myself under the lead of any as that his constituents demanded he should fight. He had
the form of raising this Mr. WIsE here intimated that he did not precisely hear proesed duellist, whether he thirsts for blood or not, whether, never said so. He was not responsible for his principles as to
htmanso i ng th e what the gentleman had said. after having shot a man through the heart, hecan go on and duelling, except as between himself and his God. But from
at is to say, that the means Mr. ADAMS. What I understood the gentleman to say shed tears Cor his fate. some misrepresentations which had been made against him on
Has of dollrs, interest and was, that Gen Harrison owed more tb him than he owed to Mr. CHINN here rose to a point of order-remarking that a certain occasion, he had, in justice to himself, told his con-
he same time. That has Gen. Harrison ; and I say I inferred from that there was a the committee might assureitself he would not withdraw it. stituents that he expected to be tried by them, by their public
asury note bills for I the last balance of accounts to be settled between them, which the The CHAIRMAN. The Chair hopes that the gentleman sentiment. He repeated, he had never said that his consti-
gone to increase the def- gentleman expected to receive in due time. It was also at the from Massachusetts (Mr. ADAMS) will not proceed further in tuents ever demanded of him to fight. There was more than
Ia lt gone taadd atyour time when he made some remarks on the subject of duel- this strain of remark, a political relation between himself and his constituents-a
Ito future day the means ling which, not to misrepresent him, I will read from a re- Mr. W. COST JOHNSON wished, he said, to gain the floor relation of personal affection-and he had not a friend among
the debt contracted by the port of the remarks which I found in the National Intelligen- for a moment, if he could, the thousands he could number, in his district, who did not
,h occasioned the necessity cer. If they are not correctly reported, I desire the gentle- Mr. ADAMS. There is another duellist. pray for him and to him continually, to avoid fighting. When-
cipla of political economy man to Say so. Mr. JOHNSON proceeded. He said that, as his name had ever he did, from necessity, fight, he fought against their will.
i depart with my own con- Mr. A. then sent to the Clerk's table the following report, been read aloud from the Clerk's table, he wished to make They knew it, and he knew it; and he must say that he ne-
ny form-be it in the form taken from the "National Intelligencer," and which was one remark. He made it lest this discussion should go fur- ver fought but against his own will also.
ronds, scrip, or whatever read by the Clerk: there, and take a latitude which he should himself grieve to be Mr. ADAMS. What the gentleman does according to his
rrnw a dollar without pro- Mr. WIsE then rose and said : Mr. Chairman, I do not think I indulged. I shall only say, that I presume the member to own will, or against it, is no matter of discussion here or with
nd that is the fundamental ever will give way, while I have the floor, to another scene ofthis whom I once made allusion here (Mr. DUNCAN) has been sa- me. I do not mean to misrepresent him in tlhis case. I did
sten of Alexander Hamil- sort. The anti duelling bill is producing it@ bitter fruits--it is tisfied with his position. Ilam satisfied with mine. I shall understand that in a publication of his, he apologized for hav-
tent of the existence of this making this House a mere bear-g-irden." We have an example not refer to him again; and I presume we both consider the ing been concerned in an affair of this kind, on the ground of
is report to Congress, the in the present instance. Here, with permission of the Chair and account settled andlbalanced, But I will say that, saving and public sentiment amongst his constituents, of a necessity im-
only one which I conceive committee, and without a call to order from any body, we see and excepting that individual to whom I disclaimmaking any refer- posed upon him by their opinions ; thereby intimating, as I
Jie of "y thing like her. hear one member (Mi. JOHNSO) SoY to another (Mr. N ence Tn o or herefter a ls and ecepting the venera- understood it, that a majority of his constituents, or probably
hat when you borrow me- "that he had been branded as a coward on thiefloor ;"the ble gentleman from Massachusetts, if any man, no matter of all of them, thought as he did on that point. I am willing
xy, therefore, that I should will stop-there will be nofight. what party or politics he may be, makes one single indelicate that his explanation should go out. I understand him now
allusion to me, whether I will or will not pursue this course to say that he was never engaged in such an affair except
Congress, to have made a Mr. ADAMS. It is a correct report.[ Well, sir. It was or that, he will see what will be the consequence-he will against his own will.
ong w tic havpe provision suga ed M. AAMS. It is fiend of ine that it wasnot correct ree whether there will be a fight or not. I give this as a And here I take issue with the gentleman on a principle of
which ample provision suggested to me by a friend of mine that it was not correct, fairmonition to this House. fact; and I say I hope it is not to te the rule of this House,
sonly ofthe Treasury notes although my own recollection inclined me to the belisfthat Mr. ADAMS. He will see what he will see. nor ever admitted, tnat a solemn law, passed by both Houses
rs and deficiencies which it was. But, however that may be, thegentleman now vouches In'what I have said, and in what I am yet about to say, if of Congress and approved by the President, is to be spoken
Supply. This must be that it is a correct report. I was going to say that I re- in order, ifthe committee, and especially the duellists of this of with contempt and derision, because it restrains duelling,
turn him my cordial thanks for the assertion Iwhich he made committee, will permit me, my obj,.ct is to assign reasons why The criminal law of his own State-that cannot affect him.
adno been netessaryforued t tohe, adoes. wfico I doust epeit heis sabou tohecat assthoun h will never put myself under the lead of a professed duellist He bids defiance to it, as he does to the law of this District.
shadonot been introduced if hedoes, of ourseI must submitr) say that assertionwas In this House; andt, for that purpose, I must remark upon He must adhere to his principles. They are between him
do feel myself obliged to heard by me withegreat pleasure. He said (or words to that theduelhn law, being the thing which prohibits that practice, and his God, he said; but I tell him that I will never put my.
t the commencement of a effect) that there was no member here with whom he would Mr.wisp again rose tooider, self under the lead of a mart who professes any such prinei-
gident is on his way to this bo more unwilling to quarrel than with me ; and he conveyed r-Ie aanrs oodrsl ne h edo m h rfse n uhpn
,identhe spae ofn e h s hoayt this senmorenwiin oplirenthanyexpressio with r;dhegarneed to Mr.ADA a. Let me proceed; you may have a week to pies one way or another. There is a fundamental objection
n of the space of onie shot this sentiment in complimentary expressions with regard to answer me if you choose, to it, b cause (this is the inference I draw, he may disclaim it
an of the Chief Magistrate my age and experience, and those things which,ohe said, en. Mr. Wia. I may not have an opportunity. Does he if he pleases) the same principle is to be used as an instrument
stance-thate places of the frone this,tleand I am generto have an oportunitymcordiallyorall gentleman from Massachusetts intimate that I am a profess- foprpolitical purposes in this House-the principle of do.- !l~n,n
-I, for myself, have drawn anatphertunioyentlaninti ued duellist because I might, under certain circumstances, upon necessity or public sentiment, that is to be carried into
-1, for myself, hor etdprawnhab t teore unillnogentolquarre thi s with whom. n I wldo n fight, I never shot a man through the heart, nor has any effect in this House-that is to say, by brow-beating gentle-'
hat it is correct--probably be more unwi ling to quarrel than with him. And I do net man been laid in the grave by my bullet. I have uniformly men who are known to maintain another principle. But, Mr.
very large portion of this intend ever to quarrel with him, whether he thinks proper to denounced the practice. I abhor it. I have avoided it, and, Chairman, I will say no more on that subject.
i drawn-wthat is, h atthhe concern. Therefore, I do not mean to do him injustice in an p osible, I will avoid it to the day of my death. I knowof Another reason why I am not disposed to follow the lead
by danthe aet eistingshatpth e onern Thfor ean I dclnetean ito dhis w insth ice pin any no character more to be abhorred than that of a professed du- of Ihe gentleman from Virginia is, that about tile same time
Iby the present existing shape or form ; and I declare that it is with extreme pain and ellist. I have been engaged in duels, and, if such cases should that, in Ih pehrltn ote uliglw eufle
People of this nation, and reluctance that I have said what I have said, and shall say a occur, I might d uels ane ef Bu t c f tha the speech h relating to the duelling law, he unfolded
I wi not enter into the what I still have to say in relation to that gentleman. e o e ithe the snard oh allegiance, he unfolded also what I would
n will jnt ener not. thi He w hatIstl hac led to e reliontof hat gemaron. t -gentleman means to designate me as such a character, I will call the overseer's standard. The word overseer" has a
one stoit, and Iconcur w He has acknowledged the report of his remarks on the sub- ask him to lay his hand upon the time or occasion when I technical meaning in a certain portion of this country which
me to it, and I concur with jectofduelling to be just andtrue, And what is the inference ever professed more than this-that I forone, like my friend l suppose will be understood by all. The overseer standard
he political administration I draw I He gave an account of avery unpleasant scene be- from Maryland, (Mr. JOHNSON,) would not be bound by that denotes the exclusion of nine petitions out of every ten that
ible and useful to the Pea. teen two members on his floor-a painful scene, I suppose, act, if such a case should again occur; and that, so for as I come from States lying north of Mason and Dixon's line,
nge was a desirable thing, to him and me--muchaso to me-and his lamentation in am a duellist the act is merei-uum futtlCme; it has nao !,rrc and the reception of all petitions coming from the south of
here I stop. The People consequence of it was, that there would be no fight." That u pon me. And all I have said of it was, that, without in. Mason and Dixon's line. That is now he law of this Con.
of the Administration that was one Of the bitter fruits," he said, of theoduelling law." power to prevent a fight, it gave all the encouragement to a gress. If it was couched in such language--if, instead of the
one. I acquiesce in their Mr. WISE here rose and said that he took this personal re- quarrel, words in which the twenty-first rule -ofthis House is ex-
'--I am not in the confi- terence as an act of great injustice. The language he had Mr. AAMS. I am not willing to-be led away by false is- pressed, it was in the words following Resolved, That all
tinistration--tdo not know used was incapable ot soch a construction by any torture, of *AE'''""tvligt-eldaa yflei-pesd lwsi h od olwn:"esleTaal
willbe.t As teof used- walic incapablfve fomu a onstructeironby any torturenll sues. I didn't charge the gentleman with being a duellist, petitions from the south of Mason and Dixon's line shall be
will be. A system of ol- malicewitself, even from a fo--mueh less fron a gentleman He knows what his professions are, and he knows what his received, and considered, and treated with respect, and that,
comprehensive and compli- with whom he desired, with whom it was his pride, to be practice is. I did not charge him, I say, with being a duel- of all petitions from the north of Mason and Dixon's line,
subjects which have been friendly. I say (continued Mr. W.) that such a construe- list. I said that, as a public man, I never would put myself n-I one in ten Shall be received and considered by
t, and which, ino ny opi tion cannot be justly Aut upon my language; it isnot the under [ te lead of a professed duellist; and I repeat it. The r,,,.A .,, --if, I say, it was in these words, the exact ope-
it into the consideration of meaning I intended. And the gentleman, whilst in the very gentleman n now declares, in the face of the committee, that he ration of the rule would be expressed. I speak of matters of
ts not only the condition of me oamt violent injustice-n a injustice is adoig to is the practiceof duelling. I am extremely happy tohear fact. I have now in my possession one hundred petitions
Sndot on r inthernaiat-ion o of hi most a volntiouido-an injustice which he is obliged to it, and I hope that his practice from this day to the end of his from the north of Mason and Dixon's line, and of these not
e dnirs--ofnor internal at- go out of his way to do--an injustice which cannot possibly lite will confirm that profession., one in ten will be received. And yet whoever heard of a pe-
ewiUnited the ndiand the beI say fso within a goodnorrfriendly motive of any description. Now, in reiaard to the practice of duelling. I do under- tition from the south of Mason and Dixon's line being refus-
ing that is connected with Mr.ADAMS. The gentleman has given notice in the news- stand the gentleman as maintaining that duelling between ed I There has not been a single instance of the kind. That
tatirs o nnete d wition. Mr. ADApMS tohi constituentlemn lhas givey n notin their n s- members ofthis House, for matters passing within this House, is the operation of your rule as it now stands; and, exclusive,
faairs of the nation. All papers ou his constituents that they must not form their opin., is a practice that ought not to be suppresseJ. I understand odious, and partial as it is, the gentleman now wants to ex-
; and almost. all of the) ion about his course until he had written out his remarks, him to maintain that doctrine now. I maintain the contrary; tend it further. Under that rule, the Speaker (who has him-
constderatin here. I say Ie is going to write them out. I hope, when he does so, he and I maintain it for the independence of this House-for my self, supported by a majority of this House, extended it al-
the proper time for it has will write that passage as a part of his speech; and their own independenceefor the independenceeof those with whomy ready far beyond what I believe it imported) has decided that
g here what shall be done when it goes forth to the whole People of this nation-duel- I act--for the independence of the members from the North-hom are r be e tblieve it imporned) sasedecided, hat
ra session-what shall be lists and non-duellists-I am willing to leave the construction *;-ote dpnecefthme erfomteoth- if matter to be excluded under it is, in the same petition, con-
sein--wht shall be donew itstse ofwad nonedgeltleiansat thattim e w aiig to leaethei trunba n section of this country, who not only abhor duelling in nected with other matter not to ba excluded, the petition shall
shall be done with the of what the gentleman at that time said, to their unbiassed theory but in practice, and in consequence of which members be received for so much as does not fall within the rule. But
with State rightsy-what unsophisticated sense, and to stand at issue with him on the from other sections are perpetually insulting them on this the gentleman from Virginia is not satisfied with that.
bank; and yet you do pint. Let him reply as he pleasese-I say it is the fair"on- floor, under the impression that the insult will not be resented. He is for excluding every thing that is tainted, accord-
of the President elect of struetion of his language, that his lamentation was for the Mr. CAMPBELL Of South Carolina, rose and called Mr. ing to his kten scent, with the offence for which other
e 4th of March, to take loss of the fight that might have ensueJ if the thing had oc- AnDos to order. .ar, of thi pen are th be excd r i c their
i a little book here-for curred before the passage of the duelling law. "Mtr .,parts of the petition are to be excluded ; if there is even a
a lttl bok hre-forcured efoe te pssae o th doltig lw.The CHAIRMAN" said something, of which the Reporter scintilla of any thing which he thinks tainted with aboli-
resume the greater portion Mr. WISE called Mr. ADAMS to order-insisting that no could not hear a word; (the House at this moment being i tion, it is to beexcluded. And if the House should think pro-
-(the Constitution of the n,.re violent insult could be offered to him, as a gentleman a state of tempestuous uproar.) per to confirm that view, instead o f one petition out of (on
powers and prescribes the than this. When the voice of Mr.)ADAS again caught the ear of. te from the north of Masoe & Dixon's line beint received, we
ed States)-- say I find it [The confusion in the Hall was here so great that the re- Reporter, MrA.wapocei as e" sha l have to lip. & Pi0d with the reciv.. we
it) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~eotr shllf.m prwrcoldnopearorethnteegnealprprtofwhtso vii^llows :^'I r shall have to be satisfied with the reception of one in twenty.
n)f shesate fof time tUnie o rter wassad; but hea mnertodre than th s seneal pTprto ha Wol yo smother discussion on the duelling law 1 Yes, sir, twenty to one! because the petitions come from the
tion such measures as he That if the venerable gentleman from Massachusetts (and tant tha this ver prctc of'r' due 9 "ing- onsd reda a point manrh now strggln g fo with"' th* Tatid ofB this frendtle-
nt; he may, on extranrdi- he, Mr. W., used this term in no cant seriosnes tmof thono tin vner parati of th e ninonsad erda a poitninmyint Gergan isnoMr.gln forK wiho the appid rof theeis f i ondfo
.uses, or either of them," that sincere respect which age should always command) was another part of th Unon-with its consequenores I[M o h Sekr. Band tu whose antpeablitifonis t ihe heiso
,making the application to permitted to pursue this course of personal insult, after the there is no more important ubject that can goforh, Norh ,he du creit*ke--nth o e geg aphic a bl e it wihbeonsm toiv him.
me, it says that when Gen. disclaimer he (Mr. W.) had made that such was not his and Sot,^ East am West; ad S I, thrfoe tak my iu Sr, this ise either oeorapee cal clrTe sad ard whichbeog tohem
hat chair, or on the step. m meaning, he w would be com pelled to nee language to th atg un u ponT it hav e co me. her d e e mi e t o d o sn betwem 1 9en s t a i the ovele a h s rai ed ,' foor t he ne t A nst ra tind r w hni sts the
y be, that then he, he shall tleman which was not becoming the* order of this House, diff'erent portion ofthis Hose ad i r dle r to o seewheter there olors;a thas frast, bfor -tati the nexvAdin seerato 'oss ofor
whether a necessity for an and which he would not use if he could avoid it. this practiceistnb continued ;h"""t e whether the mebes ro the seod i rs t black-that is the oversehr' color ;tetidi h
d if he finds that necessity, The CnHAIRMN said he d&d not understand the gentleman that secin of theUnini:" whos prni)e are aansCt duel pae dity"1 whiel--ht the whitq, ofulfcat "ion the ptird, death-
It will be his duty to do from Massachusetts (Mr. ADAMS) as making personal^^^ alu ling fla rncpe are aga nule pn vr opc iscs nst bedusel ple dolrt oftetewitonullification. ht s the th pallied, sadeard
necessity existing, he will sinns to the gentleman lomn Virginia, (Mr. W'sE.),i is supposedthat the inslt^ w hl not'^ be ~ reete, and tfn~fcl~" hat wihteenlmnfoVirgni itehd toh oist whoe n hed
>ur debating here week sf- Mr. WVWs. I understand ,he gentleman as repeating as there wdlbe no fight." As totehetlmnsichr r the enlead ofro thVairs ii of nten dsto Admiistrto ihn this
ssary to have an extra sen- fact that which is unfounded and unjust--(I apply this Inn- practice, willsay nomare aboutit. i Itsk the leork toe rh ead oue owh aaI r dn otfthen neto c Amysi ndisthatio and- ti
oneexample. I might go guage not personally, but merely a, repelling theimputation the first section of lw n fteSae ftis Union^^ H; 8, ard I m hre watingthensalatio oyef thendetPreasident
which have been agitated upon me)--not to use stronger language--namely that 1 and I so~pse,~ on harn itw rloead, the getlean il ko of thes United States I a. erawaiting thitaion beuofted what Preiden
ka, and say the very same. meant to encourage a fight, or amenedtht there would not to what State I refer,"" e' gnlea n 0 sythe ofamnite1stratin s- I& ^ to be. udInfamd waiti wihi
regharetodiSeuwsingkw hathingsr thaS be one. I denied it, and yet, in the face of that denial, the The Clerk then read as follows : th intenon a^11,"1"1 t nd deemnto o swprtt aitingtem wiat-
mighret a o gesnrtpleacen attrsibutsiading insulta toainjur ;--ichInejury ith A Ndt suppress duelling--Passed Jan~tory 26, l810. ever it may be, to the utmost extent of my power, consistent-
ruin hero te tave posesn andirsut p iarepenatrbting ito afer had dicameann w ith Iee hall Wth e 're experience has evinced that the existing remedy for ly with the duty which I owe to my country, to my constitu-
en doing very much out of gentleman to order, and ask for the decision of the Chair. --the suppressi"n of the barbarous custom of duelling is inadequate etsnt, to myself, and my God. The main principle upon which
public~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~t ,n npiaevr -~ecoigsnec a o er itntylv h a pSrpose ;'"P8iaud the progress and eonseqoences of the evil I intend to proceed is, the support of the coming Adminis-
tling the affairs of the no- Reporter--.but,ih wasundersto-od tolb,Bthat ifthe commtte theLegsl daturetoc" are t > aa vicet o thearesutto( igrotion.anItbir the pr, d incistrati ons wichae supportedboho themind
ire have been making cab- permitted the gentleman to proceed, and he persisted in his bsrrism gu^ ifd neither bybTh precept f moraltynr' bythe this Hose, a*]nd ^tonver criticalv occasi dons. mofg therest,
makers; and I should have course of remark, he (Mr. W.) would hurl an insult at him dictates of reason. For theremedy whreor1-- o y nn 'a one mesr whhtegntlema n diclaimoeg wthherest
ass of cabiuet-makers, we which, if he were not a venerable gentleman, would have its 1. 0e it enacted by the General Assembly, That any person ror. meann t^he con ltro ersy with South Caolna nulifi
sanity and mercy towards meaning.] whorhall hereafierwilfullyand maliciously, or by previous agree, caton. I supported the Admnitr at ion uSonuth t paolina t.llf
I say we are all cabinet- The CHtAIRA said: The Chair does not understand the menh"t fight a duel or single combat with any engine, instrument, I"1" su ,ote that'1" ll Administration, up on s tlhaztrdpoit
r every day, when we get gentleman from Massachusetts (Mr. ADAMs) as making a per. or weapon, the probable consequence of which might be the death mseupponedother Admportatroeasion, Itn ml hazasuprdt-
, Who is to be Secretary sonal reference to the eentleman from Virginia (Mr. WISE,) of either' party, anld, ia so dloiog, shtll1 kll his antagonist or any edy" this Adnisterato upo poiants oasitonI wihave understand
the Treasury V' Who but simply as giving his views of certain remarks made by injued shai!0 die thereat wrhinflithsue mouth s therafter tuhe psof- te genleAmnstatn fron poriniato have oeto with a udertand
rotary of the Navy'P" andl the latter gentleman ... .dsa...stee..i. i.hre.otsthr..eBU.of. ...nlea ro irii t av oe u wt dca

