|UFDC Home||myUFDC Home | Help ||
ALL ISSUES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS MAP IT! PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
WASHINGTON: WEDNESDAY, JUNE 19, 1839,
GALES & SEATON.
TWICE A WEEr, AT SIX DOLLARS A YEAR.
TUESDAY, JUNE 18, 1839.
Our friends at Baltimore appear to think that
they have us on the hip in ,igard to the con-
trast which we have suggested between the in-
terest which they feel for our Can4 enterprise--
for it is ours, after all-and that which they
laudably manifest, on all proper occasions, for
their great Railroad undertaking. For, say
they, the Banks of Baltimore have, at different
times, lent money to the Canal Company to the
amount of nearly half a million of dollars.
Very well: they have heretofore done the same,
and more, for the Railroad Company. They
have now just advanced half a million dollars
more for the Raiiroad, at the very moment when
they have declined advancing one dollar for the
use of the Canal Company, (since they have
taken its affairs into their own hands, too,) and
their new President and Directors have had to
come to one of the Lilliputian Banks here to
.get a present accommodation of less than a hun-
dred thousand dollars, refused to them by the
Brobdignagian institutions of Baltimore.
A truce, however, to this discussion. We
are more than satisfied of the disposition mani-
fested by the Editors of Baltimore in regard to
the Canal, the noblest enterprise of modern
days. If the same disposition be manifested,
only to a moderate extent, by the new President
and Directors whom a mere party operation has
placed in power over the work, all that we can
ask or desire will be accomplished.
What the views of our Baltimore friends are,
the following extracts will show :
FROM THE BALTIMORE PATRIOT, JUNE 14.
The National Intelligencer intimates rather than ex-
presses some fears that the late change in the Board of Di-
rectors may have been brought about by an influence ad-
verse to the prosecution of the Chesapeake and Ohio Ca-
nal enterprise. Its words are: All that we, as early and
fast friends of that noble work, ask of them is, that they
will let it go on."
To judge by the past action of the State and the city, in
reference to the canal, we should say there was little cause
of apprehension in the case. So far from showing on ei-
ther hand a disposition inimical to the prosecution of the
work, there must occur a radical change in the views and
action of both, if the influence and appliances of the city
and State be not exerted to make it "goon," with all prac-
ticable vigor, to completion. As for the city of Baltimore,
which must, in the nature of things, constitute the ultimate
terminus of the work in question, she will not only let it
go on" to completion, but she will give freely of her means
in future, as she has on past occasions, to accelerate that
event. Being interested in the completion of the whole
work from the Chesapeake to the Ohio-constituting as it
will a line of inland navigation between the Eastern and
Western waters-Baltimore cannot feel otherwise than
well disposed towards the prosecution of all the parts of that
work. She will, therefore, beyond all doubt, not only let
it go on," but render, on all proper occasions, her powerful
aid for the accomplishment of that object.
FROM THE BALTIMORE CHRONICLE.
As to the apprehensions which our friends of the Dis-
trict express in regard to the progress of this great work,
we beg them to dismiss them. Arrangements, we under.
stand, have been made for the payment of the hands for a
considerable period ahead, and the subscription of the
State, at the last session of the Legislature, will, we are
inclined to believe, be found sufficient to keep the work
going on" until it reaches a point at which its benefits will
begin to be felt.
The Richmond Enquirer says : We under-
'stand that the PRESIDENT proposes to leave
Washington on the 20th instant, in order to
spend the su mmer in his native State."
We learn that the Van Buren Convention,
which assembled at Ellicott's Mills on Saturday,
have nominated JAMES CARROLL and SOLOMON
HILLEN, Jr. Esqs. as their candidates to repre-
sent the Baltimore district in the next Congress.
A bill authorizing the PEOPLE of PHILADEL-
PHIA to elect their MAYOR, and giving to the
Councils the appointment of the city officers, has
passed the Legislature ofPennsylvania, and been
signed by the Governor.
UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA.-Public exercises
will be held in the Rotundo on the 4th of July.
On that occasion the Hon. R. M. T. HUNTER
will deliver an Address before the Society of
The Annual Meeting of the Alumni will take
place on the 4th of July.
EMIGRATION.-The Pittsburg Gazette of Fri-
day week says:
The tide of emigration, by way of this city, has been
much stronger this season than we have ever before no-
ticed. We have frequently seen a large number of wa-
gons with families wending their way to the landing, to
embark on board steamboats for the West.
This morning we saw five such wagons going on board
a steamboat; and, upon inquiry, learned that they were all
from the same neighborhood, in Tioga county, Pennsylva-
nia, and were bound to Illinois."
THE DYOTT CASE.-It is stated in a Philadelphia paper
that process was issued on Thursday morning against T.
W. Dyott, Jacob Ridgway, Daniel Mann, T. W. Dyott,
jr., J. B. Dyott, and C. W. Dyott. They stand charged
with a conspiracy to maintain and support an unlawful
banking device, called the Manual Labor Bank, falsely
representing the capital of $500,000, and cheating and de-
frauding the community.
The Philadelphia Gazette of yesterday afternoon says
that thoe vnna"r lvotta T. W. nnri C W. have aharnnrdlop
NEW YORK, JUNE 15.
The money market is not in a satisfactory
state. If there is not actual pressure, there is
not ease. The domestic exchanges on some
parts of the country are in a horrible state.
Alabama and Mississippi scarcely belong to the
Union, judging by what of a link there might be
supposed to be in business and money. The
following are the rates :
Boston, par to Savannah 21 to 3
Philadelphia, par to Alabama, 12
Baltimore-, to a New Orleans, 2 to 2J
Richmond, 1 to 1J Nashville, 6 to 7
Charleston, 2 to 2 Natchez, 10 to 30
Cincinnati, 31 to 4 Louisville 31 to 4
Augusta, Geo. 3 to 4 St. Louis, 4 to 41
'This is a pretty picture of the domestic ex-
changes of one People! Here is a union of
States, with these elements of disunion in its busi-
ness They who promised us "a better cur-.
rency" have abandoned us to this
The Commercial Advertiser to-day is unkind.
It reminds the Editor of the Globe of the time
when he came to this city by authority," and
called upon Mr. SWARTWOUT, the Collector, by
authority," who, with Mr. PRICE, assembled the
officeholders of the Federal Government in the
old Bank Coffee House, opposite the Commercial
Advertiser office,where, over champagne,Messrs.
Swartwout, Price, and others, thrust their hands
into their (the Government's) pockets, and
raised the sum required to sustain the Globe.
The Collector of this port, it is stated, has
just discovered an old law of Congress, (passe
1792,) by which all the whale oil imported for
40 years is proved to be in violation of that law,
inasmuch as it requires every fishing vessel to
be enrolled as such, and to be provided with a
license accordingly. The Collector has lately
required bonds of the owners of the ship Mon-
mouth, from a whaling voyage, for the payment
of 15 cents per gallon on whale, and 25 cents
on sperm oil, for having violated this law.
Every craft now whaling under a register, is in
like condition. This discovery creates much
excitement among the whalers.
A large business was done at the Stock Board
to-day at some decline of prices. U. S. Bank
now is 119-. Bills on England remain without
It is stated in the Boston Post that the Sec-
retary of the Treasury has ordered the revenue
cutter Hamilton to proceed forthwith to the
British Provinces to ascertain the true causes
which have led to the seizure of American vessels
for alleged oendroachmorutB upon Britieh ground.
Mr. Secretary FORSYTH has passed through
this city for Boston, and, it is ,said, for Maine,
where, it is added, there is to be some negotia-
tion about the Northeastern boundary business,
and the million of dollars the Maine Governor
wants for expenses thereupon.
NEW YORK, JUNE 16.
Four delegates have been appointed from
Rhode Island to the National Convention at
Harrisburg, viz. NATHANIEL RUGGLES, JAMES F.
SIMMONS, WM. ANTHONY, and BYRON DIMON,
The Montreal papers represent more arrests
to be going on in Canada. There seems to be
notv in the Canadas more of a disposition to
yield to the proposed union of the Provinces.
The Sullivan, a United States ship, one of the
six experimental sloops, has been launched at
Portsmouth, (N. H.)
This State begins to be restive upon the sub-
ject of a movement for the Presidential election.
Some demand a movement now, and others af-
ter the November election. The delegates, it
is understood, will be chosen in the Congres-
sional districts, and not by a State convention,
in which case the vote of the State at Harris-
burg will not be a unity.
A TOWN" OF ONE HOUSE.
FROM THE PEORIA REGISTER.
A COUNTY TOWN DESTROYED BY FIRE.-We
learn by a citizen of Henry county that Rich-
mond, the county seat, was entirely destroyed
by fire, with the exception of a small shanty, about a month
ago. Fortunately, there was but one house, which was
occupied by Mr. Harris, and was used as the court-house,
jail, church, and tavern. When the fire was first discov-
ered, which was about the middle of the day, so rapid was
its progress that Mr. Harris and his family were panic-
struck, and the only assistance rendered was afforded by
two men who had been imprisoned in the building for
horse-stealing. They deliberately walked from their place
of confinement to the wood pile, where, with an axe, they
cut the chain by which they were hobbled, and fell to work
with all their might in saving the furniture, though but a few
beds only were rescued. The fire is believed to have origi-
nated from some coals having fallen from the cooking stove
through an opening in the floor upon some shavings on
the ground. There being no cellar, the wind swept the
flame underneath the building, and, when first discovered,
the fire was bursting through in several places. The house
was a large frame, previous to the erection of which, Mr.
