National intelligencer

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National intelligencer
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'VOL. XLII.


WASHING'TON: THU tDAY, JANUARY 28 1841.
WASHING'TON: THURSDAY, JANUARY 28f- 1841. +


No. 5978.


PUBLISHED BY GALES & SEATIN,
THREE TIMES A WEEK.
PRI,'--r'R A TFiAR, 6 DoJLL NR8--',-R 6]X M.1-NT1I3, I n.tLlfi.S.

WEDNESDAY, JANUARY '27, Ill1.

CLAIMS UNDER THE OLD FRENCH TIIEATY.

Once more, we observe, the petitioners to Con.
gross for the allowance of claims which shall be
found to be due under the old Convention with
France have made their appeal to the justice ol
Congress and tIhe honor of the nation for the ex-
amination and adjustment of those claims. For
more than thirty years these claimants have been
humble petitiornirs to Congress for the allowance
of indemnity solemnly gmarantied to them by the
failh of the Uniied States in a treaty concluded
wnth the Governmrent of France, and they have
been pei*iioneri invyain. W6le hare seen our coun-
try on the verege of a war nh'ithat same Power
becauseofher delay ofa single )ear ii pa) ;nga stip-
ulated amount for claims of our merchants of later
origin, %% hilst the Government of the Uniied Stales
had beei delinquent to its own citizens in regard
to precisely similar claims (of which it assumed
the pa) merit) for nearly forty years! France re-
deemred her faith, and paid the debt admitted tobe
due to citizens of the United States. The Gov-
ernment of (he United States, even after this ex-
ample, persists in its disregard of its solemn obli-
gallons to its own citi:uu, for which the Govern-
inen! rtceri'tdl al,'ae nOW more than furny years ago.
The Goverrinmnti took the piropi-rty of these claim.
ants, at its own valuation, andapplied it to its own
use, a id, in the face and eyes of the Coiialiluiin,
has refused them compensation for it. The claims
of these petitioners were good and i.tlid against
France: She acliknowldgcd them', in effect, to be
well founded; and our Government relinquished
them to France, upon condition that+France would
discharge the United Siates from the burdensome
stipulations in the Treaty of Alliance, entered into
in 1778. As we all know, France has, since that re-
linquishment, made indemnity for other claims.
When the Commissioners sat hete, some years
ago, to distribute the fund received from France,
these petitioners applied, among oIther., for in-
dennity out of i hat fund. But they were told, and
properly told, lihat they could receive nothing, as
their claims had been formally and solemnly relin-
quished and surrendered to France by our owi,
Government, by the treaty of 1800. Other claim-
ants, therefore, divided the whole fund among
themselves, and these claimants got nothing.
From othcr governments we have insisted on and
obtained indemnity; but where we owe itkour-
selves, we do not pay it, He whose claim was
suffered to remain against France has got his pay;
but he whose claim was on his own Goverrinent
has as yet received nothing. Is this just? Is it
Jinnorable ? Is it con-islatent with our professions
of regard for the faith of treaties ? Is it not, on the
contrary, a stain on the National escutcheon,
which no time should be lost in effacing ?
We do not know that we are acquainted with
a single individual interested in these claims. The
subject is one upon which we have no feeling but
that of a sense of what is due to the national cha-
racter. But, without any personal knowledge of
any of the claimanlr,, we cannot but feel some
sympathy also for them. Many of the original
claimants are now no more, and their widows and
orphans it is who throng the doors of Congress,
and supplicate relief. Those of tire original claim-
antBs who yet survive have grown old in waiting
for what is their own by right.
We will conclude these few observations with
the following passage from a letter from one of
these surviting claimanls, a respectable man, a
native of the Island of Nantucket, and a member
of the Society of Friends, which has just now ac-
cidentally fdllcn into our hands. I am now,"
says lie, "in my eightieth year. I was one of the
'original owners of a valuable whale-ship, laden
with oil, (captured before 1800 by the French,)
' which was taken from me, for valuable national
"purposes, by my own Government. For more
Than forty years I have been soliciting that Gov-
' ernment to perform a simple and clear act of
' justice, but hilierto have solicited in vain. In
' the course of Nature, after a few more years of
' delay, the justice of Government will come too
' late for me."
This simple appeal, it seems to us, ought to
make- its way to every heart.

A letter written on board the steamship Colum-
bia, at sea, on. her late passage from England,
states that the ship was on fire on the 17th inst.,
at 2 o'clock at night, but the fire was happily ex-
tinguished in about twenty minutes. Happily,
indeed t .

GEORGIA BANKS.
Governor MCDONAI.D has issued his proclama-
tion, in pursuance of an act of the last Legisla-
ture, requiring the banks to resume specie pay-
ments on the 1st day of February.

The New York Empress state; ihst the Unilted Siates ship
CvNFr, Captain La rutate,arrived at Port Mahon on the 29th
cl'October, from nn interesting ciuise of ara mouths in the
Archipelago, ha.i;,g visaed the 'ollwing places: Spezzia,
Leghorn, Naples, Palern,.', Miatala, Malta,J'apoli de Ro-
niaria, Albmns, Smyrna, Salonica, Memnos, Mytiline, Skey-
r:,., Samos, Candmi, Beyruut and Jaf'fion the coast of Syria.
By reference to a chart il will be sern the Cyane traversed
almost every part of the Ar, hipelago, g,,ing up one strata and
returning by ihe other.
Capt. LA rrTrIa rendered imortarR serm'icestothe American
and European rc:idents at Bryrout when tiat .place tas 61-
tirked by the British flret under Admiral Sr..,rr,,rir, by tak-
ing on board the Cyano the American and Brim-h Consuls,
with their families, and all other European residents; and,
after keeping them on board a fI'rtr.ighl, and providing them


with every comfort, landed them at the town of Larnica, in
the island ofCyprus.

Tu. FLaG COU61N Or oTHE I.NION -L- urern county, in
G,'orgia. gave Fa unanimous vole for Gen. al., [SON. The
return was 552 for Harrison, for Van Buren ni.ne.

SEaitrs Arr-s -Nashville papers or the 16th instant
sl-ile that an affray hail taken ,lace oin the Monday ew(ninig
l'revi.u, between RuBLhT C FsTEr, jr. eldest son of ex-
Scnitoir F-asreR, and J G. Herms, editor Oi the Union, in
which the latter was wounded in the arm and the breast by
I pistol shot.


EDITORS CORRESPONDENCE.

NEW YoaK, JANUARY ,
The flichmond Enquirer, I see, in. pursuance
of its factious and sinfiul purpose o arousing the
slatehliolding against the nmn--;ivr-liidlerg States,
promi.est to print by iilii thein t al'-.s of the
Whig, and vice versa of the Locofoeo members of
the New York Legislature, who take part for or
against Virginia upon the affair of "the fui;iiti'es
from justice." When I see what thinks itself t
leading journal sioolping thus to snatch a vote' or
dupr a voter, I lpy its. paltry arrmlbioti, ; but not the
less dues il 1iecome us of opposite politics to set
the matter right.
Well, then, if GoV. SEWARD c.in-ulrid hi; po-
pularity itt hi- Si ati., or the wishrs ,ol hi- polnicil
Friends in this quitii r of the State, hie would gioI
these fugitives up. It is true, none of our people
take any interest in this matter, or care much for
it. There is no property at stake betweentus and
Virginiia ; nothing bat a principle, at ii iti in i t, ,
.lhit w1110 nin,:-it .-i uf our i ,r,[)I,; nev,+n slirp
tu think. Not one in a Thou.- itndJ 'I' onr .t-r..r-
has ever looked into the points of controversy, if
one in a thousand has ever heard of the dispute.
The few who have taken the case into considera-
tion reason that the stolen slave was given up,
and, as for the ohb-traction, which h argues so ear-
nestly to get holdl of tihc si.aler, however sound
it may be, yet, as aynere abstraction, they are not
disposed to make a fiuss about it, as no good can
com, from a fuss thus made. The Locofocos in
our State Leiiatiitre, upon the invitation of the
Enquirer, will unid.,uiliedlV do the work he sug-
gests. They under;tintl this kind of election-
eering to a charm. To-day they would vote,
Fjeneh convention fashion, the largest liberty"
to all classes and colors in Virginia, and to-mor-
row they would vote, only in words though,
(mark that!) Virginia had a right even to the Go-
vernor of New York, if the Governor of Virginia
should make a demand of him for himself. If Gov.
SEWARD had surrendered the fugitives, they would
have made a much ltiraer outcry than they can
make now, even upon 1ir. RITCHIE's suggestion,
because he has not surrendered them. It is a piece
of party politics here. Our Locofocos are be-
f,)olit,. Virginit, tas often before ; as in the 4ast
Prei-d,1nt1:1l election for example, wh4, by false
promises, all the while knowing better, they trick-
ed the Old Dominion into voting for a New York-
er, whom they knew New York itself would nriot
support.
I, as one, take the occasion to tell Southern
gentlemen, what I have often said before, that, if
they rely upon any party to guard their institu-
tions, except the conservative parties of the North,
they rely upon a broken reed. "The largest lib-
erty" people of Tammany Hall are poor guardians
of slave institutions. The thousands and thou-
sands of rnrnigrai,-:, fresh from the eloquence of
O'CONNELL, that move and act with the Locofoeo
party of this State, are the New York allies of
THoMAsRITcriE, Esq. The abolitionism with which
Great Britain daily inundates our city and State is
very far frumi beiity Whig. Our Governor, I think,
is tiut-rpa-;n'rtnedil npi'r this abstraction in dispute
by Gov. GILMER, of Virginia, and so do many of
st-ta.i.elabt lit i1 i no more worth the Jitint y of
being ,nade a party question of than is the color
of Gov. SEWARD'S hat or the cut of Gov. GILMER'S
coat.
I observe, by a Niagara (U. C.) paper, that
McLEOD, now in the Lockport jail, intends to give
bail. This settles that question then, for I presume
he will forfeit his bail, and we shall never hear of
ftimn again but as an abstraction." Now, I dare
say, we shall be "mighty mad" about it, when we
find he does not come back, but we shall not pro-
hibit British vesselsfromn crossing the lakes, not-
withstanding ; which kind of New York philoso-
phy I commend to Virginia in her New York
case. McLeod aided in burning the steamboat
Caroline, and sending the boat over the Falls of
Niagara. We let him go on bail, having no expec-
tation of seeing him again. Three New York
colored thieves stole a negro, whom his owner got
back again. Now here is a great chance for the
diplomatists, and they may spill, if they please, a
hodghlidI of ink about it, but as for we, the Peo-
ple, what nonsense it would be for us to cut and
slash, or prohibit commerce with each other
about it!
NEW YORK, JANUARY 25.
Letters from Cincinnati received here say, Gen.
HARRISON leaves Cincinnati to-day in the mail
steamboat Benjamin Franklin, which the proprie-
tors have offered him the use of, to take him to
Pittsburgh. Col. TODD, Col. CHAMBERS, Judge
BURNETT, and many other friends were to accom-
pany him. I doubt, though, whether the state of
the water (if the state of the weather) will permit
so large boat to reach Pittsburgh, or even Wheel-
ing, at thins season of the year. At any rate,
though, the General may be expected in Wash-
ington next week.
Letters from Columbus, received here, say that
ELISHA WHITTLESEY, the well-known member of
Congress, has consented to take under Mr. EWINo
the place of First Assistant Postmaster General.
It seems to be settled, then, in Ohio that Mr. Ew-
iNo is to be the Postmaster General, but quere?
The Washington Globe, quoting an authority
that nobody thinks of replying to here, has as-
signed a wish for office under Gen. HItRRtsoN to
every New York (Whig) Editor. The fact is,
there are but two who want place, and they the
same place.
I have before me a little newspaper sheet, 7 by
9, printed at Milan, in Italian. It is a Govern-
ment organ there, and is nearly filled with "the
pipe-laying frauds" of the Globe, &c. &c., which
the Austiian organ of that.Government uses to
convince the Republicans of Lombardy that free
Government is but a fare?, and tial Ihere is no
virtue nor honor it these United States, the ntld
and paternal Govinniient of Vienna being far
preferable!
Mr. VAN BUREN, it is believed, will take up his
residence in this city for a few months, after the
4th of March, till his mansion at Kinderhook is
completed, when he will be established there. I
understand that he has a house engaged here.
Tite rate of Exchange on England and France
is below the specie-nr',iiirilnti rate; on England
l07s to 108; oil Paars 5.zS--full one per cent. in
our favor.
The speam-ship President is to leave Liverpool
for New York February 10th.


The shock of an earthquake was felt this morn-
irg, abuui half past 5 o'clock, in this city, West-
chester county, Newark, New Brunswick, and
Staten Island, and how much further I cannot say.
An injunction has been sued out against the
Farmers and Mechanics' Bank at New Bruns-
wick.
Exchange on Baltimore is equalizing itselfover
a prospect of resumption there. U. S. Bank stock
here has gone uip to 55, and other stocks are irm-
proving. The late great fight in stocks among
the bulls and bears has left many lame ducks in
Wall street, I quote the lingo of the street,


TWENTY-SIXTiH CONGRESS.
SECOND SESSION.

IN SENATE.

MONDAY, JANUARY 25, 1841.
Mr PRLlTON said : I hvethim.,rn;r,g received a (Lm
r tin jtit iii l',,m Th- G overtiir ul .,jli i,.'.[ar,.lina, cuIi.ring,
, 'ri ;n t.r,.CJtLdne; .of the Legislature of that Si.ile, htinn
th t i. nlii, iit r.,j its Senators to lay before Congrpss.
I this r,.,l,. t lt, Eir ellency reiterates in his communication,
and accordingly I now ask leave to present the document
which I hold in my hand.
It consists of a report and sundry resolutions, in many of
''.v princtile aind .',*1.irs of which I concur, and from many
dJffT,r it.ly. l i ni n..t my purpose under present circam-
"'rlees to enter upon any expression of my own i-av. I
r.crive those of tlii' dstitiguished body who hair r-nt me
[its document illti hr,.>t respect and deference. I ro..,e, sir,
Hi .t the report and resolutions be received, read, and printed.
Ti, .l.,c.iraient wis read about half through, when
Mr KING hoped the further reading of the document
might be dispensed with, and the whole be laid on the table,
and printed, as usual, or at least the reading of the resolutions
he ,i,.u.I b .%,).,I te ;uIll'.: I w
MNi. Pi;EST'jN would not re4ist the suggestion. He
.'f ged to trat Lhes document ,,lz. tl. ri :, r' .,',d ,1.-f1r. re,:
l-,- to the high. source from ih.: rihniantld,. 1 h,' r-.-
lutions embraced all the points, andri h- hi.i tilwy would be
read, and the whole be printed ; which was accordingly or-
dered.
Mr. CLAY said he desired to present a letter from the
Governor of Kentucky, urt iiai ng the joint resolutions of the
L. tiltdr e of that State in favor of the distribution of the
, -.. i ...i the public lands.
Mr. C. said these resolutions had passed one branch of the
L'-IjdlAor. .if the State by a unanimous vote, and the other
wih ...1) .. :. ir dissentient voices; the vote embraced all par-
ties, and he really believed the object met the wishes of at
least nine-tenths of the People of the United States. He
moved that the resolutionsalie on the table, and be printed.
MEMORIALS AND PETITIONS.
The following memorials and petitions were presented, and
.].lr...; .l> referred :
By Mr. 'CLAY, of Kentucky: From the Chamber of
Commerce of Louisville, remonstrating against the passage
of any bankrupt law which was not confined to prospective
operation.
Mr. C. said the memorial was very well drawn up, but the
opinions advanced did not coincide with his own. The chief
virtue ofa bankrupt act would bb in its retrospective action.
By Mr. WEBSTER: From merchants and mariners or
the representatives of deceased merchants and mariners of
Nantucket, praying for indemnity for French spoliations prior
to 1800.
Also, from Benjamin Brain, praying to be allowed the ran-
som which he hail paid for his redemption from the Indians.
By Mr. CLAY, of Alabama: From the Legislature of
that State, praying the passage of a law to indemnify for
French spoliations on American commerce prior to 1800..
By Mr. WRIGHT: From a number of citizens of New
York, remonstrating against the passage of a bankrupt law
during the present session.
Also, from a number of manufacturers and other citizens of
New York, asking that banks and trading incorpotations
might be subjected to the compulsory process in any bankrupt
law that mi,,h..d L., passed.
Also, trom mechanics, butchers, and others, asking that
they may be included in the piniti , ; of any bankrupt law
passed, as well as merchants and traders.
Also, from a temperance society in New York, asking that
the spirit ration be abolished from the Navy.
By Mr. LINN: From Absalom Lnl. i'r aigi :,l,trnat.,rn
of hisclaim to 510 arpens of land, siiumAitL i, ite l .ii:. 0e
Missouri.
By Mr. CALHOUN: From the Chamber of Commerce
of New YI'ik. ri, ii._,-tr.,'i. .:',iri the passage of any bank-
rupt law that did not include banks n Ir lhi.. corporations
in the compulsory clause.
Also, from the Chamber of Commerce of New Orleans,
asking the passage of a bankrupt law.
Mr. C. sai- he believed'a voluntary bankrupt law clearly
unconstitutional, and an involuntary one neither politic nor
expedient.
By Mr. NORVELL: From citizens of Michigan, fora
bankront law.
By Mr. TAPPAN: From citizens of Ohio, for a bank-
rupt law.
By Mr. KING : Joint resolutions c.fil.c L. i;. ,t.re ofthe
State of Alabama, in relation to the r- ,.I .., i .,- I it.] office
at Mardisville to some proper position in the Cherokee ter-
ritory.
Also, a memorial from the Legislature of the same State,
asking reimbursement for advances made in aid of the Creek
war.
By Mr. BENTON: A document from the Chief Engi-
neer, on' the subject of creating a company of sappers and
miners.
By Mr. HENDERSON: From the Chamber of Com-
merce of New Orleans, asking a bankrupt law.
Mr. NORVELL. from the Committee on Commerce, re-
ported a bill for the relief of the owners of the Schr. Tain.
On motion of Mr. BENTON,
Resolved, That the Committee on Military Affairs be instructed
to inquire into the expediency of taking measures to settle and
quiet the title ofclaimants to the Pea Patch.
PROSPECTIVE PRE-EMPTION BILL.
The Senate then proceeded to the discussion of the special
order, being the bill for the permanent prospective pre-emp-
tion system ; when
Mr. ALLEN rose and addressed the Senate at great
.length.
Mr. MANGUM .r,.;i6.-.l his intention to offer some re-
marks, but the lateness of the hour admonished him that the
Senate must be wearied with its further discussion to-day;
if, therefore, it would indulge him, he would move an adjourn-
ment.
Mr. WALL suggested that there was executive business
to be acted on ; and, on his motion, the Senate held an exe-
cutive session.
After which, the Senate adjourned.

TUESDAY, JANUARY 26,1841.
The following memorials and petitions were presented, and
appropriately referred:
By Mr. SMITH, of Indiana: Two petitions from citizens
of Randolph county, Indiana, male and female, numerously
signed, on the subject of the tI .. ii..n of the independence
of Hayti, and also in relation to an amendment of the Con-
stitution of the United States so as to provide for the security
of people of color in the free States, and to make the free men
the sole basis of representation.
On motion of Mr. SEVIER, the motion to receive was laid
on the table.
By Mr. MERRICK: A memorial from the citizens of
Washington, respectfully asking leave to protest against the
passage, in its present shape, of the bill now before the Sen-
ate, entitled "A bill to amend and continue in force the act
to incorporate the inhabitants of the c:ty of Washington."
Mr. M. said this memorial was signed by near 800 inhabi-
tants of Washington, all residents, and all American citizens,
without regard to party distinctions, and of all classes; the
subject was then before the Committee lor the District of Co-
lumbia, to which he would move the reference of this, and
that it be printed.
The following is the memorial:
To the hwnorable the Senate and House of Representatives of
the United States:
The undersigned citizens of the United States, inhabitants of
the city of Washington, beg leave respectfully to protest against
the passage, in its present shape, of the bill now before the Sen-
ate entitled 'A bill to amend and continue in force the act to in-
corporate the inhabitants of the city of Washington :" 1st. Be-
cause it proposes to give the right of suffrage to all persons, with
no qualification other than a twelvemonth's residence, and pro
vides no protection against fraudulent voting, by previous registry
or other sufficient safeguard ; 2d. Because it proposes to make all
persons eligible to the Mayoralty and to the Boards of Aldermen
and Common Council without any property qualification or other
stake or interest in the city than mere residence, thus, in an iu-
corporation of property, placing the power of taxation and the
property of the fixed and permanent inhabitants of the city at the
].i ,...- -.i ,rn ihi r-1.' .? *,.'i l. i ', r l.' ij. *. ii i ll ilib.It'^., iri;..-I r --, & r.J i r .: .l.
* IrII ,.f I'll,.J- *t ',l "^. i, q e JI h i, *.L I:t i'. I ,.r. f i,!..: to 10 bU lll thc
'1'1 i, .. 11 ..I'in ., it,' -.. 1 ,,lin, rf I',il .m*i .:ers t., popu-ilar r I.'e
' ,.', il- il i, n lai:, .: ,,i ** il,. ui, i-,, hi i ,f:.,l .ll nlyi' n.' p,+wi., r a~f r,: m ., -.l
for tnail .ndurr i r 1. iri,'l',Jen.:y., and no corrective whatever of
those conservators of the peace and order of the city other than
what is furnished by the said popular election ; 4th. Because the
said bitl does not contain, as it ought, various powers and provi-
sions which experience under the existing charter has shown to
be necessary and proper for the better protection of property and
the better preservation of public order. For these reasons, (and
for others which might be urged, but with which it is not neces-
sary to trouble your honorable bodies, as these are insuperable


and sufficient,) the undersigned respectfully pray that the said bill
may not pass into a law, and that no other may be passed which
has not the assent end concurrence of the people of Washington,
for whose Government the act is designed, and whose wishes, it
is presumed, ought therefore to be consulted.
By Mr. MERRICK: From a number of citizens of Prince
George's county, Maryland, representing a portion of the to-
bacco-planting interest, asking the adoption of measures by
the General Government for the purpose of relieving their
staple from the grievous burdens imposed on it by foreign
countries.
Mr. M. spoke at some length, showing from documents the
burdens borne by this staple, and the inequality that prevailed
with regard to it.
Mr. CALHOUN spoke in reply to Mr. M. also at some
length, expressing his urprise that, at the present enlighten-


ed age el p'limical rcienee, any prop.sitilon fir rt'aliating Relating t.) Ihe Judicial Couite in the district of New
duties should be c,'untenrarced, rid learningg that such a Haimphire to the Committee on the Judiciary.
course onlhJ ,l i.r.duc'ive of the results supposed. To authurize the Secretary of the Treasury to make an ar-
Mr. N1E.RI''K ro-s t,,reply, when rnmtrrm.,-n or compromise with any ofthe sureties or bonds
Mr. CLAY, of Alabama, said the hour for the specnl or- i -r i ,: the United States by S.Swartwout, late Collector of
der had arrived, and that the discussion could bb continued in New Viirk to the Committee on the Judiciary.
the morning. F-,t ih.. relief of Agnes Dundasi to the Committee on the
REPORTS FROM COMMITTEES. Judiciary.
To authorize the Secretary of the Treasury to refund the
By Mr. [ILi IEB.AR D, from the Committee of Claims: A duties on the French ship Alexandre; to the Committee on
bill for the relief of Andrew Johnson and Samuel M. Love. 'Foreign Affairs.
By Mr. MiERRICK, from the Committee of Claims: A Regulating the commercial intercourse with the port of
bill fir the rehli i i,.e heirs of Robert Fulton. Cayenne, and to remit certain duties; to the Committee on
On this subject, a short debate ensued, in which Messrs. Foreign Affairs.
MERRICK, HUBBARD, HUNTINGTON, YOUNG, Making an appropriation forthe Patent Office; tothe Coin-m.
an ni l,r.-A r l.hi |..l.. mm ittee on Patents.
Oitii.oi..n ,l Mr LINN, the bill supplementary to an act For the relief of the heirs of FrancisNewman; tothe Conm-
entitled An act to amend an act for the appointment of mittee on the Judiciary.
commissioners to :..'j'.t the claims to. reservations of land un- To relinquish to Mississippi the two per cent. fund accru-
der the treaty of I -.;U with the Choctaw Indians," was call- ing by the act for her aidinission into the Union; to the Com-
ed up. mir, = on the Public Lands.
Mi. L naiJ this bill had been passed atthe last session, but For the reliefof Avery, Saltmarsh & Co.; to the Commit-
was l.is in l die House for want of time. Some of the friends tee on the Post Office and Post Roads.
of the bill tIhouht it would require some change of phraseol- For the relief of Gregoire Sarpy or his representatives ; to
ogy ; it was immaterial to him what change was made, so as the Committee on Private Land Claims.
the object of the treaty would be accomplished. He desired To extend the charter of the Bank of Alexandria; to the
to hae l h,- tbill as perfect as possible, keeping in view thetime Committee for thie District of Columbia.
that w,,uld .e required to secure action upon it in the other For the relief of the heirs of Samuel" N.ULkiy ; to the Comn-
body.', N moved recomit the bill, wich mittee on Indian Affairs.
Mr. llel-'. ovedo recommit the bill, which To abolish the port of delivery and the office of surveyor
was agreed to. at Currituck, in North Carolina; to the Committee on Goin-
The Senate then proceeded to the consideration of the spe- merce.
cial order, being Mr. MARVIN obtained leave to present on behalf of his
THE PROSPECTIVE PRE-EMPTION BILL. colleague, Mr. CLARK, of New York, who is absent and
When Mr. MANGUM rose and addressed the Senate at sick, sundry petitions for a general bankrupt law, viz. Of R.
considerst I- lfi..:lth .,n the subject. W. Seaman and 180 others, citizens of New York;ofD. H.
Mr. BEN TON -..llowed, also at length, and Norton and 181 others, citizens of New York; ofJ. P. Farn-
Mr. TALLMADGE replied exclusivelyto Mr. BENTON. liam and others, of Lnzernecounty, Pa.; and of Martin
And then the Senate adjourned. Bridges and others, of Otsego county, N. Y.
The House then proceeded to consider the Treasury note
bill, as published in yesterday's paper.


HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.