this man;" another says, Mr. WIS .. And the gentleman from Massachusetts is ender, his aes, abettors, and counsellors, being thereof duly ralion ot war ; I mean upon what is called the bill tor sup-
hin Amang othr tigsawsy meannafter I convicted, shall be guilty of murder, and suffer death bv being pressing frauds on the revenue, and the bill which was an-
o. Among other thing s reiteradis a im he charge that such was my meaning, after I had hanged by the neck ; any few, custom, or usage of this Common- nexed to it by the Senate, giving a legislative construction to
entlemen, and the assign- T Thlam e Chair did not understand the gen- alth to the contrary notwithstanding. some of the existing acts of Congress in relation to the reve-
S who arnot toh ave assign- from CHARMANchuet Chair sidngott undrsu tan the gen-a Now, said Mr. A. read the second section. nue. I'do not mean to enter into a discussion of those mat-
huals who are not to have tleman from Massachusetts as saying that such was the mean- And the Clerk read as follows: ters now. I had not the good fortune to hear the gentleman's
[hat my friend from Virgi- ing of the gentleman from Virginia, but only as asserting 2. And beit farther enacted, That, if any person whatsoever observations on this subject, although I heard of them much.
ler ofth~s House. Well, that such was the construction which fie put upon the In- shall challenge another to fight a duel with any weapon, or in Probably, if 1 had not heard so much of them, I should not
shall be, so long as I re- guage. any manner whatsoever, the probable issue of which may or have risen now. But I think of them as of most other things
other manls,d I thought that Mr.hWite was understood to say (though very doubtfully might result in the death of the challenger or challenged; or if I speak of now, as premature-not proper for discussion at
Older the lead of the gentle- heard) that he lamneuted that this House having, by its law, any person shall accept a challenge or fight a duel with any wea- this time. I do not mean to discuss them now, but I will say
any other member of this stopped duelling, did not at the same time take upon itself to pen, or in any way whatsoever, the probable issue of which that, as to the bill for the suppression of frauds on the reve-
I have seen of his political provide a remedy by putting a stop to insult. He would not may or might terminate in the death of the challenger or chat- nue, an the other bill which was annexed to it by the Senate
ere it not for a very impor- appeal from the decision of the Chair. The gentleman from lunged, such person shall beincapable of holding or being elected at the last session, they were both Administration measures,
cy, in which I stand at the Massachusetts might take hie own track-he (Mr. W.) to any post of profit, trust, or enolument, civil or military, under and that, so far as I could in this House, or on the Commit-
But, altogether, he has would take his. the government of this Commonwealth. that Monfares of whic Hous the now a
rective, so efficient, in ex- Mr. ADAMS. I am glad that the gentleman is willing I 3. And be it further enacted, That, from and after the pass- member I was for supporting both those measures, coming
ministration, at great h z- should take my own track ; and if he will do me the favor not hig- of thlis art, every person who shall be appointed to any office a I
ying in for himself a great to make three speeches to my one, he will confer an addition- or ploee, civil or military, under this Commonwealth, shall, in ad- as they did from the Treasury Department, for the purpose of
is ditlon to the oath now prescribed by law, take the following oath : making some prosion to meet those difficulties which were
ts country that I are ah obreplyibe upoo e. He is perfectly at liberty to make I do solemnly swear or affirm (as the case may be) that I have occurring from day to day. I say I supported them. I in-
Igs in which he and I are what reply he chooses. He may, if e likes, insult me, as he not been engaged in a duel, by sennding or accepting a challenge troduced the first of the two bills here to this House, and I
once to which Ilexpect that threatens that he will. I have said I shall not quarrel with, to fight a duel, or by fighting a duel, or in any other manner, in carried it, not only ragaist the opposition of the gentleman
hat gentlem~ab. him. What did he mean by saying that these were thebit- violation of the act entitled An act to suppress duelling, sincesfront Virginia, Mr.W te,) but against the opposition of
is House after an absence ter fruits of the duelling law I Was it such a scene as that the passage of that act, nor will I be so concerned directly or in. many others, of whom he will not consider it a disparagement
self, and which no one re- which happened in the House that called forth this expres- directly, in1such duel during my continuance in office. So help to say that their opinion is worthy of as much consideration
the gentleman assumed, sion I No; such scenes have happened twenty times before, me God- Virginia Revised Code, 1, 583. as his. I say I carried the bill through this House by a
, the position which the when there was no duelling law. The otjectof the duelling Mr. A. continued. There are also othersections, whichlar majority; it went to theSenate, and then the Senate
iven to him-as the leader law was to prevent such scenes-and, although it has not it is not necessary to read. Thegentleman can probably tell 1houh! proper to add to it another bill, which had beenare-
ne and the manner belon2- entirely done go, yet I thank God that it has produced a this House what State has such a law, and can tell us what ferred to the Committee of Ways and Means of this House,
at hetim i te fw e-good e vt for the gentleman himself foresaw that there are the bitter fruits of that law, and not to the Committee on Manufactures; and when in the
Iand myself. would be no fight. After what has taken place in this House] I was going on to say that the reason why I brought this Senate, it was referred to the same committee of that body.
Ig Mr. ADAMS, and said, already, it would have been a deep aggravation to my feel-, subject into the discussion is, because it is must intimately They put the t-vo bills together as one;i and when the hill,
gh it was with difficulty i if there had been a fight, and these gentlemen (Messrs. connected with all the transactions of this House and this came backto this House in this form,lIwas willing to take it so,
r. W. turned to the other W.1C. JOHNSON and DUNCAN) had hurt each other. And nst..-r-andl because Ithink it is time to settle this question as also wait the Committee on Manufactures, with ita amend-
has asserted not that he that which is to the gentleman from Virginia (Mr. WISE)! between the duellisto and non-dnellists, whoever they may ments and the additional bill to it. It was defeated, but not by
thing, not that it was his the bitter fruit of that law is to me its most glorious fruit-- I be. I say that, in consequence of my principles and what I the gentleman from Virginia. Mr. Robt. Jaffray has told a story
lave asserted tieffact, and fur it has prevented the fight which frequently followed simi- believe to be the prineikles of a very large portion of flth Fee- as to how it was defeated. whether true or false I do not know,
oTS ;::a ,-. ^^^

The gentleman before me (Mr. HOLMES) is one of those
who opposed the bill with great ability-manfolly, openly-c
but, so far as the matter went, unsuccessfully; and if gentle-
men had not been called away from their Champagne dinner,
Mr. Jaffray seems to think that the bill might still have pass-
ed. I regret-that it did not pass, for this reason, that, although
I acted quoad hoc as the friend of the Administration, yet I
did so under the strong desire of the Administration that the
bill should pass. If, therefore, there is a charge of a lurking
tariff under it, not to me, but to the Administration it must
be traced. I was willing to support the bill; I am willing
to do so now. But the Committee on Manufactures have
not reported it at the present session, because they thought
the discussion of it premature ; because the cry of tariff,
tariff, tariff, might be raised against it. But my opinion is,
that, as to a tariff, as to any addition of duties now, it is in-
competent, it is good for nothing; and when we are to have
the battle about the tariff, I am willing to have it all at once.
I do not want to have the discussion now upon trifling mat-
ters, about five cent pieces. Let us have the whole question
at once; and I hope that my friends will be ready for it, if I
am not here--for, at my time of life, I cannot answer for six
months. Idonot know,ltherefore, whether Ishall be herethen
or have any thing to say. But whatever I have to say in reply
to the gentleman or any body else, I shall reserve until that
time. I will not discuss the matter now. I will simply add
that as to the question of duties upon silks and wines which
has been discussed here with so much ferocity and with the
loss of so much ammunition-to say nothing more-1 know,
as a member of the Committee on Manufactures, of only
one single article to which that discussion can now refer-I1
speak of the bill reported fioe the Committee on Manufac-
tures last year, at the solicitation of the Secretary of the
Treasury, for increasing the tax upon silks. There is not
a word about wines, or linens, or any other articles brought
in here. The Secretary of the Treasury himself, in his an-
nual report of the last year, mentions those articles upon
which duties might be laid to meet a deficiency in the Trea-
sury, without affecting the compromise act; and it was in
consequence of that recommendation that the bill was brought
in by the Committee on Manufactures of this House. I
have been willing to meet it here-but I do not feel atalt
concerned about it, because, however anxious the present Ad.
ministration were last summer to increase the revenue in or-
der to meet its engagements, I think I can see that they care
nothing about it now. They are willing to leave the matter
to their successors; they do not want to put into the Trea-
sury any more money than will enable them to pay off their
obligations from this time to the third day of March. There-
fore, not being desirous to fight the battles of constituents
who do not choose to have their battles fought, I shall take
no pains to bring before the House either of the bills refer-
red to. But I am ready to vote upon them, if they should
come up.
So in relation to an extra session. The gentleman from
Virginia (Mr. WISE) says he will vote for this bill ; and one
reason is, to prevent the it,', --.'l of an extra session. Why,
sir, it seems to me that "1',et 1- .,., idle discussion here. It is
not we who are to decide whether there shall be an extra ses-
sion or not. Not at all-not at all. I presume the gentle-
man from Virginia knows that, in all prt,bability, this bill
will pass; that these five millions of dollars will he furnished.
Money is all that is wanted at the Treasury until the third of
March ; and, as to an extra session, how can we determine
whether it shall be or not'I Why do we talk about it 1 It is
for that man who is coming here to discharge those high du-
ties to which the People of this country have called him-I1
say, it is for him to determine, upon a full view of all things,
whether the necessity for an extra session exists or not. I do
not want to forestall him--much less to dictate to him. I
have no balance of accounts to settle with him. I owe him
no obligation; he owes me none-certainly none that I shall
ever remind him of in this House. But it is for him to de-
termins; and I am willing to leave it to his unbiassed judg-
ment to decide, upon his own view of the affairs of 'he nation,
whether he will call Congres v.-,> or not. The respon-
sibilitv is not upon us; it is -utfi. ,,, far us to meet in our
places here, if he should call us together.
And I take the same ground in relation to a distribution of
the proceeds of the sales of the public lands-to ihe financial
condition of the States of this Union-and to a National
Bank. Sir, it appears to me that, when the President of the
United States is installed, at which time this question of a
National Bank must come before him, he will decide it with
a view to all the interests of this country. How shall we
decide here, if at ellI We passed a rest lution three or four
years since, introduced by the then chairman of the Commit-
tee of Ways and Means-a gentleman not now a member of
this House, (Mr. Cambreleng)--dechring that there ought
not to be a National Bank. How long that state of opinion
may last I will not undertake to say. Ido not know. But
when the President of the United S;ates recommends to Con-
gress (if he should ever do so) the estate liqhmpnt of a Na-
tional Bank, then, I think, will be the time for discussing the
question, and not now.
So as to the State debts. It seems to me that it is hardly
possible to get up here and speak on any subject whatever,
but what some member rises from his seat with a cry of hor-
Sr.ra .sin,, the assumption of State debts; and many gentle
men have told you that one reason why they will vote against
any distribution of the proceeds of the sales of the public
lands is, because there can be only one mode of enabling the
States to pay their debts. Upon this sul-jrct of the assurep}
tion of State deb s, there is much to be said, when the pro-
per time comes. 1 think I have demonstrated in this House,
on W recent occasion, that, under this outcry against the as-
sumption of State debts, the Government of the United States
has, de facto, assumed a very considerable amount of State
debts-a very considerable amount; that it had been done
by directing the Executive Departments to invest funds, not
their own, but trust funds, which were in the hands of the
nation-funds belonging to others-in State stocks.
I have, within the week, received a letter from the Sec-
retary of the Treasury, in which he states that be is by
law obliged to invest a certain sum of money now in the
Treasury, in State stocks, unless Congress should adopt the
resolution which I offered here against it. What did you do
with that resolution 7 You passed the whole series over for
one day ; one of the resolutions declared that no money should
be invested in S&ate stocks. But no: the House would not
allow the matter to be discussed at all; and therefore I have
not been able to relieve the Secretary of the Treasury from
the obligation to do that which the law requires of him: for
the law is peremptory, and says that the Secretary shall invest
the money. And yet I cannot get the action of this House
on a resolution which would not only stop the assumption of
State debts, but would prevent this great waste of public
funds for the time to come.
But amongst other things connected with these very reso-
lutions, what does the official journal, the organ of the pres
ent Administration, doI It comes out with a charge against
me as an enemy to the rights of the States; and this, too, at
a time when this feeling of horror against the assumption oe
State debts is prevailing here and elsewhere. Well,sir, I am
not an enemy to the rights of the States. Let me say a few
words on this matter. Many of the States of this Union are
indebted in large sums of money, amounting to an aggregate of
more than two hundred millions of dollars. This proceeding on
the part of the States has been the consequence of your cast-
ing away your duty-to provide for the internal improvements
of this country. It was the business of this nation,in this and
the other hall, to pursue a system of internal improvements,
and for the di-charge of that duty, the proceeds of the sales of
the public lands are continually furnishing means ; and in the
investment of those means in that way, would we have spent
the money of the nation profitably, and would have improv-
ed and increased the value of that portion of the public do-
main which yet remains. It would have been the most eco-
nomical manner of administering the affairs of this Govern.
ment. It would have added ten dollars to the value of
every acre of land remaining, for one spent in improving
it. Now i*. is gone forever. There is nothing I regret
More. But, in the mean time, the consequence of your cast
ing out every idea of improving the face of the country
forced the necessity of doing it upon the States. The States
were compelled to take the matter up, and they did so. In
the year 1817, when I returned from Europe, one of the
first men I saw was De Wit, Ctlnton, who was then Gov-
ernor of the State of New York, and was carrying on that
great project o! internal improvement which has immortal-
ized his name. One of the first things he said to me was,
" We hope we shall have the aid of the General Government."
I replied IflI have the powtr, you shall have aid with all
my heart and soul." H en eem Benfi-sioners here the very
session that followed this interview. He had been here him-
self soliciting the aid of this Government in that great work
that operation of making Paradise to flourish in the wilds'
But no, he could not be heard. The State of New York was
thrown back upon her own resources ; she was able to get along
Without your assistance, and, in consequence, she has con-
tracted a debt of between eighteen and nineteen millions of
dollars. I have demonstrated on a former occasion, that you
have assumed half a million of deb' of the State of Arkansas;
and that, by the rule of proportions, New York was entitled to
demand of you an investment of twenty millions of dollars;
that being the proportion between the population of the State
of Arkansas, as represented here, |>nd the population of the
State of New York. Pennsylvania, after being turned out of
your doors, and being told that if she wanted any internal

improvements, she must make them for herself, went to work
and did so. Other States ofthe Union have done the same
thing. And now, in the messages of the President of the
United States, and in speeches made in both Houses of Con-
gress, these States are daily reproached and insulted'for
increasing debts. To hear the way in which the States are
spoken of here, one would suppose they were spendthrifts
and beggars. They may, some of them, be insolvent. But I
take the position which I am confident I could prove, if I had
collected together all the documents and the evidence, that
these $200,000,000 on the average have been wisely
and economically expended, and that the benefit to the
People of this nation from the expenditure of this money
is greater than if it had not been expended at all. I
assume as a general principle which I think can be demon-
strated, that these State works, although many of them have i
been indiscreet, have been experiments, and have not turned P
out so well as was anticipated and desired ; yet, taking the i
average of them from the commencement of the Erie Canal
down to the last internal improvement which may have
occasioned a debt to any one State, I say they have yield-
ed and will yield ten per cent. per annum upon their cost;
and that they have added five hundred millions, instead of
two hundred millions, to the property of the States. I say
this for the States. And now the Globe" may charge me
to-morrow with being an enemy to the States. I am willing.
I say that.
In the next place, I say that if these States have been in-
discreet, imprudent, have got themselves into difficulty, and

Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and


By and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

SOLOMON LINCOLN, to be Marshal of the United
States for the District of Massachusetts, in the
place of JONAS SIBLEY, whose term of office ex-
pired on the third instant.
WILLIAM BARROW, to be Marshal of the United
States for the District of Vermont, in place of
HEMAN LOWNY, whose term of service has expired.
OODEN HOFFMAN, to be District Attorney of the
United States for the Southern District of New
York, in place of B. F. BUTLER, resigned.