Harris lived in a small shanty, which was subsequently
used as a stable, but which is now all that remains of their
recent excellent homestead. Of this, in the reverse of for-
tune, they are again the inmates.
ACCIDENT.-A melancholy accident occurred in the
northern section of Frederick county, Virginia, on Sun-
day, the 9th instant, by which a youth of some seventeen
FROM THE ALEXANDRIA GAZETTE.
OUT AT L TAST!
After an ocean of words, and a world of trou-
ble, the Richmond Enquirer is delivered of the
The die is probably in the hands of the few Conser-
vatives, and of the Impracticable Whigs."
We are well content to leave "the die" in
such hands. Can the Enquirer say as much?
As an offset to this, the Enquirer administers
this consolation :
We are sure of Virginia in 1840!"
Very well again. It is time enough to talk
about that when 1840 comes. All we go for, at
present, is 1839.
S FROM THE SAME.
RICHMOND ENQUIRER'S ALMANAC
From the Richmond Enquirer, June 14, 1839.
We predicted, before the election, that if we should
lose the majority now, we should carry the State in 1840.
We are as sure of Virginia in 1840, as we are of enjoy-
ing the blessed beam of the Sun during the next week.
And as to 1840, we shall gain every thing.
A STEAMBOAT BURNT.
FROM THE MONTREAL COURIER, JUNE 11.
TOTAL LOSS OF THE JOHN BGLL STEAMER BY FIRE.
Mr. THOMAS, purser of the John Bull steamer, arrived
yesterday at noon with the intelligence that that splendid
boat was totally consumed by fire yesterday morning be-
tween 3 and 4 o'clock, off Lavaltrie, about eight miles
above Sorel, while on her way to this city, and we regret
to learn that several of the deck passengers, who, we be-
lieve, were settlers, lost their lives by jumping overboard
during theconfusion attendant on the removal of the others
When the fire was first discovered, it had burst through
the deck over the larboard engine with such fury that any
attempt to arrest its progress.was deemed useless; and it
was therefore immediately decided to run the boat as near
the shore as the depth of the water would admit. In the
mean time, the boats were lowered, and got ready to con-
vey the passengers on shore. Captain HAMILTON, of the
Dryope. whose vessel was in tow of the steamer, with his
men and boats, rendered the most praiseworthy and essen-.
tial servi e in taking the passengers from the burning
It was a most fortunate circumstance that his vessel was
in tow at the time, as a large number of those on board are
undoubtedly indebted to the meritorious exertions of the
captain for their lives, as the steamboat's boats were ina-
dequate to convey all on shore before the boat was wrapt
in flames from stem to stern. The passengers-cabin and
deck-were safely landed, with the exception of those who
leaped overboard. One of the engineers, it is said, is mis-
sing. We believe the whole of the cargo is lost, as also
the passengers' luggage. The passengers were in bed
when the accident happened, and some of them escaped
with only their night clothes.
The John Bull was, perhaps, the most valuable steam-
boat in North America. She cost the proprietors upwards
of 22,000, and was only insured for 5,000.
There were only about twelve cabin passengers, includ-
ing two or three ladies, one of whom, a Miss Ross, was
accidentally drowned, by falling between two of the small
boats, after she was takenfrom the wreck. Mrs. McCord,
the wife of W. K. McCord, Esq. was a passenger, and es.
caped with her night clothes only. The remainder of the-
passengers lost every thing but what they had on. The
number of steerage passengers lost was not learned. For-
tunately there were only about sixty on board. The boat
was run ashore in about ten feet of water, and the engines
continued working till she was nearly consumed.
CORRESPONDENCE OF THE COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER.
MONTREAL, TUESDAY MORNING, JUNE 11.
The steamers Canada, Cygne, and Three Rivers arriv-
ed early this morning, and had on board the remainder of
the passengers of the ill-fated John Bull. From all the
information I have been able to gain, the number of lives
lost must amount to about twenty. When the boat ground-
ed, although she was only about a stone's throw from the
land, the shores being bold, with a strong current, the
.deck passengers commenced leaping overboard, with hopes
of reaching the shore, but were carried away by the cur-
rent and sunk, or were killed by the wheel, which still
kept moving with tremendous velocity. As the number
was not great, there is not the least doubt that they might
all have been saved if they had waited for the small boats.
One settler says that there are eight of his party missing.
Eight got into a canoe, but were carried under the wheel
and perished. One passenger, an Upper Canada lumber
merchant, lost three thousand pounds. The wreck lies
about three miles below Lanoraye church. The Cana-
dians behaved most shamefully; and, with their usual love
of money, endeavored to exact large sums for carrying
passengers ashore, before taking them from the boat. One
had the modesty to ask Mr. Rhynas ten dollars before he
would consent to take him into his canoe.
DANCING ON THE GREEN.-The 4th of July is to be cele-
brated at Northampton, Mass. with the rural tea-party un-
der a shady grove, with an address, and music, and the
merry dance, presided over by eighty lady managers.
This primitive and excellent usage, resisting the destruc-
tive march of steam over the earth's surface, and into the
very recesses of society, has existed for fifty years.
We have received the first number of the American
Journal of Dental Science, edited by Dr. HARRIS, of Balti-
more, and Dr. E. PARMLY, of New York, gentlemen whose
reputed talents do honor to their profession. The work is
published in octavo form, and consists of 24 pages, orna-
mented with a fine lithographic head of JOHN HUNTER.
The cost is $3 per annum.
Does not the fact stated below account for the extraor-
dinary fall of the Thermometer in this neighborhood a few
hours after the time of the incident described, and contin-
ued coolness up to yesterday 1
FROM THE PHILA. NATIONAL GAZETTE OF SATURDAY LAST.
The following account of a destructive storm which oc-
curred at Carlisle on Thursday last is furnished by a let-
ter on the books of the Exchange received from a gentle-
man of that place:
The most awful storm that was ever known to have
taken place in Carlisle occurred this afternoon. Scarcely
a house in town has escaped uninjured. A number of
them have had their gable ends blown in; some of them
have been unroofed. Stables have been blown down en-
tirely. All the houses having windows facing to the north
or west had the glass broken to pieces, and some of the
window frames blown in with the glass. Trees from
eighteen inches to two feet in diameter were uprooted or
broken down. The storm did not extend more than a
mile from town in any direction. All the grain within
that distance is totally destroyed, as it is beaten down : the
greater part of it cut down by the hail that accompanied
the storm. The stones of hail were the largest, I th~nk,
that have ever been seen here by our oldest inhftitants.
The full extent of the damage is not yet fully ascertained."
' POLITICS OF THE DAY.
FROM THE NEW YORK TIMES, JUNE 12.
From the following resolutions, adopted at a
meeting of the Whig members of the Legisla-
ture of CONNECTICUT, it will be seen that the
Opposition of that State have reiterated the ex-
pression of their preference for Mr. CLAY as the
candidate for the next Presidency, while they,
in the true spirit of republicanism, declare their
intention to coincide in the nomination of the
Such a concession is to be more highly appre-
ciated, when we consider how much of predi-
lection that State must sacrifice in submitting to
the rejection of a man whom they have so long
and so gratefully regarded as the champion of
their principles and interests. But it is by this
spirit alone that the Opposition can hope to
triumph over those legions who are league
- MAt CLAY, it is true, has with the most un-
flinching and incorruptible firmness and virtue
defended the liberties of the People, and for
these Catonian qualities has received the most
relentless and unmitigated abuse from those
whose sordid and ambitious schemes he has
done so much to thwart. Truly can it be said
that "republics are ungrateful," if the People
now fail to avail themselves of the only oppor-
tunity which they can ever have of rewarding
him for his long-tried fidelity in public service,
by elevating him to a position for which he has
shown himself so eminently qualified. Long
has he stood amid the conflicting political ele-
ments of our country, like the beacon amid the
raging elements of the ocean, which warns the
mariner of danger, and guides to security.
Yet strong as we know the prepossessions of
CONNECTICUT to be, and well grounded as they
are, we are happy to see her setting an exam-
ple in concession so worthy of imitation by ma-
ny others who seem more desirous for the pro-
motion of selfish or sectional preferences than for
the triumph of the popular over official power.
At a meeting of the members of the General Assembly
of the State of Connecticut opposed to the present Adminis-
tration of the General Government, held at the City Hall,
in the city of Hartford, on Tuesday evening, the 21"st day
of May, Hon. ROGER HUNTINGTON chairman, and A. CAT-
LIN secretary, the following preamble and resolutions, re-
ported by a committee appointed for the purpose, after con-
sideration, were unanimously adopted:
Whereas, after years of anxiety and depression, during
which all the great interests of our country were shrouded
in gloom, light has at length dawned upon us, and the eyes
of men are now waiting the ascent of a sun which, under
GOD, shall restore to us our former day of prosperity and
Resolved, That the confidence we have ever felt in the
integrity, patriotism, and talents of HENRY CLAY is con-
tirmed and strengthened by the daily history of his public
life, as well as by the constant and increasing attachment
of his fellow-citizens throughout the United States.