MONDAY, JANUARY 25, 1841.
Mr. CUSHING obtained leave to present a memorial of
Charles T. James, of Newburyport, in Massachusetts, who
states that he has a long practical acquaintance with the sub-
ject of eteam-engines and steam boilers. The memorial is
lengthy, and appears to contain valuable information on the
subject of which it treats. It was committed to the Commit-
tee of the Whole on the state of the Union, and ordered to
be printed, and will be taken into consideration when the bill
upon the subject of steamboat explosions shall come up be-
fore the House.
The SPEAKER asked leave to clear his table of business
which had been accumulating for several days; which was
not objected to.
He then laid before the House sundry communications, viz.
Ilt. From the Postmaster General, transmitting a statement
of such land and water mails as have been established or or-
dered within the year ending 1st July, 1840, other than those
let to contract under advertisements. Also, a report of all
contracts made for the transportation of the mail within the
same year; a report ofll additional allowances to mail con-
tractors within the said year; and a report of all curtailments
of mail service and pay ordered within the same year. Re-
ferred to the Committee on the Post Office and Post Roads.
21. The :''hi., iie message from the President of the Unit-
ed States :
To the House of Representatives ofthe United States:
I herewithli transmit to the tHouse of Representatives a report,
with .: .... ;.. papers, from the S.-r 'I-' ., i tte, in answer
to the r. .,, .I the House of the li,,,i I'- .:,e.-. r last.
M. VAN BUREN.
WASHINGTON, JAN. 9, 1841.
These papers are in answer to the call moved by Mr.
ADAMS, on the 16th December, for information as to the ori-
gin of our political relations with China, and whether our con-
suls have ever been received and recognized by the Govern-
ment of that country. Referred to the Committee on Foreign
Affairs, and ordered to be printed.
3.1 From the Secretary of War, accompanied witR state-
ments of all contracts made through his Drlpmnrr,I, in the
year 1840. Referred to the Committee or, Miliar, Affairs.
4th. From tihe Secretary of War,.with a statement of the
appropriations and expenditures of 1840 for the military esta-
blishment, with the balances in the Treasury on the 31st
De'-,Th..,. under each head of appropriation.
From this statement it appears that the whole amount ap-
plical.tI to the service of the yeat 1810 was 2n 3oA 91',1
Refunded and transferred, I .;
Actually applicable to 1840, 1 0 Is 5 I)" "2,'
Drawn from Treasury, l11 i':91 l1
Refunded and transferred as above, t,,,77'.iN
9,9-26,433

Leaving yet to be drawn for the service of 1840, $8,61l3,787
Laid on the table, and ordered to be printed.
5th. From the Secretary of the Treasury, with a report
from the Commissioner of the General Land Office in answer
to a call of the House of the 9th instant, moved by Mr. LrIN-
COLN, in relation to the quantity of land claimed under the
pre-emption laws, and in relation to the withholding of pa-
tents for lands by reason of- pre-emption claims. Accompa-
nying this report is a statement of the whole amount received
for public lands from t1801 to 1840, and the amount received
at each office; i 1,... i. ". e iii $108,552,978 28. Theamount
in acres of public land entered under pre-emption laws, at the
various land offices, is also given, siand is stated at 4,161,978
acres. Laid on the table, and ordered to be printed.
6th. From the Secretary of the Navy, with a statement of
contracts made by the Commissioners of the Navy during the
year 1840. Laid on the table, and ordered to be printed.
7 h. The following message from the President of the Unit-
ed States:
To the House of Representatives of the United States:
l transmit herewith to the House of Representatives ef the Unit-
ed States a report of the Director of the Mint, exhibiting the ope-
rations of that institution during the year 1840. And I trve to
invite the special attention of Congress to that part of the Direct-
or's report in relation to the over-valuation given to the gold in fo-
reign coins by the act of Congress of June 28,1814, r .Il;
the value of certain foreign gold coins within the United -,
Applications have been frequently made at the Mint for copies
of medals voted at different times by Congress to officers who have
distinguished themselves in the war of th'e Revolution, and in the
ltte wiar, the dies for which are deposited in the Mint. And it is
sbmitl thI Cinvres% whether authority shall be given to the
M. . . ..i ri...I. .. --i those medals in bronze, or other metal,
to supply those persons making application for them, at a cost not
to exceed the actual expense of striking them off.
M. VAN BUREN.
WASHINGTON, JAN. 22, 1541.
It appears that there were coined at the Mint in Philadel-
phia, during the year 1840-
In gold, 1 '2 l.:7
In silver, l ii- ,t
In copper, 24,627
S,97-I.;
and composed of 7,053,074 pieces.
Thedepositesin gold, in Philadelphia, during the year, were
$1 201,998, of which $176,766 was derived from mines in
the United States.
At New Orleans-
Coinage in gol, $217,500
in silver, 698,100
$915,600
and composed of 3,446,900 pieces.
At Charlotte, the coinage amounted to 11;, ',i5
andi was composed of 18,994 half-eagles and 12,834 quarter-
eagles. -I
At Dahlonega, coinage $123,310
composed of 22,896 half-eagles and 3,532 quarter-eagles.
RECAPITULATION.
Amount coined at Philadelphia, ., j260,i;67
at New Orleans, 9)J5 tfoi0
at Charlotte, 127,055
at Dahlonega, 123,310
*$3 426,632

Number of pieces coined at Philadelpkia, 7,053,074
at New Orleans, 3,446,900
at Charlotte, 31,828
at Dahlonega, 26,824

Pieces, 106,558.626
So much of this communication as relates to the Mint was
referred to the Committee of Ways and Means, and so much
as relates to the medals was referred to the Committee on the
Library of Congress.
8th From the Secretary of the Treasury, with a report from
the Commissioner of the General Land Office, in answer to
the call of the House of the 9th instant, on the motion of Mr.
GA'RRET DAvis, fur the names of discontinued land offices, and
other particulars connected therewith. The offices disconti-
nued were at Monroe, in Michigan, and at Marietta, Zanes-
ville, Steubenville, Cincinnati, and Wooster, in Ohio. Re-
ferred to the Committee on the Public Lands, and ordered to
be printed.
9th. From the Secretary of War, with a list of the names of
the gentlemen employed as clerks in the various branches of
the War Depertment in the year 1840, with the pay of each.
The number of clerks is 84, the amount paid not added up.
Laid on the table, and ordered to be printed.
Sundry bills from the Senate received their first and second
reading, and were referred to appropriate committees, viz.


TUESDAY, JANUARY 26, 1841.
DUTY ON PINS.
Mr. TILLINGHAST, from the Committee on Manufac-
tures, obtained leave to report the following bill:
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of
the United States of America in Congress assembled, That
so much of the act entitled "An act to alter and amend the several
acts imposing duties on importss" approved July 14, 1832, as pro-
vides that pins of foreign manufacture may be imported free of
duty from and after the 1st day of April next, be, and the same
is hereby, repealed; and that, from and after the said day, pins,
when imported, be subject to a duty of 20 per cent. ad valorem.
The bill was twice read, and committed to the Committee
of the Whole House on the state of the Union.
Mr. POPE asked leave to present a petition; which was
objected to.
Mr. POPE moved to suspend the rules to enable him to pre-
sent the petition; the question was put and lost.
THE TREASURY NOTE BILL.
The House then, again, resolved itself into Committee of
the Whole on the state of the Union, and resumed the con-
sideration of the bill reported from the Committee of Ways
and Means, for the issue of anr additional five millions of
dollars in Treasury notes. Mr. CASEY, of Illinois, was call-
ed to preside over the deliberations of the committee.
Mr. DUNCAN resumed his remarks, and addressed the
committee upon the range of topics laid down by him yester-
day, until half past two o'clock.
In concluding his remarks-
Mr. D. said that immediately before he had taken the floor
this morning his attention had been called to the following
statement, published in the "National Intelligencer" of this
day :
Mr. CUSHINo hoped that, at this stage of the debate, no tech-
nical question of order would be raised, because, he said, after
the extent to which the remarks of the member from Ohio (Mr.
DUNcAN) had been carried, he (Mr. C.) should feel himself bound
to appeal to the courtesy and the hoeer of this House to suffer him
to reply.
Mr. W. C. JOHNSON submitted to the Chair whether it was
in order for an individu .1 i i, i-'h r.. G-n HlF;r... i.tih cowardice
who had himself beeu :-run.ik .;.'. n .' I ,,, in' n.. .r "T'
Now, (proceeded Mr. D,) I never heard this remark made
by the gentleman from Maryland, (Mr. JOIiNSON.) It was
not addressed to menor to the Chairman of the committee in
such a way as to be heard. And I was astonished when it
was put into my hands; and if I had had time for reflection,
I would have contradicted it through some other medium. I
Aay I did not hear the remark; and I have no hesitation in
declaring that the man who uttered it is guilty of a base
falsehood, and is himself a liar. And 1 call upon the Chair-
man of the committee to say whether such language was used
in his hearing.
[Note by the Reporter- It is here to be remarked that at
the moment the scene dt scribed in the Intelligencer" of this
morning, and quoted by Mr. DUNCAN, took place, the Chair
was occupied by Mr. CAMPBELL, of South Carolina, and not,
as the Reporter, ..-ir', !I.. his imperfect vision, supposed, by
Mr. BANKS, of Virie,-,a
When called upon by Mr. DUNCAN-
Mr. CAMPBELL, of South Carolina, rose and said: 1
take upon myself to say that 1 heard no such expression when
I was in the Chair. 1 had called the p,;,il-r,n n from Ohio
(Mr. DUNCAN) to order for irrelevancy, and he had acquiesced.
I then understood the gentleman from Maryland (Mr. W. C.
JOHNSON) as rising to the same point of order, and my reply
to him was, that 1 had already called the i r> I. man to order,
andt that he had acquiesced in the decision. But, Il repeat, ]
did not hear the expression referred to.
Mr. DUNCAN. I protest against the statement that I
had ever said any thing against Gen. Harrison except what
the history of the country sustained me in saying. I n,vii
inlimated that he was a coward, nor any thing like it; and ni
conclusion can be drawn from any thing I have said other
than that he was not entitled to that character of a great
military chieftain which was claimed for him by his friends.
Mr. W. C. JOHNSON. The report in the -"National
Intelligence" of the remarks I made yesterday is perfectly
correct. I made those remarks, and I intended them to be
fully audible in every part of this House,--
Mr. CAMPBELL, of South Carolina, rose and inquired
of the Chair, Is the gentleman in order '"
Mr. STANLY. He is as much in order as you are.
The CHAIRMAN (Mr. BaIGGS) pro tem. called to order.
Mr. W. C. JOHNSON proceeded to say that had he been
conscious of the disclaimer which lh.: ,itl.--man from Ohio
(Mr. DUNCAN) had just made, it Wuld lavPe .uplrrs-Jed the
necessity of his (Mr. J.'s) having made any remarks. But
as that gentleman had denied the fact that such a statement
as that reported in the "Intelligencer" had been made by
himself, (Mr. J.) he felt it his duty to say that it had been
made; and he now held in his hand the evidence of the fact
upon which his remark was predicated. The fact was
not only notorious to all the members of the last Congress,
but lie himself and other gentlemen here present had a per-
fect recollection that the charge which he (Mr. J.) had yester-
day asserted as having been imputed to the gentleman was made
upon this floor, not by one, nor by two, but by three several
gentlemen. The subject-matter had ended there. The gentle-
man was here upon this floor, and yet, so far as he (Mr. J.) was
conscious, he (Mr. D.) had not called upon any one of these
gentlemen for satisfaction, nor had any communication been
made to them which could have been regarded in that light.
But, as a proof of what he had stated, he would send to the
Clerk's table, with a view to have it read, a statement-
The CHAIRMAN said it was not in order.
Mr. JOHNSON admitted, he said, the irrevelancy of the
matter; but he held in his hand the report of a speech made
here by a member of C.ninr. ,-- a man of as much character
as any in this House rc in the.' world-in which speech this
allegation was made. A reference to this speech would show
that he (Mr. J.) had not done the gentleman frim ,n hi, i Mr
DUNCAN) injustice, but that he was 'b.irne out in, whale he had
said. He tial I, IJesirp 1 t ngage in corilroursies oIn lii
floor; but I) show thlat he hr Il not domne the gentleman injus-
tice, he would request the Clerk to read two sentences of the
speech to which he had referred, and which was delivered in
this House in'1839.
The CHAIRMAN said it was not in order.
Mr. JOHNSON. I will simply then say that with these
facts-
MIr. CAMPBELL, of South Carolina, submitted to the
Chair whether the gentleman was in order I If not, he (Mr.
C.) must object to his proceeding-
Mr. STANLY. For two days past every subject under
Heaven has been talked about here, and yet the gentleman
from South Carolina (Mr. CAMPBELL) has never raised his
voice in a call to order, nor has any body else.
Mr. JOHNSON was unwilling, he said, to force himself
upon this House contrary to its feelings and its rules. He
had been a member of the body too long to make such an at-
tempt. But he felt it due to himself and to the member from
Ohio, that the fact on which he (Mr. J.) had predicated his
statement of yesterday should be made known. Mr.J. then
read from the speech to which he had alluded the following
passage:
With these frets before the House, what member will say that
such a man is a fit associate for gentlemen Availing himself of
his privileges, seeking to destroy the character of his brother
members, without the courage or the feelings of honor to prompt
him to ask redress for admitted insults, can such.a man be deem-
ed within the pale of honor V'
That (Mr. J. proceeded to say) was the language used by
an honorable member on this floor-language printed and
published so long ago as 1839 ; and it was this fact which
induced him (Mr. J.)when he supposed the gentleman from
Ohio was charging such a man as Gen. Harrison with want
of courage, to ask whether it was courteous, or in accordance
with Parliamentary rule, that a charge of that nature should


be made by a man who had himself been branded as a cow-
aid. That charge had been made, and repeated over and
over against the gentleman from Ohio; and no man who
would examine Ihe record c.,uld deny it. Th.- was all that
he (Mr. J.) had'said; and this he/madraid. The gentleman
from Ohio might not consider this an imputation-he
might consider that irnjustIce had been done liu. Hie (Mr.
J.) spoke only ol ihe frt; and he had read the speech to
show the fact ; and alihoidgh he himself abstained from dis-
cuesi.ns oft a iers.ral character as much a- possible, yet he
hadil Ifell it due to himneell' and to the eminent pesonage %hose
cause he had advcated, Io say as much as be had done when
the character .f'liatl pFLrsonage had been assailedd.
After one or itwo iurt her rt marks-
Mr. DUNCAN followed in a f-vw remarlis, hiich Ihe re-
porter could not hear accurately, tbut which wer. understood
to have reference to a resolution introduced in a lrreoi(u
Congress for his (Mr. D '.) espulMon, anid Ij certain ionic-
utl.orm thrownn out at the ihre-,ho.ld of Ihe Jiscusion thatL Lhe
(Mr. El.) had postponed the publicaion iel ceirnin letters
until after the .a-,'gsa of ihe du-ilhing law tLIe whole of'
which, he said, had its origin i a la s .rt, itr.i o'r,'ardice,
by men who had nt tIhe curIage 1to ,stnd to their own acti.
It was ltcover Ih,'es aac t iat the resoulioIn Ii d teen in,-
rodu., ,.-srn.] hi' had l I.ien t. Id thatl a rgular raicu. had
bten held al that lime to see what wivs lo be done, in urder
to get Ftri.tll-rr.n our nf ihetr piedlcamerlt.
Mr.L UNDERWVOOD ro'e io. make an explanation, but,
being ,-ileI tor dIltr, t..k hit .ea'.
The following letter, address. to the Repurltr, wasb hand-
ed in prei,.uc Io the ai.i.-orniurit of the Hure : :
Mir. %VHrEELER: Had I been permitted to proceed wili, lIe
explanation I rose to make, I intewtJ l.- haoe v.e;d al I un s a
member of this House when th.: ,-rth i-u n ir..n, .01. I Mr. DtITN.
cAt) had difficulties with two gnlcm in.' iher, ou..) tei Pa iesata':.
this floor, from Kentucky, to %it, Mr. ,c.ulTHari iTand Mr. MEN-
EPEE: that I messed with the irnr r; i,,, I i.4 ,,ue,, n itl bc Lt
terms with both of them; and Iat I ria.l n-i knlin.ivF.ge of an,'
caucus being held to adopt resel.jitns or r:. i...n,.., rd any iciioa,
on the part of Congress within a , w .) r.: I, .' .:iL,,'r .n rhi.'e err,-
tlemen from eny difcuhli in i.,.. i, he was in..:.I'd' wth iti
member from Oiti'.. I r.: r ir:ar.J anyE m'ih thin; allg-A before;
and t have no kri..'.lt.Jv.e ..r belief tha e t..eit ll t ,,t duelling
was at all hapt'.n'I I'ra i" passage t, ensy rricuure ,r resolve
adopted in caucus in consequence ofdTiffiiir subst,.irng h cieen
tii,e ril.,ran from Ohio and the e .r,liTe.-n fr.i-, K.:n riil%, or
either of them. I thought justice .-. ii. at-a.-,i r-.i. J this Et il' -
ment atmv hands ; but, as 1 was rn:., r. rihil...J m16 ui l-' i or, the
flier, I ..i.-it \ .*. to introduce it in connexion with our rcputL
of the proceedings.
"JANUARYT 26. J. R. UNDERWOOD."
Mr. DAVIS, of Kentuchky, then ol.lained the floor, and
addressed the Commilire in reilerence it iIt financial statebf
the country and its c.rndiii.in grncrtly, and upon several
of the incidental topics whichhbad been introduced into the
discussion.
Mr. D. having concluded-
The Chairman gave the floor to Mr. Pirr, or Kertukvy.
After some little controversy as to the tight to ithe" lor-
The committee rose, reported progress, and oLt.iitd Ireave
to sit again.
Mr. CRABB, on leave, presented a prenibl.' ran resolu-
tions of the Legislature of the State of Alaraui,.a, aganistI a
revival of the protective tariff system ; which were laid on
the table, and ordered to be printed.
And then the House adjourned.
CoaRECTION.-For the word "two" Bills, in the remarks of
Mr. WILLIAMS, of Conn in the House of Representatives yes-
terday, substitute "'di,'" Bills.-REO0RTEa.

SURVEYS OF PUBLIC LAND.
A writer in the alfilisoiian, who seems to be
well informed of the do.ails ol' the Land Office ope-
rations, makes the l'l[,,nin- curious deelohp-
ment of the way in \ihirli Uncle Sam has been
sometimes fleeced by pretended surveys of the
public lands:
"That frauds have been committed in makir.g
returns of surveys of lard.s over which a chain
was neter sirr-tched, is beyond doubt ; and it has
been eveit ,aid ih,it, in days, gone by, expensive
series of surveys, if nimere planting can be so call-
ed, were made by dropping down the current of
a watercourse in a canoe, taking the course of
its nieandpr, L6) a compass, and the distances by
a cal,:ulatrin ofl time required to float rorn one
point to another."

LEGISLATURE OF MARYLAND.
On Si:uridty last, in the House of Delegates,
Mr. BowiE, chairman of the Committee of Ways
and Means, delivered a report, which is said to be
a very able one, in which he recommends direct
taxation as the only means of extricating the State
from her present embarrassed condition. The re-
port concludes with the following resolution:
Resolved, as the sense of this House, That in order to
sustain the faith and credit of the State, and to raise a fund
to pay the interest on the public debt of the State, it is indis-
pensably necessary for the Legislature at the present session
of the General A .cmnily to sad'.pt such a system of taxation
as will be fully adequate to the wnrit.f tIhe Tr 5 -urv,solong
as they shall continue; and :he C,,mmmiite of Ways and
Means are hereby instructed to report to the Hoans as early
as practicable the necessary bills for hati purpose."
[Mr. PaREsSTMANs offered an order "that it be noted on the
journal that he dissented from the report of the committee, but
approved of the resolution."
Mr. MARTIN, also a member of the same committee, offered
an order that it be entered on the journal that he dissented
from both the report and resolution submitted 1'y the com -
mittee."]

FROM FLORIDA.
EXTRACT OP A I.ETTER, DATED
FORT BROOKE, JANUARY 5.
"An express has just arrived from Taracota, sixty miles
seuth of this place, advising the Commanding General that
eleven warriors had comb into that place.
"A warrior has just come in here with a white flag, who
says that Tiger-tail,' with a large band of i.k-eople and
relations, will be In to-morrow.
Accounts from Onathliga hummock say that twelve or
fifteen Indians have recently come in and a number have
also recently given themselves up at Major Belknap's post,
No 4."
SAVANNAH, JANUARY 18,
The news from Fl ..ri la continues cheering. Appearances
now decidedly justify the expectation that the enemy will
ere I,,ni surrendr. The task of the Commanding General
is a delicate onr. We shall soon know how far he will trust
toetisting mari';estiii,ons ul friendly felling on the part of
the enemy. The prrsen,:e of the Seminoilsa tram Arkansas
in Ihe eiearm's camps may and probably will be productive of
happy rt ults.
Our lasi informailin is from Pilatka, daled January 14th.
Our correspondent says that the news from the iVest c-n-
titues to be gratilying. A letter hbd been received there from
Cot. Lootins, dated at Fort Clinch, stating that thir.'ythree
Indians had come in at that post.
Tiger-tail had also come in and was going to Tampa. It
is thought that in all about sixhundred Indians have present-
ed themselves at various posts along the coast on the Gulf
side.
A party of the enemy lahtly attaekm'd Foir Walker, killing
two or thice negroes srd wounding one white woman. Fort
Walker is between Mnheanio y and Newnansville.--Rep.

DEATHI or' A JwtIst PatEsT.-The Richmond Compiler of
Saturday says: "The congreg.ation of Israelites in this city
are afflicted with atsad dispensation in the death of the Rev.
A. H. ConHE, their venerable pastor, who died suddenly yes-
terday morning. There could be no more ardent devotion
than he evinced in the cause of the Jew-ofl the amelioration
of their political and elevation of their moral eotdition."

JOSEPH S. WVII.LIAlM$,


Attorney ani Couniellor-aI-Law,
And Gener.il Cal,.:Iftr, A.gent, Linden, Soutr Carolina.
dec 19-6mecp


JAMES DUlWLOP,
Late 9f Charnmbersburg, Pennsiylania,
AND
A. J, I)LI)ID OIAW,
ATTORNEYS-AT-LAW, PITTsBURG, PENN.
arpi112-.' .I
CHIIMNEYS.--l cask French Chimneys, just received at
jan 8 TODD'S Drug Store,


I I








i ~kX ~ a


THE PUBLIC FINANCES.

SPEECH OF MR. BARNARD,
OF NEW YORK,
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, JANUARY 18, 1ll.
The Howse being in Committee of the Whole on the state
of the Union upon the bill making provision for the issue of
five millions of Treasury notes-
Mr. BARNARD rose, and spoke nearly as fellows:
.Ir. Chairman I had occasion last year to present my
views in regard to the issuing of Treasury notes by this Gov-
ernnrenl, in the farm proposed by this bill. I have no doubt
.f ithe' eonstii utional right of this Government, being author-
ized by law, to borrow money, and to give for such money its
bonds or it# notes as evidences of debt. I have no doubt of
our con tiiutional right to authorize the Secretary of the Trea-
sury to is-ue promissory notes, payable at a future day, with
or without interest, to such of the public creditors as are wil-
ling to receive them, instead of receiving payment in cash.
At the same time, I do not thirk this the best mode of bor-
rowing money, or of paying debts. Both may be resorted to
under the pressure of (ircumstanices, but neither should ever
be without such apology for it.
My great objection to Treasury notes as proposed to be is-
sued by this bill, which does but adopt the provisions of the
Treasury note act of last session, is, that under it paper may be
i-'ued de-igned to become, and which would become, a com-
mon medium of payment and circulation between the Gov-
ernment and its debtors and cridi,,uri, and, as far as it would
g.1, a common m.inty medium in circulation in the community
Surh p. per, not remitig on specie as a basis, like sound con-
vertible bank paper, buL resting wholly on the faith and credit
of the Government, is nothing more and nothing less than
bills of credit. It is precisely that description of paper to
which all the evils and all the odum of lulll of credit attach-
ed in the earlier periods of our history, and is precisely what
t.e Constitution prohibits to the States, and what this Gov-
ernment itself has no authority to employ. These views, as
I have said, were expressed fully on a former occasion.
At present I have other and very different objections to
urge to this bill, or ra her to the measure for which this bill
provides. This is a fiscal measure, and a measure of relief.
As such I d.) nut agree that itis either a properor an adequate
meaiure It iuppos-.. Iart there isor will be a deficit of means
in :he Trea-uvy io meri th.s demands upon it, in the wholeor
some part of the year I 4i I ; and that that deficit may amount
to five milli.,ns rOf doll is, but not more. It supposes also,
since it is not accompanied, as the act of borrowing by the
Government always should be, by some measure for ulti-
mate supply and repayment, that, if the notes issued shall not
be redeemed, as the bill itself seems to anticipate on its face
they will be, out of current revenues within the present year,
they will be redeemed out of current revenues in the year
1842, the revenue laws standing just as they now do. Such,
indeed, in both the particulars now referred to, is the puiiton
and argument of thIe honorable chairman f the C-,mmitl'.o"- of
Ways and Mean., (Mr. JONES, of Virginia,) who has just
addressed us on lo subject.
Now, sir, I think that, in all this, there is great and mani-
fest error. I think, in the first place, that we want, for the
service of 1841, over and above all revenue and receipts from
all s uires, un.ler eslitin, laws, ten millions of dollars, in-
slear el five, including a irll and necessary balance in the
Treasury, such as always should be provided for. And then,
I think that neither in 1841 nor in 1842 will it be possible to
redeem either len millions or five millions, or any other
amount, however small, of outstanding debt, by the applica-
tion of ordinary revenue, after the support of Government
shall have been provided for, unless there shall be a material
amendment of our revenue laws, made now, or made, at any
rate, at no distant day. Things remaining as they are, I com-
pute an actual deficit for the service of the present year of at
least seven millions and a half of dollars. This supposes that
the receipts from customs may reach sixteen millions; the Se-
cretary estimates them at nineteen millions. But what an emp-
ty account will the Treasury exhibit in 1842, when, as the
Secretary shows,lfive millions of duties go off under the com-
promise act, and when the whole sum realized from customs,
as he thinks, will not exceed ten or eleven millions of dol.
lars '1 How is the Treasury, 'then, t. pay all current expen-
diturev, and redeem also several millions of debt I
'Thse remarks will indicate sufficiently the grounds of my
present opposition to this measure. It wants propriety and it
w irit aJ'equacv. Money ought not to -be borrowed by this
Gori rnimert .i bills of credit, p.refpired and de-igrcd ,ft cir-
cnlahitn nir r' there now ai,.V iuch egtien.o as wouutd lus-
tify a resort to this mode of pnir.- iffT ih.' i.utlice r, J..-.ri in
promises, instead of cash. This is one objection; the other
ii, ithat, whclrcr it be designed to pay with these notes, or to
b.rrov with ihem, orboth, the amount proposed to be realiz-
ed is utterly in-uffiiient, in the first place; and, then, no pro-
vision raharI eer is i.ade for their redemption or for supplying
to the Treasury a competent revenue for the coming ye ar. In
the want of tlise vtwo ihinga-an adequate -upply, by bor-
rowing, in aJidditr.,ni to all receipts from ordinary sources, for
the strviceof lItl ; and a present amendment of therevenue
law., with a vi,.-' to increase the amount receivable for du-
i i 142-in the wint and neglect of these two things, if
they shall be neglected, will arise, i mtry opini. .n, an inevita-
ble necessity for resorting to an extra or early session of Con-
gress, after the present Congress shall have expired. It is
.41e solemn and -i're.il duty of th.e present Administration,
holding the puiiical power in both branches of the Legisla-
ture, to take care that that burden shall not fall on the Gov-
ernment and the country.
But, Mr. Chairman. in order to understand how inade-
quate this measure is to the real exigencies of the public ser-
vice, it will be necessary that we should possess ourselves of
a pretty full view of our financial condition, and of the state
and prospects of the Treasury ; and to this task I shall now
address myself.
The gIr,' i,-, in fr.,m Virainia (Mr. JONEs) deprecates the
iriniling r(f p.linical considerations with the discussions on
hit- ill. I, sir, a1 oll not be the first to introduce politics in-
to this debate. Certainly it could be no part of my purpose,
on this occasion, to assail the Administration, or any body
connected with it. It would be out of time and out of cha-
racter to begin a warfare, at this day, on a fallen and expir-
ing Adn,r,i-.i ra'i n.
SAt the same time, it -most be apparent enough to all that,
if the Secrelary of the Treasury in his annual report, and
the President in his message, following the Secretary, have
fallen into gross errors, mistakes, and miscalculations, in the
account they have given us of the fiscal operations and
affairs of the country, the earliest opportunity should be taken
to make the necessary corrections, and set the whole matter
in its true ui.l proper light. So much ;3 due t. itl,,. House,
which must act officially in the case; s.i-. rmut h It due to the
country, which has a right to know, not only what we do,
but the grounds of our r.,r-.dinr .also. So much is due
also to another intec-i, .o.und up inimat:ily as it must be,
fir god ,'r fir evil, with the interest and honor of the whole
l ind, and which has a right to demand protection against all
fraud and imp.-itii.,n, if any such has been attempted, which
I .o' no' chargi-, aerd, at any rate, against the evil consequen.
cer-i Il.-ll or error and mistake, into which others may have
fallen. I allude, of course, to the in-coming Administration.
Now, Mr. Cli.hrnin, I believe that the condition of the
country, in regard to its finances, is one of deep embarrass-
ment and difficulty, bordering on bankruptcy and dishonor.
Government is the agent of a great estate; out of which it is
ithe agent's proper business to raise revenue enough, year by
year, to -; va' h,.olt fir its preservation and its improvement.
atthe ers effr ha- not paid its own way. It has been, on the
whole, prrhlps, suri ,.-iils productive, if good economy had
been observed; hut, of what it has produced, too large a share,
I am afraid, ha.~ c..re l..r the benefit of the agent and those
in his employ. The oe ners had certainly realized very little
from it; and", so far from any improvement having been made,
the very effort or attempt at improvement, in some matters of
lih. hi-,_hitl e.rieq oencr, has been openly abandoned, and the
iliertnnce bii7. r.ed io run down into a state of dilapidation
and delay. In thi; m-in time, i-'il iy ire money has been
ancuulv t sp'iml.d ,.ohrhow t*r -th, r,lhi:,.n ever before, in the
ink. ,istce of hine, I'rr the agent has found it convenient to
seize upon and convert to his use, in hit management of affairs,
very mniny nrelli-.m of property, not the current proceeds of
the estate, bl.,,.,;i, I,., his .wreri; all, all now consumed
and gone. And, i'otmviihaandirg niha irotUse and erlriva-
garilt ependiture, bli-sdJs the sLbrnd'nmrim', cr nr'r.lei,, ot
rn ,ny valuable in'erests, already rei,'rri.l l,-, 1t i fi.und that,
in many c-es, the creditors of the G.ivperr, msrt lave not
i.e, n honoratly or fairly dealt with ; that claims and drimanit.,
t., a lrge amount, and which could nut be resusled L-r dili rre,I
ivrrt- ludriCe or wirh honor, have braei dented or p,,isl,oned
ir.d, ihilly, Lhal ihi' ag'ent n? a.,out to har-I ,.ver to his suc-
Creior in office a defileent ar,.I t'shaou,..I Treaiury, s,,d an
i.cntio'emihed estate, with a heavy burden of un.lhsel'osed
de;,, re-ling upn it.
V.ry different in-leed, however, from all tiis it he view which
the Presi-lent Iresen's in hrs firewrll r.p,.t t.j Congress and
the P,.-I.le. Ii is erilent that the Preni.lent has done in this