Yesterday; at half after two o'clock, his Excel-
lency M. A. De BODISCO, the Envoy Extraordina-
ry and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Emperor
of Ru,i to the United States, accompanied by
the Secretary of Legation, M. DE STOEKLS, was pre-
sented to the President by the Secretary of State.
M. DE BODIsco delivered the following address,
to which the President made the subjoined reply:
I have the honor to present myself before you, Mr. Presi-
dent, as the Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten-
tiary of his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, to con-
gratulate you upon your elevation to the Chief Magistracy
of the confederation of the United States.
Called by the most flattering suffrage to preside over the
destinies of seventeen millions of Americans, you enter, Mr.
President, upon the exercise of your high functions at an
epoch when all the foreign relations of the United Statcs
present themselves under a gratifying aspect, and the assur-
ances that you have, of your own accord, given on the day of
your inauguration, afford an additional guaranty for their
I esteem myself happy, Mr. President, to be able to assure
you that my august master the Emperor desires most sincerely
the continuation of the friendly relations so happily establish-
ed between Russia andi the United States; and all my wish-
es, Mr. President, will be gratified if, with your amicable
concurrence, it shall be reserved for me to draw still closer
the bonds of the relations already existing .
I pray you, Mr. President, to be assured that it is my sin-
cere wish to render myself constantly worthy of the esteem
of the Chief Magistrate of the Union.
I receive, sir, the congratulations which you offer me, in
your capacity of Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni-
potentiary of the Emperor of all the Russias, upon my elec-
tion to the Presidency of the United States, with great
From the epoch which introduced the United States to the
world as an independent nation, the most amicable relations
have existed between them and the powerful and distinguish-
ed Monarchs who have successively swayed the sceptre of
Russia. The Presidents, my predecessors, acting in behalf
and under the authority'of the People, their constituents,
have never failed to use every proper occasion to confirm and
strengthen the friendship so auspiciously commenced, and
which a mutuality of interests render so desirable to be con-
tinued. I assure you, sir, that none of them felt the obliga-
tions of this duty more powerfully than I do, and you cannot
in language too strong communicate to your august Monarch
my sentiments on this subject. And permit me to add, that
no more acceptable medium of communicating them could
have been afforded than that of a personage who has render-
ed himself so acceptable, as well to the People as to the Go-
vernment of the United States.

DONALD McLEOD, Esq. has retired from the
post of Associate Editor of the Madisonian, which
he had held during the last twelve months.

JOEL CRAWFORD, Esq. of Georgia, who, a year
or two since, visited England for the purpose of
negotiating a loan on the bonds of Georgia, wrote
as follows to a committee of the Legislature of
that State on the 14th of November, 1840:
The leading object at which the Legislature of Georgia
should now aim, with a view to carry on her public works, is
the establishment of a high State credit ; and I take leave to
assure you,from much interconrsea with capitalists on both
sides of the Atlantic, that adequate and stable revenue laws
are absolutely indispensable. They have not, or ought not,
to have any confidence in pledges of bank dividends or bank
capital. They apprehend that the State Governments dare
not tax the people to raise the means of maintaining the
public faith, and therefore they will not rely on it. But let
the State of Georgia impose the requsite tax, and such an
earnest is given of her honest and resolute purpose to pay her
debts, as will at once dispel all doubts."

circulate the statement that the vote of Alabama would be
cast out by Congress, on account of the manner in which it
was given, it becomes proper that we tell how the Electors re-
paired their ertor, and saved the vote of the State. It is true,
as we stated at the time, that in their public convention in the
Hall of the House of Representatives, the Electors voted
viia voice; but, at a private meeting in the evening, (having
probably learned that their mode of voting in the morning was
illegal, and would vitiate the soffiage,) they again voted-
this time by ballot-and made out their returns accordingly,
in pursuance of the requirements of the Constitution. The
oversight of the Electors in their public proceedings of the
morning was thus repaired, and only exceeded by the inge-
nuity of their private action in the evening.-Florence (Ala.)
been exhibited for some days past at the corner of Four-and-
a-half street and Pennsylvania avenue, has attracted, we un-
derstand, many scientific visitors and others. The model is
seen in full operation on a track of near two hundred feet.
As this is the last day of the exhibition, we recommend those
who have not yet seen this model to call in and examine
this ingenious invention.

We understand that Messrs. MUORE & WARD, profes-
sors of Photography, who have fur some weeks past been
successfully engaged at the Capitol in obtaining likenesses
of the President, of several Members of Congresst and
other distinguished personages, are about to leave Wash-
ington for the Southern and Western States. These gen-
ttemen, in practising the new and beautiful art of the Da-
guerreotype, or Pencil of Nature," as they happily term
it in their prospectus, have not only been assiduous in
their desire to please, and to gratify the curiosity of the
Public, but have been eminently successful in producing
photograph likenesses in a very pleasing and superior style.
We have pleasure in commending them to the lovers of
the fine arts, and to those persons throughout the Union
who may wish to obtain a faithful resemblance of them-
selves or friends; and we may add, that we wish them
that extensive patronage which not only the beautiful pro-
ducts of their art but also their uniform courtesy so well
deserve. t

put an old sailor's patience to a severe test, although it is not
quite fair, talk to him about steamboats. It is his question
vexata-the hedgehog that he cannot help attacking, though
he knows that he will suffer by it. He will tell you that this
smoky, dirty craft will ruin all good seamanship, and put all
valor and gallant bearing out of the world. Although he
hates a steamer as a nuisance, and curses it as an imperti-
nence, he has a secret and superstitious dread of it, and holds it
to be a machination of the devil. Thus runs his opinion:
"While things was as they was, d'ye see, we blue jackets had it
all in our own way; for d'ye see, if Johnny Crapau fought,
we wopped him; if he built more ships, we took them I And
so Beelzebub grew spiteful; and ses he, whilst a British sai-
lor gets his grog and prog, d'ye see, I shall never be able to
shove my oar in his boat, and turn the world topsy-tur-
vey, d'ye yes 1 So he plans with the teetotallers, and
the saints, and tries to disrate the grog-tub and promote the
tea-kettle, d'ye see 1 But he could not do that job by halves,
far which, d'ye see, may there be an eternal frost in his fire-
place, and his coals run short. So, having partly failed,
what does the devil dol Having got the right hint, he
turns the tea-kettle into a boiler-claps wheels to the ship's
sides, as if they were no better than hackney coaches or so
many dung carts-and thus ruins, d'ye see, the out-and-out
blue water sailor for ever. I've done it, says he, d'ye see;
and I never hears one of these varmint steamers sputtering,
fizzing, hissing, but I think I hear the devil a saying Ah,
Jack, you willain, I've done you at last I d'ye see V' "


FRIDAY, MARCH 12, 1841.
The resolution submitted yesterday by Mr. RivEs, to grant
extra pay to those persons connected with the Senate who
had been pretermitted in a former resolution "making addi-
tional allowances," &c. was briefly discussed, and, on motion
of Mr. HUNTINGTON, laid on the table.
The Senate proceeded to the consideration of executive
business, and, after some time spent therein, adjourned to
The following is corrected li4t of theyeas and nays on the
resolution dismissing Blair & Rives as Printers to the 27th
Congress, and on the delivery of their bond, (errors having
unluckily occurred in the list published yesterday :)
YEAS-Messrs. Aicher,Barrow,Bates,Bayard,Berrien,Choate,
Clay, of Ken., Clayton, Dixon, Evans, Henderson, Hunting-
ton, Kerr, MAngum, Merrick, Miller, Morehead, Porter, Preston,
Rives, Simmons, Smith, of Indiana, Southard, Tailmadge, White,
NAYS-Messrs. Alien, Benton, Buchanan, Calhoun, Clay,
of Alabama, Cuthbert, Fulton, King, Linn, MeRoberts, Nich
olsouii, Sevier, Smith, of Connecticut, Sturgeon, Tappan, Walker,
Woodbury, Wright-18.


The Legislalure of Maryland adjourned on
Wednesday night, the 10th instant-that being
the time designated by the Constitution for the
adjournment every second year.
We learn that, in compliance with the resolu-
tion of the two Houses, the Governor has deter-
mined to issue his proclamation for convening an
extra session of the Legislature on the 24th of the
present month. So that there will be a recess of
only thirteen days.
On the day of adjournment a bill entitled "An
act to receive as aport of the territory and domain of
this Stale parts of the county oJ Washington, in
the District of Columbia" was passed in the House
of Delegates by a vote of 43 to 15, and also after-
wards passed the Senate. This is a matter, of
course, which depends upon the consent of Con-
gress, if it shall appear, on due consideration, that
Congress has any power at all in the premises.
On the same (lay, in the House of Delegates,
Mr. E. A. LYNCHII, from the Committee on Inter-
nal Improvement, to whom was referred the sub
ject of investigating the concerns of the Chesa-
peake and Ohio Canal Company, delivered a report
staying that the committee had been diligently
employed in the business entrusted to them, that
the testimony which had been taken was volumi-
nous, and that the efforts which have been made
by a portion of the public press to anticipate the
result of the investigation would render it desira-
ble to report immediately ; but the engagements
of the committee have been so incessant and labo-
rious, that they have been unable to do so. A
full report will be made as soon as the same can
be prepared with the care which the importance
of the inquiry demands.
A LOG WORTH ROLLINO.-A single log of Honduras Ma-
hogany was on Thursday sold by D. C. & W. Pell & Co. ot
Philadelphia, for six hundred and six dollars.
adage. We have just seen, in a country paper, the marriage
of Peter Rowlinston, of Hollidaysburg, Pa., to Miss Orphe-
lia Morse.

AnaivEDn, MARCH 10.
Schooner Repeater, Travers, Norfolk; merchandise to Lam-
bert & McKenzie. Left below, schooner Julia, Shoemaker, from
New York. British brig Curlew, from talifax, and several Edst-
ern schooners.
Schooner Moleasky, Colley, hence at Kingston, Jamaica, 5thi
Brig Hartley, Kelly, hence at Kingston, Jamaica, to sail for Phi-
ladelphia 22d ilt.

1:: Union Course of Lectures.--The eighth lecture
will bie delivered in the Hall of the Company on Monday Peven;,.r
at half past 7 o'clock, by Rev. Mr. Bulfinch. Subject: "Hi.t',,A
of the Italian Republics."
The Public are invited to attend, mar 13
Miss MONIER most respectfully informs her friends and the
1-tntietat hBthis establishment will reopen on Monday, the 22d
instant, with the Grand Drama entitled
Also, preparations are making for thire production of the "My-
thological" Romantic Drama of the
mar 12-3t NAIAD QUEEN.
an Examination of Heads.-Messrs. BUELL & SIZER
respectfully announce to the citizens of Washington that they will
commence a course of lectures on the science of Phrenology at
the Medical College on Monday evening, the 15th instant, at hall
past 7 o'clock. Introductory lecture free; subsequent lectures
25 cents, for gentlemen. Ladies free.
We will not trouble the reader with a column of puffs,"
choosing, rather, to have a candid hearing and the impartial judg-
ment of an intelligent Public. mar 13-3t
mence a short course of twelve Experimental Lectures on
Chemistry and Natural Pli.l .1 at the Medical College on
Tuesday evening, the 16lh instant, at 6 o'clock. Three will be
given a week, on the evenings of Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday.
Admittance, for each person, two dollars in advance.
Tickets will be shown to tire janitor at the door.
mar 12-4t
.L Gadsby's & Brown's.-The subscriber has now va-
cant three very comfortable and convenient chambers, and two
*ery spacious and handsomely-furnished parlors, to which he re-
spectfully invites the attention of visitors and strangers, where
they can likewise be furnished with meals on the European plan,
or as may be preferred. His laider is constantly supplied with
every delicacy the markets afford. WM. WALKER.
N. B. Wasted immediately, two good plain cooks, and two
house servants. The best recommendations will be required, and
the highest wages paid. W. W.
mar 13-eo3t
W ASIUNGTON HOUSE, No. 223 Chestnut street,
next door to the Masonic Hall, Philadelphia.-H. T.
HARTWELL, Proprietor.-This new and splendid house is now
open, and is fitted up in the most fashionable style for the accom-
modation of gentlemen and families.
The location for health and convenience, to places of fashiona-
ble resort or business, has no superior; while the parlors, dining-
rooms, and chambers, will bear comparison with anysimilar estab-
lishment in the Union.
The ladies will find in it all the quiet and elegance of a stately
private mansion, and Ih.. r s. ". t.r. every luxury that may be ex-
pected from a hotel sf "r; i- ... i.-',; in the city of Ph ladelphia.
The proprietor hopes, by his exertions, to merit a liberal ratron-
age fur the Washington House, and to give entire satisfaction to
all who may honor it with their company, mar 13
TURE at Auction.-On Tuesday, the 23d of March,
at 11 o'clock A. M I shall sell, at the residence of J. GuEST
Esq., on the south side of the Mall, at the corner of 10th street,
all his very excellent and new household and kitchen furniture,
Marble top pier tables, handsome hair seat sofas
Handsome pier glasses, mahogany nard and centre tables
Coquette hair sofas, mahogany ansi windlsor chairs
Rich damask moreen window curtains and ornaments
Window blinds, with fixtures, 2 pair rich girandoles
Astral and other lamps, hearth rugs, andirons and fire irons
Mahogany plain and claw tables, and othic pier sideboard
Handsome parlor, chamber, entry, and stair carpets
Granite China dinner set, ivory handle knives and forks
French China dessert and tea sets, plated castors, &c.
Cut glass decanters and wines, salts, jeleies, &c.
Mahogany high post and other bedstead-s, best beds and mat-
Good betiding, mahogany and other wardrobes, bureaus
Dressing glasses, one full and other toilet sels, &3.
Also, an excellent lot of kitchen articles, amongst which are a
New York premium cooking stove and fixtures, preserving ket-
tle, a&c.

Hives of bees of new construction, with hive stand, garden tools,
&c. The house will be pointed out to any one calling at their
store. Terms at sale.
The house will be open from 12 to 3 o'clock P. M. on Monday
previous to sale for the inspection of the furniture.
mar 13-eod&3tdif E. DYER & CO. Auctioneers.
H ILCH COWS AT AUCrION.-On Tuesday morn-
aing next, at half past 9 o'clock, we shall sell, in front of
the Centre Market, 13 Cows, some of them gi ing milk.
Sale positive, and terms at sale.
mar 13-3tif Auctioneers.
W INDOW GLASS.-Persona about building are invited
to examine the double thick imitation plate glars; for
weighL, lustre, and color, it surpasses any glass made, excepting
the plate glass. Its great thickness renders it cheaper in the end
than common cylinder glass, while it adds much to the beauty of
t, 1-.,;il.lina. Samples and prices may be seen at
I.,Ir 13 "TODD'S Drug Store.
T gHIS IS TO GIVE NOTICE that the subscriber has
Obtained Irom the Orphans' Court of Washington county, in
the Dis'rict of Columbia, letters of administration on the personal
estate of William Proutt, late of Wash ngton county, deceased. All
persons having claims against the deceased are hereby warn-
ed to exhibit the same, with the vouchers thereof, to the subserib-
er, on or before the 12th day of March next; they may other-
wise by law be excluded from all benefit of said estate.
Given under toy hand this 12th day of March, 1841.
mar 13--law3w Administrator.

W HEREAS, the Executive has been advised by gentle-
men representing the State of Ohio in the Congress
of the United States, and by a memorial from a large number
of members of the Legislature of the same State, that the
times heretofore prescribed for the public sales of the Wabash
and Erie canal lands in the State of Ohio (which a->re made
early, with especial reference to the wants of the Treasury
during the first portion of the ensuing year) can be advanta-
geously postponed, as regards the convenience of travel topur-
chasers generally, and the examination of the soil, and at the
same time that such postponement will be likely to result in
an increased product to the revenue from such sales.
Notice is therefore hereby given, that the ;times'of com-
mencement of the public sales of the United States alternate
sections of land on the line of the Wabash and Erie canal,
(Maumee Valley,) in the afresaid State, advertised by pro-
clamation bearing date the first day of October last, are di-
rected to be postponed, airnd that thire public sale at BUCY-
RUS will commence on Monday, the seventh day of June
next, and the sale at LIMA on Monday, the fourteenth day
of the same month.
Given under my hand, at the city of Washington,this ninth
day of January, anno Domini 1841.
By the President:
Commissioner of the General Land Office.