Resolved, That we remember with gratitude his effec-
tive and uniform support of the great interests of Ameri-
can industry, his public services in Congress during the
war of 1812-in Europe, at the treaty of peace, and since
in the Senate ot the United States, where he calmed the
elements of discord and disunion, and quieted the most
dangerous commotion that has ever agitated our country.
Vith a heart single to the common interests of this great
People, no local attachment, no object of personal ambi-
tion, has ever seduced him from his allegiance. Pure, pa-
triotic, and enlightened, he stands the first statesman of the
age, and his great public services are embalmed forever in
the affectionate remembrance of his countrymen.
Resolved, That, of all the candidates proposed for the
Presidency of the United States, we prefer HENRY CLAY.
But as we regard principle more than men, and our coun-
try more than our party, we will cheerfully unite in the
support of the candidate who shall be nominated by our
political friends in national convention.
Resolved, That the accumulation of an immense, over-
whelming central power in the hands of the Federal Exe-
cutive is pregnant~ith imminent danger to the free insti-
tutions of this country. Commanding entirely the patron-
age, purse, and sword of the nation, the influence of the
President has increased, is increasing, and ought to be di-
Resolved, That we anxiously look forward to a time o
reform, when justice and truth shall prevail; when the
principles of republicanism shall restore to us the strict con-
struction and faithful observance of the Constitution, the
support and protection of every department of the General
Government in the exercise of the constitutional powers,
specific appropriations, low salaries, strict accountability of
public moneys, and no interference by the office-holders
with the freedom of elections.
Resolved, That the preceding resolutions be signed by
the Chairman and Secretary, and published in the news-
papers. ROGER HUNTINGTON, Chairman.
AnIJAH CATLIN, Secretary.
A CURIOSITY.-A few days since a gentleman left at the
office of the Philadelphia Ledger three pieces of silver coin
of a very antique appearance, the one latest stamped being
near 200 years old. Ten of them, all of the same country
coin, though of different dates, were turned up by a plough
four or five weeks since, in a meadow which had never be-
fore been ploughed, on the farm of Mr. B. C. TIMMINS,
Chester, Burlington county, New Jersey. Three of the
pieces shown us were dated 1585, 1647, 1677, and some
others were still older. They are the size of a dollar, and
the workmanship upon them shows that the art of stamping
coin had not reached any great degree of perfection when
they were executed. Through the politeness of a gentle-
man whose antiquarian knowledge made it an easy task to
explain them, we are indebted for the following description
of two of them:
No. 1. Dated 1647, coined under Frederick Henry, Prince
of Orange, in the Belgian city of Campen, in the province of
Over-Yssel. Motto, Confidens in Domino non movetur.''
No. 2. Dated 1677, coined under William III, Prince of Or-
ange, in the city of Zowl, province of Over-Yssel. Motto the
These coin probably came with some of the earliest
settlers of this region of country, sent out by the Dutch
West India Company, under a patent granted to them
by the Government of Holland, and are some of the last
evidences of the authority once claimed over the territory
known as the New Netherlands, which extended over the
whole of the country between the Connecticut and Dela-
A GRAMMARIAN'S FANCY.-Dr. WILLIS, an old gram-
marian, who wrote upwards of a hundred years ago, in
noticing the significant roots of the English language,
gives various examples. Thus, words formed upon st al-
ways denote firmness and strength, analogous to the Latin
sto, as stand, stay, staff, stop, stout, steady, stake, stamp,
stately, &c. Words beginning with sir intimate violent
force and energy, as strive, strength, stripe, stress, struggle,
stride, stretch, strip, &c. Thr implies forcible motion, as
throw, throb, thrust, through, threaten, thraldom, &c. WVr,
FROM A REPORT TO CONGRESS.
Statement of the value of annual imports into the
United States from 1789 to 1837, inclusive,
the payments into the Treasury on account of
duties arising thereon, and the cost of collection.
From Mar. 4,1789
to Dec. 31, 1791 $52,200,000
In year 1792 31,500,000
T. L. SMITH, Register.
ENLIGHTENED POLICY OF RUSSIA.
WARSAW AND VIENNA RAILROAD.-A railroad
is projected, under the special patronage of the
Governments of Russia and Austria, from War-
saw to Vienna. The liberal terms on which this
enterprise is promoted by the Emperor of RUSSIA
show the enlightened interest which he'takes in the intro-
duction of this improvement, the effect of whichiis to ally
his empire more closely with southern and western Europe.
This railroad consists of two parts, one under the authority
of the Government of Austria, extending from Vienna to
Bochnia, on the frontier of Poland, and the other under a
charter from the Emperor of Russia, beginning in the cen-
tre of Warsaw, and extending to Niwk%, and to be extend-
ed thence to join the road above mentioned.
To encourage the enterprise, the Emperor Nicholas has
granted a charter authorizing the forming of a company,
with a capital of 21,000,000 Polish florins-equal to two
and a half millions of dollars-divided into 5,000 shares.
On this capital, from the time it is paid into the Bank of
Poland, or to Harman & Co., London, the Emperor guar-
anties an interest of 4 per cent. per annum, payable from
the treasury of the Government, at the Bank of Poland.
The railway, however, is'to be the exclusive property of
the shareholders, until it shall be redeemed by the produce
of the sinking fund, in the manner provided in the charter.
The Emperor, besides, grants to the company, wherever
the railroad shall pass over the domains of the state, or of
its feudatories, the free use of the land for the road, and al-
so for depots, buildings, and courts, and also timber from
the Crown lands, free of cost, for sleepers, bridges, &c. It'
proprietors of lands shall refuse to grant their lands on rea-
sonable terms, they may be proceeded against according to
the laws which regulate the appropriation of lands for the
public service. It the company shall not find it advanta-
geous to use for the road such articles as can be manufac-
tured in the country, proof thereof may be given to the
Bank of Poland, and, in that case, a license shall be grant-
ed, allowing the importation from England of such rails,
engines, and wagons as they may require, free of duty.
The Government guaranties to the shareholders, whatever
political event may arise, as well in time of war as in time
of peace, that the interest guarantied and the dividends
shall be punctually paid, as well to the inhabitants of the
country as to foreigners. No attachment of these funds
will be permitted, either by Government or by individuals.
The nett income of the railroad is to be appropriated first
to the payment of the 4 per cent. guarantied by the Gov-
ernment. One-tenth of the excess is appropriated to form
a reserve fund. The whole nett income, to the amount of
10 per cent. per annum, belongs to the shareholders. If
the nett income shall exceed 10 per cent. the excess, as far
as 3 per cent., will go to form a sinking fund. All over 13
per cent. is to be divided between the shareholders and the
The sums forming the sinking fund are to be appropri-
ated from time to time in redeeming shares, either by pur-
chase in the market or by lot, as the directors of the com-
pany shall determine. It redeemed by lot, the shares are
to be paid off with 10 per cent. premium, together with the
part of the reserved fund appertaining to the shares.
A decree of the Emperor Nicholas, dated January 19,
1839, declares his approval of the statutes of the company,
and insures to the shareholders the dividend of 4 per cent.
until the shares, with the premium of 10 per cent. shall
have become paid off, when the railway shall become the
property of the Government. The Government of the
kingdom of Poland is charged with the execution of the
decree.-Boston Daily Advertiser.
SINGULAR SUIT FOR DAMAGES.-The case of DAVID
EATON vs. GEORGE L. HUGHES came on for trial in the
County Court at Pottsdam, Pa., on Monday, 3d inst. It
seems that Hughes, either to gratify a private pique, or for
some mischief, procured a horrible looking mask, and on a
Sunday evening, when Miss JANE EATON, plaintiff's daugh-
ter, was returning, unattended, from conference, he ap-
peared before her with this mask upon his face, which so
frightened the young lady that she fell senseless to the
earth; and it gave her nerves such a shock that she was
confined to her room for several weeks, and at one time it
vuna lkf 14 .thlmit ^ jt Qh *mi 1 nn t. Qn lrvTi Tv + r\ Tt. i wn q t fnr
THOUGHTS FROM THE GERMAN.
SELECTED FOR THE NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE.
The following reflections by a German philosopher
(RAUMER) whose learning has not been confined to his
study, but who has travelled and observed much, may not
be found ill-timed. V.
The idol of the Tories is the vis inertime; that of the
Whigs the perpetuum mobile; but motion, to be true and
accurate, requires the centripetal as well as the centrifu-
gal force; and, if this be true of matter, how much more
so of the varied and intricate movements of moral life!
Your abstract statesmen, who affect so much importance
with a few scraps of political economy, are mere quacks,
who, knowing neither the diversity of diseases nor the na-
ture of remedies, think they can cure every thing with a
universal nostrum. In such abstractions, strangely inter-
mingled with mere personalities, the French too often deal.
In England every thing assumes a more concrete form, and
is, therefore, more tranquil and moderate, The struggle
concerning present interests may be carried on in a mean
and petty tone; but the way, the matter, the means, and
the end are clear and obvious. Abstractions are like
clouds, which assume a hundred different forms,and which
men may run after forever without catching any thing
The moment public opinion reaches a given degree of
farce and unanimity, a new state of things commences,
and the law is virtually abrogated, though it may continue
to exist in name. The sooner the decisions of the People
are confirmed, the better. A wise Government villobserve
and understand the signs of the times, and take upon itself
the direction of opinion. If it do not, it will be compelled
to follow where it ought to lead."