cape precisely what the hun.r.,tI'e chairman -f the Ways and
Meins his just told us this [louse r.uuht to d.i. We ought,
he i"y ,. rely implicily on thlie etatcoT, men's r.nI estimates of
the Secretary litlie Treaioury. To whom should we g.-to
whomi can we ga--but ino thee, thou most wiie anl] ecur.,e
He,)d ofFinance WVell, the President hi- d-..ine lls: he
ha. sat down humbly at the feet of this clear-headed MNir,-
ter of Money, and fle-arncd of him. Look into the report of
the Secretlary, and then into the Message, and you will see
tha' ihe President has given us no lessons, no irlnorm.i.ar) or
in.'ruti.sn whaiever, n linrance, but justsuch as he had first
1r ,rned -iut of the Ananrial goip-las acc.,rdin-lot Mr. Wood-
bury. Hear what the PrFsident says, Mr. Chairman :
"The present sour,,n con.diiin of their finances, and the suc-
cess. &a. are milLter upmn wihi.:h the P.,.pli and G..ernnie,,r .l.r
the United "i ,ts? m %y vell c.ii r tniii itl-i, t r el, s."
Prom Jhe .,',,rm -,-,, n.rnv qf nh t ,Y Fri..J [Lihe -.ji.n,'nnc<.rin o,
of his adir.nirai.nr l 1 o rh.- pre-e, 1 d ,, .very denei.nd r...n
the Governineri ,in .m. and abroad, hias i..en pr.-mr-i. iin- '"
"The am il am.ui nf fr. i.-rirv ,r,--c,, nrt elC-ed...7 for ,r1d
half -rdniir- of ,-doilar. rill -11 ijaiindjng, & e. nny t,! re3 e e,;,r ned
o t ofl .f.- rili;nr re '-rnnJ & e,.
STLh-. available balt.n'.,.; r itO Treasury on the 1st Janrary
next LI-l ,l I-itnAiir.J .1i oine no.liion and a half of dollars. This
sum, .hi ith.- esperv.:J reipir.' rinn all sources during the next
year, will, it is believed, be auafliient to enable the Government
to meet every engagement, and lesae a stable balance in the
Irtrasury," &B.
"Ih i.iala,, Lthis Gjvcuintieet is,] aa is believed, the only GCr-


President to make proclamation to all the w.-.,1, thor 'irs is a
Government which prn 'ily meets all demi',.ls upri t.
Well, again, sir. Bi-,re this Government puts forth its
claim to so much credit for honorable dealing with its
creditors, it seems to me it would have been prudent at
least to have taken care that there were no very flagrant
cases to be alleged against it of neglect and refusal to re-
deem its faith solemnly pledged. By a treaty with the Che-
rokees, ratified in 1836, the United States agreed that sach
Cherokee warriors as were engaged on the side of the United
States in the last war with Great Britain and the Southern
tribes of Indians, and who were wounded in the service,
should be entitled to pensions. The Secretary of War in his
recent report urges the demand of these warriors on the no-
tice of the President. They are very destitute," says the
Secretary, "and the good faith of the Government is pledged
in their favor." Here are demands, then, due for four years,
under solemn treaty stipulation, and, during all that period,
they have not only not been met, but there has been no effort
and no disposition to meet them. No appropriation has been
asked of Congress, none is now asked, nor would those in
Congress whe might be disposed to have the faith of the Go-
vernment kept have been permitted by the Administration at
any time, I suppose, to pass an act in fulfilment of this treaty.
These miserable Cherokee warriors, who fought for- you,
and shed their blood in your quarrel, wounded and disabled,
have received your promise of a pittance wherewith to render
the fragment of their broken life comfortable or endurable,
and for years you delay and refuse to pay as you have prom-
ised. You, you, do this, who make it your loud boast that all
demands on you are promptly met,


r iiwh chl4av -ip f.ill',' a] fi.ll,] paid all its creditors,
lh a.ni. rehice'd-J siell entirely from debt."
Th. t'dcic lh-r. -rLaled [a recital just made] fully authorize the
a5,5-l..n thar IIl tI ,'purposes for which this Government was in-
stituted have been accomplished during four years," &c. and "that
this has been done when the ordinary revenues of the Govern-
ment were generally decreasing," &c.
Now, Mr. Chairman, I am forced to take issue with the
President-or rather, I should say, with his Secretary-on
every one of these bold positions and statements, and to give
to every one of them, as I do, a bold contradiction and de-
nial. There is not one of them that will bear examination
and the test of facts. I shall examine them in order, and
with some particularity. In this work, I must use such facts
and data as I have been able to gather for myself, without the
aid of those important disclosures which I had hoped, before
this time, to have the benefit of, under my resolution of in-
quiry, introduced at an early day in the session, and directed
to the Secretary of the Treasury. I hope yet, under favor of
the House and the friends of the Secretary here, to get the
information sought for by that resolution, before the session
ends; when, I believe, it will be found, the truth and the
whole truth being honestly told, that things are even worse
in the department of finance than our worst apprehensions
have led us to suppose them to be.
Mr. Chairman, I begin my examination of the positions
assumed by the President-assumed always, I conclude, on
the authority of the Secreriarvy-wi'h that unqualified claims
and declaration, made, of course, to confirm and illustrate
the somewhat boastful allusion to the general sound condi-
tion of the finances and the success which has attended their
management-the declaration that, in the whole four years of
his administration, "every demand upon the Government,
at home and abroad, has been promptly met."
Sir, what is meant by meeting demands promptly I What
would a business man be understood to mean, who should
be found walking up and down Chestnut street, or Wall
street, proclaiming to every one he might meet, while rubbing
his hands with self-satisfaction, that he had promptly met every
demand upon him 1 Suppose it were universally known of him
on 'Change that, whether dishonest or only unfortunate, he
had found it convenient, for a series of months t'.' ihe r, to
make terms with many of his creditors, some of whom had
been kind enough, trusting to their knowledge of his ultimate
responsibility, and his general good credit, to take for their
debts and demands, due -and past due, instead of cash pay-
ment, his own promissory note, payable one year after date,
bearing such rate of interest, not exceeding six per cent. and
not always above a mill or two, as they could bargain for 1
What would be thought of such a man and his bold declara-
tion of habitual and invariable promptness in meeting all de-
mands upon him'nl Well, sir, what has this Government
been doing for four years past 1 In that time it has issued
twenty-five millions of Treasury notes-and now asks au-
thority to issue five millions more; and of this twenty-five
millions, I know not how much, but very much of it, has
been issued directly to creditors in payment, or rather
in postponement of the payment due to such creditors-
yet every demand upon the Government has been promptly
met! One who pays a debt past due, with his own promis-
sory note, may change, and does change, the form of indebt-
edness, but certainly not the fact of indebtedness. It he
gives a negotiable nate, he may change his creditor, satisfy-
ing one by raising up another to take his place, but the debt
remains. True, in this case, the immediate demand is met;
but how met 1 Not, certainly, with payment in cash, which
is what the creditor wants, but with a bit of paper, which
is nothing more nor less than an authority to the holder to
go into the money market and borrow, in the name and for
account of the Government, money enough to pay himself
with, of any body who will lend it. Sir, brokers are a very
odious tribe to the present Administration and its supporters;
and the Administration has furnished, in four years, more
business to brokers, through the issue of its promissory notes
anid Treasury and sub-Treasury drafts, than they have had,
I venture to say, out of the operations of any twenty, or fifty
perhaps, of the largest proprietors and dealers in the land.
Instead of cash payments, which the Government ought al-
ways to make, it has dealt extensively in its own paper-its
notes and itsdrafis: articles of traffic and brokerage, and some-
times bearing one value, and sometimes another in the mar-
ket; sometimes above par, and sometimes below. A Gov-
ernment dealing, thus with its creditors had best talk as little
as possible about the promptness with which it meets de-
mands upon it. If some have been favored or fortunate
enough to gain premiums on their paper received from the
Government, others, I am well advised, have suffered losses on
theirs. Some of the poor clerks in the Departments in this
city, I think, might testify to losses if they would. But
their demands were promptly met, and they were satisfied.
Oh, yes; it was better to be satisfied with the loss of a small
per cent. on their salaries, than be turamed adrift, and lose sal-
ary and all together. They were satisfied! And so was I
satisfied, sir, when, at the close of the last session, I receiv-
ed, for a little balance of per diem due me, first the Speaker's
note, and then, upon that, a Treasury note or two in part
payment, though the gold had been demanded at the Trea-
sury, in my name, for the whole-just by way of experiment.
Sir, it has been said, and the accounts of these things have
frequently been published, that the drafts of the Government
drawn on depositaries or holders of public money, and issued
to satisfy creditors, have often been protested and dishonored,
I -upp,.se the fact to be so, though I am not prepared to state
.it on my own or any certain and reliable authority. I feel
much more certain of another fact, end that is, that drafts
drawn by contractors, agents, and officers-drawn under au-
thority, and in due and legal form, on the Treasury, for mon-
eys due and payable, sometimes for large amounts, and where
the exigency of the public service made the demand urgent
and imperative-that such drafts have, in more instances than
one or a few, been refused and rejected. It must be known
somewhere, and in some department of the Government, if
such things have occurred ; I believe they have; andi, if so,
it affords a most apt illustration of the boast that "every de-
mand upon the Government has been promptly met."
But, sir, without dwelling further on the paper transactions
of the Government, and its delinquencies as a debtor under
the use of such paper, I will come to some instanees-a few,
just byway of example and specimen-which do not seem to
me to accord perfectly well with the assumption that every
demand upon the Government has been promptly met."
In looking into the recent report of the OXuartermaster Ge-
neral, I was struck with the tone ofjust complaint-so I read
the document-in which he there indulges. Last year lihe
presented an estimate, as was his duty, for the service in Flo-
rida. That estimate was six hundred thousand dollars. And
now he states the fact that he was REoautIFD to modify and
reduce that estimate one-half l Only three hundred thousand
dollars, therefore, were appropriated. And what has been the
consequence 7 Why, just what was known must happen.
Gen. Jesup says, "there are outstanding claims to a consid-
able amount, arising out of the volunteer and militia service,
which have been recognized by the Executive, and for the
prompt payment of which funds are required ;" and he urges
importunately, that, for this object and for current service, an
immediate application be made to Congress for at least four
hundred thousand dollars. I have seen a letter front a highly
respectable gentleman on the spot, or near it, to his friend in
this House, in which the amount of arrearages due to volun-
teers and militia, &c. is stated at not less than 8300,000. So,
then, Mr. Chairman, we have here demands for volunteer and
militia service in Florida, due and past due, running up to
hundreds of thousands of dollars, recognised by the President,
and yet not paid. And why not paid Oh, of course, be-
cause there was no appropriation: and how can money be
paid, be the Treasury never so full, without an appropriation !
Well, and gihy was there not an appropriation t Why, that
was cut down-cut down by positive order and command-
when it was just as well known as it is now, that the money
would be required and wanted. In short, you-this Govern-
ment-putting forth a boastful claim that you had met every
demand promptly-you declined and refused at the proper
time to make an appropriation to meet debts and demands
which, at that very time, you meant to contract and create ;
and this you did-I think you must be content to bear this im-
peachment-this you did deliberately, intending to cover your-
self behind the legal excuse of "no appropriation," from the
approach and the reproaches of your own delayed, suffering,
and abused creditors. You employ citiz-n soldiers in the field
for months together; you promise to pay them and provide for
their subsistence and comfort; you suffer large arrearages to
accumulate against you; you recognise the debt; but when
payment is demanded, your answer is-" no appropriation."
The true and only honest answer would be-no money. That
is the secret why yeu do not pay. It is inconvenient, at least,
for you, and you want the next Administration to pay it. No
appropriation Common honesty required you to inilke it at
ithe lIt reak..n. But it was omitted then-tlhen the de-bt was
only v rrr..-.psci; row, however, it is a reality, and whyisthe
dfpropr-.ri.jn not n,,w to be made'l Look to the estimates of
v-'ur Se.r'.t'tvry--do you find any such item there as this
N.I, rno, jirr ihe il.t has become due long since; after it
ha. bi-ri r, ,..,.ri~ed by the President," and after the earnest
appeal made by the (turtternti.ler Genral-aftirr all, your
-alt excuse aands gool. You have made no sl-lr.'t-rtaiton.
an.d y.,u rrop..-e to makeroeon.l at Ihast it is n.t in rh' esti-
matesof the Secretary-of that Secretary who teaches the


were these dues boldly shuffled off, They a mount, doubtless,
to millions, and are left, with other Ihings like ihnm,, .' i
legacy to the next Administration. He is a bold man, Mr.
secretaty, who could claim, in the face of lacts Ike these,
and teach his master to claim for the Government the credit
antl the praise of having promptly met all demands upon it'
But, Mr. Chairman, I pass from this point, to consider an-
other, closely connected with this. A happy man is that Pre-
sident of these United States who can say, with truth, at the
close of his term, that, under his administration, all the
purposes for which this Government was instituted have been
accomplished;" and that is precisely what Mr. Van Buren
says for himself. Sir, I solemnly declare that I would gladly
allow this declaration to pass without a word of animadver-
sion from me, if I could do so without manifest injustice to
the ina-coming Administration. It is due, however, to those
on whom the burden ofGovernment is to fall after tie fourth
of March, that the error, amounting to delusion, on which
this position rests, should be thoroughly exposed. In attempt-
ing this, I shall carefully avoid all differences with the Presi-
dent on matters involving constitutional doubt or difficulty.
I shall say nothing, tor example, of the course of the Admin-
istration in regard to currency and credit. Many very impor-
tant interests have been sacrificed, during the last four years,
in regard to which the President claims to shelter himself un-
der a constitutional scruple. I shall respect that claim, on
this occasion, and differ him no disturbance upon it. I shall
take him, as I may find him, beyond this magic circle, and
there is, matter enough, in Heaven's good name, with which


Mr. Chairman, there are other illustrations behind of the
prompt manner in which this Administration has met all de-
mands upon it. Take the case qf those works of public im-
provement, our harbors and rivers, and the Cumberland road,
heretofore carried on, but abandoned midway in the operations
upon them during the last two years. The engineers tell us
of arrearages on these works, not as large perhaps as they
were numerous-demands outstanding against them; -sorme
of which must have been long outstanding, and not therefore
promptly met, and many of which would not have been met
at all, at least under this Administration, if the engineers had
not, during the last summer, sold off public property connect-
ed with these work;i, expressly to raise the means for this ob-
ject. Col. Abert tells us that "sales were absolutely neces-
sary, in many cases, in order to raise funds to liquidate small
demands against the works." I have great doubts whether all
demands against these works haveyet been liquidated; and,
if they have, the contemptible and tardy mode in which it
has been done aptly illustrates the ideas which some persons
seem to entertain of what it is to be faithful and prompt in the
discharge of honest debts.
-And then, Mr. Chairman, how has it been with the opera-
tions of the past year on the barracks and fortifications of
the country' I One or two cases, I suppose, may serve as an
example for all. A stinted appropriation was made for these
works last year. Under authority granted by Congress to
order, the application of these moneys was postponed by the
President, so that, to use Gen. Jesup's language, "the opera-
tions have been limited, with a few exceptions, topaying out-
standing claims," &c. This, one would suppose, would have
effectually arrested the progress of these works; under any
other Government such would have been the effect. But no
such thing here. "Owing to a demand for employment,"
says Col. Totten, a most worthy gentleman and able officer,
mortified and stung, I am sure, as a high-minded and honor-
able man, by such a condition of things-" Owing to a de-
mand for employment on the part of laborers, mechanics, and
contractors, we have been enabled to do something," &c.
In other words, to tell the story plainly myself, and relieve
Col. Totten, the case is this: The Government is n,_,, e-.l
in constructing fortifications, which are large and -exIs,-ive
works, and are carried on by yearly appropriations. It has
in its employ on these works superintendents, and contrac-
tors, and mechanics, and laborers, most of whom, at least
many of whom, make their arrangements, domestic and other-
wise, with reference to permanent employment on these works,
from the commencement to the completion of them, running,
of course, through a number of years. They know that these
are works undertaken by Government-a wealthy old gentle-
man, who generally does what he says he will do. Such a
thing as failure or bankruptcy is not thought of. These con-
tractors, mechanics, and laborers are on the ground promptly
with the return of every working season, invited by the Gov-
ernment, and taught to expect r,..ihrin, Il- than to go on
with their work as usual, and to be paid for it of course.
Then comes the Ggvernment, by its agent, and, to their bit-
ter disappointment, announces that funds are low, and prompt
payment for labor is not to be expected. To work or starve
-this is the condition of labor all over the world. What
shall these men do'? Their business is here, and they have
1o employment elsewhere, and might not now be able to find
any. Well, this creates, to be sure, a demand for employ-
ment"-a pressing demand. The Government, teo, is as ur-
gent to have the work done as they are to do it, and the end
is, they are employed and go to work. They will earn the
money, and, though the Government cannot pay, it will owen
and with this debt or demand, by selling it, or pledging it, or
in some way, but of course not without serious sacrifice and
loss, they will continue to realize something out of it for their
current necessities.
Now, sir, this is precisely what has taken plate. I have
now in my hand a letter from an intelligent and worthy gen-
tleman, a personal friend of mine, residing at Oswego, by
which I am informed that, during the past season, the work
on the fort at that place was carried on on a credit. It was
understood, and so stipulated on the part of the Government,
that payment was not to be demanded or expected before April
next.' Nor would any evidence of debt be given, except by a
credit entered on the books of the Superintendest. It was
permitted, however, graciously, to the poor laborer, to transfer
his demand, and the purchaser had his name noted on the
book opposite to the account. My correspondent has fur-
nished me with a copy of one of theordexs under which these
transfers are made, drawn by a laborer who makes his mark,
with certain cabalistic letters of the Superintendent noted on
it by way of recognition. The paper might, perhaps, with
propriety, be added to some others, as one more specimen of
the better currency" of the Government.
But I have given this case as an example of the prompt
manner in which the Administration has met all demands
upon it. By a species of moral coercion it compels its credit-
ors, who ought to be paid promptly in cash every Saturday
night, to submit to an unjust and cruel delay of payment for
several months, and to resort, therefore, to the necessity of
hawking the credit of the Government in the market on petty
accounts, with serious loss to themselves,; and then, having
done this, it turns round, in the face of such a transaction,
and blows a trumpet of praise to itself for having promptly
met every demand upon it!
I wil allude to one other case, very much in point. I am
informed, ntid I believe correctly, that, to carry on operations
on the important works of Fort Schuyler, on the East River,
a sum of money was boharrowed of one of the banks in New
York-the Mechanics' Barnk, I thinl--borrowed for six
months on an interest of three per cent. for that time. Here,
then, the contractors, mechanics, and laborers, and those who
furnished supplies, were paid in cash, andl paid hr.,.tin.;
yes, paid promptly and in cash, but with a rigid and invaria-
ble deduction from the total of every account rendered of
three percent. Here were accounts for work and labor per-
formed, and provisions and supplies furnished, at stipulated
prices; and before these accounts would be paid, a discount
must be submitted to equal to the interest on the money for
six months. In other words, and in effect, the creditors them-
selves are obliged to borrow the money, using the name and
credit of the Government, with which to pay their own de-
mands on the Government, already due and past due, and to
pay six months' interest for it. How such a transaction may
affect this Government I know not; but I know that no pri-
vate gentleman could ever hold up his head again in an hon-
orable community, after he had once resorted to such a mode
of meeting his engagements.
But. Mr. Chairman, I should never be done, if I should
attempt to go through the cases in detail of delinquency in
the matter of prompt payment on the part of the Adminis-
tration. I must be brief in what I have further to say about it.
The Indian Department is full of instances of gross neg-
lect and delinquency. So I understand and believe. Some
hundreds of thousands of dollars, it is believed, yet remain
unpaid, under a treaty entered into with the Pottawatamies,
I think, in 1833. At the last session, we made an appropri-
ation of $36 000 to carry into effect a treaty with the Stock-
bridge and Munsee Indians; and I am told that not one dol-
lan of it has yet been paid. A payment has been asked for,
on vouchers acknowledged to be sufficient, of the proper de-
partment here, and refused, uq the plea that arrangements
had been made, or would be, for payment somewhere else,
and by an Indian agent. Payment has also, as I am told,
been demanded of an Indian agent-the only one who could
be thought of as at all likely to be entrusted with the case-
and nothirig could be obtained. Several cases of strong and
urgent claim are mentioned by Gen. Jesup in his report.
One by the Choctaws, wheets their properly, land, has been
taken for a fort-taken for public use, and no payment made,
or proposed to be made. And another claim on the part of
the Creeks, on a positive agreement made with them hy the
General himself, some years ago, and no payment is made,
or any disposition shown to make it.
And, then, what has been the course of the Admlinistra-
lion in regard to claims, whether in the Departments or be-
fore Congress 1 It is well understood that these claims in
the Departments amount to a very large sum-probably to
millions-claims growing out of the Florida war, and Indian
affairs, and other things. Thesa demands have not been
promptly met. In some cases, as I suppose, appropriations
have been made to meet them, but the accounts have not
been adjusted. In other cases, there has been sere en ac-
cording tp law, and the demands are according to law, but
there has been r". ";,ti.i--.n. Indo not doubt that the next
Administration ,s.if nimnd nril,.t.n.i of these demands lying over
under one pretrn,:e and, ,ri,.",. r. We hear Gen.Jesup coot-
plaining that disbursing and accounting officers ar.e hung up
in the Departments for one or two years before they can get
their accounts and demands adjusted. Befeme Congress, it
is said, there are tpen thousand claims now pending. N..-tody
doubts that very many of these are jus', and ought i.- L.te
promptly paid. Yet1 who that was hpre at the last session of
Congress failed to observe the studied and systematic effort
of the Administration, by every possible device, to c'e-':tin
the action of Congress on this whole subject' And iai, t'.
fort succeeded. Congress passed bills for private claims, in
seven months, to the arooupt of $14,000 Justice and honor
were sacrificed openly, with the eacrifjce of the claims of the
public creditors. Appeals to the mercy of the Government,
as well as to itajustice, fell unheeded on the cold, dead ear of
party. Thie rnjectin wcv a- dhi'crate as it was heartlessi
mhe apprearanrc L.u" -hfnos mru-' LI. saved fir the benefit of
'.army ; he Treasury mu'.t noa I ner the burden of these just
dues mm a ernEma .'f'" .,'. mu'oh i.,:.li..:rl importance. And thus


to learn that all this has been done at a timp "when the or- lions.
dinary revenues of the Government were generally decrease. And, finally, as to the last particular named by the Secre-
ing'" A pretty plain intimation, as I read it, that the Ad- tary under which this "some millions" was tobe saved, name-
Sministration has had nothing but ordinary revenues with ly, that "hostilities with the Seminoles must be nearer to an
which I., aiccrr.plhs so much. The Secretary is explicit on end." Well. Mr. Chairman, I should have great doubt of
ihi polint. I, f allows, therefore," so he concludes, "that the fact of this war being nearer to an.end than when it first
the current revenue, notwithilanding all reductions, hasbeen began if I did not recollect that this Administration is nearer
adeqru.'e Io delrav both tlie ordinary and extraordinary de- to an end. But we are to have a great saving in 1841, not
nr.i s," &c. HFlow very jus and true it is that ihe Admin- because this war is actually to end in 1841-I hope it may-
istration has met all demands on the Trea-'ury, andJ has c- but because, in 1841, the war must be nearer to an end than
eomplished all the purposes for which theGoeinm.-rnt was in 18401 That, sir, is ciphering and logic worthy of the Se-
instituted, we have seen already.; and jumE abut a. near the cretary.
fact is the assumption that fofall the expenditures it has re- But, really, to talk of expenditures on account of thisFlor-
lied slr,.iller .in current revenue. It is true within just ida business bying less this year than last is mockery orsome-
,outh thinr-dIiree millions, as nearly as I can ascertain. The thing worse. With outstanding indebtedness on account if
Secretary confesses, indeed, to eight millions received from volunteers and militia to the amount probably of $300 000.
the Bankof the United States; but this, he says, went to the Paymaster General detlaring that no proinion hads been
pay off old funded debt-a debt we were often assured was made for paying those troops, and that bthry have nt been
paid off in General Jackson's time. And he remembers, too, paid; with the qtuatterniata'r General urgently demanding,
that there are Treasury notes outstanding; but these are more than six -erke aco, $ 410110, as a partial appropria-
hardlyv worth considering, because they are sureto be paid off tion, to answer immediate and pressnL' necrc-itns in ihn arser-
in 1841 out of current revenue. We shall see about that vice; with the war still guini -in, and -2 0110 'oluntErs and
directly militia in the field, and -to remain in the fltli, as Mr. Pr.in-
N.,. s;r, the simple truth is that, in four years, this Admin- sett shows in his report; with these facts all before the Se-
i' ration, in supporting itself, and carrying on two wars-one cretary at the time, it is amazing how heshould have brought
on a handful of Indiians in Florida, and another on the cur- hiscourage up to speak of a saiing to the Trei'ury in 1841
rency, credit, and business of the country-with very little in reference to this service. La.t year, i3i.li fi,)O was all that
done to build up and sustain the public defencesor any four was appropriated for this service, the officer making the esti-
great national interests-has expended thirty-three millions of mate having been required-ordered-to cut it down to that
dollars over and about all current revenues. Hpreis the sum; thisyear, unless this Administration mean now to aban-
brief ibut significant account; don the whole concern, the Treasury must bear not only the