North of the base line, and east of the first principal meridian.
The whole of sections two, four, eight, ten, twelve, four-
teen and eighteen ; the whole of section twenty, except the
south half of tho northwest quarter; the whole of s action
twenty-two; the west half of the northwest quarter of sec-
tion twenty-fitur; the north half of section twenty eight,
and the whole of section thirty: all in township two, of
range one.
The whole ot sections two and four; the south half of sec-
tion six the whole of sections eight, ten, twelve, fourteen,
eighteen, and twenty; the wholeot section twenly-two north
of the river; the south half of section twenty-four south of
the river; the whole of section twenty-six ; the northeast
quarter north of the river, and the southeast quarter south of
the river, of section twenty-eight; the south half of section
thirty two, and the northeast quarter south of the river, of the
same section; the whole of section thirty north of the river;
and the whole of sections thirty-four and thirty-six: all in
township three, of range one.
The whole of section thirty-six, in township four, of range
The north half of section two; the whole of sections four,
six, and eight ; the northwest quarter of section teni, and the
whole ofsec;iun eighteen: all in township two, of range two.
The whole of section two north of the river ; the north
hilf and the southwest quarter north of the river, of section
four; the whole of section six; the south half anrd northwest
quarter of section eight, and the west half of the northeast
quarter of the same section; the north half of section ten,
and the south halt south of the river, of the same section;
the south half of section twelve, and the northeast quarter
south of the river, of the sare section ; the whole of section
fourteen ; the southeast quarter south of the river, the north
half north of the river, and the west part of the southwest
quarter north of the river, of section eighteen ; and the whole
of sections twenty, twenty-two, twenty-four, twenty-six,
twenty eight, thirty, thirty-two, thirty-four, and thirty-six:
all in township three, of range two.
The east half of thire southeast quarter of section twelve;
the south half of section fourteen; the south half of section
twenty ; and the whole of sections twenty-two, twenty-four,
twenty-six, twenty-eight, thirty, thirty-two, thirty-four, and
thirty-six : all in township four, of range two.
The whole of section four; the south half of section six
south of the river, and the east half of the northeast quarter
of the same section ; and the whole of sections eight,
eighteen, twenty, and thirty: all in township three, of range
Thre whole of section two; the south half and northeast
quarter of section four, and the south half of the northwest
quarter of the same section; the whole of sections eight,
ten, twelve, fourteen, eighteen, and twenty; the northwest
quarter of section twenty-two; the whole of section twenty-
four north of the river, except the southeast quarter of the
southeast quarter; the whole of section twenty-six; the
southeast part of the east half, the southwest quarter south
of the river, and the northwest quarter north of the river,
of section twenty-eight; the whole of section thirty ; the
whole of section thirty-two south of the river, except the
north part of the northeast quarter; and the whole of sec-
tion thirty-four: all in township four, of range three.
The east half and southwest quarter of section thirty-four,
in township five, of range three.
The whole of section two; the northeast part of the north
half and the northeast part of the south half of section four;
the whole of sections six and eight; the east half of section
ten, and the east half and northwest quarter of the north-
west quarter of the same section ; the whole of section
eighteen; and the north half of section twenty, and the part
of the southeast quarter north of the river, of the same sec-
tion: all in township four, of range four.
The southeast quarter of section twenty-six; and the
whole of section thirty-six, In township five, of range four.
The whole of section two; the west half and southeast
quarter of section four, and the west half of the northeast
quarter of the same section; the whole of sections eight, ten,
and twelve: all in township three, of range five.
The whole of section two; the east half of section four;
the whole of section six; the west half of the northeast
quarter, and west half of the southeast quarter, of section
eight; and the whole of sections twenty-six, thirty-four, and
thirty-six : all in township four, of range five.
The east half of the northeast quarter of section twenty-
two; the whole of section twenty-six; the northwest quarter
of section twenty-eight; the west half of the northeast quar-
ter, the west half of the southwest quarter, and the east half
of the southeast quarter, of the same section ; the south half
of section thirty, and the whole of sections thirty-two, thirty-
four, and thirty-six: all in township five, of range five.
The whole of section sir; the northwest quarter of section
eight, and the west half of the northeast quarter, and west
half of the southwest quarter, of the same section ; and the
northwest quarter of section eighteen : all in township three,
of range six.
The whole of sections twelve, twenty, and twenty-two;
the northeast quarter of section twenty-four, and the east
half of the southeast quarter and southwest quarter of the
southeast quarter of the same section ; and the whole of sec-
tions twenty-eight, thirty, and thirty-two: all in township
four, of range six.
The southeast quarter of section six; and the whole of
sections eighteen, twenty, thirty, and thirty-six: all in town-
ship five, of range six.
The east half of the northwest quarter of section twenty-
two; the southwest quarter of section twenty-eight; and the
whole of section twyenty-six, except the east half of the north-
east quarter: all in township six, of range six.
The whole of section six; the west half of section eight;
the whole of section eighteen, except the west half of the
southwest quarter; the west helf of section twenty, and the
north half of section thirty: all in township four, of range
The whole of sections fourteen, twenty, and twenty-two;
the whole of section twenty-four, except the east half of the
northeast quarter; and the whole of sections twenty-six,
twenty-eight, thirty, thirty-two, thirty-four, and thirty-six:
all in township five, of range seven.
The whole of sections twenty, twenty-two, twenty-four,
anl twenty-eight, in township six, of range seven.
The north half of the northeast quarter, and north half of
northwest quarter of section six, in township four, of range
The whole of section fourteen; the whole of section eigh-
teen, except the southwest quarter of the southwest quarter,
and east half of the northeast quarter; the whole of section
twenty; the east half of section twenty-two ; the whole of
sections twenty-four, twenty-six, twenty-eight, and thirty;
the whole of section thirty-two, except the southeast quarter;
and the north half of section thirty-four: all in township five,
of range eight.
The fraction of section twelve, southwest of the Ottawa re-
serve; the south half of section ten ; the south half of section
eight; the whole of sections-fourteen, eighteen, twenty, and
twenty-two; and the whole of section twenty-four west of the
Ottawa reserves; all in township six, of range eight.
JUNE 7 1841.
North of the base line, and east of the first principal meridian.
The northeast quarter and southwest quarter of section
twenty-four; and the northeast quarter of section thirty-two:
all in township five, of range nine.
The east half and southwest quarter of section twelve; and
the east half and southwest quarter of section fourteen : all

in township seven, of range nine.
The north half of the northwest quarter of section two;
the northwest quarter of section ten ; and the whole of sec-
tion eighteen: all in township five, of range ten.
The west half of the northwest quarter of section thirty-
six, in township six, of range ten.
The south half of section six, in township seven, of range
The west half of section eighteen, in township six, of range
In the reserve of twelve miles square at the foot of the Rapids,
The northwest quarter of section twenty-eight; and the
whole of section thirty : all in township four.
The sales will each be kept open for two weeks, (unless
the lands are sooner disposed of,) and no longer; and no pri-
vate entries of land in the sections so offered will be admit-
ted until after the expiration of the two weeks.
mar 13-lawtds
Sale This pay.
tlon-On Saturday morning next, at half past 10 o'clock,
we shall sell, in front of our auction store, a good lot of household
furniture, such as-
Mahogany dining, breakfast, and card tables
Do sideboards and bureaus, hair seat sofas
Cane and wood seat chairs, high French post beadateads
Good beds, crockery, glass, and China ware, with household
furniture generally, and an excellent lot of kitchen articles.
Terms cash.
mar lt--t EDWARD DYER & CO., Auclioneers,

IN pursuance of law, 1, MARTIN VAN BUREN, President of
the United States of America, do hereby declare and
make known, that public sales will be held at the undermen-
tioned land offices in the State of Arkansas, at the periods
hereinafter designated, to wit:
At the Land Office at WASHINGTON, commencing on
Monday, the twenty.first day of June next, for the disposal of
the public lands within the limits of the undermentioned
townships and fractional townships, to wit :
South of the baseline, and west of the fifth principal meridian.
Townships three, twelve, and thirteen, of range eighteen.
Fractional township fourteen, on the north side of Red river, of
range twenty-eight.
Township twelve, of range thirty.
Townships eleven and twelve, of range
Fractional townships ten, eleven, and twelve, of range thirty-
At the Land Office at LITTLE ROCK, commencing on
Monday, the twenty-eighth day of June next, for the dispo-
sal of the public lands within the limits of the undermen-
tioned townships, to wit:
South of the base line, and west of the fifth principal meridian.
Sections five, six, seven, eight, fourteen, fifteen, seventeen,
eighteen, nineteen, twenty, twenty-one, twenty-two, twenty-three,
twenty-eight, twenty-nine, thirty, thirty-one, thirty-two, and
thirty-three, on the south side of Arkansas river, in township
eight, of range three.
Township nine, of range three.
Townships eleven, twelve, thirteen, and fifteen, of range seven.
Townships thirteen and fourteen, of range eight.
Township two, of range nine.
Townships twelve and thirteen, of range seventeen.
At the Land Office at JOHNSON COURT-HOUSE,
commencing on Monday, the fourteenth day of June next,
for the disposal of the public lands within the limits of the
undermentioned townships, to wit:
North ofthe base line, and west ofthefifth principal meridian.
Township nine, of range nineteen.
Sectiomans three to ten, inclusive, section fifteen, sections seven-
teen to twenty-two, inclusive, and sections twenty-eight to thirty-
two, inclusive, in township five, of range twenty-one.
Township seven, and i,., r '.i" -vnsnhip eight situated on the
north side of ArkansasI i. ..I r ,1m..- twenty-three.
Townships seven and eleven, of range twenty-seven.
At the Land Office at FAYETTEVILLE, commencing
on Monday, the twenty-first day of June next, for the dis-
posal of the public lands within the limits of the undermen-
tioned townships, to wit:
North of/the base line,and west of the fifth principal meridian.
Township twenty, of range twenty-three.
Township twenty, of range twenty five.
Township fifteen, of range twenty-six.
At the Land Office at HELENA, commencing on Mon-
day, the twenty-first day of June next, for the disposal of'
the public lands within the limits of the undermentioned town-
ships and fractional townships, to wit:
South of the base line, and west of the fifth principal meridian.
Factional township ten, on the north side of the Arkansas river,
of range one.
Township nine, except the fraction on the north side of Arkan-
sas river, of range two.
Townships eleven, eighteen, andt nineteen, of range three.
Townships sixteen and seventeen, of range five.
Lands appropriated, by law, for the use of schools, military
or other purposes, will be excluded from sale.
The sales will each be kept open for two weeks, (unless
the lands are sooner disposed of,) and no longer; and no pri-
vate entries of land, in thestownships so offered, will be ad-
mitted until after the expiration of the two weeks.
Given under my hand, at the city ot Washington, this
twentieth day of February, anno Domini 1841,
By the President:
Commissioner of the General Land Office.
Every person claiming the right of pre-emption to land in
any of the townships designated in this proclamation in virtue
of the provisions of the act of 221 Jane, 1838, as extended
and modified by the act of 1st June, 1840, or of the provis-
ions of the latter act, granting certain privileges to another
class of settlers, is requested to prove the same to the satis-
faction of the Register and Receiver of the proper land office,
and make payment thereforas soon as practicable after seeing
this notice, and before the day appointed for the commence-
ment of tie public sale of the land as above designated, other-
wise such claims will be forfeited.
Commissioner of the General Land Office.
mar 13-whtl
JN pursuance of law, I, MARTIN VAN BOREN, President of
-- the United States of America, do hereby declare and
make known, that public sales will be held at the undermen-
tioned Land Offices in the State of Michigan, at the periods
hereinafter designated, to wit:
At theLand Office at GEN ESSEE, commencing on Mon-
day, the tenth day of May next, for the disposal of the public
lands lying within the limits of the undermentioned town-
ships, to wit:
North of the base line, and west of the meridian.
Townships twenly-one, twenty-two, twenty-three, twenty-four,
twenty-five, twenty-six, and twenty-seven, of ranges one and two.
S Vormt, of the base line, and east of the meridian.
That part of township fourteen situated south and west of the
Indian reserve line, fractional township fifteen, bordering on Sa-
ganaw bay, and townships twenty-six and twenty-seven, of range
Fractional sections eighteen and nineteen, bordering on Saga-
naw bay, in township fitreen, and township twenty-seven, of range
Township twenty-seven, of ranges six, seven, e;ght, and nine.
Fractional township twenty-seven, bordering on Lake Huron,
of range ten. 0
At the Land Office at IONIA, commencing on Monday,
the twenty-fourth diy of May next, for the disposal of the
public lands within the limits of the undermentioned town-
ships, to wit:
North of the base line, and west of the meridian.
Township twenty-one, fractional townships twenty-two and
twenty-three, bordering on Maskego lake, fractional township
twenty four, and townships twenty-five, twenty-six, and twenty-
seen, of range three.
Township twenty-one, fractional townships twenty-two and
twenty three, bordering on Maskego lake, fractional township
twenty-four end townships twenty-five, tweity-six, and twenty-
seven, of range four.
Townships twenty-one, twenty-two, twenty-three, twenty-four,
twenty-five, twenty-six, and twenty-seven, of range five.
Lands appropriated, by law, for the use of schools, military
or other purposes, will be excluded from sale.
The sales will each be kept open for two weeks, (unless
the lands are sooner disposed of,) and no longer; and no
private entries of land in the townships so offered will be ad-
mitted until after the expiration of the two weeks.
Given under my hand, at the city of Washington, this
fourteenth day of December, anno Domini 1840.
By the President:
Commissioner of the General Land Office.

Every person claiming the right of pre-emption to land in
any of the townships designated in this proclama'ion, in vir-
tue of the provisions of the act of 22d June, 1838, as ex-
tended and modified by the act of 1st June, 1840, or of the
provisions of the latter act granting certain privileges to an-
other class of settlers, is requested to prove the same to the
satisfaction of the Register and Receiver of the proper land
office, and make payment therefore as soon as practicable
alter seeing this notice, ant before the day appointed for the
commencement of the public sale of tbe land as above desig-
nated ; otherwise such claims will hs futrfeited.
Commissioner of the General Land Office.
mar 13-wtds
IN pursuance of law, I, MARTIN VAN BRnEs, President
of the United States of America, do hereby declare and
make known, that at public sale will be held at the Land
Office at NATCEHITOCHES, in the State of Louisiana,
commencing on Monday, the fourteenth day of June next, for
the disposal of the unappropriated vacant public lands to
which no "private claims" are alleged under existing laws,
within the limits of the undermentioned townships, to wit:
North of the 31st degree of latitude, andwesstof the meridian.
Township ten, except sections six and seven, and township
eleven, except sections four, nine, ten, twenty, twenty-one, and
twenty-eight to thirty-three, inclusive, of range five.
Township one, of range seven.
Towrahip one, of range nine.
Township twenty-one, of range nine.
Township one, of range ten.
Townships fourand sixteen, of range eleven.
Township four, of range twelve.
Fractional townships four and five, bordering on the Sabine
river, of range thirteen.

Lands appropriated by law, for the use of schools, military
or other purposes, will be excluded from sale.
The sale will be kept open for two weeks, (unless the lands
are sooner disposed of,) and no longer; and no private entries
of land in the townships so offered will be admitted until after
the expiration of the two weeks.
Given under my hand, at the city of Washington, this
eighteenth day of February, anno Domini 1841.
By the President:
Commissioner of the General Land Office.

Every person claiming the right of pre-emption to land in
any of the townships designated in this proclamation, in vir-
tue of the provisions of the act of 22d June, 1838, as extend-
ed and modified by the act of 1st June, 1840, or of the provi-
sions of the latter act granting certain privileges to another
class of settlers, is requested to prove the same to the satisfac-
tion of the Register and Receiver of the land office, and make
payment therefore as soon as practicable after seeing this no-
tice, aad before the day appointed for the commencement of
the public sale of the land as above designated; otherwise
such claims will be forfeited.
Commissioner of the General Land Office.
mar 13-wtdo

IN pursuance of law, I, MARTIN VAN BUREN, President of
the United States of America, do hereby declare and
make known, that public sales will be held at the "ludermen-
tion Land Offices in the State of Illinois at the periods here-
inafter designated, to wit:
At the Land Office at CHICAGO, commencing on Mon-
day, the ninth day of August next, for the disposal of the pub-
lic lands within the limits of the undermentioned townships,
to wit:
NiVorth of the base line, and east of the third principal meridian.
Township Ithilrty-eight, of range six.
Township thirty-eight, of range seven.
Townships thirty-eight, thirty.nine, and forty, except the east
half of the southeast quarter, the east half and northwest quarter
of the northeast quarter, sand the north half of the northwest quar-
ter, in section three, in township thirty-nine, of range eight.
Town hip forty-five and township forty-six, bordering on the
Wiskoosan Territory, of range ten.
Townships lorty-four and forty-five, and township forty six, bor-
dering on the Wiskonsai Territory, of range eleven.
Sections one to six, inclusive, in township forty, fractional town-
ship forty-one, (except the north half of section seven,) the north-
east quarter of section ten in township forty-three, and fractional
townships forry-four, forty-five, and forty-six, bordering on Lake
Michigan, of range twelve.
At the Land Office at DIXON, (late Galena,)commenc-
ing on Monday, the sixteenth of August next, for the dispo-
sal of the public lands within the limits of the undermentioned
townships, to wit:
North of the base line, and eastof thefourth principal meridian.
Fractional townships twenty-six and twenty-seven, bordering on
the Mississippi river, and fractional township twenty-eight, except
seetiois seventeen, twenty, and twenty-one, of range one.
Praetional townships twenty-five anl twenty-six, bordering on
the Mississippi river, of range two.
Fractional townships twenty-four and twenty-five, bordering on
the Mississippi river, of range three.
Townships twenty and twenty-one, of range six.
Townships twenty-one and twenty-two, of range seven.
Townships twenty-one, twenty-two, twenty-three, twenty-feur,
twenty-five, twenty-six, and twenty seven, of range eight.
Townships twenty-two, twenty three, twenty-foar, twenty-five,
twenty-six, and twenty-seven,,of range nine.
Townships twenty-two, twenty-three, twenty-four, twenty-five,
twenty-six, and twenty-eight, of range ten.
Townships twenty-five, twenty-six, twenty-seven, and twenty-
eight, of range eleven.
North of the base line, and west of the fourth principal meri-
Fractional townships twenty-seven and twenty-eight, bordering
on the Mssissippi river, except sections thirteen and twenty-four
in the latter, of range one.
Fractional townships twenty-eight and twenty-nine, bordering
on the Mississippi river, of range two.
U'ractional section seventeen, in township seventeen, of range
lulands numbered one, two, three, and four, and part of Island
numbered five, lying in Rock river, within the limits of township
forty-three, north of iange one, east of the third principal meri-
At the Land Office at QUINCY, commencing on Mon-
day, the sixteenth nay of August next, for the disposal of the
public lands within the limits of the undermentioned fractional
townships, to wit:
North of the bese line, and east of the fourth principal meri-
Fractional townships two and three, bordering on the Illinois
river, of range three.
Lands appropriated, by law, for the use of schools, military
or other purposes, will be excluded from sale.
The sales will each be kept open for two weeks, (unless the
lands are sooner disposed of,) and no longer; and no private
entries of land in the townships so offered will be admitted
until after the expiration of the two weeks.
Given under my hand, at the city of Washington, this
eighteenth day of February, anno Domini 1841.
By the President:
Commissioner of the General Land Office.