"The favorite cry of 'measures, not men,' is unmeaning.
At this fountain of authority they must be one-inspired
by one spirit. When they diverge, some serious objection
lies either against the measures or against the men. A
just mean must result from the perfect unison of measures
and of men, and must rest on broad and comprehensive
foundations. Both must have positive, not merely negative
objects and purposes. These conditions are often want-
ing. They do not form the living, vigorous, and all-ruling
Energia of Aristotle, but a fluctuating party, which,
though it may come in here and there to decide in favor of
a sane opinion, is totally incompetent and inept for- the
consecutive and harmonious direction of the whole machine
When well-meaning, and. in other respects, sensible
men preach to me, that, in a state, nothing whatever must
be conceded, because every concession excites fresh de-
mands, what can I say but that it is one of the old saws of
a worn-out system The true starting point of all political
inquiries is, how far our powers extend ? The impossible
can never be a rational object of endeavor. When this
first question is decided, the next that offers itself is, what
is right or just ? If I owe a man a hundred pounds, and
have not a farthing, I cannot, in practice, concede to him
what I owe; but my inability in no way affects his right.
Should I say, If I grant him ten pounds, he will only ask
for more and more, till at last I shall be obliged to pay him
the whole hundred; therefore, I had better grant nothing.'
I am a fool or a knave, or both. In like manner, in pub-
lic affairs, a concession is generally the result of a de-
mand, and neither is the result of any individual will.
The formal right of expressing the will has no effect in
deciding the thing, and gives no answer to the ui.miit u uC
wisdom or fully, justice or injustice. Il e enaiitaiZqid
in letter, when it is dead in spirit. Such maxims as that a
government ought to grant no demand, or to grant every
demand, are equally null. Because it is possible that the
concession of a just demand may be followed by an absurd
and unjust one, I am in no degree absolved from the first.
On the contrary, the concession of the first is precisely
what will give me strength to withhold the njust."
In obedience to a resolution of the Medical Convention
of the United States, assembled in Washington city in
January, 1830, public notice is hereby given that a similar
Convention will meet at the National Hotel, in the said
city, on the first Wednesday in January, 1840, for the pur-
pose of revising the Pharmacopoeia of the United States.
Each incorporated State Medical Society, incorporated
Medical College, and incorporated College of Physicians
and Surgeons, is requested to elect a number of delegates,
not exceeding three, to attend the said Convention.
The several incorporated bodies mentioned are also re-
quested to submit the Pharmacopoeia to a careful revision,
and to transmit the result of their labors through their dele-
gates, or through any other channel, to the next Convention.
They are further requested to transmit to the undersign-
.ed the names and. residence of their respective delegates so
soon as they shall be appointed, so that a list of them may
be published, for the information of the Medical Public, in
the month of October next.
By order of the Medical Convention assembled at Wash-
i~gton in January, 1830.
LEWIS CONDICT, M. D. President.
MORRISTOWN, NEW JERSEY, APRIL 6, 1839.
On Thursday evening last, after a long illness, Mr.
JOHN WASHINGTON, formerly a respectable mer-
chant of Alexandria.
At Townsend, Massachusetts, JOHN DAY, formerly
of Mason, N. H., aged 24 years. Mr. D. was engaged at
a lathe in his workshop, when the ends of a handkerchief
which was tied round his neck became entangled in the
bands, and he was strangled; he was found a few minutes
after he entered the shop a corpse.
HOS. TASKER GANTT, Attorney at Law
and Solicitor in Chancery, St. Louis, Missouri, of-
fers his professional services to the Public in St. Louis, and tne
adjacent counties of Missouri and Illinois.
Hon. SamuelSprigge Bladensburg, Md.
John Stephens ,
Daniel Jenifer, Charles co. Md.
Wm. D. Merrick, Allen's Fresh, Md.
F. S. Key, Esq. Washi gton
Wm. Prout, Esq. ngto.
Reverdy Johnson, Esq. )
Messrs. W. E. Mayhew & Co. I
S. L. Fowler & Co. fBaltimore, Md.
Geo. R. Gaither & Co. I
Harrison & Co. J
Atwood & Co.
Dale, Remington, & Ross Philadelphia.
Greenway, Henry & Co. New York.
Doremus, Suydams & Nixon
SHERMAN & CHAMBERS,
Attorneys at Law,
CHARLES E. SHERMAN.
JOHN A. CHAMBERS. mar
LAW ARTN EIKStHIP.
PEYTON. YERGERS & PIERCE
I r~ _Iq~s ---a~---=~ I b ---~rs IP C. IIII~ --- ~-p-- --~ IL--~k-- ~V~LLI-ILU~ I I- ------C1 ---- -----C-s IIL I I ~141 ~
I L -L~11 -__LII I I \L
A PAGE OF HISTORY.
We have been requested by a correspondent
in the South, who desires to possess himself of
the Letter of General JACKSON which will be
found below, to either procure and send him a
copy of it or re-publish it in our columns. As
we have no copy of this Letter but that which is
to be found in the file of the National Intelli-
gencer, we have preferred the last of these alter-
natives, supposing that others of our readers, as
well as he, may be willing to have their memory
of it refreshed by its re-publication.
What use our correspondent designs to make
of this letter now, we are not informed. For
ourselves, some of the thoughts which arose in
our minds, on the re-perusal of it at so long an
interval from its date, were such as must natu-
rally occur to every reader, and which it is un-
necessary to do more than allude to. But, be-
yond these thoughts, the course of time has
already converted this letter, as one of the pages
of the political history of our country, into a
really interesting document.
The predominant trait of the letter, upon the
face of it, is a marked self-esteem, such as was
natural, we may almost say excusable, in a citi-
zen fresh from military command, his head yet
giddy with the fume of popular applause, and
bringing with him into 'civil life the habits of
thought and action acquired in the camp and
the field. Looking more closely at the letter,
however, a more cunning hand than the Gene-
ral's is plainly discernible in its composition.
The thrusts at Mr. ADAMS and Mr. CLAY are too
cunningly inserted to have been planted by a
brave old soldier more intent upon conquering
in open war than upon undermining by covert
insinuations. The allusions to the ridiculous
story of a bargain between those eminent citi-
zens, which was then the great staple of the
party, lie too deep to have been contrived by
General JACKSON, although we dare say he was
one of the very few decent men in the country
who believed it, for he was just the man to be
imposed upon by the arts of the plausible dema-
gogues who crowded around him and barred all
other access to him.
But the view of this letter in which it is most
worthy of consideration is that of a rough draught
of the creed of a new party, of which Gen.
JACKSON was then the approved head. That
creed embraced, it will be seen, only two pro-
minent points: first, the restriction of the Pre-
sidential term of office to a single term; and,
secondly, the exclusion from office under the
Executive of Members of Congress, (and per-
sons who might within two years have been
Members of Congress.) These are the princi-
ples professed by Gen. JACKSON, and upon
which, and with a general huzza for him as a for-
tunate soldier, he came into office.
In what manner he and his party carried out
these principles, after he came into power, his-
tory will also relate. The new President was
not warm in his seat, before he surrounded him-
self with a Cabinet composed altogether of
Members (or late Members) of Congress, who
had been mainly instrumental in electing him,
and filled other high offices of the Government
with citizens similarly circumstances ; and, so
far from retiring from office at the end of a sin-
Sgle term, he was quite willing (to say the least
of it) to be a candidate for re-election, and, it
was said. might, after serving the second term,
have been persuaded even to serve a third.
These facts are full of instruction. They es-
pecially admonish us, as indeed does all the
teaching of history, to take heed to the actions,
rather than the professions, of those who come
before the People as candidates for their confi-
dence and favor.
GEN. JACKSON'S' LETTER
T.o THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF TENNESSEE IN
Two years ago, by the unsolicited suffrage of the Le-
gislature of Tennessee, I was appointed to the situation of
Senator in Congress. Pursuing the principle by which I
had ever been governed, neither to seek after nor decline
office, the appointment conferred was accepted. Aware ol
the practice which had long prevailed, of selecting from
each extreme of the State a person for the high and re-
eponsiblesituation of Senator, I felt regret at being brought
forward to disturb a system which had so long obtained ;
yet, inasmuch as the Legislature, without any knowledge
or understanding on my part, had called me to the situa-
tion, it was impossible to'withhold my consent; and ac-
cordingly the appointment was, though reluctantly, accept-
ed; not, however, without its being previously professed by
my friends that a longer term of service than one Congress
would neither be required nor expected. That service has
been performed. I was still, though, pondering and in
doubt whether exceptions to my resigning might not be ta-
ken, and if it might not be proper for me to execute the
full term which you had assigned me, when my mind was
brought to a conclusion by some late proceedings of your
own, and a determination formed to surrender immediately
back into your hands the responsible trust you had here-
One inducement to my determination is, that travelling
to the city of Washington twice a year imposes no incon-
siderable fatigue; and although this is a minor considera-
tion, and one which would have been met with cheerful-
ness if business involving the interest of our happy coun-
try had required the exertion,.yet I am aware of nothing
of great national importance which is likely to come before
Congress, excepting a subject that you have lately had be-
fore your body-the amending the Constitution of the
United States in relation to the choice of a Chief Magis-
trate. Upon this matter I greatly doubted whether it
might not he my duty again to appear in the Senate, and
extend my feeble aid towards producing an alteration in
which great interest with the People of the United States
exists, and on which the security of our republican system
may depend. But having been advised of a resolution of
your honorable body, presenting again my name to the
American People for the office of Chief Magistrate of this
TTnitn T .mits nn* i nn r or hp lrti mitnrtp. f ..n.n iT ta 1 rl
the prospects of your recommendation could be rendered
probable only by the People having the choice given to them
direct, abundant room would be afforded to ascribe any ex-
ertions of mine to causes appertaining exclusively to my-
self. Imputations thus made would be extremely irksome
to any person of virtuous and independent feeling; they
would certainly prove so to me; and hence the determina-
tion to retire from a situation where strongsuspicions might
at least attach, and with great seeming propriety. I hasten,
therefore, to tender this my resignation into the hands of
those who conferred it, that, in the exercise of their consti-
tutional rights, they may confide it to some one deserving
their confidence and approbation.