to impeach the perfect accuracy of the self-satisfying declara- The report of the Secretary of the Treasury to Congress at the
tion to which I have referred. September session of 1837 shows that there was of available
If any body will take the trouble to look into the reports of means in the Treasury includingg sumns then en deposit with
the present session from departments and heads of bureaus, the States) on the tt January, 1837 42,468,859
and note the number and variety of urgent recommendations There had been received, subsequently to that date,
for the public service which they will find there, and which from banks, &c. and found available 1,670,137
are and have been all the while wholly neglected by this Ad- 44,138,996
ministration, he will then be able to appreciate the force and Deposited with the States - 28,000,00o
value of the claim that all the purposes for which this Go- --
vernment was instituted have been accomplished." I. will re- Leaving in the Treasury, say t6,000,000
fer to a few things. There has been received from the Bank of the U.
The providing of proper barracks for the accommodation of States on its bonds for stock sold 8,000,000
the Army falls within the provinceofthe Quartermaster Gene- There has been collected on old merchants' bonds 6.000,000
ral. These works are indispensable, and are required in va- There are Treasury notes outstanding
rious paits of the country. The last year little was done," on the tt Janruary, 1841 $4,652.991
Jesup says, except to pay some outstanding claims," Out of which deduct the balance esti-
General Jestup says, "except to py soeottnig clis roared ti be in the Treasury en that
even on the small number of those works for which appro- mtrt,.,benitsnToeacknele-at
priations were made. The money was withheld by the order ca r. iu-: less) 1,590000
of the President. The appropriations of the last year are to C. ,. [.:1 less) 1,090,000
fall as an extra burden on the Treasury in the year 1841. ..._'000
But, besides this, there are a large number of cases presented Making, altogether, a round sum of $33,000,000
as urgent by General Jesup, and urged also by the Secretary
of War, for which no provision whatever has been made, and The Administration has got, all the while, what it could
none is proposed,. out of the estate-and the current revenues have not been
The Secretary alludes to the fact that 40,000 Indians have small-and it has seized upon this little amount of thirty-
been removed during the last four years, adding, therefore, three millions of other property belonging to its owners, and
that number to the multitude already on our Western border, has used that up also.
These are, most of them, dissatisfied, moody, and restless, And, now, Mr. Chairman, it is modest, toisay the least of
brooding over wrongs, and waiting for the chances of revenge. it in the head of finance to inform us, through the President,
Thtyy arc planted on the immediate confines of States and that the revenues, from ordinary sources of course, for there
T rr-iori.. belonging to this Union; and "the Government are now no others, diminished, as he says they have been,
has contracted," says the Secretary, a solemn obligation, will be found abundant, in 1841, "to meet every engagement
not only to defend that people when attacked, but to antici- (debt on Treasury notes and all) and leave a suitable balance
pate the danger by erecting such works as will ensure their ,in the Treasury," &c. It has required eight millions a year,
safety, and inspire them with 'confidence in the means em- besides all current revenue, for this Administration to pay its
played for their protection." Surely, this must be something way-and it has not paid its way, for it leaves large amounts
"for which this Government was instituted !" But what of debt behind it, as I will show; but the next Administra-
has been done'I The Secretary recommends, for the West- .in ca n gri on very well, not only doing without the yearly
ern frontier, the erection of posts which shall be made fire- addition f eight n millions, but actually paying owi, in the very
proof, and so constructed as to serve as defences with a small first year, several millions of outstanding Treasury nste
garrison "against any number of men not provided with artil- debt- to say nothing now of other debt--besides providing
lery." What has been done I Nothing; and nothing is for all ordinary expenditures. This, I say, is modest; and I
thought of by the present Administration, must now examine, a littlein detail, the basis of theestimates
Permanent barracks and defences are wanted at Buffalo;on which the Secretary comes to such extraordinary conclu-
wanted at Plattsburg, where the work has been suspended; sions. We shall find, I think, that what the Secretary some-
wanted at or near Fort Gibson, the most important and ex- where calls his probability of aconjecture" is not altogether
posed pint on the Western frontier; posts are wanted at to be relied on.
Spring River and Marais de Cyque, and the navigation of I begin with his estimate of charges falling on the
the Neosho and Osage requires to be improved as a military Treasury in 1841, and I pronounce it altogether below the
highway; one or more posts are required on the Missouri; mark. The first thing that struck me on looking into this
one on the St. Peter's ; one at or near Sandy Lake; another estimate was the extraordinary difference between the total
at Fond du Lac, the Southwestern extremity of Lake Supe- sum required for the service of 1841 and that which had been
nrior,; barracks and defenses are required also at or near De expended in 1840 and previous years.
troit, and others in Maine. So at least says the Quartermas-
ter General, backed by the Secretary of War; and yet no The Secretary's estimates for 1841 stand thus:
more notice is taken of any of these things, in the estimates For new appropriations $16,621,520
for the year, than if we had neither army to provide for nor Under formeracts of Congress, exelusiveofpublic
country to defend. debt 864,000
While on this point, I may add also, that Colonel Hender- ,,
son, commandant of Marines, thinks also that certain bar- w Totald o7 1,485,520
racks are quite indispensable for the force under his command, To whLh he dds for "omissions," &a. 1,764.40
which it would require $150,000 to construct. He gets Total sum required for 1841, exclusive of public
$75,000 in the estimates as a special favor. The work, of debt and Treasury notes $19,250,000
course, is to be done at halves.
Among other objects, not of the highest magnitude, men- The expenditures of 1840, for ordinary purposes, estimat-
tioned by Mr. Poinsett, as requiring attention, reference is ing, as the Secretary does, a round sum of five millions for
made to the importance of continuing the surveys of our ri- the last quarter, have been $22,489,349. But the Secretary
vera and great lakes for military purposes; the want of new says the other Departments estimate the expenditures of the
barracks at West Point; the want of a fire-proof building last quarter at more than five millions. Taking them at the
for the archives of the War Departmenti and the propriety average of the first three quarters, which must be nearer the
at least of paying for the sites which have been selected and truth, and the total expenditures in 1840, exclusive of debt
contracted for, for marine hospitals on the Western waters, and Treasury notes, have been $23,319,131. I believe it
Is any notice taken of these modest suggestions 7 By no wil he found they have not fallen below $234,000,000. Be-
means. The estimates maintain a dead silence on the whole tween this sum of $23,319,131, expended in 1840, and the
subject. sum shown in the Secretary's table ot estimates for the like
A military post or two for the concentration of troops, in service in 1841, ($17,485,520,) the differenr.ce is $5,833,611;'
the event of hostilities, is a very natural idea, and not alto- and after adding, as he does, more than a million and three-
gether, perhaps, beyond the pale of those things for which quarters for omissions andi contingencies to the estimates for
this Government was constituted." The Secretary of War 1841, the difference is still I lii;'.t 1.11.
suggests, with this view, a position near Albany for the But the difference between the estimates for 1841, taking
Northern frontier, and another near St. Louis for the West- the Secretary's^sighest sum, $19,850,000, and the actual ex-
ern ; and for the maritime frontier of the Gulf of Mexico, penditures for the like public service in the former years of
he thinks it important tu establish a depot for armed sea the present Administration, is still greater and more extraor-
steam-vessels, somewhere below the Falls of the Ohio, dinary. Thus, in 1839, excluding payments on account of
With what hope these suggestions are made, we may ima- public debt, Treasury notes, and trust funds, the expenditures
gine, when we find the Secretary at the same time speaking, were $95,410,000; and in 1838, they were $31.544,000. The
in a tone of utter despair, of his havingg repeatedly recom- difference in the one case is $6,160,000, and in the other
mended, without effect, the establishment of a national $12,294,000.
foundry." Another thing deserves to be noticed. The estimates for
Mr.Poinsett seems quite in earnest when he speaks of the the year are usually summed up or referred to in gross, under
neglected military defences of the country. Of the state of three heads, namely, civil, miscellaneous, and foreign inter-
these defences on the Western border and against the Indi- course; naval ; and military.
ans, we may judge by what I have said already. Nothing Now the reduction in the public expenditures in the course
is, as yet, complete or hardly approaching completion in the of this Administration, up to the present time, has been little
defenses for the long line of boundary between the United or nothing under the first two heads, but has taken place
States and the British provinces. And as for our maritime almost wholly under the head of military."
frontier," the whole coast," says the Secretary, "from Pas- Thus, under the head of" military," the expenditures were.
samaquoddy Bay to the Sabine river, is exposed on every In 1838 $ - 19,916,00
point not defended by Nature, to be invaded with impunity." In 1839 14,266,060
Indeed In the event of a sudden rupture with a foreign In 1840 (part estimated) 11,667,000
Power, he may strike a fatal blow at any point he pleases tIrnIdr tLie head of "civil," &c. they were:
he may lay our cities under contribution, or reduce them to In 1838 1- t$,6,000
ashes, and pollute our soil with the [foot of hostile s ldiery ; In 1839 (short session of Congress) 4,918,000
and i.: il,,. Administration of the last f.ui ears, which in In .': 5,490,000
all I h' line has failed to complete the defences of one sin- And under the head of "naval," they vWre =-"---- '
gle point on the whole coast, now retires, huigging itself in in 1838 $5,941,000
itsown arms with aIll ir][ ..-,,,i1l.'rr,, and declaring that it In 1839 6,225,000
has accomplished till th.. iupI -.,- I'.-r whichh this Government In 1840 6,160,000
was instituted. For the year 1841, taking the fable of estimates, a still fur-
There is another not unimportant interest, that has faredi the reduction ia proposed under the head of "military,"
even worse at the hands of this A,hnir,.ir.,i,.t, th:an the- .- while, at the saie time, and for thefirst time, it it proposed
tonal defenses. I mean the har',.,r :, n. r n-t.r,-..%e,,., r, to bring down the expenditures under both the other heads.
They belong to commerce, the regulation of which appertains The table of estimates stands thus:
to this Government, arnd out of which it has its principal re- ,0
venue and support. The Administration cannot shelter it- For militaryl,. $8 -iQ
self here behind constitutional scruples. A majority of its For civil, &o. 4 nn -''n'
own friends in this House, I suppose, have no such scruples, .
And yet, for two years, every movement towards continuing These figures show how handsomely, in the opinion of the
these works-works begun and prosecuted half-way, perhaps, Secretary, the work of retrenchment may go on in the civil
to their completion-has been promptly met and voted down and naval departments; but it has taken him full four years
-nay, frowned and trampled down. About three millions of to make the discovery.
dollars are asked ty the Engineers for these works the pre- But, seeing this great saving of several millions in the total
sent year-the whole of it for works partlyexecuted-and not amounts proposed for 1841, compared with the expenditures
one dollar can or will be obtained. In my poor opinion, un- of the last and previous years, the inquiry naturally arose,
til these works are finished, nobody can say, with truth, that how is all this Is the country less broad and extensive than
the Government has accomplished 411 ith.- purposes, or even it was ? Are not its interests as various and as vast t Do
the most important of the purposes for which it was instituted, not our limits extend as far in the direction of the Restock
There is one other interest which I must not omit to advert ani in the direction of the Red river and the Arkansas as for-
to in this connexion. That Administration in this country merly'I Is not the Briton still on our Northern border, and
which does not take care of the Navy, takes care of nothing, the Indian still on our Western border Is not the Seminole
If it he guilty of neglect in this quarter, it is guilty, indeed, still in Florida I Arc not the seas and oceans over which our
and deserves no credit for any thing. This sin, if commit- commerce spreads itself as wide as ever 'I Has the civil list
ted, should be deemed unpardonable. And what has this been cut down'I Does not our army number as before
Administration done for the Navy, or rather what has it not Have we fewer ships and men to keep afloat than formerly t
neglected to do' I would not say a word to wound the esti- N.-.imi ot the sort that lean find.
able gentleman at the head of the Navy Departmept. Iap- But the Secretary does tell us that he has himself, in his
prebend it is not altogether his fault, if the Navy has run own Department, commenced some retrenchment. Out of
down; and that the whole service is in a most wretched con- sixteen hundred officers in the custom-house department he
ditjon I suppose there can be no doubt. The Navy Commis- has dispensed with the services of a few subordinates; he has
sioners estimate that, for a long time, the appropriations for reformed the revenue cutter service; and he has knocked out
"repairs," &c. of vessels hane npt been equal to the actual an eye or two among the light-houses-all very beneficial to
loss and decay, while the increase" has been very mode- commerce, no doubt but he certainly has not saved by all
rate. It will be seen that, instead of any reform or improve- this those millions which his diminished estimates would in-
ment in this matter, less than ever is proposed to be done the dieate. No; but these millions-they are saved, to be sure,
present year. in another way; and here we have the secret.
It seems that the task of making estimates for the naval ser- The Secretary says in his report, (and the President echoes
vice devolves on the Navy Commissioners; but at the same the joyful sound:)
time they are not at liberty to say how much that service "hI is believed that the ordinary expenses of 1841 ought to fall
really requires. A specific and restricted sum is given them, S.i.mm ,i' ,.!''i; l..w 1,h.-.... ;,t 1840 ; as the pensions hase dhnin-
and they are to work ouittheproblem with that; justsomuch .-t..i ltv ,a,,l,.l ; ira', ir.l',r s remain to be removed ; several
canvass is furnished, with which they are required to dress '- ,1ei,.-. '*',.: t-l.lmh h"'ie been mostlyflnished, and hoetili-
up a line-of battle ship in a full suit of sails, though there may "ii-*at, tn h. 8 ,r..r,-.-I.n..' ***nearer toaclose."
not be really enough for a sloop of war. Officers and men Well, sir, observe that all this is proposed as reducing the
must be paid, stores must be provided, and navy yards kept estimates for 1841-this present blessed year--and as reduc-
in order: that takes so much ; and then so much is left for ing the amount some millions. Was the Secretary dreaming'?
repairs" and for increase.' For "repairs," a certain sam Compare the estimates for 1841 with those for 1840, and look
is im,,li-i,, c-lm.h, in order to preserve a value in vessels and at facts. Ilow much speculation does the Secretary make
ster,.- '.-I" ,I .. ,t.n...r;;.'jl r.s-l uf the existing force already out of the deaths of pensioners'? He proposes an appropria-
afloat. And now, Mr ('haminiri. ehat do you suppose re- tion for this year less than that ofthe last by $350,000. But
mains of the restricted sum to which the Codmmissiopere are will death relieve him to that amount't No; what with old
limited for the increase of the Navy" in 18411 Just one hun- appropriations standing over, added to the new, and to be ap-
dred thousand dollars-" much less," say the Commissioners, plied to pensions, the saving, I apprehend0 will not equal one
"thin 1,,. aveii",' annual appropriations for this purpose for half of that sum.
tie la.,t a, tui-nte years." The Commissioners deem it in- In the Indian Department, vorv large sums are standing
dispensable to complete two steamers now in progress, and to over to fall on the Treasury inn 1u41, and the new appropria-
commence a third ; to complete, also, the frigtatp Congress, tions proposed for the present year are scarcely $30,000 less
and to build another frigate to replace the Guerrieral; and, than those of the I.recdhng year. I venture to say the actual
for all this, they are limited, by an iron will above them, to expenditure will bL greater imi this department this year than
the sum of one hundred thousand dollars; and this is called last.
accomplishing all the purposes for which this Government As for the Public Buildings, the great saving in this quar-
was instituted ter is soon told. The custom-house in New York is suppes-
It cannot surprise any body, after what we have now seen, ed to be out of the way. There was appropriated to this build-
to find the Secretary of the Treasury irtrucluiig tio Presi- intg lh-t metr 5I I'-,1-3 To three public buildings in this city
dent to ask for another laurel tobe addedl ., the hraw of this l.,,t i,-or i in, ita0 nere' appropriated. I understand that the
Administration for its financial achievements. While every t-inni -,.l' r, e a[,li'.-ct the present year, for all buildingsin
demand on the Gpvernment has been promptly met, and all this city, am-.inrit to lit.',.0')0. We shall lined d nosavinghere
its purposes accomplished, how will the world be astonished going very ar towards inimiteg up rhe rScreLar's, "somenerl-


rency remain' unregu'lattd. Ininlhrget busin(es men know
this, and imp..nrtetsi as well as others. That there may be
some effort and some active competition, in the early part of
A letter frr i.ihS,'crelar emof War to h it chairman of the
Committee of Wyis artil Menri', daie.] D.-crnbhr 17, 1S10, one
month before this debate began, irtniniintin "eI'mat.:'s of ap-
pr-.-pri.ui,.rs m'r 'ie eontinurre of ihe Floin-Id tor,'' was finally,
on lhe 21.,r Jmj.jrny, 1841, aft r hi-,sin l,ef-n rtl'rre-A to tby Mr.
EvANs, a member of the ..:.-rrrnit'ee, dl-cnlos. d ad1 tid before the
1.'i,, e. Im inut I .-: ,. -r i- .JA .,i--i, in lhe t Lnri'es .of" tihe Secrets-
rf V -f ihe Treaiiry f6r l 4 1, nir4c.J as erre L hy I the chairman or
WVa n r.l Mens .-n -nb.i re-.:ti of1" ,. 1 'il January, no onadol.
Ir 1 aaked rf-r, or pr..,pteed, fir We- Flarinda ijr. Tthe Se-'rery
Cof \% ir, in m* Itj, l.eii, Sbah-,j ihat aprropritionuns fir Ilm s service,
partlyr fur arm-ars, 'o bhe unilnui of ,62.3,: ;3, are indippenaa-
hl-. Tih, < a e sihlu iite I, Le ijded ia the Titirsry e atimated.
Here is the eumn of this account:
E.atmaile fir mii Florido iru., All, prrseicrd bythlie Secreta-
ry ,rif I'Ir.
For arrrea r. f'.I'.f-.ay t.r r ,Il'tan- h vn..l -uanteers 3250,6C0 10
For pa of rL.hnia and vv1unt,:rb row in service,
f..r Il - -i 666217 -
F-r Qiaricimasier's Depanmrtm -
A1rr,irogr.s, 6$00,000+
For 1- 141, 1,10,000


P..r hibsietnee fur 1941 -
FPor Me.-dacalPe',ernient -
Per Ordasnce Depanimeat


---- 1,300,000 oo
2;-2,321 V7i
- Ifc tliO Ott
- 3(0,00 0

2,385,32lf 751


burden of the current service, but the greater part of that of
the last year also; and yet the Secretary is not afraid to talk
to us of a great saving to be made in this quarter! *
Mr. Chairman, there is nothing in all the official acquaint.
ance we have had with the Secretary ofthe Treasury calcu-
lated to inspire very implicit confidence in his accuracy. The
last year his mark for new and permanent appropriations was
$20,000,000; and he told us he thought the expenditures
would be within that sum. With all the efforts of all the
party to keep the appropriations within the estimates," about
which so much was said c(r s%, ... i. v found it necessary to
swell the appropriation to 8-3 ft;r6,037, and the actual expen-
ditures of the year have not fallen much, if any, short of $24,.
000,000. Mr. Woodbury is not nearer the true mark now
than he was then. He pays to the next President the equiv-
ocal compliment of supposing that, in his hands, the same
Government can be administered this year, with the same
public service, for nineteen and a quarter millions, which has
cost the country, under the present Chief Magistrate, thepast
year twenty-four, and in previous years twenty-five and
thirty-one and a half millions. Give the next President time
to make reforms, in such manner that the public service shall
not :-utl. r, and then it may be resi.)nal-le enough to expect
retrenchment.
But, sir, the omissions and deficiencies of the Secretary's
estimates for 1841 are gross and glarnii. Ho natempsia t
cover with a general sum, added to his itat'l-s" i tsinnates
some of these omissions. With this general sum -a.l,hd, how-
ever, the whole estimate reaches only to $19,250,u00, which
is four millions and a half less than the expenditures for the
same obhijects the past year, as we have seen. His tables"
contain nothing for private claims to be allowed by Corinrea.4,
which may amount to a million; nothing for the Ftonla
war, when two millions may be required; a very inadequate
sum for the war steamers and frigates necessary to be com-
pleted or put in pro.ar'- he present year ;nothing for Na-
vy pensions, when jI.I:,t li", was wanted; nothing for public
..u,.in-I n. in this city, for which $400,000 is required; uoth-
ing to pay large sums due, I suppose incontestably, to Maine,
and to Georgia, and to some other States; rinthing for thesurt
vey of the Northeastern boundary line; nothing to pay for the
sites of marine hospitals on the Wstalern .'er,, or I-r the
hospitals themselves; n.,ilin fr.r the Prc-ilen' llou.se, that
the worn-out tinsel now tih, re may ie re'l.laC(d with furni-
ture, as it ought to be, ol g,,.,t substantial American manu-
facture; and r,,ir-g f.r ir.muny other th;nr.s which may be.
likely to find their way r int i lie appr..riraiiaonq I greatlyvdis-
trust these' iat.le.- i he S..-rtiry, r-,i.. ally nnder the
head of "military." His estimates for 1841 are i-' 5lJlttaj)
under this head; last year they were$9 300,000; and t1-e 4c.
tual expenditures have been $11,600,000.
But the point of greatest error and fallacy in his estimates
is still behind. In a very obscure and involved paragraph of
his Report, lie does refer to the matter to which I now allude.
He admits that a greater proportion of the outstanding ap-
propriations at the end of 1840 may be expended in 1841
than will be left unexpended of the now charges imposed."
This requires elucidation, as what does not in this Report 1
Nor does the Secretary give to the fact at which he here aims
the force and effect which belong to it. 1 will explain..
On the first of January in every year it is found that large
sums out of the appropriations of the preceding year have
not yet been drawn from the Treasury. In the first pl,'ce,
large amounts have been earned, and the money is due, but
it hais not yet been called for; and then, other large amounts
under these old appropriations have not yet been earned, but
they will be in due time, and the money called for. In both
cases, and for both amounts, these sums fall on the Treasury
mainly in the year following that in which the appropriations
are made. This year the amounts thus standing over, under
oli appropriations, and which will fall as a charge on the
Treasury in the year 1841, are estimated by the Departments,
as we learn from the Secretary, at $10,411,027. This; as I
have said, becomes a charge on the Treasury in 1841, and
ought to be so stated, and must be in any accurate account of
the burdens which the Treasury may have to sustain within
the year. This important item, however, being included in
such an account, there should of course be deducted from the
sum of the new appropriations for the year so much out of
these appropriations as it may be estimated will be found
standing over at the close of the year, and which will not,
therefore, be achargeon the Ticszjury within the year. This
course I have taken in an estimate for the year which I have
made, and which I will soon present to the committee.
The Secretary says, "These two items"--by which I sup-
pose he means these balances. ,.rf al.pr.ilriatiorn, landing over
from year to year-"are uiunallv computed to Pcual each
other." I am of opinion that the bhalanresof" lrjlO) and 1841
will be found to be very far '.om requ]ling each .-.ther.
In the first place, I am not sailiriril hi the Secretary has
got the amount standing over irom l-it) higth ernouah. He
takes the sums as they are estimated and given him by the
Departments, and these are not always to be depended on.
In his report oflast year, the Secretary himselfsail these es-
timates were not high enough then by two millionsofdollarp.
He had quite as much, reason to doubt their accuracy now.
In looking into the reports from some of these Departments,
I find very large sums shown to have been standing over so
late as the l1st of October last-in some cases enormously
ir,-ir,. F..r example, in the Indian Department alone,
;3 t u." 1,,t11 w.-r. soanling ovrr, v while at the pame time there
%a- ,t.,-,uil j.'2.2 5 ut.1n in, he barids of diL urinig an-,eirs yet
urineI.,rnd-,lI I d.-ul-i ii'h,-re be a cent lirs than" -1 5 000UO
under this head alone, reserved to fall n tbh Treasury in theo
.rcenril voesr. Upwards lf"-,T t1 t1i, fr taking the s ixth cen-
sus in 1840 remains to be paid in li11. Other examples
might be given.
A very decided effect in throrving over charges from the
last year to the present, in a w-,y altogether new, has been
produced by ,io.poriiring i he iapplicationi ..ap[ri-prianti.ns made
for certain W,.rks and :l.'jrei', under the auh)rityv givrn ta
the President in some ol the approprix'i.n -ills. Whatever
may be the PrsIdEnt's unherteandin.. about the fact, certain
it is that several of thb principal officers testify pt.iiively in
tffeir reports to these postponements. This, added to the fact
of the very late period at which the principal appropriation
bills were passed at the last s-ei.in, rendered unusually large
sums unavailable within the year. Thus Col. Talcoti, of
the Ordnance Department, says;
"The appropriations for 1840 were made by Congress at so
late a period (2Utth July) that very few of the. obji:.-' i',h,'.rrz...d
could be effected during the year; moreover, the reatsrri'lion I of
the 3d section of the appropriation law having been applied to tA
largeportion of the funds of this Department, (viz ti', 1'5 2
3t,) the balances remaining in the Treasury on the 30th of Sep-
tember last were, consequently, very large, and far beyond fthe
usual amounts."
So the Chief Engineer, Col. Totten, says';
"The appropriations of the as". C..',rcrs '.[,.plilcahle to these
objects [in his Department] were i.,' ,T,,.J-a. II iL, :I .'].Jle ofjy ;
and, when made, the state of the Treasury attache A r-etiricLion,
leaving the grants intangible fort'i" r,.c rg'. iyiur."
It is evident that these balances of a|.pr.'r-pir-onns standing
over must always be greater in those ye.,riis hen the ,till are
passed at the close of a long session ol Connr'ss than in iho.re
years when the bills are of necessity 1.ns-ed early, as ia the
short sessions. It must now be evident, also, from the corn-
siderations just presented, that the difference in these ba-
lances between the year 1840 and the year 1841 must be.
unusually great. It is but too appparnt, moreover, to my
mind, and so the fact, I have no doubt, will turn out, that
there have been other postponements than those that hayve
taken place under color of law. The first object, and one
pursued very assiduously, has been to avoid demands on the
Treasury by avoiding and refusing appropriations, even
when it was positively known that indebtedness must be in-
curred, as in the case of the Florida war; and then it has
been made a point, by every possible delay, and every possi-
-ble device, elifre al.propriati,,rns/,ia's been male, to avoid and
postpone esperinmtturcs. For all this, the Treasury must groan
and sweat rn the year 1844.
So much then, Mr. Chanrrcian, for the Secretary's estimates
of expenditures in 1841, which are ali.:,gtLher too low; atpd
now for his estimates of revenue ant receipts in the same
year, which, in my opinion, are altogether too high.
On this latter score-the estimating of receipts--the Se-
cretary has not certainly heretofore been very happy in his
probabilities of a conjecture." I am indebted to a friend
who sits near me, (Mr. EVERETT, of Vermont,) for the fact,
that, in the whole six years of Mr. Woodbury's administra-
tion of the finances, his annual guesses at in coming reve-
nue, taken altogether, have been just according to the re-
suht--inanning only the trifling sum of sixty-tao milhiona of
dollars.
At the commencement of the last session of Congress, he
confidently expected to realis.e from cuctums AiS5 U)ti,0tu, in
1840; he has got about $1"2,500,OtO This year hte epecrs
$19,000,000 from the same source; I do no.t bhelnee he will
get $15,000 000; though in my calculations for the year I
allow -16,000,000.
It setnns t., I.e cuppo ad Iby the Secretary, as well certainly
as by some ,,IhTrs, tht.. business? and pr..sprfri'y will greatly
revive after the late depressions; and that, I/, erefire(, there will
be a great increase in the imports. I do nul think this follows.
Confidence will, no doubt, r.s urmne gaod client, cime in with
the new A'tnunuinstralron, and busirness will begirn to I'e more ac-
tive. But ti. rtC (ail be nra fill pro'pniry in this wide country,
solorng s eschar, ge curtmnue to I'e deranged, and the cur-