Every person claiming the right of pre-emption to land in
any of the townships designated in this proclamation, in vir-
tue of the provisions of the act of 23d June, 1838, as ex-
tended and modified by the act of slet June, 1840, or of the
provisions of the latter act granting certain privileges to ano-
ther class of settlers, is requested to prove the same to the sa-
tisfaction of the Register and Receiver of the proper land of-
fice, and make payment therefore as soon as practicable after
seeing this notice, and before the day appointed for the com-
mencement of the public sale of the land as above designated
otherwise such claims will be forfeited.
Commissioner of the General Land Office.
mar 13-lawts
N pursuance of law, I, MaRTIN VAN BUREN, President of
the United States of Amrerica, do hereby declare and
make known, that a public sale will be held at the Land
Office at CAHABA, in the State of Alabama, commencing
ou Monday, the fourteenth day of June next, for the disposal
of the unappropriated public lands hereinafter designated,
to wit:
North of the base line, and east of the meridian.
Township twenty, of range eight.
Sections three, four, nine, ten, fourteen, and fifteen, on Line
creek, in township fifteen, of range twenty one.
Fractional township sixteen, of range twenty-one.
The fractional section twenty-seven, the fractional southeast
quarter, and the north half of the northwest -uarter, of section
twenty-eiglht, situated north and west of the Goosa river, andil
forming a part of the Port Jackson reservation, in township eigh-
teen, of range eihtiren
The west b1.i- 1]1 .i.- southwest quarter of section fifteen, in
township ten, of range fourteen.
The fractional section twenty-five, east of Cahaba river, in
township sixteen, of range nine.
Lands appropriated, by law, for the use of schools, military
or other purposes, will be excluded from sale.
The sale will be kept open for two weeks, (unless the lands
are sooner disposed of,) and no longer; and no private entries
of land in the townships so offered will be admitted until af-
ter the expiration of the two weeks.
Given under my hand, at the city of Washington, this
second day of March, anno Domini 1841.
By the President:
Commissioner of the General Land Office.
Every person claiming the right of pre-emption to land in
any of the townships designated in this proclamation, in vir-
tue of the provisions of the act of 221 June, 1838, as extend-
ed and modified by the act of 1st June, 1840, or of the pro-
visions of the latter act granting certain privileges to another
class of settlers, is requested to prove the same to the satis-
faction of the Register and Receiver of the land office, and
make payment therefore as soon as practicable after seeing this
notice, and before the day appointed fiar the commencement
of the public sale of the land as above designated; otherwise
such claims will be forfeited.
Commissioner of the General Land Office.
mar 13-wtds
TN pursuance of law, I, MARTIN VAN BUREN, President of
.3. the United States of America, do hereby declare and
make known, that a public sale will be held at the Land Of-
fice at MINERAL POINT, in the Territory of Wiskon-
san, commencing on Monday, the twenty-first day of June
next, for the disposal of the public lands within the limits of
the undermentioued townshils and fractional townships,
to wit:
North of the base line and west of the fourth principal meri-
dian, and north of the Wiskoasan river.
Fractional townships eight and nine, bordering on the Wiskon-
san river, of range one.
Fractional townships eight and nine, bordering on the Wiskon-
san river, of range two.
Fractional townships seven and eight, bordering on the Wiskoe-
san river, of range three.
Fractional township seven, bordering on the Wiskonsan river
and township eight, of range four.
Fractional townships six and seven, bordering on the Wiskon-
san river, of range five.
Township eight, of range five.
Fractional township six, bordering on the Wiskonsan river,
township seven and fractional township eight, bordering on the
Mississippi river, of range six.
Fractional township six, bordering on the Wiskonsan, and frac-
tional township fight, bordering on the Mississippi river, of range

Linds appropriated, by law, for the use of schools, military
or other purposes, will be excluded from sale.
The sale will be kept open for two weeks, (unless the lands
are sooner disposed of,) and no longer; and no private en-
tries of land in the townships so offered will be admitted un-
til after the expiration of the two weeks.
Given under my hand, at the city of Washington, this
twentieth day of February, anno Domini 1841.
By the President:
Commissioner of the General Land Office.

Every person claiming the right of pre-emption to land in
any of the townships designated in this proclamation, in virtue
of the provisions of the act of 223 June, 1838, as extended and
modified by the act of lstJune, 1840, or of the provisions of the
latter act granting certain privileges to another class of settlers,
is requested to prove the same to the satisfaction of the Re-
gister and Receiver of the land office, and make payment
therefore as soon as practicable after seeing this notice, and be-
fore the day appointed for the commencement of the public
sale of the land as above designated ; otherwise such claims
will be forfeited. JAMES WHITCOMB,
Commissioner of the General Land Office.
mar 13-wtds
Land Scrip receivable as specie in payment of Government
Also, Exchange on New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore.
The highest premium paid for Spein and Treasury Notes.
mar 12-3t CHARLES J, NOURSE,


N' w YORX, MARCH 11.
The President sailed this morning at 10 o'clock, carrying
out but a few passengers, but some considerable freight.
There was no new demand for specie, and none was shipped,
Among the passengers was the late and esteemed Chaplain
of the Senate, the Rev. GEORGE G. COOKMAN, who visits his
parents in England prior to making a settlement in this city.
Since the adjournment of Congress, the legislation of this
great State excites more interest. The State Senate just
now have passed an important amendatory act to the general
bankrupt law, improving the former law in many particulars,
and making more secure bill holders and depositors. One
section of the bill which has passed the Senate requires the
redemption of the notes of the free banking associations by
the Comptroller if necessary. Another requires a deposit of
sureties with the Comptroller to the amount of $50,000. In-
ternal improvements, banking, and the further extension ef
the Registry law are the three great subjects before the Legis-
lature. As in Congress when In session, the progress in
public business is very slow,
Gov. SEWARD remains in the city as yet, but will return ina
a day or two to Albany. His health has been affected by
family afflictions.
In the rates of domestic exchange there is nothing worse
and nothing better. Our local currency is in an unsettled
state in consequence of a war upon and a want ofconfidence
in the circulating medium, which is mainly made up from the
bills of the Free Banks. The opening of the river to Al-
bany, which is expected in the course of a day or two, will
tend materially to the improvement of at least the credit of the
The Northern mail leaves hereafter in the evening instead
of the morning, which is always the first sign of the re-open-
ing of navigation.
The stock market has slightly improved since yesterday.


MONDAY, MARCH 8, 1841.
IURSUANT to notice of the Treasurer of the Western
Shore of Maryland, in conformity with a rsalution of the
Senate and House ot Delegates of Maryland, passed at the pre-
sent session, a special general meeting of the stockholders of the
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Companay was held this day at the
office of said company, in Frederick City.
JOHN HOYE, FAq. of Cumberland, was appointed Chairman, and
On calling the list of stockholders, there appeared present-
The United States by Win Gunton and Lewis Johnson, Esqa.
The city of Wa.hington by same.
The city of Georgetown by Clement Cox, Esq.
Tench Tilghman, Esq. on the part ofMaryland, and sundry pri-
vate stockholders.
Maryland not being represented by a majority of commission-
ers, a majority of the stock was not present; and, on motion, it
was ordered that when this meeting adjourns it stand adjourned to
half past 8 P. M. this day.
The meeting adjourned.
JOHN HOYE, Chairman. ,'

Puisuant to adjournment this morning, the stockholders of the
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company reassembled.
JOHN HoysVE, Esq took the chair.
Present the same as this morning, with the addition of Allen
Bowie Davis, Esq. another of the commissioners of Maryland.
Maryland being still without a majority of commissioners pre.
sena, a majority of the stock was not present.
On motion, it was ordered that when this meeting adjourns it
stand adj ,urned to Thursday, the 1st day of April next, at one
o'clock P. M.
Ordered, That the proceedings ofthis day be published in one
newspaper published in thie District of Columbia and one in Bal-
timore, Maryland.
The meeting then adjourned.
JOHN HOYEi, Chairman.
In relation to the removal oi the Land Office from lineral
Point to Muskoday, in the Wiskonsan Territory.
N virtue of the authority conferred on the Executive by
the second section of the act of Congress, approved on the
26th of June, 1834, entitled An gcttocreate additional land
offices in the States of Illinois and Missouri, and in the Ter-
ritory north of the State of Illinois," notice is hereby given
that the land office for the Wiskonsan district is to be remov-
ed from Mineral Point to Muskoday, so soon as the necessa-
ry arrangements far that purpose can be made.
Should the removal take place before the date of the public
sale ordered by proclamation of 20,h instant, to be held at
Mineral Point, commencing on Monday, the 21st of June
next, it is hereby declared that such public sale shall be held
at Maskoday.
Given under my hand, at the city of Ws-mnrgi in, this
twenty-sixth day of February, anno Domir, l141
By the President:
Commissioner of the General Land Office.
mar 13--vt6w
]EW 1"01FR DING AND ct)3iiS* ION
N- HOUSE, on the Chesapeake and Ohio Caial,
at Georgetown.-Z. M. P. KING & E. P. St) rr i, ....
sociated themselves together under the firm af King & Scott, for
the purpose ofearryingon the general Groeeiy, Country Produce,
Forwarding and Cotmni.sion Business, they have taken the large
warehouse at the lowI end f the market-house, immediately omn
the canal--the mout convenient and central home mon there line--
where they are now prepared to receive consignments of goods cc
produce, either for sale or forwarding.
All persons consigning to them may depend upen their order*
receiving the most prompt attention, and charges moderate.
R. Garrett & Son,
John White, Market street, Baltimore.
Wilson & Herr,
P. & A. H. Dodge,
JohnDavidson, I t
S. E. Scotr, Georgetown,
J. H.King, J
mar 13-3t
F"IS1 WHARF 1 FISH WHARFi -i OtrFal ior sale,
Sand booths for rent.-Notice is herehy given that the Cor-
poration has established one fish wharf (tire same as Alexandria
and Georgetown) between 6th and 7th streets, on tire Potomac
river, where all persons may expect shad and herring during the
season in large quantities, as we shall spare no pains in making
such arrangements as will ens,,,e a,,r .-i .i I ersons
wishing to engage in the busin.,-, .irh r i.. i. 1 ,. ,i, -A, .,r bar-
rel, shall have the necessary -om nigrate. N ,. r.,1. ;.j tar as
we are concerned.
On Thursday next, 18Ih instant, at 12 M., the offal will be sold
to the highest bidder, to be removed, as the law directs, during
the fish season ; all fines for neglect to he paid hy the ptrchaser.
At the same time the booths will be rented in like mnsher.
mar 13-SatMoTuWedTh W. BIRD.
C OAL I COAl, --The cargo of superior Red-ash Coal ad-
vertised by the shbscriher on the 9th instant has arrived,
and is now landing at Thumlert's wharf. Persons wishing a su-
perior article will do well to make early application.
mar 13-a3t [Mad] A. SHEPHERD.
ceived, 60,000 feet Charleston River Flooring, a very supe-
rior article, and will be sold unusually low.
mar 13--3t [Mad] A. SHEPHERD.
L^OR SALE.-A pair of handsome, spirited, and well-
E broke carriage-horses, sixteen ands1 half hands high. Alt
so, a neat fashionable Carriage, in good order, with harness. To
be seen at the residence of J. R. POIN5eTT. mar 3-dtfif
150 hogsheads New Orleans Sugars
85 do do Molasses
150 barrels do do
The cargo of brig Patriot, all of the new crop, and rp'eaentd to
be of prime quality.
Now landing and for sale by
mar 9-3tif Alexandria.
CLAss 11.
Draws this day, at Alexandria, Vs. at 5 o'clock P. M.
$10,000, $2,000, $1,200, $1,016, $1,000
&C. &c. &c.
66 numbers, 12 drawn ballots.

Whole Tickets $84-Shares in proportion.
For which apply to or address
mar 13-It Penn. avenue, near l itres.
30,000 Dollars.
Draws at Alexandria, Va.
Containing prizes of
1 prize of $5,000 1 prize of goo
S do 3,500 1 do 2,500
I do 3,070
40 of $1,500, &c.
Tickets only $10-Halves $F5--Quarters 2$ 50.

Also draws on Saturday, the 13th instant, at Wilmington, Del.
14 drawn Nos. out of 78.
$7,000-$3,000---$1,500-$1,088-5 of $1,000

5 of $600-5 of $500-5 of $400, &c.
Tickets only 92 50-Halves $1 25-Quarters 62 cents.
For sale by D. S. GREGORY & CO., Managers,
Penn. avenue, next door east of Gadasby's, Washington.
mar 12-2tdif
69 35 52 55 62 14 16 24 38 45 20 6
JAS, PHALEN & CO. Manages,

[Continued from the first page.]
on this occasion as on any other, as they are intended for ef-
fect elsewhere rather than here. To some extent I mean to
*se the same privilege.
The gentleman from Virginia, (Mr. Wise,) whom I per-
ceive now about to occupy his place, has said some things in
which I heartily concur, and others in which I differ from him.
But every difference of opinion, with respect to measures and
policy, is not a difference of principle. I take pleasure in ex-
pressing my acknowledgments for the undaunted and cour-
ageous stand he has taken against this Administration, and
for his untiring efforts to lay open its abuses. Those who
are faiibtes to the country in proportion to their fidelity to
party have nodifficulty in following a common leader, because
they are not actuated by principle, but by the interests of par-
ty. On the contrary, those who seek the public good must
often differ, although they have the same great objects in
view. This agreement on all occasions, and referring every
thing to a party vote, to say the least of it, is suspicious, as
much so as the exact coincidence of half a dozen witnesses in
a court of justice.
I differ from the gentleman from Virginia on the subject
of this bill, as a mode of raising money to supply an empty
Treasury. I differ from him on the subject of the compro-
mise act; on the subject of the distribution of the public
lands; and on some other subjects which I do not mean to
discuss; but it is an honest difference of opinion on both
sides. I did not- expect him to surrender his opinions, and
these of his constituents, nor does be expect me to do so as
to mine. I regard this difference as the first favorable symp-
tom of returning health and soundness in our public coun-
cils. The venal courtiers of a monarchy may hold their
necks awry, because the King is compelled to do so from
disease, but among freemen, among genuine democrats, every
one stands erect, and disdains a slavish surrender of his opi-
nions; he is willing to obey the clearly expressed will of his
constituents, but no further. At the same time, I am aware
that parties are unavoidable in a Republic, and within cer-
tain bounds are, perhaps, salutary and necessary. If it be
necessary to make some sacrifice of opinions and predilec-
tions, it should be for the sake of our country, and not for
the success of party. Concert in action for the attainment
of great objects may render it necessary to suspend the as-
sertion of minor opinions. What I condemn is, that exces-
sive devotion to party which is ready to make a sacrifice of
country, and every interest, for that of party, and nothing
but party. That kind of vicious party spirit has become too
common, both in our General and State Governments. It
began with the administration of General Jackson, and con-
tinued to increase to the very close of the present. In mark-
ing its progress, we are struck with the contrast between the
present improvement in party discipline and subserviency,
and that which was seen in the first period of Gen. Jackson's
administration, when party was still in its raw militia state.
When he put forth his denunciation of the Bank of the
United States for refusing to become a party engine, his de-
nunciation, instead of being received with Eastern servility,
to hear is to obey," was flatly contradicted and rebuked
without disguise, by committees of both Houses, composed of
his warmest supporters. The bank was rechartered by the
votes of his supporters; Mr. Clay's land bill would have
passed in spite of his veto, and he could not obtain the sanc-
tion of Congress to the removal of the deposits. For the
last few years we have seen no such instances of stern Re-
.publican independence-rathor the Administration has been
abandoned by every one who possessed this virtue. If any
one now dare show symptoms of desertion, the suspected is
whipped into the ranks by those two hideous fiends* who
stand brandishing their whips of scorpions.
I therefore cordially agree with the gentleman from Vir-
ginia, that one of the fruits of the recent victory has been to
restore freedom of opinion, and to break loose the shackles of
party. That tyranny and discipline of an Administration
party, for the indiscriminate support ef all Administration
measures, I hope is forever at an end. I am confident that
the democratic Whigs will shun the pernicious example which
has been placed before them. I could cite melancholy ex-
amples of that nature, and where the welfare of the country
has been sacrificed to the interests of party. In my own
State, it is not long since a conspicuous member of the Le-
gislature, having voted for a certain law, a few days alter it
had passed, voted for its repeal, merely because the leader of
the party had given the word to face about. On that occa-
sion, the member declared on the floor that he was conscious
at the timent that the law which he voted for would spread
ruin and destruction from the centre to the circumference,
but that he could not vote against the democratic party.
Mr. LEET. The gentleman will permit me t explain.
The gentleman to whom that language was imputed solemnly
denied ever having used it.
Mr. BRACKENRIDGE. He did so on the very spot where it
was uttered; but was instantly contradicted, and not a single
voice was raised to support him. There are gentlemen be-
hind me who reassert the fact t If this be the spirit of mo-
dern pseudo democracy, which has repudiated the democracy
of James Madison, of Albert Gallatin, and Alexander J
Dallas, a most happy escape has been made from it. I will
give an instance of this blind devotion to party, which has
been witnessed within the walls of this Capiiol. A few years
ago, the distribution bill of Mr. Clay passed, by large
majorities, through both Houses of Congress. Party disci-
pline had not then attUinod ita perfection ; the centralization
of power in the hands of the Executive, through the instru-
mentality of party, was not yet complete. The bill was retain-
ed by the President; he did not dare to trust it to the Senate
and House of Representatives, not yet sufficiently broken to
Submission. He knew that it would pass by two.thirds, and,
in violation of the Constitution, refused to afford them an op-
portunity to act upon it. The principle of that bill has, with-
in a few days, been voted down in the Senate, and there is
danger that it will share the same fate, by a party vote, in
this House. The delegation from my own State is divided;
and although we have received instructions from our State
Legislature to go for the principle of distribution, a portion of
the delegation refuse to obey, because their allegiance to party
is stronger than to their State. They are willing to make a
sacrifice of one of the most important interests of Pennsyl-
vania-one in which her citizens of all parties agree-they
are willing to make this great sacrifice to the centralized party
arrangements here, so that it may be used for the purpose of
preserving some of the new States, almost the only political
stock they now possess, and almost the only hold they have
upon those States.
Pennsylvania has only requested the members from Pennsyl-
vania to vote for the distribution.
Mr. BRACKENRIDGn. True; and when I ask this little boy
for a tumbler of water, I do not say bring it, but please to
bring it. The People of Pennsylvania, without regard to
party, are in favor of distribution, because it is not only for
the benefit of the State, but no more than strict justice. At
whose instance, I will ask, do those gentlemen refuse to com-
ply with the request of the People of Pennsylvania, as ex-
pressed through their representatives in the State Legi-lature7,
Is it not in obedience to the tactics of the party, which is, from
the mere force of habit, endeavoring to prop up its falling
wall ? Or has the policy of throwing away a portion of the
common patrimony been declared a new article of the demo-
cratic creed 1 If so, it agrees well with those other prepos-
terous articles which have operated so unhappily on our Stale
and national prosperity. But there are two other subjects
far transcending any thing we have heretofore witnessed, or
are likely to witness again, as respects open disregard of jus-
tice, and in the determination to carry into effect party ar-
rangements in defiance of the People. The party is now
ashamed of the New Jersey election case; it was alluded to
and condemned, in energetic language, in the course of this
session, by a gentleman from Ohio, (Mr. MAsoN,) and not a
single individual rose to say a word in its defence. The cli-
max was the passage of the sub-Treasury bill, in which we
discover the last lingering spark ot independence of the cen-
tralized power of party-it was but touch and go, it just rub-
bed through, and that was all. Yet this very project, when
first introduced into Congress, was denounced by the Admin-
i-station pArty and press as revolutionary and ruinous; it af-
terwards, on the bursting of the pet-bank bulsbsle, was taken
into favor by the Administration, was twice recommended to
Congress and twice rejected, in consequence of its well-known
unpopularity. Party can do much, but it cannot do every
thing, or it would have re-elected Mr. Van Buren. The
sub-Treasury, however, passed in defiance of the great ma-
jority of the nation, and from that moment the downfall of the
Administration was rendered certain. A new swarm of Con-
s'r ative-. joined the Whig hive, the third or fourth which
had swelled its numbers, and the self-styled democratic party
was left in a lean minority.
Sectional feeling is, in my mind, praiseworthy, compared to
this unbounded and unscrupulous support of party. Perhaps
it is the duty of ;s faithful Representative to look first to the
interests and wishes of his immediate constituents before he
extends his view to the wider circle; and, perhaps, whether
it be h's duty or not, a zealous Reptesentalive will do so.
Such a course may lead to compromise or conciliation-each
surrendering something in order that the common good may
be secured. But the discipline of party, especially a spoils
party," strides over every thing; it sacrifices both sectional
and general interests; all, save those of party, must fall down
before it, as before the African simoom, whose hot breath