Being about to retire again to private life, it is, probably,
the last time I shall have an opportunity of addressing you.
Permit me, then, to suggest some remarks upon the amend-
ment which you have proposed to the Constitution of the
United States. Our political fabric being regulated by
checks and balances, where experience assures us that
those which have been resorted to are inefficient; or that,
however well their boundaries have been defined on the
parchment of the Constitution, some new barrier to the
encroachments of power or corruption in any of the de-
partments of Government is necessary, a corrective should
be applied ; and, under such circumstances, it is the duty
of the People to see that one is provided. There is no
truth more sacred in politics, and none more conclusively
stamped upon all the State Constitutions, as well as the
Federal Constitution, than that which requires the three
great departments of power-the Legislative, Judicial, and
Executive-to be kept separate and apart. But, simple
and manifest as this truth is, the difficulty of arriving at it
in practice, with constitutional restraints, still remains,
and presents question whether the wisdom and virtue oXf
the present generation, with a view to amendment in this
important matter, may not be usefully employed. Grati-
tude to the founders of our happy Government cannot be
lessened by honest efforts, on our part, to improve, or rather
to fortify, the blessings which have been transmitted to us,
with such additional guards as experience has proved to be
necessary. Upon this principle, I venture fully to accord
with you in the contemplated change proposed to the Con-
stitution, and, indeed, would go further. With a view to
sustain more effectually, in practice, the axiom which di-
vides the three great classes of power into independent,
constitutional checks, I would impose a provision rendering
any member of Congress ineligible to office under the Ge-
neral Government during the term for which he was elect-
ed, and for two years thereafter, except in cases of judicial
office; and these I would except, for the reason that vacan-
ciesin this department are not frequent occurrences, and
because no barrier should be interposed in selecting to the
bench men of the first talents and integrity. Their trusts
and duties being of the most responsible kind, the widest
possible range should be permitted, that judicious and safe
selections might be made. The politician may err, yet his
error may be presently retrieved, and no considerable injury
result; but with judges, particularly in the last resort, error
is fatal, because without a remedy.
The effect of such a constitutional provision is obvious.
By it Congress, in a considerable degree, would be free
from that connexion with the Executive Department
which, at present, gives strong ground for apprehension
and jealousy on the part of the People. Members, instead
of being liable to be withdrawn from legislating on the
great interests of the nation through prospects of Execu-
tive patronage, would be more liberally confided in by their
constituents, while their vigilance would be less interrupt-,
ed by party feelings and party excitements. Calculations,
from intrigue or management, would fail; nor would their
deliberations or their investigation of subjects consume so
much time. The morals of the country would be improved,
and virtue, uniting with the labors of the Representatives,
and with the official ministers of the law, would tend to per-
petuate the honor and glory of the Government.
But if this change in the Constitution should not be ob-
tained, and important appointments continue to devolve on
the Representatives in Congress, it requires no depth of
thought to be convinced that corruption will become the
.order of the day; and that, under the garb of conscientious
sacrifices to establish precedents for the public good, evils
of serious importance to the freedom and prosperity of the
Republic may arise. It is through this channel that the
People may expect to be attacked in their constitutional
sovereignty, and where tyranny may well be apprehended
to spring up in some favorable emergency. Against such
inroads every guard ought to be interposed, and none bet-
ter occurs than that of closing the suspected avenue with
some necessary constitutional restriction. We know hu-
man nature to be prone to evil: we are early taught to
pray that we may not be led into temptation: and hence
the opinion, that by constitutional provision all avenues to
-temptation, on the part of our political servants, should be
My name having been before the nation for the office of
Chief Magistrate during the time I served as yourSenator,
placed me in a situation truly delicate; but delicate as it was,
my friends do not, and my enemies cannot, charge me,
with descending from the independent ground then occu-
pied; with degrading the trust reposed on me, by intriguing
* for the Presidential chair. As, by a resolution of your
body, you have thought proper again to present my name
to the American People, I must entreat to be excused from
any further service in the Senate, and to suggest, in conclu-
sion, that it is due to myself to practise upon the maxims
recommended to others; and hence I feel constrained to re-
tire from a situation where temptations may exist and sus-
picions arise of the exercise of an influence tending to my
own aggrandizement. Accept, &c. &c.
MAIL STAGE LINE.
THROUGH IN ONE DAY-LEESBURG AND WIN-
HIS Line is now in complete operation, finely stocked,
first-rate Coaches and careful drivers. This Line will
also run by the Frederick White Sulphur Springs, on the route
to Winchester, (and I purpose.having a stage at Snicker's Ferry,
torun to the Shannondale Springs. By giving timely notice, it
can be done in one day. Every attention will be paid to this
part, as I will superintend this in person.)
The fare from Washington by the Frederick White Sulphur
Springs will be $4 50 : to the Shannondale Springs, 85.
The Public may rest assured that there will be no delay, and
every attention to make the traveller comfortable.
This Line intersects with the Cumberland Mail Stage Line
for the West Leaves Washington every Tuesday, Thursday,
f and Saturday; and leaves Winchester every Wednesday, Fri-
day, and Sunday, at the hour of 5 o'clock in the morning; ar-
rives same day at half past 7 o'clock.
f JOS. PECK,
june 18 -6t Agent for Jas. A. Williams.
Leefburg Genius of Liberty will publish the above, and
charge J. A. W.
T REDERICK WHITE SULPHUR SPRINGS.
SThe subscriber announces to the Public that this plea-
Ssant and delightful retreat will be opened on the Ist of June,
for the reception of company. Situated in the heart of the She-
nandoah Valley, it is the most easy of access of all the Virginia
Springs, placing the invalid from the seaboard as well as the
votary of pleasure, after a few hours' ride in a bracing moun-
tain atmosphere, in a neighborhood agreeable and proverbial
for its health, and but one mile distant from Cain's Depot on
the Winchester and Potomac railroad- where a public convey-
ance will always meet the cars ascending and descending-
and about five miles from Winchester.
This watering place, long and favorably known under the
name of Duvall's and Williams's Sulphur Spring, has been re-
sorted to by persons laboring under liver affection, and other
derangements of secretion, with the happiest effect. The effi-
cacy of the water, attested by numbers from the Atlantic cities,
to which it is so readily accessible, is believed to be equal to
that of any spring in Virginia.
The accommodations have been greatly increased since last
season-including a large three-story brick building, contain-
ing from forty to fifty lodging rooms, well. finished, besides a
large ball room, for which the best music has been provided ;
baths to suit the wishes of the visitors; and other improvements
to meet the extended reputation of the summer resort. Every
effort has been made to place this delightful watering place upon
a footing with the most fashionable placesofthe kind, and every
exertion will be used to give satisf action.
june 3--2aw6w GRANVILLE JORDAN.
T O FARMERS.-The season for sowing Ruta Baga is
approaching, and the subscribers are supplied with seed
of undoubted quality. The value of this root as food for stock
is second only to the Sugar Beet and Mangel Wurtzel, over
Both of which it has one advantage, maturing as an after crop.
Also, on hand, Turnip Seeds of all the approved kinds.
D. LANDRETH & CO.,
63, Chesnut street, Philadelphia.
THE FLORIDA CAMPAIGNS.
Considering the position which Gen. GAINES
has occupied in reference to one of the Cam-
paigns in Florida, it will not be uninteresting to
our readers to run over the subjoined letter, eli-
cited from that officer, in reply to some stric.
tures of the New Orleans Bee, which, however,
the Editors of that paper say, had no reference
to him whatever, but had for their object to ex-
onerate the Army from the censure which be-
longs to the origin, conduct, and conclusion of
the operations against the Indians. The Letter
of Gen. G. is taken from the New Orleans Bee
of the 1lth instant:
To the Editors of the New Orleans Bee:
GENTLEMEN: In your leading editorial article of the 3d
instant, in reference to the Florida war" you have indulg-
ed in some invidious remarks, which, though not express-
ly applied to me, are nevertheless as well known by my
friends to have been designed for me, as if I had been nam-
ed in every line. Silence, therefore, on my part would be-
tray an indifference which might be constrained into a ta-
cit admission of the imputation put forth against me and
the gallant officers and men of the Louisiana volunteers
and regulars which I had the honor to command in the first
You are pleased to say that opinions have often been
'expressed by men professing some knowledge of the
course of military events, that had such and such mea-
sures been adopted or avoided, or such and such officers
'been placed or continued in command, the war would ere
'this have been at an end."