this year, to supply the supposed deficiency in the importations
of the last year, i. tr, be exp,-cted. With th'-s view, no doubt,
imports on foreign account may for a while come in pretty
actively. But there are causes, I think, to check any great
excess of imports.
In the first place, I cannot learn that there really is any
scarclty or deficiency of f."rein goods. There is no eztraor-
dinstydemand in any quarter. The country was srtifird
with what it got Iacc year, and it will be satisfied thin year
with about the same amount of foreign articles. IThe first ef-
fector a very fill supply will be 1t-) knuck domwi prices. The
country has learned so-mne m,,daratii,,n; and Ihat, for a while
at least, will .ad in ihe way of exce.iise importations.
Again. Inl 1839, there were excessive importations, run-
ning up to one hundred and rixily-twio millions; and last year
it was a faviornie notion of lhb t"Secrelary that subsequent
to a lar3e importation and a fall of prices in articles exported,
as in 1 K)9, the amount of imports often declines for one or
two years. After 1825 it declined (he says) uninterruptedly
for six years." He seems now to have gotten over this notion
entirely.
In his report of last year, too, the Secretary remarked on
the effect of a restricted circulation, which .existed then and
exists now, and must continue to exist.- And he dechred
thai hen't a diminution in the imports had already com-
mence.J, and was cjnfidJerintly expected to continue for some
lime." The fact of a restiricted currency, with the deranged
state of the exchanges, must have the effect to limit importa-
tions. And this is a state of things which cannot be cured
until the sub-Treasury shall be removed, and the country
shall have time to recover from its unhappy effects.
Another important agenrit in limiting imports is our foreign
indebtedness. This wai 61ronjely ir,-ited upon year s'o,
b-lth by Iho Se,'rctrv and the Pr--tlent. Twelve Millions
of exports are required annually, saythey, to pay interest on
loans abroad, and so much at last of the exportsecan bring
in no returna ol imports.
The Set-r..ary adnits ihat importations will be somewhat
checked the present year from the consideration that a very
large amount of duties go off under the compromise act in
1S1-2, commencinly min January of that year, which will in-
duce importers to keep bick thrir goJas for the benefit of the
reduction. Unhuhluiedly Ihina will have its effect.
Now, it is in the face of all these considerations that the
Secretary. to nuke a good show of means in the Treasury,
ventures ILo aniicipate, nol merely a moderate increre of im-
ports from last year, which I am ul ni10 io, oriiceJe, but ab-
solutely a most c-tlras.anlt rind excessive state of the import
trade. For, obser'P, Mr. t-,'l.iitrmnan, in order to get his $19,-
000,000 of duties, he must compute the imports at sb.-ut
$158,000,000. This is within four millions of the great (e-
cees ot irmp.,rt, in 1839, which was the year of largest impor-
taliorn Ihe country has ever seen by very far, except one, the
year 1836 Anrid this is not all, sir, for while the Secretary
would Asake us believe that we are to be supplied with for-
eign goods in 1841, amounting in value to $158,000,000,
which he does not seem to regard asat all sCsti""e, yet when
in another part of his report he comes to lalk or iie prospects
ahead, and to recommend economy, or a.,rneil.in else, why
then he discovers that, in the very nt V. year, i'."2, it would
note safe to expect that the imports would exceed those of
1838. And what were theimports of 1838 ? Less than S114,-
000,000 What a happy and instructive consistency 1
Mr. C1.'hlirinan. ii' ih, alue of imports in 1841 shall come
up to ab.mut 5 13J,i1ns)t,ti1., which is full $28,000,000 more
than last year, we shall have $16,000,000 of duties out of
them, as I calculate. I do not believe the imports will come
up to that; and if we get fourteen or fifteen millions from
customs, it is as much as I expect to see, especially after draw-
backs and bounties are taken out. But in my estimates 1
shall take the sum of $16,000,000, that I may not be found be-
low the mark.
I am now prepared, Mr. Chairman to offer you my esti-
mates for the year, only remarking that, instead of beginning,
as the Secretary does, with an available balance in the Trea-
sury, I am forced to set down a large balance against it.
Estimate of charges which will fall on these T-easury in the
year 1841 for ordinary purposes, but including charges
on account of funded debt, and the redemption of Treasury
notes.
On the 1st January, 1841, the aggregate of Treasury notls out-
standing was 4,650,000
The whole of this sum will be redeemable in 1841,
but it is computed that $500,000 of the amount
may not come in within the year, which deduct 500,000

$4,160,000
For interest payable on the amount to be redeem-
ed, add 200,000

$4,350,000
There was available in the Treasury on the 1st of
Jauacry. 1 1t, sc.:ordirt i. he ih e.-'.'etary, though
it Is new uaderso-.-d th',: ih aor.n'ILmt is much less,
the sum efSt,590,855, which deduct 1,690,855

Leaving as a chirgi ;n ihe Treasury in 1841, on ac-
count of Tre'aure r.i.os outstanding on the 1st of
January, over and above any balance in the Treas-
Snry, this sum $2,759,145
To this sum of $2,759,145 is to beo added thelbalances of
appropriations made mn I 44),.l t,tnuitd.s!, VA A nS-t
ing over on the lst Jlani.ry, I, 14 1 a,.. I vl,.r i %ill
be a charge oaihr' Tr.:a-urI within the year 1841,
amountir -', tho-iiia I suppose this sumisnot
enough b) 2,niii,,0u 10,411,027
Making .igeih.r $13,170,172
Thus we ha e 613.1.N, 1:2 hargiabl on. ihe Treas-
uryin 1811, I-ofiure m-kin fso/ ne. tappropria-
tions wbi,- .-r enr ha' y,.ar. An j i-- i. .a is now to
ble adJel 'he amount of new and permanent ap-
prcpriitiona 1.- the extent to which ihev ill be-
come a esharge in Imhe Treasur) w,,l,,n tih year.
'rTi eslj, sin-.s thte S-.-.'r- tiry ifor new and perma-
nent appropriations and for public debt amount
to $19,399,200
To this I add for all errors and omis-
sitns, the particulars of which I have
before explained, as the least sum 3,000,000
n Malting the etio.Tistea for the year $22,399,200
But aoul of this sur is to be deducted so
much as may remain, not called for
andJstanding-aver a', ho-ike ul"1841,
ahlich I c..mflue at 8,000,000


Leaving of new and permanent appro-
priations for 1841, which will fall
as a charge on the Treasury within
the year -


$14,399,200


Making the suim chargeable on the Treasury in 1841 L
for the purposes above named $27,569,372

Estimate ofrevenue and rr.-eip.I, etti i,',t ,.n. inlotheTrea-
sury andbe available 'n It.'ie yir i1-It unil r existing laws,
and showing the deficit.
From customs $16,000,000
Prom lands, probably tLa high by $500,000 at least, 3,600,000
Miscellaneous 80,000
Banks, balance 2211,000
Treasury notes, which, under the act of March, 1840,
mtay yet be issued, amount may be $342,818
But of this amount there will be returned
and redeemed within the year at least 100,000
-- 8242,610 8
Avatlables in all for the year $20,042,618
Charges on the Treasury 27,569,372
Deficit for the year $ 7,526,754
Here, then, Mr. Chairman, is my "conjecture" in regard
to the state and prospects of the Treasury for the present
year. The committee will judge what reliance is to replaced
upon it. I have given them the grounds on which I have
proceeded in making these calculations. Let them be im-
peached if" iley c an be. I do not mean to claim for them any
sort of iritallit.lntv. I have made the best use of the mate-
rials I had, and have endeavored to come to honest and just
results. I may have fallen into errors; but this I will say,
that if the Secretary and his friends are willing to abide by
his estimates for the year, I am willing to abide by mine, and
we will see whose "conjecture" will turn out to be nearest
the truth.
I have now, Mr. Chairman, one impeachment more, and
only one, to offer, of the accuracy of the fi aancial statements
of the Secretary and the President. This," says the Pres-
hident, is the only Government which, having fully and
faithfully paid all its creditors, has also relieved itself entirely
from debt." The only shadow of exception to this sweeping
declaration which I can find, either in the Message or Report,
relates to Treasury notes outstanding, and to an obligation
entered into in behalf of the District of Columbia ;" and
both these items are readily disposed of. As to the four and
a half millions of Treasury notes outstanding, they are to be
redeemed in 1-il, out of current revenue." The state-
ments I have submitted, as well as the very bill now before
us for a new issue of notes, show what chance there is of
that. And as to the obligation in behalf of the District of
Columbia," why, that obligation "must soon be discharged"
-as if the debt was to be paid by the District of Columbia,
and that would relieve this Government from the "obliga-
tion." I will only say, sir, that, as I understand this matter,
this debt is ours, and not that of the corporate cities of this
District. It has been distinctly assumed by this Govern-
ment, upon a good consideration passing between the parties,
and these cities have nothing further to do with it.
But the President thinks himself jj6ustified in declaring, on
the whole.that this Government has relit e.d is(l"f emniirtly
from debt." I am not able to flatter myself so much in re-
gard to this item in our financial condition, as the ominous
statements which I hold in my hand, and will now present,
may serve to show.
$oatemnesof theptblic debt, regardcdt' an.erlfinei and cer-
tain, er;s ing on Ure 1t Januar',, \tl\,lt.aut the amounts
maoy not be eruct.
Treasury notes outstanding $1,Gn,nno
Interest which wAil hate acerue-d .-n ileni - -inuiau
Remains of'old funded and c.:r 'iw,-,'Je t 335,000
Debte of the cities in the Diri-t ,i." ColnA-inla, as-
sumed by the Government, wiiho.)i inierest 1,5r,0,000
Am -unts rt.-luired l., be inNtto- for Indans and In-
dun rinbea, .-1 I a 2,60.
Principal sums payable to Indians, prlably l,0Jrj,0il0
Amount required by law tomake fm.l the deficit in
the Navy Pensmion Fi.i 1,200,000
Annuities ti Indians, (Suip-p -,sed tw be $6Q0,000,) part
payable In perpeuil) au.t s .o- ror terms -.fyears j
the purchase ar raluie of lth- whole n-It less
than -5 nnn. nno
Making, qf actual debt, it is believed, not lsa thian- 1-4.5,iJ tut


To this is to be added probable amounts of indebt-
edness and liabilities growing out of past transactions,
as Ibllowa i
For claims growing out of Indian affairs and rela-
tions, allowed, and which will be allowed in the
Departments or by accounting officers, proba-
bly $2,000,01)0
For claims growing out of the Florida
WtI, A|. and which must be allowed by
Congress, probably 3,000,000
Due from the Government on account of
trust funds, other than Indian, probably 500,000
The fourth instalment under the deposit
act of 1836 claimed by the States 9,000,000
There are claims of American citizens for
French spoliations on our commerce
previous to 1800, quite likely to be al-
lowed by Congress, to 5,000,000


19,5Q00,000


So that the whole amount of indebtedness and liabil-
ties, on account of past transactions, was, on the
tst of January, 1841, probably not less than $36,015,000
I have only a word or two of remark to offer with this
statement. In the account of actual and ascertained debt, I
put down $5,000,000 as the value or purchase of the annui-
ties to Indians. When looking at these annuities as a debt,
that debt can only be stated in a principal sum. I have not
myself made a computation of the yalue of these annuities-
a thing easily done, according to well-established rules and
principles ; but I am informed by others, who have looked
more closely into the subject, that their value is much great-
er than I have supposed. It is probably eight or ten mil-
lions. I do not say, of course, that this principal sum is ever
to be paid, but there can be no just computation of how much
the country owes without stating this item, and stating it in
this way. The same general remark applies to the item of
sums required by law to be invested for Indians, if the poli-
cy slfll hereafter be, as it has hitherto been, to pay an annu-
al interest on these sums, instead of investing them. It is
not likely, however, that the positive obligations of treaties
are hereafter to be so lightly regarded. The Government
will probably pay what it really owes.
In the account of general liabilities, which I have added to
the statement of actual and certain debt, I do not mean to be
understood that any thing there is beyond doubt or cavil.
That the claims" there mentioned exist, and that the
amounts are not exaggerated, I confidently believe. Many
suppose the amounts to be vastly greater. I believe the
Treasury will yet groan under them. The fourth instalment
of deposit money is claimed by some of the Slates at least.
So much, at any rate, is true, that a law now exists direct-
ing, in the most positive terms, this money to be deposited
with the States, and that law has Tnever been repeated, and it
has never been executed. Until one or the other thing takes
place, I can do no otherwise than count this as a liability"
of the Government. In regard to the last item in this ac-
count, 1 do not here say that the claims on account of French
spoliations ought to be allowed; I will give my opinion about
that at the proper time, if called upon to do so; but we
know they have many advocates, and my opinion is, that it
is quite likely that this will ultimately be acknowledged in
Congress as a just debt long due by the Government, and,
therefore, to be paid.
Mr. Chairman, I have one statement more to present, and
then I shall have done with my notice of the remarkable po-
sition that this Govei nnment has "relieved itself entirely from
debt." My object in this statement is to make as near an
approach as I can to the sum of all the burdens and charges
which will, or may probably, fall on the Treasury in the four
years of the in-coming Administration, over and above all
ordinary and current expenditures. The items in this state-
ment will be sufficiently understood after the explanations
which I have already given.
Estimate of the probable amount of public debt and liabilities
p'r..uir;.? out of past transactions, for which the Adminis-
r-i., n .-. the next four years may have to provide-being
over and above all current expenditures, vi,.
Treasury Notes outstanding, with interest on them,
including such as may be issued before the 4:h of
March, under the act of 1840 $5,250,000
Old Funded and Certificate Debt, (probably) 100,000
Debts of the Cities in the District of Columbia as-
sumed by the Government, with interest 1,750,000
Amounts required to be invested for Indians and In-
dian tribes 2,580,000
Principal sums payable to Indians or Indian tribes 1,000,000
Annuities to same, $500,000 per year, fouryears 2,000,000
Amount required to make good the deficit in the
Navy Pension Fund 1,200,000
I. lhrr..' s, t,,l, will fall on the Treasury in 1841 on
account of liabilities incurred under appropriations
made in 1840 and previous years-the money hav-
ing been earned, but not called f1r; taking the
excess of such charges over what will be chargea-
ble on the Treasury in 1842, in the like account,
under appropriations of 1841 and previous years 2,000,000
Claims on account of Indian affairs and relations,
&c. allowed or to be allowed in the Departments,
or by accounting officers 2,000,000
Claims growing out of Florida war, &ac. presented
to Congress 3,000,000
Due on account of Trust Funds (other than Indian) 500,000
Fourth Instalment, under the deposit act of 1836 9,000,000
Claims on account of French Spoliations on com-
merce 5,000,000
T whi.:h i1 m, be added a sum necessary to provide
i suiinbll average balance in the Treasury 5,000,000

Making in all $10,380,000
Mr. Chairman, the views which I have presented of our
financial condition will, if recurred to, sufficiently show the
ground of the position which I now distinctly take. That
position is, that ten millions of dollars ought to be imme-
diately borrowed for the service of the year 1841. I have
shown that there will, by my estimates, be a deficit of means
to meet the indispensable engagements of the year of at least
-f 7,5' 1111 01. It is quite as likely to be more as to be less. But
if we had this sum, still, at the end of the year, the Treasury
would be swept clean. Nobody will dispute that $2,500,000
is quite as small a sum as it would be at all prudent to depend
on for a balance in the Treasury.
Ten millions, then, i the( i,.-'.ut m wr'iiight to have. And
it is the bounden duty of 11i- Adbiiti-tatn,,i to provide for it.
In the ordinary course of things, there can be no Legislature
convened to act on this subject, after this is dissolved, until
next December. This Conigress is bound, therefore, to legis-
late for the whole year.
But this is not all the duty of this Congress. It is con-
ceded that this Government must not rely on borrowing for
current support. This would be that creation of a national
debt in time of profound peace which the President so much
deprecates. But it is demonstrable, and stands confessed,
that, whatever may happen inu 1841, the Government cannot
pay its ordinary expenses in 1842-to say nothing of redeeming
Treasury notes or debts-with ordinary and current reve-
nues, nor without new revenues to a large amount from nemiw
duties, or in some other way. This is clear enough, from the
Secretary's own view of the case. Duties are to fall off in
January and July, 1842, to the amount of $5,000,000; and
the whole income from customs, he says, will not then exceed
ten or eleven millions. Now, if we are to wait till the ses-
sion of Congress in 1842, before any new provision for revenue
shall be adopted, is it not positively certain that we must live
in 1842, to a considerable extent, by borrowing 1 Commerce
ought to have, and must have, several months' notice before
new duties are made to operate; and the only way in which
the revenue from customs can be materially increased in 1842
is to amend thie duties acts at the present session. So says
Mr. Woodbury, who tells us he has digested a plan for this
purpose, which he is ready to offer if Congress will call for it;
and so must every body say Wto knows any thing of the mat-
ter. This, then, is another position which I take, and which
I wish to express emphatically, namely, that it is the indispen-
sable duty of this Administration, with this Congress, in
which it holds the political majority, to amend the laws laying
duties on imports so as to give, as soon as possible, and especial-
ly fur 1842, an increased revenue from customs. This it may
do, probably, %Nithout touching one really debatable point or
principle in relation to the Tariff, keeping within the policy
of the Compromise Act, and making the wealthy consumers
of luxuries contribute a fairer proportion than they now do
towards the public burdens.
I have only to repeat, here, that the neglect of the two
principal measures now adverted to, by this Administration,
must, I suppose, force the next Administration unavoidably
into the calling of an extra session of Congress at an early
day. If that is the purpose of those who now hold the con-
trol here, we shall know it by what they do, or rather neglect
to do, on this subject.
Mr. Chairman, if this Administration will do its duty, the
next will be relieved from some embarrassment. And yet at'
best that coming Administration will find enough to do.
What its general hine of policy will be I cannot say; I can
only say, as an humble individual, what, in some things, at
least, I hope it may be.
I hope it will provide for all thejoust debts ofthe Government,
and meet all just claims and demands upon it in a prompt and
manly way. If the amount of outstanding debts shall be
found to be large, atnd such as to press upon the Government,
I hope they will be funded, and a proper sinking-fund provided
for their gradual payment.
I hope that current expenditure-always within the limits
of a just economy-will be met by current revenue, derived
chiefly from duties on imports.
I hope that duties on imports will be so imposed--preserv-
ing, as I hope may be done, without sacrificing any great na-
tional interest, the policy of the Compromise Act-*that, while
we shall have revenue enough to meet the economical wants
of the Government, lhe rich shall not escape taxation by re-
ceiving their luxuries free of duties, the poor shall be relieved
from undue and heavy burdens, and the industry of the coun-
try shall be protected from the injurious policy and measures
of foreign lr.-nuaion.
I hope to see the proceeds of the sales of the public lands,
in proper Lime, ,liairbtlttd ame'n, the Stales. Nothing should
post.:p.ne this rnoraure ul justice shotn of war, or the pressure
of a hesv debl.


1 hope to e-e the necessary military and naval defences of
the coun ry put on a proper footing, thatwe may not he called
to mourn user some sudden disaster or dishonor.
I hope to see a vigorous but economical prosecution of our
works for improving harbors and rivers. It is a commercial
matter of the highest importance, and, through commerce,
they ought to be prosecuted and paid for.
Finally, I hope that that cumbrous and dangerous political
machine-the sub-Treasury-will be promptly dispensed witfi.
And I hope to see the Government return, without delay, to
all its constitutional duties touching money and currency;
taking the public money out of the hands of the Pr9sident and


putting it under custody of the law; providing for its safe-
keeping and ready disbursement wihout esperanse to Govern-
ment; and, by a due exercise of the authority tof Congress,
providing for the whole'c.lunlrvy a sound and uniform rnaiional
currency, and effecting thereby a due regulation of the ex-
changes. And, if all this thigh duly cannot be exercised
without it, then I hope to rce a nalionail bank promptly estab
lished for the purpose.
Mr. Chatrmar,, the honorable gentleman from Virginia
(Mr. ..,., t) at ihe close of his speech was pleased to allude
in no unkind terms to the in-coming Administration. Sir, it
deserves to be contemplated with kind feelings on all aides.
Great and most arduous duties will devolve upon it. In seae
things it will have to take an entire new departure, with dif-
ficulties to encounter scarcely less than those which emnibar-
rassed the men of '89 who unlerliok to set ihe Goverrimeit
originally in motion under the Conslitiiu,.n. Tlihn, indeed,
there was much tobe done; row here is much t.I be dune-
and much first to be undone. This will be found to be irtie,
I apprehend, in an especial manner in the department of
finance. Every thing thereis in c.tiusmun rind uerangemnent.
The redoubtable Secretary, under in-,ructioni,, his been
fighting a long and obstinately contested battle w 'l, the Peo-
ple; at last he is conquered ; and no wonder that his decks
should now be found strewed thick sultl unvilh.,lv f'ragmers
and accumulated ruin. There is danger ce.n that the bat-
tered and riddled craft in which he has sailed may go down
in the open and calm sea, though within sight of the harbor, be-
fore relief can reach him. And if she lives through, as I hope
she may, and holds together long enough to be hauled up fur
repairs, I think it will be found that there is really nolting
left of her above her keel that will ever do to build upon.
Sir, the honorable gentleman from Virginia seems to expect
much-I hope in all sincerity-from the new Administration.
My trust and confidence is, that he will not be disappointed.
I trust he will find, as we all shall, that that Administration
will move forward to its work with becoming boldness, and
an unshaken firmness ; shrinking from no duty, and from no
responsibility; that it will take its measures calmly and wisely
for the good af the country, and the whole country, and with
no view whatever, at any time, to catch the breath of an
ephemeral popularity; that it will do nothing for the mere
sake of popularity, and omit nothing which it ought to do,
from any craven and cowardly apprehension that it may not
be popular; that it will have the moral courage to do right-
always right-trusting to an intelligent and generous people
to approve the right, and utterly regardless of the clamors of
demagogues, or those whom demagogues delude and lead.
Thus acting, I know that still that Administration may be
overborne and'trodden down by a reckless and unprincipled
Opposition, gathered and organized hereafter in the land ; but,
at least, it will have deserved success, and it will command
the approbation and support of all whose approbation and sup-
port is worth striving for, or worth having. Sir, we know
that we live in a glorious country ; we think we have the
happiest form of Government on earth ; let that Government
be, once again, in God's name, wisely and happily adminis-
tered. This will save us, and nothing else can; this will
save our institutions, and give a new guaranty to freedom
under Republican forms, for the present and all future time,
and nothing else can or will. And for so much virtue, and
so much reform, I am happy, for one, to be able to give to the
new Administration full credit and confidence beforehand;
and this I will say, in conclusion, to the friends of that Ad-
ministration, and to all, that so much virtue and so much re-
form the country expects at its hands ; so much the country
will hold that Administration accountable for, and it will not
brook disappointment.
Mr. BARNARD closed his remarks by moving to strike out
the enacting clause of the bill; giving notice that, if the mo-
tion prevailed, and a report to that effect should be made to
the House, he would then offer the following resolution :
Resolved, That the subject of making provision for the wants of
the Treasury be referred back to the Committee of Ways and
Means, with instructions-
First. To bring ii. ,0 ii ,u. u-.-;n it.: d -w.rsi .ry of the Trea-
sury to borrow ten i .ll.-u.n. i .I.ur l, .: .,.dt of the Govern-
ment, and to issue bonds or scrip therefore.
Second. I tr., ii i ... .. i ,. a for additional revenue
on wines l iI. h.5 ,i.,, and other articles, being luxuries,
imported into the Unaited States; but in such manner as not to
conflict with the principles, policy, and spirit of the act of March,
1833, commonly called "the Compromise Act."

C LAREMONT NURSERY, near Baltimore.-
GOOSEIBERRY TREES FOR SALFE.-The sub-
scriber has receivedd by the ship Powhatan,.directffrom Liverpool,
501) best premium Gooseberry Trees-red, green, yellow, and
white in fine order for planting out.
Fruit trees of all sorts, as usual.
Ornamental Shade and Evergreen trees, a good assortment, the
former loto 1 I -,. i t, .,.d the latter, such as the Balsam Fir,
Arbor Vita,, ), 1. ,. Pr,-., Juniper, and other evergreen plants,
2 to 6 feet, well-established plants, that can be transplanted with
safety. And among the large stock of Ornamental Shrubs, he will
only mention 200 Blush and Perpetual White Moss Roses, and
various White and BlushTea and otherchoice Chinese and hardy
Roses; the Moss, in particular, are large thrifty plants. Double
Dahlias, a most superb assortment, at moderate prices per dozen,
containing best assorted colors.
As the Railroad cars run between Baltimore and Washington
every day, trees, &c. can be packed and forwarded with but small
expense or exposure.
J. F. CALLAN, Druggist, in Washington, will receive orders for
this establishment, to whose address orders will be filled and for-
warded wvith care and despatch.
jan 28-eoTh4t ROBT. SINCLAIR, Sen.
"l N tS,BRAN 1) I1S iAMP OIL, WHISKEY,
V GRAPES, BUTTER, a&c. &C.-On Wednesday
next, the 27th instant, at 12 o'clock M. we shall sell, at public
auction, positively, the following articles just received from the
North:
1 pipe Holland Gin and 4 barrels Peach Brandy
5 half pipes Cognac and Champagne Brandy
5 quarter casks French Madeira Wine, good
3 casks Winter and Fall Lamp Oil
15 barrels Monongahela Whiskey, first proof
5 do do do fourth do
34 quarter klors Grapes Fnd 17 small pots Grapes
30 baskets ''1. i ,:. Wines, various brands
20 firkins ('i ,la..- I!.,'-., for bakers
3 dozen Alicant Mats, with many other articles in the groce-
ry line.
Will be added, by request-
10 hags Coffee
4 kegs James river Tobacco, first 'ii ii'
20 quarter and half boxes half Spanish Segars
I quarter cask superior Malmsey Madeira Wine
3 eighths of Madeira and 3 bales Feathers
Terms : All sums of and under $25, cash ; over $25, a ereditof
4 months, for notes satisfactorily endorsed.
jan 26--2t E. DYER & CO., Auctioneers.
EY-The above sale is postponed to Friday next, 29th
instant, same hour, in consequence of the rain.
jan 28-21t E. DYER & CO., Auctioneers.
VALUABLE BUILDING LOT AT PUBLIC
SALE.-On Tuesday next, the 26th inst. at half past 12
o'clock, we shall sell, in front of the premises, the east half fat
Lot No. 2, in Square Ne. 518, fronting south 88 feet on North G
street, immediately west of the new jail, by 200 feet deep, to a
50 foot alley.
Tihe above lot is handsomely and very desirably located, and
will positively be sold to the highest bidder for cash.
jan 21-3tdif ED. DYER & CO., Auctioneers.
n- The above sale is postponed to Friday evening
next, the 29th instant, at 4 o'clock P. M. on the premises.
int 28-2tif E. DYER & CO., Auctioneers.
IItSH WHISKEY AND ORANGES.-Will be
added to the sale of liquors1 groceries, &e. on Friday, the
29th instant-
1 barrel superior Irish whiskey
6 boxes oranpees in nrimse order.