withers, scorches, and kills, as it sweeps over the intermina-
ble sands of the desert. The interests of the whole will,
however, be found, in general, that of the parts. A sound
and healthy trunk can alone nourish sound and healthy
branches. And where shall we look for the trunk of that
tree'l Where is the great body of the nation-the seat of
empire, for whose prospeiji vy a wise legislation must be chiefly
direetedl It is in the W., sir; in the great valley of the
Mississippi, and in the valleys of its tributary waters; in
western Pennsylvania, western Virginia, Maryland, western
Carolinas, and in the States of the West and Southwest. In
Iwenty yar;i more this nation, unless checked by some great
calamity, will number thirty millions of souls. In that short
period another nation, eq.u al to that which now occupies our
soil and fills our towns, will rise up in the midst of us; and
this increase will be nearly all in the WeAt, which, from its
situation and relative position, is one and indivisible. The
na;g"'ion of the Mississippi is a common bond, as well as
indispensable to its safety. New York, connected with the
lakes, and the lakes with the Ohio, with the New England
States, may form the top of the tree; but it is chiefly to the in-
*The editors of" the Globe."
t Itwis my intention to have omitted this part of my speech in
tt e publication, the case Having been referred to merely by way
r. iiiasrai'. ; but, or ,,i ,,,;nnji i.. some of my Pennsylvania I.s, #l,. were p e:.:r ihlhil: I ixis speaking, they insisted on
nt y retaining it, as t ie passage was too marked and public to be
iused in silepr.

teotests of the great trunk of this Republic that legislation
ought to look now, and to which it must look before many
years shall go round. The statesman who looks a little be-
yond the present hour ought to know that, if the time shall
come when the Republic thus defined shall consider protec-
tion by legislative enactments necessary to its commerce and
manufactures, it will not be withheld; that if a national
bank be required as a fiscal agent, and as a regulator of tihe
currency, it will be established.
I agree with the gentleman from Virginia on another sub-
ject, as one of the happy results of the late election. It will
bring back the Executive branch to its proper place under the
Constitution. It is made the duty of that branch to commu-
nicate information to Congress, and to recommend such mea-
sures as it may judge necessary and expedient; but there its
duty ends, and that of Congress begins; and until their de-
liberations shall assume the form of law in the matters recom-
mended, or in matters originating with either House, the Ex-
ecutive has nothing more to say. It has no right to interfere,
and, by intrigue and management, and party drill, attempt to
carry those recommendations into effect. According to the
principle avowed by General Harrison, legislation belongs to
the Representatives of the People, who are the interpreters ef
their wishes. We re no longer to inquire what the Admin-
istration is going to do when %e refer to the great measures
of the Government, but what measures wilt Congress adopt ?
Some gentlemen, from a bad habit acquired under the late
Administrations, speak of the measures of the President elect,
and condemn them in advance, when these are measures of
legislation which do not fall within his province. He may
think it prudent to be sparing even of his mere recommenda-
tion, so as not to lessen the perfect freedom which ought to be
enjoyed by Congress in the performance of the duties confided
to it, and for which this body is responsible. If, hereafter,
the country should be injured by bad legislation, let the blame
rest where it ought to rest, on the People themselves and on
their Representatives. The People will thus be thrown upon
their own energies, and they will call their Representatives to
a more strict account. What measures may be adopted by
the new Congress it is not forthis Congress to discuss; neither
can it be known to the President elect until after it shall have
assembled. We must endeavor to unlearn the bad habit we
have acquired under the two last Administrations, of looking
upon the President of the United States and the heads of de-
partments as the Government, and as the arbiters of the fate
of the country. We must learn once more to look up toour
Representatives, and at the same time to depend upon our-
selves. If the next Congress, representing the wishes of the
People as it does, and as this does not, shalldetermine to touch
the tariff, and at once modify it, so as to secure asufficient re-
venue, it will do so. ff it shall determine to charter a nation-
al bank, or distribute the public lands, it will do so. We #re
but agents here, not assembled to consult our petty interest Ot
party, but to obey the will of those who sent us, and to adopt
such measures as will promote the general welfare. We come
here to carry into effect the will of the People, and not that of
the President and his Cabinet; and I have no doubt we shall
hear the same thing from General Harrison himself. The
tampering with the duties exclusively belonging to Congress
was the great sin of the late Administration, which had gra-
dually acquired an ascendancy over it, entirely incompatible
with the spirit and letter of the Constitution.
But the great point gained by the late election is, in my
opinion, the establishment of what has been called the ONE-
TERM principle. This was coming up at once to the line of
true democracy. Is there any one on this floor who will now
openly declare himself against it? On this subject, at least,
it must be admitted that public opinion has declared itself.
General Jackson was elected on this principle. I appeal to
the records of Tammany Hall.* He disregarded it, and it
has recently been declared on the highest authority, that he
and his kitchen cabinet were desirous of a third term, but the
party could not be brought to it. One of the mottoes of the
Van Buren parly was, "the Constitution as it is," and there
is nothing there to limit the number of terms to two or three.
During the late contest, this one-term principle took the lead
of all other topics of discussion. The People were convinced
that the;'free institutions have been endangered by the re-
eligibility of the Chief Magistrate, and by the political in-
trigues and corruptions attending the struggle for re-election.
They believed that the first term was regarded as the stepping-
stone to the second ; that the time of the President, and that ol
his subordinates, instead of being-.devoted to the duties of
their stations, would be occupied by plans and political ar-
rangements and exertions to secure that re-election, and at
the same time to establish the succession, and preserve the of-
fices to those who occupied them. Our past history may fur-
nish some exceptions. I believe that of Mr. Adams was an
exception; but the future presented a dreary prospect.
Doubts have already been expressed of the sincerity of those
who have contended for this principle at the late election. For
myself, I repel the charge of insincerity; and Iwill take upon
me to say that those who really entertain such doubts know
but little of the individual who has been chosen to fill the
office of Chief Magistrate. I de not so much confide in his
solemn pledge as in his unsullied public and private integrity,
But public opinion has settled the question. Hereafter, no
President, without braving that opinion, will present himself
for re-election, and the People will require that it be made a
part of the Constitution, as a recorded as well as a practical
When Washington was called to the office of President,
he was re-eligible without limitation. It might have been
held for life; at least, there was nothing in the Constitution
which forbade it. But he was not one of these who loved
power for its own sake ; he earnestly wished to retire after
serving one term, and only yielded to the solicitations of the
friends of the new Government when he was, for the second
time, elected by a unanimous vote. Mr. Madison and Mr.
Jefferson joined in those solicitations. The example set by
him, of declining a third term, has been a law to his succes-
sors, and effected a practical amendment on the democratic
side. The People themselves have now infused into the
Constitution a further portion of democracy, biy declaring in
favor of one term. The one-term principle, in the abstract,
has received the sober and dispassionate approval of the great
majority of the American People of all parties. The first
suggestion may be traced to Mr. Jefferson, in his letter to
V, r. Adams, written from Paris in 1787, in which he declares
the want of such a limitation to be one of the most serious
objections to the new Constitution. The one-temn principle
was recommended by Gen. Jackson-to commence in future
with his successors! It would have been as easy for him to
have set an example of one term as it was for Washington of
two, especially as he was considered pledged to this demo-
cra'ic principle announced by the "republican partly as it
was called-for democracy, as well as federalism, had gone
to sleep. The practical amendment effected by Washing-
ton's example is a reduction of power by shortening its dura-
tion in the hands of any one set of men and restoring it to
the People, and thus preventing the consolidation in the
hands of a faction or junto. And here, in my opinion, is the
first cause for rejoicing in the victory the People have achiev-
ed at the ballot-box over a party which sought to perpetuate
itself by the very means placed in their hands for the purpose
of administering the Government. The odds against which
they had to contend were fearful. Against a hundred thou-
sand office-holders, with the vast circle of their influence; the
disbursement of the revenue; the press, in the pay of the
Government-against all this host the People had to struggle.
And the effort was a mighty one. They rose up peacefully,
but in masses of from five thousand to fifty thousand. They
succeeded. Power is once more in their own hands, to be
transferred to new agents, executive as well as legislative, at
the end of the next four years; and I hope they will never
again lose sight of the maxim "eternal vigilance is the price
of liberty."
Henceforward there will be no motive to bring the public
offices in conflict with the freedom of elections." 'The Ad-
ministration will have ample time and leisure to attend to the
business of the country instead of neglecting it, and Congress
itself will feel the effect of this salutary example. The Ex-
ecutive branch, sir, was fast verifying the preihcmions of the
immortal Patrick Henry : it was grasping at all power-the
sword, the purse, legislation, and even the judiciary was not
entirely safe. It had almost succeeded in overturning the
freedom of elections by means of its organized, disciplined
army of office-holders spr, 5.l er .u'l,.,ti lie country. Gen.
Harrison has pledged a,.r.-, I' mlta r, .ti..r the office-holders
shall apply themselves exclusively to their duties, and abstain
from interference in elections. They now know the conditions
un which they take office; there will be no tax upon their
salaries to raise an electioneering fund ; no salaries will be
augmented, and no new offices will be created in order to in-
crease that tax, and thus, in point of fact, apply the money of
the nation to secure their offices. In short, I repeat, sir, the
People have once more got the power in their hands, and have
become the masters of their own Government.
Mr. Chairman, the wide range which this debate has ta-
ken will be my excuse for giving my opinions on some sub-
jects which are but remotely connected with it. I will say
something respecting the tariff, which has been so frequently
referred to. I represent a district deeply interested in the
subject. I differ from the gentleman from Virginia (Mr.
Wisi) as to the obligatory nature of the compromise act. If
a compact, who were the parties to it? What authority had

the agents to make it? Have any rights, individual, corpo-
rate, or State, been vested under that actI These questions
cannot be answered without taking away the foundation" on
which it stands. It differs in no respect, legally considered,
from an act of ordinary legislation. To say that it cannot be
touched now, and that after '42 it becomes perpetual, is to give
t a higher force than the Constitution, which provides with-
n itself the mode of amendment. The compromise act would
be as irrevocable as the laws of the Medes and Persians, and
bind the generations "jet unborn." The expediency of the
arrangement at the time to patch up an unfortunate family
quarrel, and the propriety of leaving it to run its course un-
disturbed, are different questions. I am desirous to leave
it untouched until the experiment be fully tried. This must
be left to Others, and not for us to decide. But I am of opi-
nion that, for the purposes of revenue, without infringing the
compromise act, duties may be imposed on silks,- wines, and
some other articles which pay only a nominal duty. It is not
likely, however, that any thing can be done at this session:
it must be left to the next Congress.
If, at the expiration of she compromise act, two years hence,
the People, through their Representatives, shall require a re-
vision of the tariff, for the purpose of revenue as well as of
protection, we may rely upon it that revision will take place.
I consider that the principle of protection, instead of being
Experience has satisfied us that one term of office is suffi-
cient to repay any services, or gratify any ambition I At present,
the first faur years of an Administration are passed in efforts to
confirm the bargains and pledges astothi right of succession. It
is thus that the great interests of the country are searificed at the
shrine of personal ambition."-Resolution passed at Tammany
Hall, April, 189,