You then remark, that nothing could have been more
vain or illusive than such predictions."
When my friends, and others with whom I had no ac-
quaintance, in the Southern and Western States, as well
as in Florida, expressed the opinion, which they have
often expressed, that, if I had been permitted to remain in
Florida with the Louisiana volunteers and regulars, added
to the Georgia and Florida volunteers, under the noble-
hearted Clinch, the war would have been terminated hon-
orably in the month of March or April, 1836, I was con-
vinced of the correctness of this opinion, not merely be-
cause the officers and men of my command were better ac-
quainted with the Indians and with the country embracing
the theatre of the war than any other troops in the service,but
because we had actually, in the short space of thirty-sixdays,
raised most qf the volunteers, and marched by land and wa-
ter near 800 miles ; had marched through the Floridz wil-
derness and swamps 140 miles of that distance; and, more-
over, had met the enemy and beaten him, and forced 'im to
sue.for peace ; Ihad promised him peace; and, front that
moment of that promise, the enemy remained at peace,
without firing a single shot at our troops, who were per-
mitted to amuse themselves in fishing for some miles tp and
down the Withlacoochee river, in the presence of many of
the Indians, three days after the treaty; and it was after-
wards proven that they remained perfectly peaceable from
the 6th to the latter end of March, confidently expecting
the fulfilment of my promise that they should have peace
as soon as the President could be heard from.
These facts were promptly reported to the War Depart-
ment; and, although great efforts have been made to prove
that the Indians were not sincere in suing for peace, or in
their promise to remain at peace, there exists the most ir-
refragable evidence of their sincerity, without a shadow
of evidence from any respectable officer or soldier then with
me to the contrary.
Under the foregoing circumstances, I turned my com-
mand over to that excellent officer, General Clinch, and
left Florida for the Sabine frontier, with a deep conviction
of the fact that there would be no more war in Florida,
unless it should be renewed by some reckless Indian or
white chief, unwilling to brook the disgrace of my having
raised an army and marched near 800 miles and put an end
to the war, before a party-scribbling Secretary and his fa-
vorite general, with their French books, could write a few
dozen long letters, preparing visionary plans of operation
according to the Napoleon tactics!! (excellent for operations
against troops of civilized nations, but fruitless for wilder-
ness swamps against savages,) whilst the Florida frontier
was bleeding !
I had the satisfaction to find, from the testimony of Gen.
Smith, and all other respectable officers with me, whose
statements I had an opportunity of obtaining, (and which
are at your service, should you think proper to correct the
article here referred to,) that, after I had left Florida, the
Indians remained faithful to their promise to abstain from
hostilities for near three weeks, after they had obtained
my promise that-they should have peace-a promise, which,
according to the laws of war, I had as much right to make
as if the President had been at my elbow and had express-
ly dictated to me the promise which I made them, inasmuch
as I had beaten them, and forced them to sue for peace.
But I soon learned that it was not the will and pleasure
of my friends at Washington that I should have the poor
satisfaction of bringing the war to a close. On the contra-
ry, it was sworn that "Gaines had acted with gross impro-
priety in daring to go from New Orleans to Florida with-
out 'my orders;'" that "Gaines shall be brought before
a court and his measures disapproved !" and that, as to
his whipping the Indians, they were not half whipped;"
and that Scott shall go and give them a good whipping."
That good whipping has cost this nation some twenty
millions of dollars, with the lives of hundreds of meritori-
ous officers and men, volunteers, regulars, and -militia, to
say nothing of the disgrace of' statesmegand visionary
chieftairfs employed in planning splendid campaigns, mag-
nificent for closet purposes, and to enable bureau heroes to
indulge in the work of anonymous essays, but leaving the
Indians unwilling to stay whipt.
And now, Messrs. Editors, you are pleased to tell "a be-
nighted world" that nothing could be more vain or illusive
than the opinion that, had such and such measures been
adopted or avoided, or had such and such officers been
placed or continued in command, the war would ere this
have been at an end. And you also tell us that, If the
Government had persisted in its exactions, and the Semi-
noles in their resistance, the war would never have ceased
until means had been brought to bear, more ample and effi-
cacious than any which have heretofore been exhibited."
Means ample and efficacious-indeed And are we to be
told that the employment of 5,000 men in the scientific
campaign of April, 1836, and nearly an equal number in
the following fall and winter, and subsequently for two
years past, together with twenty millions of dollars, did not
constitute means ample and efficacious? And shall it be
said, now that the war is only rumored to be over, that a
miserable nation of Indians, consisting of little more than
a hundredth part of the red men neat us, would forever
maintain the attitude of defiance against the United States,
without more men and more money? If so, the age of
chivalry is indeed past and gone from our country.
Be assured, Messrs. Editors, that one thousand such
men as Daniel Boone and his associates of Kentucky, or
John Sevier, or Isaac Shelby, and their brother soldiers of
Tennessee, with a fortieth part of the money expended in
Florida, would have been sufficiently "ample and effica-
cious" to have brought the war to a close in one-tenth part
of the time elapsed since its commencement: provided al-
ways that the evil spirit of party could be excluded from
statesmen and officers concerned, directly or indirectly, in
the management of the war.
It was the evil spirit of party that-dictated the course of
measures which brought about the war. It was the evil
spirit of party that combined against me three influential
men, the worst of its votaries, and, though of different par-
ties, all willing to combine against me, because they all
feared me, and because I had spurned their efforts to make
me a party man. It was the evil spirit of party which ar-
rayed the ultra presses of all parties against me, endeavor-
ing to place me without the pale of common justice. It
is the same evil spirit of party which now prompts ultra
party men to turn a deaf ear to all measures for the na.
tional defence which do not emanate from ultra party men.
It is the evil spirit of party which leaves our country
without railroads from the central States to the seaboard ;
without floating batteries, to be acted on by steam power, in
the national defence, for the protection of our seaports and
inland frontier against the armies and fleets propelled by
steam power. Correct this evil spirit of party, and our
country will soon become invulnerable in war, and pros-
perous in peace. Correct this evil spirit of party, and my
railroad and floating battery system of national defence,
which proudly soars above the pestilential atmosphere ol
the spirit of party, will save us from the annoyance of our
,,;Ath;na Tn,;nc-- Ig nweom onCo Cfnma t r,., nre \\l;nm1
those who haie long deplored the evils which attended
and followed the renewal and long continuance of that
afflictive war. But much as I must ever deprecate the
lawless efforts of a few blind votaries of the spirit of party,
to filch from the brave volunteers and regulars, who, with-
out most of the common necessaries of live, willingly con-
sented to fly with me to the dreary theatre of the war, and
place themselves between the savage foe and the suffering
frontier of Florida, holding his main army in check until it
was beaten and compelled to sue for peace, I cannot unite
in the indiscriminate thanksgiving, nor in the censure be-
stowed upon all the officers of the Government and the
army. With some three or four huge exceptions, often
named by me, the officers and men, volunteers and regu-
lars, have served with great fidelity and honor.
I freely give to my frieflds and enemies all the advantage
they can derive from my signature, which I uniformly at-
tach to whatever I write, holding myself always responsi-
ble, as a citizen and soldier, for all I say or write.
EDMUND P. GAINES.
P. S. Editors who have at any time during the war in-
dulged in animadverting upon my conduct in Florida are
respectfully requested, as an act of common justice, to give
the foregoing views a place in their papers. E. P. G.
CHAS. H. CONSTABLE,
Attorney and Counsellor at Law,
Mount Carmel, Illinois,
W ILL attend to any business entrusted to his care in the
countiesof White, Edwards,Wabasl, Lawrence,Wayne
Clark, Crawford, Edgar, Vermilion, Coles, and Clay.
Thos. S. Hinde, Esq.
J. Beall, Esq. Mount Carmel, Illinois.
Wm. T. Page, Esq. jan 22-cply
FAUCQUIER WHITE SULPHUR SPRINGS.
The crowds that have visited these Springs, and the
general satisfaction expressed, have encouraged thp Company
to make extensive improvements since the last season.
Besides enlarging the accommodations very much in other
respects, the former Bath-House will be found greatly impiov-
ed, and furnished with a copious supply of hot and cold sulphur
and freestone water, and a new and elegant edifice, upon the
most approved plan, will be ready by the 1st of July, and be
equal, it is hoped, to any bathing establishment in our country.
Without pretending to vie with the unequalled Warm Spring
Bath, the temperature of that celebrated fountain is at the op-
tion of the visitors, either in the centre plunging bath, or in the
14 private rooms which surround it-the whole being enclosed
within the Octagon Gothic exterior, whose minarets and spires
indicate the determination of the Company to please the fancy
and gratify the tastes of the invalids as well as the votaries of
The extraordinary virtues of the waters, proved in numerous
instances ; the salubrity of the'country around, in full view of
the mountains, supplying the finest meats, vegetables, and
truits; its ready access to the seaboard, being within 50 miles
of the District of Columbia and 35 of Fredericksburg ; the .le-
gant Ball-room, adorned with new magnificent chandeliers, and
resounding with the strains of a most delightful band of music ;
the extensive buildings, the noble portico; the improved grounds
and shady walks, refreshed with jets d'eau, present attractions
to the Public which it will not overlook.