EDWARD DYER & CO.
jan 28-2t Auctioneers.


iHANDSOME & FFASHIIONABLE BAROUCHi
AT PRIVATE SALE.-A gentleman about to re-
move from the city Will sell a handsome and fashionably built Ba-
rouche and Harness, nearly new. It has been very little used,
and can be seen upqn application to E. DYER & CO.
jan 28-3tif Auctioneers and Comn. Merchants.
IN EW DRESS SILKS, tec.-I have this day opened-
L Memphis figured Silks, a new and handsome style
Rich striped and plain 4-4 blue-black Satins
Mousselines of all styles, rich Shawls, &c.
Also, a small lot of Inauguration Muslins, expressly for evening
dresses. JAMES B. CLARKE,
Opposite Centre Market, and No. 2 from 8th street.
jan 28-eo3tif [NntAme]


NT OTICE.-The undersigned, commissioners appointed by
S Montgomery county court to value and divide the real estate
of the late Ann Worthington, deceased, hereby give notice that they
will, on Monday, 29th March next, meet at the residence of Allen
Selby, awho resides on the estate, for the purpose of executing said
commission, and then and there proceed in the matter according
to law. All persons interested are invited to attend.
OrHO MAGRUDER,
JOHN W. DARBY,
jan 28--w6w NATHAN COOKE.
L AMP OIL, IH)ORSE FEED, &c.-I have just re-
ceived, end offer for sale-
200 gallons of best Sperm Oil, warranted not to be affected by
any weather, or togum the lamp
600 bushels of bright heavy Oats
10CO do Brown Stuff, very good
1000 do Shorts; good measure given, and delivered free
of charge. WM. DOVE,
jan 28-St Penn. avenue, between 12th and 13n h ias.
THIS DAY, JAN. 28, THE'
VIRGINIA LIEESBBURG LOTTERY,
Number 5, extra,
Will be drawn at Alexandria, Va.
$10,000--$2,500-$1,500-$1,300-$1,0-24
925 prizes of $1,000, &o..
Tickets only $4-Halves $2-Quarters $1.
Certificates of packages of 22 whole tickets, $50-Halves and
Quarters in proportion.
For sale by D. S. GREGORY & CO.
Managers, Penn. avenue, next door east of Gadsby's
ian 23-It Hotel, Washington.
DRAWS THIS DAY.
POKOMOKE RIVER LOTTERY,
Class No. 16.
4 prizes of $10,000 4 prizes of $1,250
4 do 3,000 4 do 1,062
4 do 2,000 50 do 200
50 do 500 50 do ,4800
100 p;rizes of il1,000 are $50,000.
Whole tickets $10-shares in proportion.
JAMES PHALEN d& CO.
Pennsylvania avenue, near 4J street,
jqan 28-It Washington.


TWENTY-SIXTH CONGRESS.
SECOND SESSION.

WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 27, 1841.
SIn the SENATE the memorial of the Tobacco Planters of Prince
George's county, Maryland, was referred to the Committee on
Agriculture, after some debate, in which Messrs. MERRICK,
CALHOUN, FRESTON, LINN4, and others participated.
Mr. LUMPKIN and Mr. WRIGHT presented their views on
the questions connected with the prospective pre-emption bill.
The latter gentleman gave way at about 4 o'clock for a motion to
adjourn, and will conclude his remarks to-morrow.

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
Mr. CRABBbtof Alabama, under a suspension of the rule moved
by him for the purpose, presented a memorial and resolutions of
the Senate and House of Representatives of the State of Alaba-
ma, playing to be reimbursed in a sum amounting to about $150,-
000, expended by that State in the late war with the Creek In-
dians, for which, owing to peculiar circumstances, which always
attend a sudden outbreak with Indians, the State is unable to pro-
duce such voachers as are required by the accounting officers of
ine United States. Referred to the Committee onr Military Affairs.
Mr. EASTMAN presented documents in support of a claim of
Mark Burnham.
THE TREASURY NOTE BILL.
The House then, in further execution of the special order, re-
solved itself into Committee of the Whole on the state of the
Union, on the bill reported from the Committee of Ways and
Means for an issue of an additional sum of five millions of dollars
in Treasury notes. Mr. CAsEY, of Illinois, was called to preside
over the deliberatiors r.f ih.: .-:arto ;,ti:,:.
Mr. POPE, whomsb, c.,. ,Il i.t i,.. rl..r, proceeded to address'
the committee, but, before entering upon the general field of dis-
cussion, offered to forego his right if, by general consent, the bill
could be taken out of committee and reported to the House.
This effort at compromise having failed-
Mr. P. proceeded in his remarks, (of which a report will appear
hereafter,) following the range of topics which had been chalked
out by previous speakers, and concluding his remarks at half past
2 o'clock.
As to the immediate question involved in the bill, Mr. P. ex-
pressed his dislike of thin mode of raising money by Treasury
notes, regarding it as unfair. He knew notwhether he should
vote foror against the bill. It was, however, he said, the privi-
lege of the party in power to manage these matters in their own
way during the brief remnant of existence that yet remained to
them.
The CHAIRMAN then gave the flior to
Mr.WISE, who yi-lded itfor purposes of personal explanation to
Mr. W. C. JOHNSON, who said that, in the report in the
Globe of last evening of a discussion whicltarose in this House
yesterday, the following language appeared as having been used
by Mr. DUNCAN:
"But that not being done, le denounced its author (pointing to
Mr. WM. CosT JOHNsON) a base liar, a contemptible puppy, a
scoundrel, and an infamous coward."
All that I have to say (continued Mr. J.) is, that this language
was not used by the member from Ohio, (Mr. DUNCAN,) as will
be remembered by every gentleman who was present. The mem-
ber had stated yesterday, most untiuly, that the statement in the
SNational Intelligencer" was false ; and he also stated in this re-
port in the Globe" that he had not heard my remark made to
him the day preceding. I did not feel disposed to enter into dis-
cussion on yesterday, but I was determined not to be diverted from
the object I had in view by epithets or inleiruptions of any kind.
That object was, in the first place, to avow the language attributed
to ihe in the report of the Intelligencer;" and, secondly, to prove
that what I had stated was true, that the member had been branded
as a coward; and thirdly, to intimate, in the most civil way 1 could,
that a particular law which had been passed by a former Congress
would have no influence on me in demanding or giving satisfac
lion for personal insults. This latter remark had not appeared in
the latelligenccr.* I did not wish to go into a discussion as to
whether the member from Ohio heard the remark I made or not.
He says he did not hear me ; and vet he replied at the time to
the first part of the sentence, disclaiming that he had charged Ge-
neral Harrison with cowardice. It was a little curious that he
should have heard tite first and not the last words, when those last
wolds were uttered in a louder voice than the first. The Chair-
man (Mr. CAMPBELL, of South Carolina) says he did not hear
them. This is not less strange, as they were heard all over the
House, and in the .-I. ,1 ;r -, and by every one else, except the
member from Ohio ., 1 i ., then Chairman. I must have had
some power of ventriloquism when I pitched my voice over the
Chairman, and into the galleries beyond him.
1 say, as regards this statement in'the "Globe," that it is false
that the language imniputed to the member from Ohio was not
used; and that there is no member here, of any party, who will
rise and assert that it was used; that it is not my purpose to en-
gage in a personal controversy with him ; anid that I shall never
resort to the Use of b.i.r,.. r, myself, nor allow, myself to be
governed by it. Bi, I vill- rot suffer the manifest position I
assumed in this matter to be changed, and which was predicated
upon a fact for which I was ready to vouch, and of the truth of
which I yesterday gave abundant evidence to this House. I say,
in conclusion, that whatever 1 might know to be the true charac-
ter of a member on this floor as depriving him of thie rights of a
gentleman-whenever, as in this case, I had directly and une-
quivocally assailed such a man-I should not take the ground that
he was not a gentleman, however I mi'lt kr...' ,such. to be the
fact. But I repeat that thei language %hi-i.i I I,.,n read was not
used ; and if it had been, I certainly should not have noticed it.
I have not been taught tlhat an insult, direct and unequivocal, was
to be revenged by BK i.it',a'it. words ; and if the member is sat-
isfied with that revenge, he is altogether welcome to its enjoy-
ment.
Mr. WISE then took the floor, and addressed the comrlttee.
He directed his remarks, in the first place, to a certain matter of
fact, which he had stated on a former day, in reference to an out-
standing debt for public work done at Old Point Camfort, and to
the verification ofthe statement he then made by tihe introduction
of evidence of the fact.
Mr. JONES and Mr. MALLORY, of Virginia, made brief
statements effecting the same point, ail of which will have place
in the report of the speech as hereafter published.
Mr. WISE then proceeded in his argument, which was ad-
dressed, in the first place, to an explanation of the grounds on
which he intended to vote for this bill, and which hlie stated to be
three :
First, he said he would vote for the bill as a friend of the zom-
ing Administration, and with a view to supply that Adminiatration
with the immediate means to carry on the Government after the
4th of March, knoving no other means of meeting the exi-
gency.
Secondly. To prevent an extra session.
And, thirdly, to prevent, during the year 1841, a premature re-
peal of the compromise act.
Mr. W. proceeded for about an hour, when, giving way to a mo-
tion for the purpose-
The committee rose, reported progress, and obtained leave to sit
again.
SLAVES IN CONNECTICUT AND CAPTIVES IN THE
AMISTAD.
Mr. B.OQARDMAN obtained leave to introduce the following re-
solution ; which was read, and adopted :
Resolved, That the Secretary of State be directed to commu-
nicate to this House an abstract of the returns of the Marshal of
the District of Connecticut, showing the number cf slaves within
said district by the census of 1840. And to ascertain and report
to this House whether the captives from the schooner Amistad
were included in the said number ef slaves.
WIDOWS' PENSIONS.
Mr. EASTMAN gave notice of a motion for leave to introduce a
bill to extend for five years the act granting half-pay and pensions
to certain widows, passed July 7, 1838.
Adjourned until to-morrow.
NOTE BfTHE RxEaRTEa.-There were two sentences spoken
by Mr. J. yesterday, which the Reporter could not hear with such
certainty as to give the wards and which, for that reason, he
threw under a general notice at the close of the report.


SSpeech of Senator SMITH, of Ia., on the Land
Bill.-This Speech is now on the press at this office in pamphlet
form, and will be furnished, to those who may give immediate or-
ders for copies, at one dollar and a 'half per hundred copies, or
twelve dollars and a half per thousand.
Speech of Mr. BARNARD.-The Speech of Mr. BAR-
NARD, published in to-day's paper, will be issued from this office
in pamphlet form in a day or two at the same price as the above.
jmi 28


0-NOTICI.--All adjourned meeting will be held
thisevening, at Mr. B.,k;.hl.,.,'i r-...-rs, at half past 7 o'clock,
the special object of ;l.,, ht. ,,- t a.-I it a suitable uniform fcr the
contemplated Volunteer Corps.
The punctual attendance of those who have heretofore signified
their approbation ofthe undertaking, as well asofall others friend-
ly to the cause, is earnestly desired. F. A. TUCKER,
jan 28-at Secretary.
P UBLIC SALE.-The undersigned commissioners, by vir-
tue of a decree of the Circuit Court of the District of Co-
lumbia for the County of Washington, rendered on the petition of
Francis Kirby'a heils, hereby give notice that on the third day
offlarch next, at II o'clock A. M., they will set up and expose
to public sate the title and estate of the heirs of the said Francis
Kirby in and to that part or Lot numbered 24, in Squtare No. 728,
in the city of Washington, beginning at the northwest corner of
said let ; thence running east on North A street 23 feet 1 Ii inches;
thence south at right-angles with said North A street 127 feet 8J
inches; thence west on a thirty foot alley 23 feet Ii inches;
thence north to the beginning.
The sale will take place on the preniA, a.ihd will be on the
following terms, viz. One-tenth of the 1-prctiase money o be plid
on the day of sale, and the balance in two equTal pay'ri- s at six
&nr- ti..-.- ,-.,,lno fr.i ,n i- -day -of rule, to I e secured bya note
r,u n-.-ui-, ,h a ,p, a- -..ecuri ), bearing irit-r lt frc-i, the day of sale.
Ihe une emelinsd, by virtue r-f a de'cr nI ih.i same court, on
ihe pefitimiinn or the hlirs cf slj Fr.n-.:, i klrt.v, 'Ill also set up and
eep.,ie to put-li-' sale, on tin- a'.'., daq of .larrch next, at 11
o'clock A. M., all the undivided right and estate (being an undi-
vided three-fourths) of the late Francis Kirby, of, in, and to a
part of a tract of land called Blue Plains, containing five acres,
more or less, with a valuable fishery and improvements annexed.
The sale will take place on the premises, lying on the Potomac
river, in the county of Washington and District rf Columbia, near-
ly opposite Alexandria; and the terms will be as follows, via.
One-tenth of the purchase money to be paid in cash on the day
of the sale, and the balance in two equal payments at six and
twelve months from the day of sale, secured by a note or notes,
with good security, bearing interest from the day of sale.
At the same time and place, nn the same terms, and by virtue
of a private power of attorney to the undersigned, they will set
up and expose to public sale the estate and title of Elizabeth
Herbert, formerly Kirby, (being thIe remaining undivided fourth)
of, in, and to the last described parcel of ground. Thus the whole
of the above last described piece of ground will be sold, if prefer-
red, together.
The sale will be clear of dower.


jan 28-2awts


ZACHARIAH WALKER,
GEORGE W.YOUNG,
C. B. HAMILTON.


A YOUNG GENTLEMAN, educated at Yale College,
wishes a situation as private tutor, teacher of a select school
academy.
Satisfactory testimonials of character and ability will be fur-
nished. Address H. HOWARD,
jan 23-cpt Box 205, New Haven, Con,


WASHINGTON.
4ailberty and Union.now and forever,one and
Inseparable."

THURSDAY, JANUARY 28, 1841.


THE DEBATE IN THE SENATE.

In the great debate upon the Land Bill, the day
before yesterday, in reply to Mr. ALLEN, of Ohio,
Senator MANGUM distinguished himself by an able
and effective speech, in his happiest manner. The
speech will be reported at large in due course,
and we shall notforestall the reader's gratification
in the perusal by any attempt to analyze it. There
was one passage of the speech, however, which
we cannot refrain from describing to our readers.
It was in reply to a particularly venomous assault
upon Mr. WEBSTER by the Ohio Senator, in re-
ference to his opposition to the proposed appro-
priation of three millions of dollars to be placed
at the discretion of Gen. JACKSON, by way of
amendment to the fortification appropriation
bill, at the close of the session of Congress, 1834,
'35, for any purpose he might elect in reference
either to the land or naval service; which amend-
ment came to the Senate late in the night of the
3d of March, being the last day and night of the
session.
In reference to this allusion, Mr. MANOUM said
he well remembered that night. He had under-
stood that a schism had taken place among the
members of the party in power; a portion of them
being in favor of the elevation of Mr. VAN BuaBE- to the
Presidency, while another portion were not willing to trust
him. It had been said on the floor of the Senate that a hun-
dred and fifty sail of French vessels of war were off our
coasts; reprisals had been asked by the Pfe*dJert, which, if
granted, would precipitate us into a war with France in forty-
eight hours. And all this, for what 1 Why, sir," said
Mr. M., if we could have been forced into a war, the appeal
would be irresistible to the popular feeling in favor of con-
tinuing the 'Hero of New Orleans' at the head of the States
to guide the contest. Hence, that portion of the Cabinet-the
Loa er Cabinet he believed it was-who were in favor of
electing Gen. JACKSON for a third term, had only to plunge
the country into a war, and the work was done. I therefore
felt (said Mr. M.) that to break up the reigning dynasty was
indispensable, I looked to a war with apprehension; not that
I feared the prowess of the enemy abroad, but the success ot
the enemy at home. And here suffer me to say-perhaps 1
ought not to say it, yet I will say-that in all probability that
war was averted by the genius and wisdom and sagacity of
one man (alluding to Mr. CLAY) sitting in a committee-room
of this Capitol. I believe, if the secrets of that committee-
room could be brought out to the light, they would still further
enhance a reputation which is the property and pride of our
country, and would add one more to the long list of the pub-
lic services of that distinguished man. When the report
from the Committee on Foreign Affairs on the subject four
relations with France was brought into the Senate, it was
adopted, with some slight verbal amendment Of the resolution,
not changing the object of it, almost unanimously. The
prospect of war, with all the party hopes built upon it, was
gone. But afterward, on the last night of that session, it
was proposed to insert, by amendment in an appropriation
bill, an item of three millions qf dollars, to be placed at
the absolute discretion of the Executive. Such a measure
was unusual; the amount was large; the demand sudden;
but it was pressed with eagerness by the emissaries, or,
let me say, by the assiduous friends of the President,
who were seen flitting in the lobbies and eagerly con-
versing with their friends, then possessing an ascendency in
both Houses of Congress. The President himself was in the
Capitol. His servitors-his agents-his personal and politi-
cal friends were busily engaged in persuading members to
give the appropriation their approbation and support. They
were unable, however, to kindle up the spark of war. That
had been too effectually extinguished in the committee-room,
and its extinction had been confirmed in the Senate. But,
should this grant be made, the chances were ten to one that
we should at once see it flame out in a state of actual hostili-
ties. It was on that occasion that the honorable Senator
from Massachusetts (Mr. WEBSTERa) rose in his place and
threw off one of the most convulsing bursts of eloquence 1
ever listened to. I rise not here to defend that Senator; he
heeds not the aid of my puny arm. His vast national repu-
tation, more especially his strong American, f elirg, have en-
deared him to his countrymen, and must convince even his
enemies that he is the true friend of his country. I was a wit-
ness to the gigantic power of his eloquence on that occasion,
and it was one of the most extraordinary efforts I ever remem-
ber to have heard. Had I been called upon at the time to
express'the feeling excited in my mind by the honorable Sen-
ator's speech on this occasion, I should have been ready to
exclaim, Well done, good and faithful servant I' That
the Senate thought with me was manifested by their confirm-
ing his views by their action ; while the universal Whig par-
ty-I am sure I may include the Senator from South Caro-
lina (Mr. CALHOUN)-in every portion of the country, agreed
in their estimate of the high and devoted patriotism which
dictated his course."
We do not give these as the words, but they
are the substance of Mr. MANOUM'S remtarlks in
reply to Mr. ALLEN'S allusion to the incident
referred to.
Upon the whole, this Speech of Mr. MANOUM,
and'the sentiments which he expressed, are, at the
present moment, of great interest to the country.
They cannot but tend to allay local prejudices,
and to inspire manly and generous sentiments.
Mr. MANGUM argued, as an American should
do, that the States may go on prosperously and
happily under this Government. He spoke for
conciliation, for kindness, for mutual free consul-
tation, and large and liberal views. How differ.
ent-how vastly different-is not all this from those
loud and angry appeals to sections, and to sec-
tional interests, which we have been compelled so
often, of late years, to hear
For ourselves, we thank Mr. MANOUM for this
able and statesmanlike speech. We thank him,
especially, for the just tribute which he paid to
the character and services of the bold,faithful, and
unswerving CLAY, and for his manly vindication
of the elevated national sentiment and Ameri-
can spirit of the distinguished Senator from Mas-
sachusetts.
Later on the same day, but in the same debate,
Senator TALLMADOE was called out by certain
charges made by Senator BENTON (who had fol-
lowed Mr. MANOUM) of foreign influence e.cercie-
ed in the late National Electin, io which, in pi.rt
at lenas, he imputed the defeat of the party of
which he is a distiiguished leader. And the re-


ply of Mr. TALLMADOE to the charge was conclu-
sive and triumphant. He referred the Senator
from Missouri, for the causes of the result which
had so much astonished him, to the faults and er-
rors of the Administration which had weaned fiom
it many of its most valuable friends, and had final-
ly rallied the intelligence and practical good sense
of the country in one body against the Adminis-
tration and its empiricism and experiments upon
the vital interests of the country. These, he
maintained, were obvious, natural, and sufficient
causes of the late glorious result, without search-
ing for an explanation of it in circumstances with
which it could have no possible connexion.


JIATIONAL THEATRE.-WASHIWGTOW.
For the Benefit of Mr. BOOTH, and last appearance.
THIS EVENING, JANUARY 28, 1841,
Will be acted
KING LEAR.
KingLear, Mr. BOOTH.
SAfter which, the musical farce of the
TWO GREGORIES.
UNPRECEDENTED Musical ATTRACTION.
The Public are most respeclfully inlbrmed that tli.)e astonish-
ing p*rf.rmers on lihe Harp, Concertina, and Violin, ,he Masters
HUGHES, wilt give a CONCERT s; (CAstBs'S SALOON, of
Thursday evening, January '26, to cormmeuce at half past 7
o'clock.
Tickets $1 each-Children half price-or trlcketis for $3.
For full particulars see handbills. jan 27
PHILANTHROPIC HALL,
UNIVERSITY OF NORIH CABOLINA, JAN. 16, 1I41.
II The Hon. G. C. Drumgunle has accepted the ap-
piitanent of 'he Philanthropic Socie-iy in deliver ie annual Ad-
Iress before tlie Alumni and Graduating Clas.s n the day preced-
ing C,.mmeucement. W.P. MAb TIN,
A. W. SPAIGHr,
W. A. BELL,
jan 2;.--4 Coummilltee L-.f Correspondence.
L OST. -n Satirdav last, 3d instant, between the Seven
Hjitddingsad Prnnas)lvan,i aen-ue, a GOLD PENCIL.
CASE, the top set wa:h a green tbloodetune.
The finder will be illiberally rewardd on returning the same to
this office, 1.%n 28--31
I'PILES. GRAPES, ORANGES, &d,.-Just recam-
C .I itis ,Jdy, per schr. ll.,udcrn, from New York-
60 barrels prime Pippin Apples
30 keps Mdlagai Giap,
30 k.(gi Hivana Oranges
31) t.u-eli hSieIalkikn,,
30 hall tarr,la Philadelf hia Buckwheat Flour, &c.
For sale by GO & A
jan 28-3t GEO. THOSE. PARKER.
'iO TEACH IRS.-The Prineipal ul a tielly repulablea
-. A.:adeniy, situlel in a heaitby -art if Vrgirinia, wishes ato
empl[.-.y a keitrmriman vll .iuaihfid 1. give inastruciI.ns in ihe Latin
and ;ir.ei Lnagiadeea, iil Se]) the t,,gher hranchi of Matlatie-
mati.'s. Ih t. d.,irultdl. itlicv I ahe t hts l m-i.l.rrn languages. Ap-
itl',aliJns tny be made t.) Ihs HIen. JOUHN IALAfrasO, H >oe tuf'
B-preienial,ir.:s, WVbsltnglon. jain 't-2wcp
INFIRMARY FOR THE GRAVELL.-Dr. S. H. P'
LEE, forso mar.% ars klinown as his .jis-ove'er orf the ele-
brated NewLondon Bii.,-j PillFIs, h bo r..inov.d o New YQik, and
has opened an infirmary at .i Ns.siIa street. Dr. LE i so ewalt
known thir..ugh ins r.iuntrv, it i hjrii) ne.-esar) ia,) se-k of him.
We have been acqq.,nird %ith bhim tfr thirly years. He is a reg-
ular phys...aran, ofl c-sbliittt|,,J i ,-plIlon, a g-nilen-an of intelli-
gence a.l clhidraclter For a rj.nier *. years b. his been a iirC-
cesi-'ul i.ractii.mer lhar ti disea,-. whi,'h is aid t. be so excru-
ciatinsly pa'iiil and J neeri,.. He h l slauhl.,6l.d huiasel here
to escr.I hi&s sarhere ,i usefulness, and has FAhilb-'teid o u sa great
number of prnvo, letters from highly respectable persons, who
state that :hby ha,'e been entirely cured under his treatment.
Dr. LE* is a gentleman in whom the Public may place entire
confidence.
j3 Application bv leiter, .es r-iing ym\l.irirs.a (ro i paid.) ad-
dressed to the Doctor as b.,ve, villl be dul[ and counlent.nially at-
tended to, and the ined,eiMrie e,,t u writer, %-tb d]rtcL,,frsd, to any
part of the world.
New York, January, 1841. jann 28-eo7'wr
11E GCEN ERAL PLiUBLIt TATUTORT LA %,
and thie Public Local Law of 'tie Sia'e '.l Marylind now in
force-including those of December session, 1839 ; by CLEiUsrT
Doases, an Associate Judge of the first Judicial IItmnc1i tI.l,
a copious Index ; containing, also, the Constitution -.'I' the Un States, with the Constitution of the State of Maryland as amended.
"ANNA POlS, FCsSuAaV 10, 1840.
"To his Excellency WMid. G^RA-ON, Go,-rn.-t -'
Sia : We have, in performance of the duty assigned to us by
your Excellency, under a resolution of the Logislaiure, carefully
revised and examined ti- cora.iliinio.'n ,,f tte I.,s '..f it, State
made by the honorable Cei,eut Doirsaey, and highly approve of
the work.
We would also add, that this compilation oi our Acts of Asses,-
bly, from its condensed form and the convenience of refprenc.e,
furnished by the valuable notes of the .mpler, i, the irosH useful
and convenient book of statute law hitherto pretenied mto he peo-
pie of Maryland. At this time such a book ,s -partirnlarly useful
to students of law, and all others who desire a knowledge of our
statutes.
"Before this compilation, our Acts of Assembly were only to
be found in, the :.-ml[..ianmn.s of Kilty, Harris, Kilty end Wa'loisa,
and the annual .lui,,e hIi .hl ,a L-eFn |rinltd sinco 11818. form-
inga mass of about twenty v..-lirnie. To ir.c iteh legislation, on
any subject, through l1s I-lie 0i' ta.,iqiUjs, was n-ji ..-niy a work of
appalling labor, but t'l. .-'rety soand il-i ,-.f the t.'.,lna rendered it *
almost impracticable to obtain them. Now, at comparatively tri-
fling cost, any one can have the State Laws, so reduced in magni-
rude as, with the aid of the notes, to render o esan ,nii.tion of any
iu1 j.-.-t vay and .:.--riv.:nent.
t Vryes .etfi-peLlly, your obedient servants,
ALEX. C. MACRUDER,
OTHO SCOTT."
A few copies of the above are for sale by F. TA Y LOR, imme-
diately east of Gadaby's. jin 28
VIIGI N I.%- \i 1 Ci-,..,i -'iner--..,r .u-irl .' I..w nd bChance-
rij, i r Ih .-.ur.v l I nrico and ('y 'A Rclimond, held
atI tie) Capii...l in lhie aid LI>, o n l nday, January 11, 1IS41.
Sidney S. Baxter, A.or.sy General t-f the Commonwealth of
Vir thiiii plal ir,l,
Against
Daniel Ratcliffe and William F. Purell, admintslrators A bornis
non with the will annexed, of Charles Pierer, deceased, Row-
land Florence, William J. Weldon, and James B. T. Thornton,
and Jhlin S. Mason, executors of Thomas P. Hosei, deceased,
defendants.
HE LHE BILL in this cause, being Alh.btle.Jfor ihe pirrpose
oOf rec.-.'Isring whwir>,r bilanice may be due from the de-
fendants D .riI It ,'.-i;ir -I Va iulli..,in F. .,. ill, as .]ininit lrk-
tors debonis non with the will annexed, o01 Cr'hisrl. Ficrer, .Is-
ceased, late.of the County of Pinee William, in this Cotmmon-
wealth, on the ground that the same is vested in the Literary
Fund : on the motion of the Attorney General, the Court doth
order that publication be made for three months successively in
the Richmond Enquirer, Richmond Whig, and the National In-
telligencer published in the city of Washington, rrqiquiring all
persons claiming an interest in the personal esaite oIt'nse said
Charles Pierer to appear here on the first day of the next term
directed by law to be held for the trial of chancery causes, and
make themselves parties defendant to this suit.
jan 28-3m A copy-Test: WM. Gi. SANP'D, ,D. C.
11-11 'i TH A PHINNCE GEO1ItGE, qty t1I1 Irduoir, (kI.l- best sun,)
out of Thistle, by Ogles Oscar, the dam of Argyle, Tecumseh,
&o. hiXtmake his second season at the Asm scriber's farm, near
Good Luck Post Office, Prince George's county, Maryland,
thirty miles from Baltimore, twenty from Annapolis, and fifteen
freeon. VW.Ish;npin. Prince George is a beautiful dark bay, with-
ou Wt l. -, T ,.e| iI a small spot on his left hind fetlock ; full six-
teeq hands high, without a blemish; and is eight years old thi
spring.
Terms: For blood mares $25 the season ; common $10 the sea-
son; 50 cents to thme groom. euor, t a-,r.rm,.n-neethe 1st ef March
and end the lat ofAugust. Pedlir. c. i i i-ill naybe seen by are-
terence to the Turf Register. Mnrts strain f-d for 25 cents per
day; good paslurage at $3 lier rnii-it. I, The triotest attention
given, but no ]lib,'i,) for accidents or escapes.
jan 28-wtfcp [Globe] 0. W. DUVALL.
risit! (;E\T'LIt;FEN 'tHO -IHtVE THEM-
.1 *Ell'ES.--5. PK EKtRatIhie D t ahe g Booms, Gads.
by's sri I Newtjon^ H-'j'l, ns1 J.isi rs.:ip-.-~
12 dozen superior Razors, warranted
6 do do RIaz r Strops
12 do Guerlain's Siisa~i.s Cre,-m, glnjirne
A large assortment of very -as,-ullenl Shatinrg Brushes, Hair
Brushes, Combs, &c.
The advertiser promises, if Ila Riz'.ra dn not prove gool, lo re-
fund the money Io those who riurclie.'e.
The known excellence of ,i.i-,lri,,'s Shaving Cream needs no
puffing. _____[Globe] jan2- Siif
"'t iAU AI.E DINC;-t{0olcI SIRiVANT AT
Private Sale.-We are authorized to dispose of, at pri-
vate sale, without restriction, a valuable dining-room servant man,
aged about 32 years, 5 feet 7 or 8 inches high, well formed and
genteel in his appearance and address, in good health, and be-
lieved to be without blemish. He has been 'te confidinual ser-
vant of a gentleman of this District for ten :,ears. He im honest,
correct, and respectful in'his deportment. Any gemlIenr-an war.,-
ingan ].:.:,,,iiiTi-hld ,id u'.,sa...-i-n Im. -.hir.u-room and body servant
will timee" w.nh a,:ry I,-'.u irt ou.1-mii6iiniies to obtain so valuable
a one as the ote now offered.
F,..I lhor'h[ iii'nailicn spply lo E. DYER & CO.
i.nn lad--lud~f Au,'iineers.
K HAlIS (.t*.. Agelele, from .rw York, have lha
hirou I, inf.rum ihe luadles of ilme tily that ilie' have Just
re,,-.'.e'- ft..Tm PttS and epcncd u aplo ndud ecfsor'ment of ihe new-
isi el)h' onf1-
Lice anei Mi1in Eirml-r-.id rice, Pu letrern. Collars
In.adc Handkerchirls, CulT,, Shawl?. andl Ball Dresses
Silk Blonde Pelerines, Gld ani e'i'ver Bit.ode. Ac.
Berthes, Scarfs, Voils, Caps ol ev.v'ry k.r-d, Turbans, &c.
Powers and Feathers of every daseripiion
Ball Coiffures and Gloves, Laces assorted
Fud.i tie hldli.3ii Fn., de Lilln, and imnaillun of Maline.