surrendered, has been recognized by that act. It is, in gene-
ral, impossible to distinguish, practically, what portion of the
duty on any specific article may be set down for revenue ex-
clusively, and what for protection; because a very small duty
pay, in many instances, in addition to the mere expense of
importation, act as a protection. A fixed per cent., accord-
ing to the value, applied to nall articles alike, instead of speci-
fic duties, may either produce too much for revenue or too
little. If the maximum of the full twenty per cent. be laid
on a number of selected articles, and others suffered to come
in free, this will act as a bounty on the importation of the free
articles; and this is proved by the excessive imporlations of
free articles since the compromise began to take effect. It is
impossible to foresee the practical effect ofd,-iubLi..g a tariff,
which has for a long period of time regulated our foreign
trade, and to which that trade has adapted itself. Some of
the articles admitted duty free do not come cheaper to the
consumer, and, at the same time, the duty is lost tothe re-
venue. The duty is either levied by the foreign Power, or
is pocketed by the importer, or divided between them. I am
not, in general, a friend to high duties; because they en-
courage evasion. I am no advocate of protective duties at all,
which require to be permanently continued merely in aid of
the manufactures ; and in this 1 think my opinion is not dif-
ferent from those who have been most zealous for protection.
It has only been asked for as temporary aid to infant estab-
lishments, to new investments of capital, whose first efforts
are feeble, and easily repressed by the overgrown establish-
ments of Europe. When these establishments are complet-
ed, and the necessary skill and instinct of art attained, the
nation is compensated by a cheaper article, from the effect of
competition, and better than the imported ; at the same time
that its wealth and its independence are increased by the ac-
quisition of a new branch of industry. The practicability of
accomplishing this object should be taken into consideration
in imposing duties for protection. Other nations go much
further than we have ever done; they exclude, by duties, and
by prohibition, articles which they can never produce to ad-
vantage, or produce at all, such as sassafras and tobacco,
because they will not encourage the establishment of a class
of imports which may turn the scale of commerce against
them, and which may be dispensed with. In this instance,
it is the community, the general commerce and general pros-
perity, that is protected.
Our tariff requires revision, in order to ascertain what arti-
cles have completely established themselves, and no longer re-
quire protection. Gentlemen unfriendly to protection are
much mistaken on this head. They look at the tariff, and
see what they consider high duties on particular articles, and
suppose the whole of that duty enters into the price paid by
the consumers, while it forms nio part of it ; because importa-
tions of similar foreign articles have ceased, and could not be
revived by a removal of the duties. We are in a very differ-
ent situation now from that in which it was declared to us, as
colonies of Great Britain, that we should not be allowed to
manufacture a hob-nail! We now enter into successfulcom-
petition with Britain in her own West India island;, when
admitted there, and in foreign markets, especially those of
South America. To Cuba alone we export nearly five mil-
lions, chiefly American manufactures, and bring home a ba-
lance in our favor, in specie, to the amount of a million an-
nually. The products of our manufactures and our farms en-
able us to carry on a profitable commerce with Mexico and
South America, from California to Chiloe, and from La Pla-
ta to Matamoras and Santa F6. No doubt many foreign ar-
ticles also enter into this trade. But, in passing, let me ask,
what would be the foundation fer. the golden humbug with-
out this trade, based on the manufactures of the North arnd
provisions of the West, which furnish the means of purchas-
ing our supply ofthe precious metals ? Cotton-cotton, is the
reply. But, even now, cotton does not suffice to pay for the
manufactures we import from Britain! And if our manufac-
tures were destroyed, what would become ofthegolden stream
which flows in front this source, and flows out again, to settle
our balances with those nations on whom we are dependent?
Our littletradewith Cuba aloneprocures us double the amount
of gold that we obtain from all our gold mines, from Virginia
to Georgia.
In the revision of the tariff, it will be necessary to select
those articles which need protection, and they will be found
fewer in number than is generally supposed. The maximum
of twenty percent. with cash payments, the home valuation,
and the more accurate estimate of the Spanish dollar, will, in
the opinion of many well-informed persons, afford a sufficient
protection. We hear the words high tariff, high tariff, con-
tinually repeated on this floor, while there is no one propos-
ing it; not a single memorial from any quarter has been pro-
sented to Congress in favor of such a measure. The cash
duties will be a protection, not only to our manufactures, but
a protection to the country against excessive importations. It
will incidentally operate as a kind of sumptuary law ; and it
will prevent the British manufacturers from throwing into this
country accumulated stocks, which they are compelled, from
time to time, to sacrifice. We can derive no benefit, as a na-
tion, from these gambling irregularities of trade, any more
than from dealing in stocks and bank notes-the harvest of
brokers and exchange dealers, whose interest it is to keep up
this uncertainty andm disorder. The objection to the protec-
tive principle, on constitutional grounds, is, that duties must
be raised for revenue anrd nothing else; that they must be so
arranged as to exclude every incidental ffcct, whether it be its
incidental operation in favor of manufactures, or as a protec-
tion to the nation at large. Now, I think I have shown that impossible. Every duty on the same article we manq-
facture at home is, as far as it goes, an incidental protection,
because it lessens by so much the ability of the foreign arti-
cle to compete with it. The cash payments-the home valu-
ation operate as protection.
I have said that 1 was oot in favor of high protection ; yet,
there are two articles which, possibly, might form exceptions,
but this would require mature reflection-these are, iron and
woollens, which we ought to produce fior ourselves, at least for
the great bulk of our consumption. Without these, and es-
pecially the first, our nation can hardly be said to be a nation.
So important does Great Britain regard her woollen manitu-
factures that, in order to counteract the duties of other nations
on her woollen fabrics, she reduced the duty on foreign wool
from eight pence to one penny, thus sacrificing a large amount
of revenue, and, of course, affecting the home production for
the sake of more important advantages. Three years ago the
value of wool produced in the United Stales wasestimated at
$30.000,000; nearly equal to one-half of the cotton crop of
the South ; the last year it fell to seventeen millions. And
yet no complaints have been made by those who have thus
suffered. It may be, in part, owing to the want of protection
that our woollen factories have declined, and it may become
necessary to institute an inquiry; but, in my opinion, the
great cause of injury to every branch of internal trade is the
derangement of the currency produced by the sad experiments
of the late Administrations. The day will come when the
article of wool will be regarded as one of the most important
items of our national wealth; more important even than that
of cotton. A large proportion of the vast region beyond the
Mississippi is well ailapted to the rearing of sheep, and but
poorly adapted to any thing else.
I cannot suppose that the enlightened statesmen from the
South who complain of the injurious effects of the tariff have
no cause whatever for dissatisfaction. It is impossible to enact
laws which will not bear unequally on different parts of a
county so extensive as ours. I consider it the duty of those
who possess the power-the majority-to use their power with
prudence and moderation. The principle of the greatest good
to the greatest number should be qualified in such a way as
not to oppress the minority. Although I have too much re-
spent for the statesmen of the South to say that their com-
plaints against the tariff are entirely groundless, yet I cannot
but think there has been great exaggeration. It is natural
it should be so. I am a native of western Pennsylvania, and
can recollect the pitch of extravagance to which the People
were carried in consequence of the oppressions of the excise
law. There were no roads across the mountains, the navi-
gation of the Mississippi was closed, and they were obliged to
transport kegs of whiskey on the backs of horses, to purchase
a little salt and iron, together with other articles of the first
nincessity. We rose up in bloody insurrection, and were call
ed whiskey boys," and no doubt were very bail boys. We
had, perhaps, just cause to co plain ; the law was, it is true,
a good law for the rest of the State, but partial and oppressive
to us. I might mention the embargo, which bore so severely
on the shipping interests of the Northern States, where it
was denounced in the most violent and intemperate manner.
The unoffending word itself became an object of vengeance,
was put to the torture, and, being spelt backwards, was pro-
nounced ograbme ; a sort of revenge quite as rational as that
of a celebrated despiser of manufactures, who declared that
he never saw a sheep without feeling inclined to go out of his
way to kick it. A member on this floor, the other day, after
speaking with great energy against the tariff, declared that he
never heard the word but he felt as if the cry of mad-dog
was raised near him; and, indeed, it does seem to me to have
a magical effect on some gentlemen, for it is no sooner men-
tioned than they leap and dance as if they had been stung
by the tarantula. If I am not mistaken, that undefined hor-
ror associated with the word, which so generally pervaded
the South, has very much diminished, and the topic is now
oftener used for the purpose of declamation and oratory, than
from any serious alarm. Some years ago, it was the general
bug-bear. I was told of a yoeng lady ii Georgia, who was
asked concerning the health of her mother. She is very
ill." And what is the matter?" "I don't know, unless it

is that odious tariff" It seems to me, as it does to others, who
view the subject dispassionately, that the fall in the price of
cotton, the grievance at the bottom of the complaints against
the tariff, is most plainly to be attributed to the over-produc-
tion, which runs ahead of the demand. It has fallen in price
in all parts of the world, tariff or no tariff; and but for the
home-market originally created by the tariff, it would be still
lower in Great Britain; for certainly no one will contend
that, if the whole of these States depended on Great Bri-
tain entirely for their cotton fabrics, wo should consume as
much cotton as we do now. It is equally evident that the
demand for cotton in Great Britain would be affected by the
falling off in the demand for her manufactures in the United
States. Britain is, moreover, making great efforts to intro.
duce the culture of the shot staple cotton in her East India
possessions; her hostility to our manufacturing and commer-
cial enterprise, and to our institutions, is well known; her
power and perseverance in carrying into effect a favorite-poli.
cy ate equally well known. It would, therefore, be wise in
the South to foster the home market, which they can enjoy
exclusively, to encourage American consumption, and Ame-
rican manufactures of their great staple, which will make the
States, in the end, -etter customers to Britain, and Britain a
greater consumer of cotton. To a certain extent, they should
use the natural advantages they possess, and manufacture for
I differ entirely fram the statistics of the gentleman from
Mississippi, (Mr, TOiM'SoN,) who attempts to show that the

whole of the duties are paid by the cotton-growing Stales. rican System. The report of Alexander Hamilton on man-
His idea Is not original; it is of the same class with the for- ufactures, republished by the House of Representatives in
ty-bale theory. He tells, us that Mississippi exports to the 1809, the report of Mr.Gallatin, explaining his splendid sys-
amount of $16,000,t00 a year, anridconsqu,nily must import tern of internal improvements at the national expense, there-
to that amount, arid if she were to retain the revenue derived cent powerful report of Mr. Dallas in favor of a national
from that importation, there would be $4,000,000 paid into bank, were the text-books of the day in the hands of South-
her treasury. Now, the duties collected in the whole of the ern politicians, with very few exceptions. The war admin-
United Slales are estimated at about $16.000,000, and, how- istration of Mr. Madison was still predominant, and it was
ever ingeniously and correctly gentlemen may place their this Administration which adopted the American System.
figures, it is rather imposing too great a tax on our credulity This phrase has been associated with the name of Mr. Clay.
to tell us that Mississippi pays one-fourth of the duties on I am sorry to be obliged to pluck a single leaf from the honors
the importations into the United States. It is no less difficult which cluster around his brow, but this belongs to another,
to believe that she consumes one-fourth of all those importa- who is hailed as the apostle of Southern democracy. Mr.
tions-which must be the case if she consumes to the amount Jefferson thus speaks, in his letter to the "American Society
of sixteen millions. Instead of consuming sixteen millions, for the Encouragement of Manufactures," and dated June
two millions will come much nearer her proportion, and about 26, 1817:
half a million her part of the revenue. These two millions The history of the last twenty years has been a sufficientles-
are, perhaps, the whole of the crop she can call her own. son for us all to depend for onecessaries on ourselves alone ; and I
The other fourteen millions must be set down in favor of the hope that twenty years more will place the American hemisphere
other States, North, West, and South. The North furnishes UNDER A SYSTEM OF ITS owN, essentially peaceable and industri-
American manufactures, capital, transportation, and foreign oos, and not needing to extract its comforts out of the eternal fires
articles at second-hand; the West, provisions; the Southern raging in the old world."
States not engaged in planting furnish slaves. Now, deduct This was addressed to a New England association. In
the annual expenses from the gross amount, and then we consequence of the act of 1816, capital had been vested in
shall be able tosee the portion which, in point of fact, belongs manufactures to a great extent in Maryland, New Jersey,
to Mississippi. This great staple is, far the greater part, pur- and Pennsylvania, as well as in the Northern States. This
chased as a remittance towards paying for the general con- naw seemed to be the settled policy of the nation. And was
sumption of foreign articles. It is a joint production; the Mr. Jefferson a false prophet in relation to the effect of the
mere labor of the cultivator of the soil forms but one item. American system during the succeeding twenty years?7 No,
Suppose, says the gentleman from Mississippi, she were an sir, he was not. It paid off two hundred millions of national
island in the ocean, and produced her sixteen millions worth debt; it applied large sums to thegradual increase of the Na-
of cotton. This would not vary the case. She must either, vy; it laid the foundation of an immense line of fortifications,
in addition to the production of cotton, supply herself with and completed many of them, along our Atlantic coast, and
all those articles she now procures from the Northern and around our borders; it extinguished the title to a vast amount
Western States, or she must be dependent as she is now. It of the Indian lands; it contributed large sums to internal im
is very possible she may consume an amount equal to the provements. And what has the nation done since this sys-
value of her cotton crop, and more too, but not of foreign im- tern has been abandoned and cried down ? Look around up-
portitions. The whole system is no doubt wrong-Southern on our whole country and behold its consequences.
gentlemen are well aware of it. It is impossible to remedy it Mr. Chairman, the ruinous condition of the country is no
entirely, hbut the evil might be lessened if it were possible for longer denied by any one. But we are told by the friends of
each planter to raise less cotton, and apply a part of his land this Administration that it will be for those coming in to re-
to the raising of provisions, and employ a part of his labor- medy these evils. They say they have promised to do so,
era in domestic manufactures, and wo be to them if they do not keep their promise! Sir,
Having lived many years in the South, I feel a sincere in- the brand of an idiot boy may destroy in an hour the edifice
terest in the prosperity of that portion of the Union, and an which called forth the labor of thousands, and required half
affection for many of its citizens. The opinions which I have a century to rear. General Harrison and his Cabinet will
expressed on the subject of the tariff, I have long entertained, do all they can, hut they cannot work miracles.* But it is
and have been confirmed in them by my residence in the for the People themselves, through their Representatives, to
South, I have often disputed the policy of going altogether apply the best remedy the case will admit. It will he the
for cotton, and nothing but cotton. I was of opinion that work of time, and we know not half its difficulty; but, in
their agricultural occupations should be more varied, and that the language of the Roman patriot, let us never despair ofthe
they should endeavor to introduce new staples. The article Republic.
of silk, for instance, is well adapted to the greater part of the When .! rilr-m r. -i..'ak of high duties, high tariff, arnd re-
South. Virginia and the Carolinas may become the Italy of fer to the I,,iff.' I1'-", I must remind them that even that
America in respect of this valuable production. The silk of was the work of the Soulh. The high duties were intro-
Italy may be found in the marts of England and France, and duced by its enemies, in order to defeat the bill. It was not
at the fairs of Germany, commanding a regular and sti ady satisfactory to any party : it was a compound made up both
price, the supply always below the demand ; and this, perhaps, by friends and foes. I must remind those with whom the
of all the products of human economy, approaches nearest in name of Gen, Jackson still retains some share of popularity,
its permanent and intrinsic value to gold and silver. I have that he was in favor of a protective tariff. He so expressed
been long convinced that the Southern States do not make himself previous to his election ; he afterwards spoke of a
use of their natural advantages. They have water-power, "judicious tariff," with reference to this subject, and, in one
raw materials, and other advantages, and yet they have been of his Messages, he expressed the opinion that we ought to
slow in developing the great natural resources of the fine re- encourage the manufacture of those articles which would
gion they occupy. I believe, however, that the day is ap- render us independent in time of war. And how shall we
preaching when they will turn their attention to their true in- determine what those articles are7 He could not mean
terest-and to see it, will be to pursue it. I unite with the merely the manufacture of gunpowder! Perhaps, with-
gentleman from Kentucky, (Mr. POPE,) whose experience out intending it, there passage covers the whole ground of
and mature judgment entitle him to great respect, and request protective duties.
the gentlemen of the South not to be too implacable on the We must go back to the days of James Madison, and en-
subject of protection. The time may come when they may deavor to follow in the fiotasleps of the great democratic
need it, and the Northern States be indifferent about it. There statesmen of that period, who set to work honestly and ear-
is one great Southern interest which now calls for the foster- nestly to repair the ravages of war, and to place the nation
ing care of the Government-I allude to thearticle oftobacco, on a solid ground of future prosperity. I have retained the
If there be a reasonable hope of compelling foreign nations, lessons of national wisdom and policy I then imbibed. The
by means of countervailing duties, to adopt a more liberal experience of the last six years, especially, has not served to
policy, I am for trying the experiment. According to my change my opinions. What a triumph for Alexander Hamil-
opinion, it is the duty of the Government to foster and protect ton, could he have risen from his grave, arid have seen his re-
every branch of industry, commercial, manufacturing, or agri- port on manufactures the text-book during the administration
cultural, where it can be done by wise legislation, taught by of his great political rival! What a triumph to see the fail-
our own experience and that of other nations. It is not be- ure of the attempt to destroy that American system which
cause the South is the South, that it disdains protection; had been sanctioned by Jefferson, by Lowndes, by Clay, by
Louisiana, for instance, has always been a tariff State, on ac- Gallatin, by Dallas, by Calhoun, as well as by others of op-
count of the protection to her sugars. I cotend that even posite politics I was what is called a Jeffersonian democrat,
the article of cotton is indirectly protected by the indirect ad- a supporter of the embargo and the war, and by no means free
vantages it derives from the extension of the market here and from prejudice against Alexander Hamilton. I have care-
elsewhere, fully studied the rival productions of those two great men-
We have heard much of late years of the theory of free the report of Mr. Jcfferson on commerce, and that of Hamil-
trade, which no nation practises, as it exists between the ton on manufactures; and these, with the report of Mr. Gal-,
different States of this Union. It is the doctrine of the latin on internal improvements, and that of Mr. Dallas on a
Swiss school of abstract political economists, and it is the national bank, are, in my opinion, among the best works that
fashionable doctrine. Foreign nations are continually preach- can be placed in the hands of a young American statist. 1
ing it to each other, but none set the example; on the by no means give the praise of superior foresight and saga-
contrary, their practice is directly opposite. England is city to Hamilton over Jefferson. These two great men re-
willing to open her ports, where the foreign article cannot garded the same subject from different points of view. If
compete with the same article produced there, where even Jefferson had been a New Yorker, he might have written the
the cost of transportation is a protection, together with the report on manufactures; and if Hamilton had heelt a Vir-
excise levied on her own manufacture, from which the ginian, ihe might have produced the report on commerce. Ha-
foreign article would not be exempted. She does this with milton regarded manufactures as the true basis of commerce.
twenty per cent. higher wages than the manufacturers on The very instrument of commerce before his eyes, the ship,
the continent, by means of her immense capital, the supe- was itself the most important of all manufactures-the mas-
rior skill and intelligence of her workmen-and that supe- ter-piece of the arts, and the ne plus ultra of science. Mr.
rior skill is the offspring of liberty. In the latter respect, we Jefferson lived in a country depending entirely on foreign
have the advantage over Britain, and can compete with her commerce, and with only two great staples to support it-
with higher wages; and, but fur her great advantage in wheat and tobacco. It was natural for him to suppose that
respect of capital, we could go ahead of her. The smaller the exports would command the imports, and where these
the capital, the larger must be the profit, as we see from would centre there would be the great mart of trade. I am
the huckster with a hundred per cent. to the wholesale informed he at an early period entertained the opinion that
dealer who is content with five or ten. It is this vast Norfolk would be what New York has since become. And
capital, which makes the power of Britain, and from which if his theory had been correct, such would have been the re-
protection is necessary on our part, as much for the sake sult. But it was erroneous; Norfolk was not, like New Or-
of the country as of the manufacturers. Lord Brougham leans, the sole depot of a vast interior. Beyond the local ex-
declared in the House of Commons, that it was the policy ports and imports, commerce on a large scale requires ships,
of England to break down our manufactures at any sacri- seamen, accumulated active capital; and these are not likely
fice, in order, as he was pleased to say, to preserve the to be found in communities who devote their energies to the
natural course of things ; that is, to keep us dependent on cultivation of the soil, and have no manufactures, fisheries,
England, which, to my mind, is a very unnatural course or internal trade.
of things. Switzerland, which is cited as an example for I have taken up much of the time of the Hlouse in discus
us, is in a situation entirely different. Her superior intel- sing the subject of the tariff, my excuse is, that it is one of
ligence and skill render the surrounding nations tributary deep interest to my constituents. They believe that it is in
to her, notwithstanding the poverty of her soil, and the some measure owing to a want of a proper adjustment of the
bleakness of her mountains. All her people are engaged tariff, for the purpose of protection, that their manufactures
in manufactures, more or less, as they are in our New have declined, and many of them have been prostrated. The
England States. Instead of attempting to tarif out the details of this protection are by no means settled. Many in-
productions of France, Germany, Austria, and Sardinia, it is dividuals, and I am of the number, attach more importance to
the policy of those States to tariff in those of Switzerland. the derangement of the currency than to the operation of the
A Swiss statistical writer thus expresses himself, and coin- tariff, although I am convinced it requires to be revised. Of
plains of the hard fate of his country, because the sur- what avail is it to the manufacturer that he has his ware-
rounding nations are unwilling to be overrun with their house full of manufactured articles, if those who are anxious
watches, ribands, toys, and a thousand articles, which to purchase are unable to procure a proper currency ? Some
throw the balance on the side of Switzerlandl : The pro- of our manufacturers pay annually from a thousand to three
hibitive systems, adopted by a great namuber of the neigh- thousand dollars in exchanges. They depend on the in-
boring Powers, injure and interfere with her essentially."* ternal trade, and that cannot be carried on without a cur-
,Tbis no doubt is felt as very unnatural by the Swiss, but rency. There is a falling off in every kind of business, for
it is considered quite natural by her neighbors. the same reason. The amount of specie is admitted to be
Mr. Chairman, there is a principle of political economy insufficient for the wants of a new anid growing country
which, if not found in any system, deserves to be. I have not and an enterprising people. A mixed currency of specie
met with it in Adam Smith, in Say, Professor Wayland, or and sound paper is indispensable. The State banks can-
in any other writer, and yet I do not lay claim to originality, not furnish a currency for general circulation. Since the
It is simply this: that, as a general rule, labor commands a Administration.began its tinkering with the currency, and
compensation in proportion to the degree or amount of mind its partisans have been engaged in crying down bank-
combined with it. This may be referred to the self-evident ing institutions, specie has been regularly exported, and the
proposition, that mind is superior to matter. Take, for in- paper currency has been growing less andi less safe. In the
stance, the article of cotton itself, and compare the share of general demoralization, it is highly probable, also, that many
it which is earned by the gin, and then take the amount of abuses may have crept into the management of these banks.
mere manual labor employed at the gin, compared to that of But it is impossible, where there are so many States creating
raising atid preparing the cotton for this mechanical opera- banks, and the character and solvency of those harks so va-
tion. The case of sugar is still stronger. The mere culture rious, to furnish any thing like a uniform currency. It would
of the cane, the cutting and transporting it, are among the be the same thing if they were so many different mints, with
simplest kinds of labor, requiring little more than mere ani- different coinage and alloy. The effect on internal trade
mal strength; but the process of manufacturing the sugar and on every branch of business during this disordered state
calls for science and art. There are the machinery for ex- of the currency, is well described in the masterly work of
pressing the juice, the kettles fir boiling, the employment of Mr. Prescott, the History of Ferdinand and Isabella.
the steam-engine, and the distillation of the liquid poison from Under Henry tV of Castile, ii i. computed there ware no
the molasses; these require mind and the exercise of judg- less ttan ou e hundred and fifty rints opely license ty thed tle
meant. The driver of the cart receives four times the wages Crown, in addition to many other, erected by private authority.
of the horse, without one-tenth of his physical strength, be. The abuse came to such a height, that people at length refused to
cause mind is required for his labor, which the other does not receive, in paymento( their debts, the debased coin, whose valre
possess. T he work of the mechanic is better paid than that depreciated more and more every day ; and the little trade which
of the common laborer; the merchant, the professional man, remained iu Castile was carried on by barter, as in the primi-
better than the mechanic. This is the reason why the mere tire ages."-Prescett, 1 vol. 224.
products of the soil, where no extraordinary skill is required, The remedy for this was making a monopoly of the coin-
are more poorly paid, in proportion to the labor bestowed, than ag ihe Crown, just as we made it a monopoly under our
any other. We may rely upon it, that that nation which corn- federal Constituti,,n. In the Swiss cantons, the same incon-
blues the highest degree of mind in her operations will hold venience wotld be experienced, with their twenty or thirty
others dependent upon it; and if we desire to lessen our de- different kinds of money, but for the circumstance of their
pendence on England or France, we can only do so by keep- having an ideal money, and elao using bills of exchange and
ing pace with them in the march of mind. paper of various kinds. If bank notes will still continue to
When gentlemen declaim so earnestly against the protec- be regarded as money by us, it must, like the coinage, be in
live legislation of the United States, they seem to forget with some mode a monopoly, in order to give it uniformity and cer-
whom it originated. Permit me to take a short review of its tainty of value. This has been twice accomplished success
history. From the time of the passage of the first act of-Con- folly without an absolute monopoly, by creating an institu-
gress for revenue and protection, so expressed in its title, un- tion under the authority of the General Government, which
til the administration of Mr. Jefferson, our manufactures had has controlled and regulated those established by the States
made considerable progress, compared to the state of things This institution has been found the only safe and convenient
before that time. A variety of manufactures had been firmly fiscal agent. One kind of aoney for the Government, and
established ; still they fell far below the wants of the coun- another for the ordinary transactions of the community, you
try. Our enterprise waschitfly directed o foreign commerce, may rely noon it. will never answer. It was the last desoer-.