To secure the best wines, liquors, attendants and servants,
every attention has been paid. The roads have been improved.
A costly bridge over the Rappahannock, within a few hundred
yards of the Spring, is in rapid progress to completion.
New and elegant stages run daily between Washington city
and the Springs, leaving each place early in the morning, and
arriving at the Springs at 4 o'clock, and at Washington in time
for the Baltimore cars of the same day. This line continues to
Louisa Court-house daily, branching at Orange Court-house,
and running thence to Charlottesville. It leaves the Springs at
5 in the morning, and runs that evening to Louisa Court-house
There will also be a daily line from Fredericksburg to the
Springs, and thence tri-weekly to Winchester.
The Springs will be ready bor the reception of company on
the 15th of June. On the 4th of July, the Declaration of In-
dependence will be read, and, at the earnest solicitation of the
Company, Mr. JOHN S. PENDLETON, the distinguished Dele-
gate from Rappahannock, has consented to deliver an Oration.
The Music and the Dance will add to the attractions of the oc-
Oa the first Tuesday in September, the Races take place over
the Victoria Course, within half a mile of the Springs.
The terms will be as follows : Board per week, $10; per
month, $35 ; for two months, $65; for the season, ending the
1st October, $80. Servants, and children under 12 years of
age, half price. Per day, $2; Breakfast and Supper 50 cents
each ; Dinner 75 cents; Lodging 50 cents. Horse per day, 62
cents; per week, $4 ; per month, $15.
The subscriber has been appointed Superintendent, and trusts
that he will be able to give general satisfaction.
may 24-cp2tawtl0thAug DANIEL WARD.
HANNONDALE SPRINGS, in Jefferson coun-
ty, Va. 5 miles from Charlestown.-This agreea-
ble and beautiful watering place is now prepared to receive
visitors. The Company have recently madao varMuo impirve-
ments suggested by the experience of their first season. The
accommodations of last year being found insufficient for the
* number of visitors, extensive additions have been made to the
buildings, and the whole establishment otherwise improved and
embellished. Besides the warm baths, which will be much im-
proved, large floating baths are being constructed, calculated to
furnish the most delightful river bathing both for ladies and gen-
The surpassing beauty of these springs, situated on a great
bend of the majestic Shenandoah river, at the foot of the Blue
Ridge Mountain, as well as the long-established superiority of
the waters, need not again be more than adverted to. These,
together with its great facility of access from Baltimore, Phila-
delphia, the District, &c. by railroad and canal, render it one
of the most agreeable, healthful, and convenient resorts during
the heats of summer.
Competent managers, servants, music, pleasure, and fishing-
boats, &c: are provided, and the Company assure the Public that
no effort or expense will be spared to render their establish-
ment equal to any other, either for genteel accommodation, ra-
tional amusement, or healthful enjoyment.
These springs are reached in a day's ride from Baltimore or
Washington by the railroad to Charlestown, from which place
comfortable coaches, with safe drivers and horses, belonging to
the Company, will convey travellers to the Springs, a distance
of five miles, over an easy road and through a most beautiful
and fertile country, arriving there before sunset.
may 25-cplm THE PROPRIETORS.
UBLIC SALE.-The undersigned, in virtue of a pow-
er of attorney, will offer at public sale, on the premises,
at the hour of twelve o'clock M. on Friday, the 28th day of
June, if fair, if not, the next fair day thereafter, the following
tracts or parcels of Land, situated in Montgomery county, call-
ed Charles and William and Fenwick ; also, Charles and Wil-
liam and Hills and Dales; also that tract or parcel of land pur-
chased by the late Henry Clark, sen. of Thomas Rhodes, and
devised by the said Clark to Henry Clark, jr. and others.
This property adjoins the land of Hanson Clark ; is situated
on the public road leading from BladensburgtoRockville, about
six miles distant from the former place, and eight from Wash-
ington city. Said land is supposed to contain about 240 acres.
There is a comfortable frame dwelling situated thereon. The
land is highly susceptible of improvement, well watered and
timbered, and a good meadow might be made on the same.
Henry Clark is now in possession of the property, upon ap-
plication to whom, or to the undersigned, at Bladensburg, Ma-
ryland, the same can be shown.
The terms of sale are-$200 in cash, and the balance upon a
credit of one, two, and three years, the purchaser giving bond,
with good security, bearing interest from the day of sale. Up-
on payment of the purchase money, the undersigned are autho
rized to convey the property to the purchaser by a good and suf-
ficient title. N. C. STEPHEN.
june 15-2aw2wcp2td D. C. DIGGES.
AND FOR SALE.-The subscriber, wishing to re-
* move to the West, offers for sale a desirable farm on
which he now resides, situated in Prince George's county,
Maryland, about four miles north of Bladensburg, and one mile
west of the railroad leading from Washington city to Baltimore,
it being part of a tract called Swowden's Discovery and part
of Friendship, containing together 188 acres, more or less, of
good and improvable soil, adapted to the growth of corn, tobac-
co, wheat, rye, and oats, with a sufficiency of wood and tim-
ber, a promising young orchard of apple and other fruit trees
now in full bearing, and one hundred apple trees planted out this
Spring; there is on the above premises a new and convenient
dwelling-house, one story and a half high, two rooms and a pass-
age below and two rooms above, together with kitchen, corn-
house, smoke-house, stables, tobacco house, thrashing-house,
dairy, and an excellent spring of water within one hundred yards
of the dwelling, and other necessary outhouses.
Also, part of a tract called Clover Farms, within half mile
of the above tract, containing 185 acres, more or less, on which
there are a sufficiency of wood and timber, from 12 to 15 acres
Sof meadow land, and one tobacco-house. It is deemed unneces-
Ssary to give a more minute description of the above property, as
Those disposed to purchase will of course view for themselves.
The terms of sale will be made known on application to the
june l0-2awlm JOHN B. BEALL.
. .. . .. ..
TO THE EDITORS.
NATCHEZ, Nov. 10, 1838.
Messrs. GALES & SEATON : I offer you ftor publication the
enclosed copies of a communication to the Postmaster Ge-
neral, and of an affidavit which accompanied it, showing
some of the.grievances to which this community have been
for years compelled to submit. Perhaps I have been un-
reasonable in expecting that any attention would be be-
stowed upon my complaint. Be that as it may, however,
I think I am only performing a duty to the Public in offer-
ing these papers for insertion in your columns; as no evi-
dence has reached me of any notice by the Department of
my allegations against the Postmaster. In addition to the
enclosed statements, I desire to say that I offered to the
Postmaster here, a copy of my charges against him. In a
letter of his to me, dated the 13th July, he says: If you
think proper to state any grievance to the Department upon
'this subject, and will serve me with a copy of it, (and
surely you would not complain to the Department with-
'out this,) I will attend to having the whole matter put
'before the Department promptly." In accordance with
this suggestion, I wrote to Dr. WREN (the Postmaster) on
the 9th of August, previously to making my complaint to
the Postmaster General, that I would promptly furnish
him with a copy, if he desired it, on one condition, viz. that
he would, in like manner, supply me with a copy of any
communication he had made, or which he would make, to
the Department, upon the same subject. To my note I
received no reply, and I presume because the condition was
not agreeable. Your obedient servant, JOHN KER.
To AMos KENDALL, Postmaster General of the
SIR: In forwarding to you the enclosed evidence of official
malversation in the Department of which you are the chief, I
feel that I am but performing the duty, as well as exercising
the right, of a citizen. It is true that I have long hesitated to
ask redress of these grievances, having been dissuaded from
doing so for the following, among other reasons: In the first
place, that I should be charged with hostility to the present aId-
ministration of the Government, and therefore a suitable sub-
ject for that ostracism which has been exercised by the party
in power towards all who will not unite in singing hosannas to
the powers that be. This allegation will be relied upon, I doubt
not, as the strongest defence by the officeragainst whom I bring
th se charges, and perhaps by some of his personal and politi-
cal friends. Although a private citizen, free from any aspira-
tions for office or political distinction, and without their 'onse-
quent hopes or fears, I am not ashamed to acknowledge that the
honor and prosperity of my native land have been, since my in-
fancy,and probably will be during the remainder of my life,among
the objects nearest to my heart. I have conscientiously disap-
proved, as incompatible with these objects, the most prominent
acts and measures of the last and of the present Administra-
tions. One of the worst and most mischievous of the features
which have distinguished the party in power is that bitter spirit
of proscription to which I have alluded. The avenues to truth
are closed ; and truth and justice are no longer supreme. Par-
tisans and their organs, the political papers, aim not to elicit
the truth, and to enlighten and diguify public sentiment; but a
savage and ruthless war is waged, by means of every charge,
however false, which may bring odium and defeat upon the op-
posite party or their leaders. Such is the lamentable condition
of the country. And among the natural consequences, officers
of the Government are no longer under the salutary restraint
of an impartial public sentiment. Men of their own party are
too faithful to the indomitable spirit to which I have referred to
make charges against a public officer, lest their party should
be injured. Others will not make them because they believe
they will be unheeded, as coming from political enemies. It
certainly would be wonderful, under such circumstances, if
abuses of the gravest character should not prevail to an unpre-
cedented extent, however anxious and vigilant the chief Exe-
cutive officers of the Government might be to prevent or to de-
tect and reform them.