Jawelhv, Prfuminirv, and eseiy kind of Fanry Arieles
A,,.1 all tIat i i ii ud,.l for L1 dies' ir-idLs. Jan 2.'-dif3l
SFRAN(IEO'S 01.D ESTABLIsHIED PRIZE
Ill-"ICE. near 91h street. Peuna~ltanIa A-.
TOWN HALL LOT1 ERY -CLASS 2.
|IIa.. in Baliuirnor,- Thuriday, Jan. 26.
SCHEME.
100 prizes of $ 1,000, &c.
1 prize of- %10,000 I 10 prizes of $300
100 do 1,000 20 do 00
10 do 600 j 100 dt 100
10 do 400 &oe. &e. &e.
Tickets $5-Halves $2 50-Quarters *1 25.
Certificate of Packages wholes $33
Do do halves IS 50
Do do quarters 8 26
A large assortment of tickets at R. FRANCE'S office, near 9th


Yesterday the Debate on the same subject be-. street-. an -27-2i If
ing renewed, the Senate adjourned in the midst TOWN HALL LOTTERY,
Class No. 2.
of a Speech of Senator WRIGHT, who will con- To be drawn in Baltimnore-on Thursday, 28th January.
dlude to-day. He will in all probability be followed $10,000,
by Senator CLAY, of Kentucky; when, we sup-. 100 prizes of $1,000 are $100,000.
e D e will be b h t Beasides manv smaller priz'a, amounting in all to 0tf,000.
pose, the Debate will be brought to a close. thole Tickets $6, shares in proportion,
Por which, apply to
Mr. Wicx, whose precarious health has caused him to be J. PHALEN & CO. Agents,
. ,TT ,* iPenn. sasmlucj, near 41 arrest.
frequently absent from hisseatin the Houseduring the present Pena a venue, near 41 street.
Don't forget that the capital prize of $10,000, in the above lots
Session, has we, learn, been confined to his room, and seniors, ery, Class No. 1, drawn January 16, wa sold by J. Phiaeat Co.
ly ill, for the last few days. Jan 25-4tlf


II


. I


I -.


e










NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE.

EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENCE.

PROM THE PARIS CORRESPONDENT OP THIS PAPER.

PARIS, DECEMBER 28, 1840.
An English virtuoso in Paris complains in the
London Literary Gazette of the approaching de-
molition of one of the three Gothic mansions of
the old nobility that survived the Revolution of
I792. The venerable Hotel de la Trenoille, once
the residence of that illustrious family, has long
been occupied by manufacturers and tradesmen,
and lateicly become the property of a linen draper
who is about to pull it down, and use its site for the
erection of a great staring set of houses seven or
eight stories high." Being of the utilitarian school,
J am not so much shocked at the project as the
correspondent of the Gazette ; but, in passing this
specimen and relic of the most exquisite architec-
ture of ihe 15th century, I have deprecated its de-
struction, the more as it has suffered comparative-
ly little from time, and might be preserved for some
centuries with all its beautiful "ornamentation,"
half gothic and half classic. The correspondent
expresses the wish that some English amateur
would purchase the best pants of the admirable
sculpture, which, he thinks, may be had for less
than a hundred pounds sterling. I.presume that
the transportation of those parts to the United
States would not cost a deal more than to Lon-
don; and they would be scarcely less rare and
curious in our country than a Giraffe or a Fanny
Elasler.
French influence in Egypt has not been exer-
cised or found potent to prevent the recent de-
struction of many of the most interesting architect
tural antiquities of that region ; within the last
twenty years many of them haveqbeen broken into
small fragments to make lime for the cotton ma-
nufactories of MEHEMET ALI. It has been well
observed that the temples of Egypt possess a pe-
culiar interest, not only as monuments of the in-
trlligence and early civilization of mankind, but
also of a people intimately connected with the sa-
cred records. My American aspirations are more
directed to the Egyptian obelisk in the Place de
la Concorde, and to the contents of the Egyptian
Museum in the Louvre, than to any other monu-
ment or collection of which Paris can boast. The
total of known Egyptian obelisks is said to be
forty-two, of which thirty are erect, and 'twenty-
two in Europe; twelve colossal, the rest descend-
ing from one hundred and five feet to five ten
inches. We may hope to obtain one, at least, high
in point of antiquity, if not in dimension. Louis
PHILIPPE has.given the utmost possible effect, by
basement, inscription, and railing,' to the chief
glory of lie most magnificent square of the world.
The arrangements for the apotheosis of NAPO.
LEON have given birth to a variety of critiques
touching both design and execution, in the archi-
Teciural and musical display, besides the nature
of the procession, and the accommodations for the
people. From the political Opposition we have
daily so copious a variety of reproach and cavil,
with objects and interpretations so glaringly ma-
levolent, that the Authorities can scarcely suffer
thereby in common estimation. There is a solemn
printed protest from a, concourse of three or four
thousand of the Law and Medical students, who
accuse the Minister of the Interior of having re-
Tused to assign to them a separate, corporate sta-
tion in the march and funeral service, and who
pretend virtually to the consideration and treat.-
ment of a high and distinct power in the State.
Although the Opposition papers, for a week be-
fore the ceremonial, proposed to the Army, Guards,
and People, the cry of Down with the Treaties of
1815, as the appropriate national watchword, and
proclaimed War, Glory, Revenge, and so forth, in
reference to the Quadruple Alliance, as the true
marking of the homage to NAPOLEON the Con-
queror, nevertheless they have complained bitterly
of the refusal of the Representatives of the Allies
to be officially present at the rites in the Church !
This refusal was industriously spread on the 15th
in the vast crowds in the Avenue, to produce irri-
tation and hostile cries. Surprise may be truly
felt, and indignation has burst, not unjustly, from
the Legitimist organs, at the presence in the
Church, in all form, of the Infants of Spain, DON
FRANCISCO DE PAULA arid family, forgetting or for-
giving the treatment which Kings CARLOS and
FERDINAND, and refractory Spain, experienced
from the deified Emperor.
But to return to the crliqors; there are some
equally frank and judicious, entitled the Obse-
quies of Napoleon under the Artistical point of
view," wherein condign sentence is pronounced
on the plaster and pasteboard monsters-statues,
tripods, colossal columns, and groups, producing
universally an effect nearer to the grotesque than
the sublime, which disfigured and obstructed the
route of the procession. A different report could
be made of ihe gigantic effigies of Immortality on
the sleps of the Palace of the Deputies ; but not
quite so favorable a one of the huge bronze N.po-
leon, in his imperial costume, which was posted
on the quay of ihe Hotel des Invalides. Not a
few of the valetudinary veterans of the hospital
performed a sort of wor-hip about the statue, at
midnight, thermometer below zero. The statue
of Marshal Nzv is so ugly a caricature that it
narrowly escaped something worse than the horror
or derision of the multitude. Plausible exception
has been taken to a mixture of bad and good
taste in the preparation of the interior of the


Church; yet the enormities and incongruities,
every where, out of doors-I would say particu-
larly the apotheosis figured in vast proportions on
the top of the Arch of the Star-far surpassed
what was peccant within. Real grandeur, admi-
rable splendor, fitness in design and style, dis-
tinguished the tomb and bier, hangings, columns,
lustreg, candelabra, clusters of lights, choir, or-
chpstra, array of clergy and lay functionaries, and
of the many thousands of spectators under the
dome. It was a most imposing, magnificent, in-
comparable coup d'tril. With regard to the music,
SI cannot double that the Requiemin of Mozart was
never before executed in such a measure of per-
fection, at least in the vocal department; The
c$lebrities of all the chief musical theatres were
united after sufficient rehearsal, and stimulated by
emulation to the display of their highest powers.
But the sensation which they produced was com-
paratively slight with such a scene and the en-
Phrined corpse to divide the attention of such an
assembly. If any voices could have filled every


soul, it would have been those of LABLACHE, Ru-
BINt, DUPREZ, and GRIsi, as they were exerted in
the chef d'moeuvre of the first of composers. The
majority of the audience had waited several hours
before the arrival of the procession at the door.
Certainly there was some ground for the querul-
ous remark of the newspapers that from ten o'clock
until one you might have taken the floor of the
church for that of the exchange, or the bargain
ground of a fair-groups of loud talkers in every
costume; carpenters, upholsterers, and other
workmen, endeavoring to finish their tasks for the
final rites ; Deputies gathered round M. THIERS
and Count MOLE, who were in animated discus-
sion ; TrIBRs receiving the congratulations of his
friends on the accomplishment of his grande pen-
see, the translation of the remains, the credit of
which those of Louis PHILIPr.FE asserted for the
Monarch, while THIERas stood at the helm of
State. Some of the military dignitaries who went
as far as Courbevoie to hail the remains on board
the steamboat, knelt before them, and so did se-
veral companies of the National Guards as they
passed in the gorgeous hearse. No. one of the
pilgrims from St. Helena received more eager salu-
tations than Sergeant HUBERT, who fondly accom-
panied his master to the island, and constantly
watched by the grave until the moment of disinter-
ment. The Opposition journals affirm that, when
innumerable spectators cried Vive le Prince de Join-
ville, they added, not Vive le Roi, as the Ministerial
assert, but Vive la Marine and Down with the
English. Louis PHILIPPE's letter, private and
public, against "the Corsican usurper," have
been raked up in order to discredit him doubly;
and, indeed, the language of them could hardly
be more opprobrious; but the greater merit
might be conceded to him' for sacrificing the
wrongs and opinions of a Duke of Orleans to
the part of a King of the French, represent-
ing their supposed sentiments and wishes. He
wore the uniform of the National Guard; the
Royal females were in deep mourning, as all the
ladies present. I should fill your page if I offer-
ed the due variety of specimens of the bombast,
rhodomontade, and blasphemy, which the ambi-
tion of the public writers to outdo each other be-
got on this occasion. The hyperbole is not wild-
er or more absurd in the floods of verse than in
the mountains of prose. According to them, the
whole million of spectators were drawn and agi-
tated by personal sympathy and national enthu-
siasm alone; when the sun darted his rays as the
hearse reached the Arch of Triumph, it was mi-
raculous. The Republican editor of the Nation-
al says: When we placed ourselves within the
atmosphere of the mighty shade, it seemed to us
that we were leaving this world, and were trans-
ported into infinitude." Nous avons vu bien
des larmes, nous avons entendu des sanglots
4touffns, et, lorsque nous avons et6 places nous-
mtnmes dans l'atmosphere que cette grande om-
bre agitait autour d'elle, il nous a semblt que nous
-sortions de ce monde et qu e nous tions entrains
dans l'infini !" Upon the astonishment and ter-
ror of Europe at such a manifestation of national
sensibility, and the overwhelming force and reso-
lution with which the possession of the corpse
will reaggrandize France, all the reporters, ex-
cept the Legitimist, dwell in terms of unbound-
ed elation and confidence. VICTOR Huao's stro-
phes are the most admired. He styles France the
summit of nations' and the mother of Revolu-
tions; the inventor of all work for the universe ;
giving sap to mankind, and proudly obeyed in all
her dictates-France, the head of the world-a
Cyclops, of which Paris is the eye. To destroy
her would be to despoil all coming generations of
thought; to blind all the races ; decapitatefuturi.
ty. God himself will soon prove to the kings of
'earth the folly of the notion of gagging her;
God, when Europe imagined France dead, took
up the Emperor and brought him to her, that all
his glory might repass to her sight in one day."
The unqualified admiration, the egregious idol-
atry, with which the press has teemed since the
15th instant, strike the "constant reader" the
more forcibly, inasmuch as within the week pre-
vious some of the same journals reminded the na-
tion, directly and indirectly, of NAPOLEON'S ex-
orbitant ambition and iron despotism which final-
Jy overwhelmed France, exhausting her resources,
crushing all her liberties, and bringing her twice
under foreign yoke. The very National (Repub-
lican) whose ecstacy in the Church I have cited,
described him, Qn the 12th instant, as the destroy-'
er of the freedom of discussion and expression in
every-sphere, all the national rights; and observ-
ed of the Imperial system-5" It weighs upon us
' still with the whole weight of its prefects, po-
'lice, grand dignitaries, all that oppressive and
' murky administration which yet clasps France
' in its iron fetters." The least inconstant, or the
absolutely consistent, of the worshippers in the
procession were, to my mind, the small remnant
of the Imperial Guards and of the officers of the
military and civil household of the Emperor. The
Guards wore their old uniform ; looked and mov-
ed as if restored to their meridian vigor and con-
sequence, and were saluted with honest fervor by
the people. I could recollect the accoutrements,
mien, and similar reception of the whole corps
when I saw them, thirty-two or three years ago,
marching along the Boulevards on their way to
the campaigns in the North. The survivors would
have been glad-passionately glad-to get back
their master alire; but I could not answer, if I
were asked, which of the political parties-
whether even the Bonapartists so called-and
what proportion of the whole mass of actors
and speclahora, the loudest in the greeting of the


corp-.e, and the highest in the flights of pious
rlhetoric-had the same disposition, or the slight-
est desire for a resuscitation of the hero and his
reign. A sure, ample revenge upon the Quadruple
Alliance might, indeed, win the assent of a ma-
jority to that miracle. A Liberal organ explains
the acclamation Vive L'Empereur resounding from
the mouth of the Seine to Paris, by the universal
sense of the indignities which the nation has ex-
perienced; and he then exclaims, "Let the corpse,
' the symbol, of our former glory, and the reproof
' of our present shame, be carried at once to the
' northern frontier, and a million of men will es-
' cort it, burning to enact over all the prodigies of
' antiquity." Such is the tone-I could say, per-
haps, the feeling--of nearly the whole periodical
press, of all the many pamphleteers, and more
than a third of the Chamber of Deputies. La
Revue des Deux Mondes, of the 15th instant, con-
tains an able article on the main question of


the day, at the end of which is a reference to of the Government. By the way, I must mention to you that
the funeral solemnity, in terms which I will he has expressed to me "lively gratitude" for the diffusion of
translate for you, sine the Review has the his eulogy of General BEaAnAD in the National Intelligencer.
translate for you since the Review hasthe Better late, you see, than never.
character and authority of dignified moderation. The diligences of the interior were insufficient for some
We cannot refrain, nor can any of our 'reat- jays for the number of the veterans of the Imperial army on
ers, from marking a sad contrast. It is when' pilgrimage to the tomb of their chief. The officers of the
SFrance is condemned to a policy of weakness Imperial Guard, besides the banquet which they gave on the
that she receives in her boso the remains of 18th inst. to the whole remnant of that corps, and at which
that she receives in her bosom the remains of the." sacred toast to the immortal memory" was drank kneel-
NAPOLEON. It is with a disarmed hand that she ing, have tendered another, for the 9th proximo, to the St.
engraves on a tombstone the name of a man Helena committee, for the zeal and devotedness with -which
whom she holds dear only because she sees and the pioui mission was fulfilled." They have called for the
loves in him her own glory. Strange and -fellowship, at the solemnity, of all the old officers of the army
lonehiu contast Se lift lon hgt e t hes andthe citizens of the National Guard. Numerous deputa-
Slancholy contrast! She lifts on high the trophies tior of Belgian veterans, who had served under NAPOLEON,
of the past at the moment that she bends her came hither, by the public conveyances, at an expense which
head before an anticipated danger. What bitter they could ill bear; some of them trudged part of the way.
accents might not escape from Frenchmen even Every mail brings us accounts of a solemn commemoration, on
less excruciated at this spetale than we are! he 15th, whlihnr by public banquets, divine service, or dra-
Sless excruciated at this spectacle thand we are 1 i ,mat.' p.rn ns, ,n the chief towns wherever the soldiery
But, no; from our former triumphs and trials, ..fthe lnpettil ,r, could make a quorum. The Marseillaise
from the'past and the present, let us draw a more hymn was allowed, generally, to be trolled or chorussed. It
austere and less painful lesson. With NAPO- is like a meditated revival of the old martial 'fire, to be com-
LEON, and thanks no doubt to him, France was municated to the young troops; and I doubt not that
great ; but she relied too much on force, and by a this object will be systematically pursued. I conjecture that
great; but she relied too much on force, and by a Prince Louis NAPOLEON and his associates, now imprison-
fatal law she has severely expiated the excess of ed, must find it an aggravation of their punishment to
greatness ; she is expiating it still ; for she takes hear simply of what has been done and is doing with regard
fright by her reminiscences. For having dared too to the remains. General MONTHuLON was not suffered
much, she dares too little. The Emperorjeop- to visit Paris, as he had petitioned, for the good reason
arded glory as the Revolution had done, with lib- that, having been just convicted of a treasonable attempt, the
arded glory as the Revolution had done, with lib- Government could scarcely concur in exhibiting him as a
erty. We all remember the period when what chief mourner or rejoicer in its own ceremonial. The
Degree of liberty soever seemed anarchy ; just paper of Louis NAPOLEON, Le Capitote, has perished from
as, now-a-days, all energy appears rashness, and inanition; the purse of the Prince not being that of
our present depression is a vestige of that omnii- FPrlunatus. But the scheme of the Galliceo-Russian alli-
nceof which w ance, which it was designed to advocate co-ordinately with
potence of which we dearly learned the fragility, the restoration of the BONAPARTE dynasty and Imperial r6-
Prepare, then, the mausoleum of the Emperor ; gime in France, has been embraced eagerly by other jour-
Shonor his august remains ; offer to the respect nals-Le Commerce in particular, a very able onet and it has
of the nations the wreck of what they once ad- rapidly gained ground in the Chamber of Deputies. When-
mired ; but make proper estimate of glory while ever it shall please the Emperor NiCiOLAS to incline towards
*mired ; but makeFrance, he will see a large portion of the influential politicians
you celebrate it, and let the condition to which of Paris with open arms, or at least absolute predispositions
you are reduced teach you once more how much and calculations favorable to any league against Great Bri-
and.how long the abuse of strength and genius tain. This is the black sheep, though the Russian cabinet
costs a people. After thirty years France still was charged with having contrived the Quadruple Alliance,
in order to alienate forever the British and French Govern-
Ssuffers for having conquered inordinately. But ments and people. The National, a? the chief organ of the
the Revolution of July no more revived the Republican party, while it consigns Groat Britain to the un-
spirit of conquest than it has reinstated an- appeasable hate'and fiercest hostility of France, declares,
ardhy. It was intended to procure for our nevertheless, against a union or concert with any despotic
country both liberty and power. Let us not power; and argues that universal revolutionary France can
for tr bthi liberty and power le S oet the world in arms, and should appeal to the oppressed
forget this. Liberty and power should be dis- masses alone in all other Epropean countries. MAUGUIN, an
creet but not timid. Unfortunately the system eccentric, nondescript Deputy and lawyer, but among the
is, that they should be timid at this crisis." superior intelligence and' speakers of the Chamber and at
This opinion of timidity on the part of Gov- the bar, pronounced, in the debate on the Address, a dis-
ernment, to which adheres the supposition that quisition, long revolved and laboriously wrought, upon the
enentto which emancipation of France from British connexion and thral-
the world must regard the nation as alike degene- dom, of whatever kind, as fortunate eminently by the real
rate, operates deeply and widely. For GUIZOT'S liberty and impulse which it gave her to look to the north for
philanthropic maxim, Peace every where, and for- aid in maintaining the European equilibrium, and arresting
ever, the journals have substituted La Peur partout the gigantic strides of England. the London writers and
the Paris National argued that MAUCUIN was known to have
et toujours-Fear every where, and forever. The listed with the Bonapartists, and had been either cajoled or
designation, Mlinistry of the foreigners, has been bribed in his recent sojourn at St. Petersburg; and they
so lavished againstthe presentCabinet, and conveys therefore refused stress to his speech and doctrine; but,
ideas so invidious, that it likewise works mischiev- in fact, no effusion in the debate penetrated more deeply into
ously, thought can have no basis. Nothing contri- the minds of the hearers and won more favor with the reading
ousy thoug public. The main controversy in the national councils and
buted more to the overthrow of the elder branch of the press was, whether a rupture with the Alliance should be
the Bourbons than their alleged subjection to the avoided indefinitely and by all means. Now, it seems to be
foreign Courts. You may remember the observation changed into this: when and how, positively, shall war be
of BURKE, in one of his tracts on the first French undertaken and waged; what the best preparation and period
Revolution, that the idea most industriously urged for a desperate conflict with the other side pf the channel. A
Si future descent upon Great Britain occupies the thoughts, in-
by the malcontents and plotters in 1789-of the genuity, and hearts of the French politicians and the mili-
decline of French influence-of the loss of nation- tary and naval magnates, more seriously than when NAPO-
al estimation in the world-was mainly efficient. LBON threatened London with his camp at Boulogne.
The Clhtiriri adduces as the principal motive of [The great length of this interesting letter obliges us to
the ambassadors of the Four Powers for refusing divide it, and defer the remainder t our'next paper.]
to figure at the obsequies of NAPOLEON, that the BROWN & MCLEAN
Alliance would be sufficiently represented there ATTORNEYS AT LAW,
by Messrs. GuiZOT & Co, The joking sheets, NCsteIsATSI, OHIo.
such as the -Charivari and the Corsaire, throw A.J.BROWN. c N.C. McLEAN.
out daily the bitterest, keenest witticisms on the Cincinnati.-Hon. Jacob Burnact, Hon. John McLean, John
score of Ministerial pusillanimity; and these do Reeves & Co. J.D. & C.j ones.
withi a nao s Philadeiphia.-Samuel Snelling, George W. Richards, Benj
not fall harmless or within a narrow space. W. Richards.
The translation of the remains is already drama- New York--John A. Haven & Co. John Cleaveland, Esq
tized in several of the thealies with allusions of John J. Coomebs, Esq.
Boston.-Hon. Joseph Story, CharlesSuminer, Esq. Richard
the same purport, which the Board of Censors had Roabins, Esq.
not, I presume, time to expunge. At the Porte New Orleans.-TThomas N. Pierce, Esq. Charles A. Jones,
St. Martin it was somewhat difficult to persuade Esq. fehb15-cpty
an actor to undertake the part of Sir HuDSON LOWE E. J. SMITH,
at St. Helena. There was danger of a pelting, if ATTORNEY AT LAW,
WARRENTON, FAUQUIER COUNTY, VIRGINIA,
nothing worse. In the piece, HORACE VERNET'S Will attend the Courts of Fauquier, Lotdoun, and Clarke.
picture of NAPOLEON emerging from the grave is jan 16-epw6w
admirably copied in a tableau vivant. JOSIAH J. CROSBY & J. S. JONES,
Upwards of three hundred yards of canvass are ATTORNEYS AND COUNSELLORS AT LAW,
allotted by the Government for a pictorial exhibi- Montgomery county, Texas.
tion of the principal scenes of the translation, for aug 18--wlycp
which exclusively a hall will be provided in the -I.-CAl--,
Palace of Versailles. Medals and permanent Attorney at law,
columns in commemoration of the national cere- Having permanently located himself at Charlottesville, Vr..;..,
menial are likewise ordered. Dilettanti, who will attend regularly the Inferior and Superior Courts ti .-. .-
marle, Louisa, and Fluvanna. Business confided to his care shall
entertain the most exalted notions of French receive strictattention.
science and skill in musical composition, lament RazEuSCEse.
Professor D~vta, ICaltevle igna
that a Berlioz, or some other Paris Handel, was not employed Jo.ess harlotevile, Virginia.S,
to supply a tribute to the occasion, instead of Mozart's Re- Gov. GILMER, Richmond city.
quiem, however appropriate and sublime this immortal work. PVTOI, )DEsNE & EnWARDs,
But the three original grand marches by Auber, Haldvy, and sept -c-p3tw2m&w_2m
Adam, executed by two hundred chosen members of the richest N. S. WHITE,
orchestras of the capital, in the procession of steamboats, and ATTORNEY AT LAW,
,. , ., ,. -... Charlestowni, Jefferson County, Virginia,
on the approach to the Invalides, might be deemed ruaiicient in Charleuts wn Jeffersona, Coart, r gdinia, B
In th Unte Slts on, any likeoccasion, Attends the Courts of Jefferson, Clarke, Frederick, andi Berke-
that particular. In the United States, on any like occasion, e Bounties.
we should have installed "an orator of the day ;" and there RaFERENCES.
was scope here for the amplest rhetorical capacity, patriotic Hon. WM. CosT JOHNSOs.
zeal, and philosophical wisdom, with NapOLEON'S endow- Han S. DA.I AcTCO' N
ments, career, and fate, and the immediate emotions and situa- DAVys W. BARTON, AEXx. S. TIDBALL, and PHILIP WILLIAMa,
lion of France, as the topics of a funeral harangue. More- Jun. Esqs., Winchester, Virginia. dec 19--v.5w
over, considering how France or Paris had disposed and dis- fAW NtOTICE.-The undersigned have connected them-
coursed of Napoleon from the period of his overthrow at .UA eel yes a pIarsecs in the practice of the law. They will
attend all the Courts held in Hamilton county, Ohio, and the Cir-
Waterloo, a set, precise explanation of her present homage cult and District Courts of the United States at Celumbus.
to his ashes and memory would not have been superfluous, B SIORER,
amid the numerous contradictory views and solutions of the WM. KEY BOND.
press. But the prime difficulty may have been to find a com- T, (Ohio,) Sept. 1. 84. sept 12--eply
potent orator who had not committed himself against the En.- I N'OR MA'IJN WAN'" E D.--,r.u-a i',- Extra Sea-
in eeryrespct hanthatof is mlitry eniu an ~, sin'm of Csuigreau, in Snapte, r.i r i ,.: il',llina rSchooler,
peror, in every respect than that of his military genius and an invalid pensioner, visited Washington ta obtain an incease
exploits; and who would be willing to ininividuate himself in of his pension ; since which time his relations have not been able
the universal palinode. N o sooner did VIcTOR Hi-nno issue to trace him. He was a stout, able man, about 61 feet high, amid
had lost both arms above the elbow by the explosion of a canon
his ode to the canonized corpse, than his former metrical im- while in the Dragoon Service, in Wiskonsan, under Gen. Dodge.
precations on the fallen despot and ruthless conqueror, and His widow and connexions are anxious to hear from him, if alive,
his loyal effusions towards the Restoration, were re-published and, if dead, have an interest in being informed of the time and
particulars. Any information communicated to the Hon. R. Hawes
in the Legitimist journals. We hae. this dialogue between will be conveyed to his connexions. jan 19--itcp
a Parisian and a Briton near the Arch of Triumph: What 5)UBLtC SAiLE.-By virtue of a deed of trust from Pran-
t do you here ? For five years you held him in horrible du- 33 cis Lowndesand others, dated the 2lstday ef July, 1640, to
* ranes, and tortured him soul and body at SI, Helena." An- the subscriber, the following property will be sold at public auc-
n Admit s lion, at the auction store of Thomas C. Wright, on Bridge street,
swer. Admit that we did so ; you twice deposed him your- Georgetown, on the 14th day of January next, between the hours
Eelves; nn the seeund occasion, you did not even stipulate of 3 and 4 o'clock in the afternoon, to wit All that part or par-
for his life, n.mu Irl'l h-,u n,t other alternative than our mercy; eel of a piece of land in Washington county, in the District nfCo-
Ismstia, lying north of the public road leading from the Little
you neier ailerwards inter'fred, at any serious risk to your- Falls road as it now runs through said land towardsTenallytown,