ann especially toe carrying traoe, wnicn would cease with ate resort of the present Administration, because it had failed
the return of peace. But when the rival nations vied with in its other projects, and knew not what else to do. It cut it-
each other in spoliations on our commerce, we began to look self loose fromthe People, and with i-, mpl sub-Treasury
out for safe employment for our capital accumulated in trade, chest is now moving in one direction, b h I the democracy is
The non-inter6course, embargo, and war, taught us to see our moving in another.
weakness, and dependence on foreign countries for the most Whenthelate Administrationsweretold that theirmeasures
necessary and common articles of manufacture. Necessity would ruin the currency, they indignantly repelled the idea,
compelled us to eslalHlish manufactures, and capital was in- and boldly declared that they would preserve it in a state as
vested in them which could find no other employment. And, sound as they found it, and even make it better. When it
permit me toask, in whose hands was the Government at this was actually deranged they were the last to admit the fact;
time ? In the hanadsof Southernatsttesmen, who carried their wsaate eetels oaii h at
times In the hands of Southernstesmen, who carried their sand when, at length, it was felt and lamented by every man
measures by the votes of the Western and Middle States engaged in honesand regular business, they suddenly became
They were the authors of the war; it was their policy which the loudest in crying out that the currency was ruined. But
drove the Northern peopleto manufactures. Atthe close ofthe who ruined itc They say, the money power. According to
warit was found that an astonishing progress had beenmadein them this is some foui and ugly fiend, which walks abroad in
manufactures, and that a large amount, withdrawn from trade, the dim twilight, without settled abode, without defined shape
had been invested in them. These establishments were in or form, but busy in working mischief to the sons of men. It
their Infancy, however, and unable to stand the shock of anissrt of money go
attack upon them by the powerful British establishments, s a so e hI But, aoing toathers, hasts
backed by the British Government. The Southern states eat and essence in Wall street; it is that speculating, heart-
er M ionsThe Southern state less money power, which fattens upon, the embarrassments
men, under Mr. Madison's administration, stood up in their and distresses of sober industry,and on the destruction of all
defence : it was their policy which had called them into be- regular business and sound credit. It causes the disease, and
ing; it would have been cruel to abandon their own offspring, then renders itself necessary to the diseased. It is in the
The tariff of 1816 wasethe result, and it wassomregulated as to hands of the brokers, the stock-jobbersand exchange dealers,
afford incidental protection as well as revenue. I cannoterase
from my mind the lessons of wisdom I received in listening Shortly after the election, a Quaker was met by a Lacofoco
to the speeches of Mr. Clay, of Mr. Lowndes, and of Mr. in the street at Philadelphia, and was thus accosted : Well,
Calhoun, when engaged, as it were, in settling the future friend, I supposa you think General Harrison is going to wrk
policy of the nation on what was afterwards called the Ame- miracles." As to that, friend, I cannot tell thee, but I incline
J., Pioti of Genevay, p. 3, -to think he will have power givna unto him to cast out devils."

who have instigated the ruinous measures of the General Go-
vernment. There is the real money power, the greater part
foreign, too, rejoicing in the downfall of our prosperity, and
glutting themselves on the spoils of a ruined currency. For
years has this power been systematically working its way,
like some foul disease in the human constitution. Twelve
years ago, I travelled in company with an agent of one
of the Wall street establishments from Charleston to Nor-
folk. He inveighed bitterly against the United States Bank,
which surprised me, because I had heard no one else speak
against it. The reasons which appeared to influence him
had a different effect on my mind; the currency was most la-
mentably healthy; the field for money brokers was almost
closed I And then the Southern banks were hostile also, be-
cause their issues returned upon them every six months; the
far South could not establish real estate banks instead of spe-
cie banks; the West was checked in the establishment of new
banks! From that time I carefully marked every step in the
progress of the war on the national bank, and knew its
source. A being, whom I hold in such detestation that I will
not name him, was in moy opinion the instrument, the pern-
sioned instrument, employed to win the ear and kindle and
feed the ire of that unhappy old man, who, for our sins, was
placed at the head of this Government. Under that influence,
the legislation of this once prosperous and growing country
was forced out of its natural and well-defined channel, and
lost among shallows and quicksands. The safe barriers were
broken down; the country has been flooded by unsafe stock
institutions, andt disorder and confusion now reign supreme.
And what a hardest, what a field for that moneyed power of
brokers and shavers! And yet we hear both those who are
the victims, and those who are the accomplices of this tower,
cry out, The currency is ruined, the currency is ruined-the
money-power has ruined itus Yes, but I repeat the question,
Who are the authors of this ruin I The Wall-street brokers
are the principal authors of it. The nation must open its
eyes to the truth at last, and turn its attention to the real au-
thors of this ruin-the money brokers, and the corrupt party

Received from the European Correspondent of the
National Intelligencer.
We extract the following from the Courtier Franpais :
Marshal Valde is to leave Algiers on his return to France
this day. Notwithstanding the flattering assurances of paci-
fication which have been given through certain interested
publications, it appears that nor affairs in Africa are more
embroiled than ever. Abd-el-Kader, who has been supposed
to be completely subdued, has ordered a levy of one man out
of every two men of all the tribes under his domination, and
he intends to open d new campaign in the spring with 10,000
cavalry as regular as his cavalry can be, and 5,000 disciplin-
ed infantry. The Government is further said to have re-
ceived an application for an immediate reinforcement of
12,000 men-4,000 of whom are for the province of Oran,
which will, it is believed, be the first object of the enemy's
attack. It is reported that the departure of General Bugeaud
is fixed for the 28th inst."
The following is a statement of the quantity and value of
various articles of consumption sold in Paris during lastyear:
"Butter 4,808,399 kilogrammes, returning ll,507,695fr.
being a diminution upon the quantity sold in 1839 of386,896
kilogrammes, and 14"2,382fr. This reduction in the consump-
tion of butter is to be attributed to the bad state of the pas-
tures, on account of the great drought last year. Eggs,
number 111,651,186, produce 5,316,958fr. being a reduction
upon the sale .f 1839 of 1,511,166 eggs, but an increase
in return of 290,867fr. or 3t'r. 21c. a thousand. The diminu-
tion in the supply, and the consequent increase of the price,
is to be attributed to the high price of corn, which caused a
less number of hens to be kept. Poultry and game, sale
3,769,137 head, producing 7,457,041fr. being a reduction upon
1839 of 260,838 head, and 254 627fr. Salt-water fish 4,036
loads, produce 5,098,872fr. being an increase upon 1839 of 46
loads, and 175,813fr. Oysters 75,5-25 baskets, produce 1,191,-
875fr. being a reduction on 1839 of 1,468 baskets, and 143,-
255fr. This falling off is attributed to a failure in the fish-
ery. Fresh-water fish, sale 80,062 pieces, r- 'iiornirn 56C,245
francs, being a reduction upon 1839 of 4,91' pieces, and
The Gazette de France having asserted that some Spanish
refugees had been forced, against their will, by the French
Government to return to their own country, the Moniteur po-
sitively contradicts the assertion, and declares that not a sin-
gle refugee has been forced to leave the country; adding, that
the Government, acting according to the express provisions of
the law, had confined itself to withdrawing all allowance front
such Spaniards as were in a condition to avail themselves of
the amnesty granted by their own Government, and that even
these are left at liberty to remain in France if they please. The
official journal goes on to observe: "The generous hospitality
afforded by our country to all political refugees is well known
and acknowledged to be greater than that hitherto granted by
any other nation; but this hospitality has its limits, and can-
not be extended to those to wv hom the power of returning home
has been rendered. Moreover, our Minister of Foreign Af-
fairs, as he lately stated in the Chamber of Peers, has made
spontaneous applications to the Government of Isabella II.,
with a view to obtain still greater security for such Spaniards
as wish to take advantage of the amnesty. Such refugees as
the amnesty does not extend to continue to receive subsidies."
In his report on the fortification bill, M. Thiers states that
the mere fact of fortifying Paris ought to remove all alarm aa
to the possibility of a siege, inasmuch as the difficult which
such a barrier would present to an enemy would, in his opin-
ion, be sufficient to deter from an invasion. He enters into
some detailsto show that, in the event of a siege, Paris could
without difficulty be provisioned for sixty days, and he re-
gards it as impossible that an enemy could subsist for so long
a time-so that a siege of sixty days could not be contem-
plated. On the question of the detached forts, he said the
committee had been anxious to have their precise situ lion
indicated tiy the bill, but had given way on the assurance of
the Government that there should be no detached fort nearer
to the continuous wall than Vincennes would be. His esti-
mate of the expense of the fortifications is very low, as com-
pared with what has been said by some of the journals. He
makes the amount for excavations, embankments, masonry,
and price of land for the continuous wall, only 65,970,000 fr.
and with the detached forts, a total of 133,000,000 fr.
The Commerce publishes the following, as an exact list of
all the houses, buildings, plantations, etc. that must be razed
or destroyed, in order that, by the terms of the proposed law,
there may be a clear space of 250 metres round all the fortifi-
cations of Paris:
Part of the village called the Pont du Jour, on the Sevres
road; nearly half the Bois de Boulogne-thezone nowcleared
is scarcely 50 metres in width from the edge of the ditch ; all
the Porte Maillot, at the Bois de Boulogne; all the Q.uartier
d'Orleans, or of the Mairie at Neuilly and Themrnes; a large
part of the royal park of Neuilly ; several manufactories and
houses on the left of the Route de la Revolte; more than 80
houses, buildings, cabarets, etc. on the St. Denis road at La
Chapelle; part of La Petite Villelte; almost all the village of
the Fres St. Gervais, which is just in the mouth of the guns
on the heights of Belleville; part of Panlin ; all the houses
in the street leading from the Place des Communes at Bille-
ville to Romanville; all the plantations on the spots called
Les Bruyeres and La Justice; part of Bagnolet; more than
half of St. Mandd ; more than fifty houses of gardeners in
the valley of Fecampp; the Park and Chateau of Bercy in
entire; part of the village of the Maison Blanche, on the
Fontainebleau road; part of Gentilly; almost all Petit Mon-
tronge; more than two hundred houses, manufactories, &c.,
at Vanvres, Clamart, Vaugirard, Irsy, and Grenelle. As
for trees to be cut down, gardens to be destroyed, euclosures
to be removed, quarries I., I,o cli.:-d, JSc they are innumer-
able. All the smaller ;i:tih- erd r.',.jr nit be intercepted
and on the greater roads two di.i-lidJ. masked by ad-
vanced works, will have to be :.rintl. Th,' embarrassment
and trouble occasioned thereby will be incalculable."
IMPORTED JOUN BULL will stand the ensuing sea-
son at the stables of his owner, in Upper Marlborough, Prince
George's county, Md. at tis usual price of 840 the season, and
$60 to ensuree-and one dollar to tte groom in each case, u, be
paid when the mare is served.) TI, ..s .n I li.. a ill be payable
on the fot of July next, when the .:'.-oil '.II rxir.r.
It is deemed unnecessary to pi'e .l I. oi, ii,.; i.adii. c ...fJ,.lhn
Bull, at this time, as it has been ,: n i.iLt.hthi J ril n,,[ t ,,.IC -
era who pay attenti n to such subjects mist be familiar with it.
Suffice it to say, however, that he has been considered by good
judges, and knowing ones in turf history, to be a Horse of the
best blood ever imported, not a ir.e.', ,'ii, |,.r sres'j Priam himself;
being a great grandson of Old Ht..'-t.rier,, n lis dam side; and
also, a great grandson ,f the Duke at GyratIon's famous mare
"Prunella, who realized to ter owner, as a breeder, little short sf
100,000 sterling, andt produced more race horses than any other
mare that ever lived." If the well-authenticated "History of
the Turf of English Race Horses" has net recorded "lies," then
the above statement is undoubtedly true.
His owner thinks it due to the Public and to breeders to state
with candor, that, owing entirely to accidental .'r.:ura/liui,cr,,
arising from an attack of the disease usually I.-.. sn asa wA, f

teeth,"and from the improper use of lime-water, another excit-
ing stimuli, unsciettifically applied as a remedy, John Bull has
unfortunately been made a blind Iorse, not being able now to sea
from either of his eyes. But as it is well known that blindness5
as a constitutional disease, is not known to any of his family,
breeders may safely trust to him in this respect; more especially
as it is known in the present instance to have'pro.eeded from ac-
cident and mismanagement, In all other respects he is in fine
health, and in more than his usual good condition. His eldest
colts are two years old this spring, and, for size, beauty, and good
racing points, will compare with those of any other horse, native
or imported.
The season will commence on the first of April, and end on the
firstof July. Marea, irii! ar- i.Crt1oul ,,l"lr, sent fron,it distance,
shall be well fed anr- itaSd .n ,.,re '. .1 iLtr', toaL a dav.
Apply to Mr. PFjrir rs i iT, a' ,iprrr Mirl.tarc.u-.i,, who will
take goodi care of all ni,itr.'s ,iL flr..R lilan,.1
mar 9--cptf T.P. BOWIE.
O NL" ItHULN[ -KLI LILL.itA- R t-1AKI.-Ran
away from the subscriber, on the 30th December, negro bey
ISAAC, who calls himself Isiae Wilson, about 19 years of age,
of rather dark complexion; he is feet 10 or It inches high,
a boy of good appearance, and has a down look when spoken to.
His clothing caoinot be accurately described, as he has been living
with John M. Duvall, of Anne Arundel county, for the last ten or
twelve months. There is no doubt he has attempted to reach Bal-
timore, his father living there, belongingto Mra. Sarat H,Hll, who
recently moved from Prince George's county to that city. I
I wilt give the above reward for his apprehension, no matter
where taken, provided he babe lodged in jail i. th.n I gi h;m. again.
All communications r. spt:ei;n(" him-..11 t..) .trcictd I1 ISAAO
G. MAGReaDEa, Beaver Dam Pust Office, Anne Arundel county,
fob 16-Raw2 n PIjEANOR SANPORDa