Shelves, for hia rescue from our barbarity' or for the allevia- it being part of the land conveyed to Margaret C. Stewart and
'tlion of his doom." Hl.:n I,. StO.: .t i Henry W.Smith and MaiySmith, his wife,
e M. w od o d t, n i, t r.riI th., -.'3.1.--, M-lay, 1-28, and containingtwenty-seaen acres, more
When M. GoIZoT saw and could ntl doubt, in l6l5, that .r i a,.w,ll ,af.:arby the said deed and the deed to said Fran-
Louis XVIII would be restored to ihe ihrnonc, he repaired eta Lawn.lA-:. '
to that monarch at Ghent, for the purpose of impresrsing him Terms cah; ilie purchase to be complied with in three days
fr,.n ili day of sale. W. REDIN,
and his council of emigrants with the necessity of a liberal dec ll--2awtds Trustee.
charter and liberal administration for France. ",The man Win. Stewart, the prchai'-r a' I,.e sale nf ihi above nproperim
ofGhent" has become his surname with all the til-t.oFion on the 14thihinst. having failed to cor,-.ph lWith the i,.rnn- if a sol,
journals; it is the theme of murderous denunciation. The the seat property will be resold, at his cost and risk, on ithe
Weurnal ld th mn oe 4thf of February nevt, between the same hours, and at the tame
National of the 19th says, We laud the man of Ghent for place.
having kept out of sight on the 15th, for, if he had shown Jan 27-eo3t W. REDIN.
himself in the procession, the cries of down with the Guizot I OTICE.-The undersigned having been. appointed Comn-
would certainly have been followed up with some act of vi- NLl missioners by Montgomery county Courtto divide the real
s migt he b it fo estate of John Waters, deceased, among the representatives of
lence. This might have been, as it was for a week before, the said deceased, do hereby give notice to all concerned that they
daily instigated by the National and the Radical incendiaries; will meet ou the premises on Saturday, the 27th of February next,
but what politician, what portion of France was not implicated, to carry said commission into effect. BY. HARDING,
JOHN JONES, of A.
at least equally, in the welcome and support of the Bourbons O. C OHAPPELL,
at first, and an endurance of them from 1815 to 18301 By dec 29-cpt27feb Commissioners.
whom was Marshal Ngy sentenced to death I By whom DOLLARS BEWARD.-Ran away from the
executed'l The London press has not failed to remind the 4 0 subscriber's residence, about 4 miles from Bryantoewn,
Parisians that they went forth with all manifestations of eager Charles county, Maryland, on Thursday moraine, the 1 Ith June,
,r.v ri. ,', man CHARLES, calls himself Charles Dyson, about
curiosity and cordial content, to witness the entrance of the y, Iear.- a], 5 feet 6 or 7 inches high a bright mulatto, and has
Allies into their city. If an oration had been included in a scar on the right or left side of his lower jaw bane, occasioned
the programme for the 15th, Count MOL4 could have execu- several years ago by a burn. The above reward will be paid it
St t w s e p i a a aken in a non-slaveholding State, and 100 dollars if taken within
ted the task with as little personal inconsistency and as much a slaveholding State, or the District of Columbia.
judgment and adroitness as an personage within the phoivce act l-2awcptf I. ED, KEECH.


T0 THE CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES.
In a few weeks will be published a new edition of the AME-
RICAN DICTIONARY of the English language, in large octavo,
elegantly printed, with an addition to the vocabulary of the
Ouarto, of eight or ten thousand words; the whole number
being at least eighty thousand. This number exceeds that in
Todd's Johnson by more than twenty thousand; that in Ri-
chardson's O(uarto by thirtyfour thousand; that in Walker's
and Jameson's Octavo, and others of that size, by thirty-five
thousand. This edition contains also other valuable improve-
ments upon the Quarto, which is acknowledged in England,
as well as in this country, to be the best English Dictionary
extant.
I shall offer to my fellow-citizens this work, not perfect in-
deed, for no man can make a perfect dictionary of our copious
language, but as one that approximates to a complete work of
the kind. In this work are corrected errors which disfigure
the best writings in the language, the common version of the
Scriptures, the language of some of our laws and that of our
periodicals and newspapers-errors which are daily read or
taught in our schools.
I shall present this work to you in full confidence that, in
the development of the primary principles of language and of
the manner in which languages have been formed, it is the
only work yet published which furnishes a theory which is
substantially correct.
The abridgments of this work and all my other publica-
tions, my History of the United States," my "Grammar,"
my Manual of Useful Studies," my Elementary Spelling-
Book," and the supplement to it, or Teacher," are, or will
soon be, made conformable in orthography to this large dic-
tionary.
I have now finished what I am able to do for correcting and
improving our language, and laying the foundation of its na-
tional character-a language destined to be used hy half the
inhabitants of the globe. Whatever remains to be done, fel-
low-citizens, depends on you and your children,
If publishers of newspapers will aid in giving circulatonA t,
this notice, they will very much oblige me, and probably some
of their readers. N. WEBSTER.

THE AIR-TIGHT STOVE.
GENTLEMEN: Will you indulge me in publishing two ad-
ditional testimonials in favor of this stove, for the single pur-
pose of satisfying those who have it that, if it fails in anyway,
it is because it is either not made or used strictly by the di-
rections'l I have not yet published one testimonial, for which
I asked either directly or indirectly ; and these, like the rest,
are not only spontaneous, but evidently not designed for pqb-
lication, for which I trust the writers will excuse me.
J. CAMAK, Esq. of Athens, Georgia, once a College Pro-
fessor, and long dia'igiltih!t,'j as one of the most eminent ci-
tizens of that State, says, (January 11,) I have omitted to
write to you about the Air-Tight Stove until I had given it
an effectual trial. The result is, that I am perfectly satisfied
with it. It answers my expectations fully, and is, in use,
every thing you have asserted it to be-as to ease of manage-
ment, economy of fuel, uniformity of temperature, &c. On
the coldest night we have had here this winter, it was shut
up at bedtime ag usual; in the morning the temperature of
the room was 45 0; out of doors the thermometer stood at
16."' Mr. C. further advises in respect to supplying Geor-
gia and part of South Carolina from Augusta, where, he says,
" if the stoves are once tried, I am persuaded the demand for
them will be great."
Joe. D. TYLER, Esq. a graduate of YaleCollege, and Prin-
cipal of the State Institution for the Deafqnd Dumb at Staun-
ton, Virginia, says, (September 11,) "I need not tell you
that it [the stove] is completely successful; neither will you
be surprised to hear of the upturned noses before the trial, or
the universal astonishment and adiiration after it," (of which
Ise gives a particular description. This stove was large.) Again,
he says, (November 24,) "I am enjoying in my own chamber
the blessings of an Air-Tight Stove, and have placed a similar
source of comfort and health in the nursery where my chil-
dren sleepl and yo4 may he sure that we daily arid nightly
bless you for your scientific and ingenious invention. The
weather is very cold, but we lie down and sleep, and rise in
the morning without being reminded that it is winter wea-
ther." And again, (January 5,) "In sickness, I find your
stove a rich blessing."
I! am deeply grateful, gentleman, to the people of this Dis-
trict that the stove is now goint into use among them quite
as fast as I desire it; and I owe itto them and toimyself to pre-
vent, as far as I can, both the loss of its benefits and its cre-
dit from negligent or unskilful workmanship or management.
But it gives me great and animating confidence in the sound
sense and intelligence of the people at large, not only of this
District, but of the country, that, in appreciating and under-
standing this stove, they are not only far in advance of stove
k.T. ii.H-I llv, tbill n, of our scientific nd litcr'r com-
m|III|. '-, n't, li,' es,'-.io.im of Andover, Massaclhusetts, and
Princeton, New Jersey.
Yours, very respectfully, I. ORR.
J. W. MENZIES,
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
PADUCAH, KY.
He will attend to Land Claims and Collecting Business in the
surrounding country, dec 31t-wly
N Oit I.'L -L-. i. .,,i. ..,,i '0j E-i- JOHN'
^ SON has commenced her regular trips on the Pou
tomac :
Leaves Alexandria for Washington at 8 and 10 o'clock A. M.
and Washington for Alexandiia at 9 and 11 A. M.
Leaves Alexandria for Washington at 2j P. M. and Washington
for Alexandria at 351 P. M. until further notice.
jan 27-tf IGNATIUS ALLEN, Captain.
VALU %BL !F",%AItlF0 .t1 A..E.-- IhI',,I .. 7r
offers for sale the FARftM on which hlie now resides, called
the Hermitage," situated near Newark, Newcastle county, State
of Delaware.
It is forty miles from Philadelphia, sixty from Baltimore, and
twelve from Wilminglon.
The Philadelphia and Baltimore railway passes immediately
through the premises, and the house is within one mile of the
depot.
This farm contains two hundred and eighty-two acr es, eighty
acres of thiche are heavily timbered. The whole of the cleared
land is in a high state oft .il,.,,i -4.-ar.jable -,f producing the ihea-
viest crops of grain and grass-the whole of which has been hea-
vily limed within the last few years.
The field are i rin..;.,1, divided by thorn hedge, of which
there are seven 1..-n- I. n.'n laid, trimmed, and in good order.
The improvements are a two-storied, modern-finished brick
house, pebble-dashed, with four rooms on a floor; attached to
which is a large and convenient kitchen. The out houses are nu-
meroaus, the principal of which are two barns, one of which is 100
feet by 40, a granary and carriage-house, corn-house, milk, ice,
and smolke-houses. There is also a comfortable tenant's house on
the premises.
There is an apple orchard of eight acres, containing a valuable
variety of fruit trees, and the grounds around the house are plant-
ed with numerous fruit and ornamental trees.
The above property adjoins the village of Newark, in which
there is a College and a Young Ladies' Seminary, us well as com-
mon schools.
The n- rA...rI.:.-.n is remarkably healthy, and the water of the
very t.--i *.ialiy, .i which there are four wells, with pumps in
them, on the premises.
Terms will be accommodating. Apply to the subscriber.
Jan 8-2aw3w LEWIS HOLTZBECHER.
t. FRANCE'S OLD ESTABLISHED PRIZE
OFFICE, WASHINGTON.
Unprecedented lck has attended FRANCE'S office during the
last month. Prizes to a large amount have been sold, and the cash
promptly paid.
g'a It..- nnn.no- rm, if you want a Capital Prize, address your or-
J.; '. R. in.niN, I, Washington.
The schemes for February are more fifn usually attractive, and
particular attention is invited to the annexed.
VIRGINIA MONONGALIA LOTTERY.
CLASS A, for 1841.
To draw the 6th day of February, 1841.
SpLENDID SCHEME.
$40.000--$15,000-$5,000-$3,000
$2,500-$-2,297 20.
50 prizes of $1,000.
50 of $300-50 of 8200-130 of $150-65 of $100, &c.
Tickets only $10.
A certificate pf a package of 26 tickets will be sent for $130.
Shares in proportion.
VIRGINIA WELLSBURG LOTTERY.-B for 1841.
To be drawn on Saturday, the 13th day of February, 1841.
CRAND SCHEME.
$35,295-$10,000-$5,000--$4,000-$3,500
$3,035-$3,000.
40 prizes of $1,500-50 of 8200-60 of $150-63 of 8130
63 of 8100, &c.
Tickets only 810.
A certificate of a package of 25 tickets will be sent for $130.
Shares in proportion.


VIRGINIA LEESBURG LOTTERY.
Class B, fur 1841.
To be drawn on Saturday, February 20, 1841.
GRAND SCHEMt.
$30,000-$10,000-- ,O6.0i)-- 5,000-$3,000
$'2,r0)-'$-2, 1iU3.
25 prizes of $2,000-50 of$*200-50 of $150-88 of $100, &c.
Tickets $10.
A c.rtfivsai of a i.acl.g of 22 tickets will be sent for $130.
iltarti in pr,.porinon.
VIRGINIA MNIONONGAHELA LOTTERY.
Clais B, l.,r I.t11.
To be drawn on tur.J)'., F.:trJar'ny '-7, 1611.
75 Nrntsers--14 drawn belLaS.
GRAND CAPITALS,
1 prize ef $10,0001
1 do 10,000
1 do 10,000 .Five irian a ar....JriIng O10 ',,.i .
1 do ti,000
1 do 10,000 J
$5,000o-$' U,,i--,,'I0- l'2i,.
25 prizes of 4 -1,', i lre.s ,l' 8250
20 do 00] 60 do 20P
a20 do 400 70 do 150
30 do 300 100 do 100-
&e. &c. &S.
STickets only $10-Shares in proportion.
,A c-.riics-aie .f patnea2ee ,,f 25 whole in this Grani Schema
%Lill t;e aMt j..rt61 v'-Halves and quarters in proportion.
jan 1 -Itas'hJp


A CARD.
JOHN SULLIVAN & SON,
PRODUCE COMMISSION MERCHANTS,
No. 26, Light street whart,
BALTIMORE, MD.
ESPECTFULLY solicit consignments of Tubacce,
Cotton, Lead, Flour, Bacon, &ac. to which strict attention
and punctuality will be given.
They are prepared to make liberal advances on aill goods con-
signed to them for sale.
REFER TO-
Messrs. Wm. Lorman 4- Son, )
Talbot, Jones 4- Co. Baltimore.
D.fr.ill, Kh'.hler4-.Coj)
II\ilin.f...rJ- T"7u/!ur, Pililurg, Pa.
Crangle 4- Bailys, Wheeling, Va.
A. M January f4- Son, Maysville, Ken.
Snead, Son, 4- Co Louisville, Ken.
Van Phut 4- McGill, St. Louis, Mo.
Edward Laralde, New Orleans.
decl15-d3t&laf4t
"EFFERSONTON At1. DUfM %.-T-hs" tr. ,n.,t,..n
will be opened on the 18th of January, 1841, under the di-
rection of the subscriber, who will be prepared to accommodate
10 boarders. He hopes, from fourteen years' experience in teach-
ing, to be able to give ample satisfaction to those who may pa-
tronize hium. His residence is commodious, healthy, retired, and
convenient to the Academy.
Terms: Board, including all charges, for the term of 5 months,
$42 50.
Tuition in Latin, Greek, :e a., irv, Algebra, Mensuration,
Surveying, Natural and Moral Pliil., .lh, Chemistry, &c. $12 50.
Einglht, Grii,,mar, Arithmetic, Geography, (with the use of
6l.,, 1. I I ir.I, &c, .&c. $10.
ll- irmn,er;, $l.
Reference: Col. P. Fishaback, Jeffersonton, Culpeper; elder
Cumberland George Fairfax, Cujpeper; elder John Ogilvie, A.
M. New Baltimore.
P. S. No student will be received for a less term 'than five
months.
g1 Letters addresed to the subscriber, Jeffersonton, Culpeper
county, will be promptly attended to.
jan 2-w4w CALEB BURNLEY.,
C AROLINA HOTEL, Broad street, Charlestonii,
South Carollna.-ANGUS STEWART, Proprietorofthis
establishment, respectfully informs his old friends and customers,
and the Public generally,thathe stillcontinues the business in which
he hasbeen engaged for a series of -., jr.s ,..ini I|.i i. .i, rs n, ,-
ment s are such as to warrant him ii, .:..rai ',l..-,iil ) rriellln, ,.' i,. Ia
prepared to afford f ..j,,i .:...i, r ..i ii r.'- I.. [.ruin.l* jn.,J tran-
sient boarders and iria -ij.r. r-1.. ill, if h.,' .....; ir, i.\ arj estab-
li -,a., ..fie k;nd in the city.
'.,alt- ar'irj.-:, Societies, Clubs,,&c. can be accommodated with
Dinners, Suppers, or other entertainments, at the shortest notice
and on reasonable terms. His Larder is constantly supplied with
every description of game that the market affords, and his stock
of Wines, Liquors, 4c. can compare with any in the Southern
oulptry.
For the information of his customers, the following rates of fare
are annexed:
Regular boarders, at Ladies' Ordinary, $12 per week.
Do do at Gentlemen's do 10 do
Transient do. at Ladies' do 2 per day.
Do do at Gentlemen's do 1 50 do
Briv ate Parlors, with meals 2 do
Regular day boarders, 7 per week.
dec 23-law2m
U UNIVERSITY 0P? VIRGINIA.-The Visitors will
proceed, at their ...:; .. iie Ist ofJuly next, to ap-
point Professors in the S. i il? ,.. i I,. h L ng., i.' -, Mathemat-
ics, and Law. Applications, directed to D'r Wer, .r H.irr,..n,
Chatimpan of the Faculty, at the University, will bell i.te.,r. .le
Board of Yisiters.
The annual income of the Professor of ea'h of these schools is
composed of a salary of t1,000, and the fees (varying from $25 to
850 each) paid by the students attending the school. He is fur-
cnished, moreover, with a convenient dwelling house, having a
garden attached, free of rent. The salary and fees received by
the Professors of these ech).h;, roi. ,-' 1, I,.r.ig the last four
years, '.,i'. i;n: lh ,airI 1 .i,-S ti, % ? na er., -el as follows:
TL Pr- .- .:r %I.A M..I rn I.-.,.,gt.- ',., per annum.
Do Mathematics, 3,900 do
Do Law, 3,300 do
It is required that there shall be taught in the School of Modern
Languages, the French, Italian, Spanish, German, and Anglo-
Saxon languages. And with respect to any applicant for the vacant
Chair of that School, the Visitors will expect to be informed whe-
ther he is competent to teach all these l-r..o : .a.] ;fon.t, which
ofthem he can teach. W. 1 WOOiLF.V',
d ." .,6 -- j~ilt I __________ P,.-.. r .f,.| || L; Q| V ).
A % AL.LABLI E AE '.tl't FOR '.%Li., tlir,e arnd a,
lA 1 i lliie ; Ir rn l ihic r y ,.',1" W |||Ih .H.|, 1 al....J li llf' a inole
dis'.jni f,.m it-.k I r. k t.'',,,.:h], ,ri.tl' ill: pr. .:iy .i' Majnr
T. P. Andrews, containing 115 acres of Land, in a high state of
cultivation, under good fencing, plenty of wood and water, with a
good and comfortable d.l,.:ir.g ri,:.ul.?, tobacco-house, and every
n.,h-r r J' 41f hi' ri, ...tnr.-. or a phlnit.'n *f its size ; about
11 .[ ..: j pi, ;.i: Ire, '..f w .-ll.,.el..-ipl frit, obtained from
the best orchards in New Jersey, the greater part of which are
new and will be in full bearing in a few years.
As this property is well known in the city of Washington and
Maryland, it is deemed unnecessary to give a further description.
The land, with the crop of tobacco, corn, horses, cattle, hogs,
sat il',vii.,... ui-nsaii, will be sold on a long credit, with unques-
Terms made ka.wn up..an aippiicat;.ior 'a r-e snbscr:,ber, resIlng
on the premises.
dec 8-lawcptf WILLIAM G. SANDERS.
1TAI.UAILLIC LANI l'1 FOR LE.-I'ae a',tncrt.sr
A.TI. ra nr pri',t, mile ll those several tracts of land iisg in
Prince George's county, and commonly known as th- Maros. Ana
opportunity is here offered to persons wishing to invest in real es-
tate rarely to be met with, as -I. re 11 ,1C1 intiain from five to six
lthiousand acres, whiah have tL-n Jli,.I J uintot a number of Iots,
containing from one to five hundred acres each. The roads from
Washington city to Piscataway, from WaIine-..n city to Nitnl=
ham, from Marlboro.,u-I ',1 P.s, dt,sif', fi.,- Alti indriaI ., Marl-
borough, and many ol cr r, i..Ir .l t, .,glI :h,* I n.l, wdt,'h t.i&a auw.Led
aboat du equal distance from each place.
It is deemed unnecessary to give any further description, as
ho: %,.b .Pe i,.i purchase will no .l...,l.t e"anine fi, thb.'mselses.
il,--, I.,t-4 AlI be sold on the .v ,,i ii.f'atii, iLli,in aIt a
?er' 1.,-,q rr.c;t siil i. ).r, f.ar linte-: p.I,:hase money, upon the
S jr.hi r ,f, j -',it iy , ti i,,,,o'ni *-.fthe interestannually.
Ar,' nf.lm ,'i..n ..' i ibe l.i.'t will b.' given upon application
t i, ti ;urr.t. r ., nr Bldenit Jrgl ur 0 John Calvert, Esq, liv-
ing ON. a tr'i ,.,fc .ii ru L,.t
aug 7-.-' til "HARI,.Z R. Crl.VFRT.
SPLENDID ) LOTTERIES.
D. S. GREGORY & CO. Managers.
40,000 Dollars.
VIRGINIA IM't'NONG;.\LI A LOTTERY,
Class A for 1841.
To be drawn at Alexandria, Va. on Saturday, Feb. 6, 1841.
SBRILLIANT SCHEME.
$40,000-$15,000.
$5,000, $3,000, $2,500, $2,297, 50 of $1,000,
50 of $300, 50 of $200, &c.
Tickets only $10-Halves 5 -Qiarrers ftu 50.
Certificates of packages of vs6 ilh,.le i.c keis, i13
Do do '4 liail" d.i ,;1
Do do 26 quarter do 32 50
35,295 Dollars-40 of 1,500 Dollars.
VIRGINIA LEESBURG LOTTERY,
Class B for 1841.
To be drawn at Alexandria, Va. on Saturday, Feb. 13, 1841.
OaAND CAPITALS.
$,.,,.iO., $10,000, $5,000, $1,000, $3,500, -
5..-3.035, $,3,01), 40 of $1,500, 50 r,f $200, &c.
'I ,k..,i li:,-t-tleu1a St- Q.arinrr 62 50.
Certificates ofpackages of 25 whale tickets, *130
Do do of 25 half do 65
Do do of 2f quarter do 32 50

30,000 Dollars and 25 of 2,000 Dollars.
VIRGINIA LEESBURG LOTTERY,
Class C for 1841.
To be drawn at Alexandria, Vs. on Saturday, Feb. 20, 1841.
GRAND CAPITALS.
-,330,o00o-$ 10,000.
$6,000, $5,1100, $3.,00, $*2,500, $2,195.
25 of $2,000, &c.
Tickets li10-Hlhee iS--.,arlersr '3 50.
Certificates of packages of 25 sholt ti:liHts, 8130
Do do 25 half d., 65 ,
Do do 25 quarter do 32 50

50,000 Dollars in prizes of 10,000 Dollars, and
Fourteen drawn numbers out of seventy-five,
VIRGINIA MONONGALIA LOTTERY,
Class B I'r 1'11.
To be drawn at Alexandria, Va. on Saturday, Feb. 37, 1841.
t,5AND CrHEME.


1 pr;ze of 1 0,1,0,1.,11
1 prize of 810,000
1 prise of $10,000 >5 prizes of Si',.r'r,0, amuntling lo
1 prize of *10,000 6 0,A00 Dollars.
1 prize of iti in,,,, J
2 Prizes of 5,000 dollars.
$**.500-$2,1'0--, nof $1,0110-20 of $500-
20 of $'100-30 of $390-40 of $-250, &c.
Tickets iit.-Hatves t5-Q-uarters 52 511.
Certiniat,.s of i.a'kngeet 1t "21 hole Aticke, 1-20
DPo do a2 ailf do 6. *
IP do 25 4qUrter do 30
r For tickets and shares or certificates of pal.bsges in the
above splendid Lotteries, address
D. S. GREGORY & CO.
Mana.ers, 'Wa]nngtlon.
1- Drawings sent immediately afher liy are ver toall *11ho
er.drr sm nb.b.. ].n 19-2aw'lwd&eif
S AN AW.A'Y f-i,.in m) ,,ii.tllle I'rm, on SMonday week, bth
-1, initan'. a neg,, man nasme.l JOHN BROWN, about 23
yeats ofage. He ii rather tel'w ihe us.ial heght, bul tiry muo-
rular and ,cei.e-hi.' chret binpg very lari.e ltr lis heighi. te
is very blacink, and I 3m n.,t at are of any mark or arsr abouL him.
Th.' wliilt of his ?a ies I lre,n and hia feeir-a isore prominceAt
an aircrngly maoe-I than lti, oae if rneelrois i,ually are. He to
g...d-.irmpeied aind plisadnt In hi, manner, is an inielligen tield
negr.o, an'd vr, esperl a[ cal:ulaling Pr.im hi;s rc:eni ronduct,
,ie i.ainager 'hinks he .li endea.ur to gel ir, Penns)lvana. If
t-Akan tbeyrd lie PDilrict ,f Cohliinti, o.r within Ihe Stale of'Mlary-
lnrd, I sill igie 1t110: if takrn in Penn'vylvonia, 250, ifbo0iglhL
home, nr eecured iu jail ., that he is -biaisned; if taken nearer
kome, 450. J. G. CHAPMAN,
Jan 12-tf [Alex Ga] Chsrles county, Md.