Perhaps I owe an apology for offering to you these reflec-
tions. 1 do so with no desire to be disrespectful. The fact of
my addressing you at all, with a complaint against an officer of
your Department, should shield me from such a suspicion. I
have perf rmed my duty as a citizen; on you it devolves to
take such measures as your own sense of justice and of your
duty may dictate. I will take the liberty of adding a few re-
marks in relation to this subject, to which you will give such
regard as they may seem to you to deserve. Dr. WREN has
long been very obnoxious to the great mass of the citizens of
Natchez and its vicinity as an officer, for his want of courtesy
and sometimes rudeness to applicants at the office, and for his
unaccommodating temper and disposition, which are manifested
in various ways; among others, in closing the office regularly at
or before sunset, although a mail may be ready, or nearly ready
for distribution ; in keeping the office closed sometimes for hours
together, &c. &c. The citizens have been passive under these
and other grievances, some from regard to the family of Dr.
WREN, others from a want of confidence in candidates who
were supposed likely to get the office in case of his removal,
and others probablyy the greater number) for the reasons to
which I have before alluded. Charges are frequently made
(and have been made for years) of the exaction, of newspaper
postage f occond time ror the corrie uitei, and or over-charg-
ing for letter-, by some of those who rented boxes and paid
monthly. If it were my duty, I presume I could collect much
evidence to sustain such charges ; and in at least one case I
have heard, on good authority, of grievances even worse than
those stated in my affidavit. The postmaster complains of the
requirement of a receipt for newspaper postage as unreasona-
ble, and as too great a tax upon his time. It is for you, I pre-
sume, to determine whether it is unreasonable, when a citizen
pays postage to the Government in avance, that he should re-
ceive the ordinary evidence of payment, even if it should be a
small tax upon the officer's time. But I verily believe that,
with a proper system, and a brief printed form of the account
and receipt, the compliance with this reasonable request would
be even a saving of time. Certain it is that, in the altercations
which I have had with the postmaster, he has expended more
time than would have sufficed to date and sign many thousand
As I have made charges of a serious nature against Doctor
WREN, I shall inform him of my having done so, and probably
furnish him with a copy of my affidavit. And, on the other
hard, I appeal with confidence to any respectable citizens of
this community who have known me, and among whom I have
lived for thirty-seven years, whether my evidence is entitled
to credit. I believe I can appeal even to those whose political
opinions are well known to, and in favor of, the Government--
the late Senators WILLIAMs and ELLIS, to Senator WALKER,
and the late Representative in Congress, Col. CLAIBORNsE, (who'
have long known me,) to Marshal GWINN, (although not pp-
sonally known to him,) and to either of Dr. WREN'S sonl-In-
law, Dr. CARTWRIGHT or JOHN P. WALWORTH, Esq.; d-
in Louisiana, to Senators NICHOLAS and MOUTON, General
OVERTON, &c. Respectfully, your obedient servant,
In January, 1836, (which date I infer from the tenor of the re-
ceipt hereinafter mentioned,) I was presented by the Postmaster,
Dr. Wre n, with an account "for three-quarters of newspaper
" postage, including the quarter commencing the 1st of January,
" 1836," and of course including the two preceding quarters be-
ginning 1st July and 1st October, 1835. As I had been in the
habit of paying newspaper postage regularly ahout the begin-
ning of each quarter, I expressed my surprise that three quar-
ters should be claimed as due, and my strong conviction that
two of these had been paid ; but that, as I had not been in the
habit of taking receipts from him, I could not prove payment.
The Postmaster replied with official hauteur, that he could
know nothing but his books, &c. I paid the account and took
a receipt. On returning home, I spoke of the circumstance
in the hearing of Mrs. Ker, who immediately assured me that I
would find in my secretary receipt for two quarters which she
had paid whilst I was lying ill. I accordingly found a receipt
for two quarters newspaper postage up to 1st January, 1836,"
dated October 5th, 1835," and signed by Robert McConnell,
assistant for Woodson Wren, postmaster." Thus I was provi-
dentially in possession of positive proof that I had paid twice for
two of the three quarters. And if, as Ithink probable, the cus-
tomary notice had been given in July that newspaper postage was
due, there is little doubt that it was then paid;. in which case
I must have paid three times for that quarter. Both the above-
mentioned receipts are still in my possession. But the amount
of one of them was refunded by the Postmaster, after repeated
refusals to do so unless I would give up one of the receipts,
which I thought proper to decline. From that time until April
last, I have regularly taken receipts from the office, although
reluctance was sometimes manifested to give them. Early in
January last, I paid for the quarter commencing on the first of
that month, and took a receipt. Yet during that month I was
afterwards dunned twice for that same postage by different
clerks in the office, once by the son of the Postmaster. On
the 7th of April, having been absent for a few days, 1 was at
the Post Office, and payment was demanded for the quarter's
newspaper postage, by a clerk whom I did not remember to
have seen in the office. I offered payment and asked for a re-
ceipt, which the clerk refused to give. I insisted, and the
clerk then appealed to the Postmaster himself, who was within,
and he again peremptorily refused to give me a receipt. I told
him that I would not pay without a receipt, and reminded him
that I had on a former occasion paid twice for the same quar-
ter. He still refused the receipt, and I stated that I should try
to find some remedy for what I considered a grievance. Whilst
1 was walking away, the Postmaster remarked that I might go
in and see the postage marked paid upon the books; to which
I made no reply. Since that time, the Postmaster and his as-
- # -. P -- .
S SCENERY, LAMPS, STOVES, &c. &c.-On Tues-
day next, the 25th instant, at 12 o'clock, (noon,) I shall
sell at public auction at the old Theatre, on Louisiana Avenue,
all the scenery of the establishment; also, a great variety of
lamps and chandeliers, gilt, brass, &c. several excellent stoves,
with large quantity of pipe, benches, &c. &c.
Terms of aale, cash ; articles to be paid for immediately af-
ter the sale.
june 19-eo&ds EDWARD DYER,
f0 L DOLLAR NOTE LOST, on the 17th irttant,
5 supposed to have been dropped at or near te coun-
ter of the Patriotic Bank. The finder will please land it to
the Teller, and receive a suitable reward. juxe 19-3t
t'NIVE DOLLARS REWARD.-Stiayed or stolen,
u on the 2d instant, from Mr. George A.Amoot, the pro-
prietor of the Good Hope Tavern, near the eastern end of the
lower bridge across the Eastern Branch ofPotomac, a light bay
horse, about 15 or 16 hands high, fine mrxe and tail, hind feet
white, head or face a little crooked anr'inclined to the left.
The above reward will be paid f'y the delivery of said horse
to the subscriber, near Mr. Smooth-
june 19-eo3t JAS. J. JARBOE.
'ONOCACY MIL i FOR SALE.-By virtue of
E a decree of Frederico County Court sitting as a Court of
Equity, the subscribers, s trustees for the sale of the real es-
tate of Daniel Kemp, dpeased, will sell, at public sale, at Dor-
sey's City Hotel, in rederick, on Saturday, the 6th day of July
next, between the pours of I and 2 o'clock P. M. the one-half
of that valuable Ipil property known as the Monocacy Mills. It
is situated en toe Monocacy river, near Buckeystown, about 40
miles from BRtimore, and about 35 miles from Georgetown. It
is situated i1 the midst of a very luxuriant wheat country, and
can always secure a full supply. The dam is constructed of
stone, pd extends entirely across the river, commanding the
full piwer of the stream, which is here strong, and has a very
fine fall. The Baltimore and Ohio railroad passes within one
rnile and a half of the property, at which point there is a large
and commodious warehouse for the reception and transmission
of flour and other produce from the mill. A private switch from
the railroad is connected with this warehouse, enabling the load-
ing of the flour to be effected without interference with the ope !
rations ofthe railroad. The Chesapeake and Ohio canal passes
very conveniently, enabling the selection of markets for pro7
duce. The mill-house is built of stone, five stories high, with
three water-wheels running three pairs of five feet, and one
pair of four feet burrs, and is capable of grinding as much, per-
haps, as any other mill in the country. In the mill are a smut
machine and a packing apparatus, and all the various kinds of
machinery found in a first-rate merchant mill.
Attached to the mill are five and three-quarter acres oflaqd,
on which are two very convenient and comfortable stone dwel-
ling houses, with a never-failing well of excellent water, an
extensive cooper's shop, and a large building for the preserver
tion of barrels.
This property is so well known that a minute description is
unnecessary; suffice it to say that it has always been estimated
as one of the best mill properties in Frederick county. The above
property will be sold free of the widow's dower.
The terms of sale, as prescribed by the decree, are-One-
third of the purchase money to be paid on the day of sale, or on
the ratification thereof by the Court; one-third in one year from
the day of sale: and the remaining third in two years from the
day ofsale, the purchaser or purchasers giving notes with suffi-
cient security, bearing interest from the day of sale. After the
ratification of the sale, and the payment of the whole purchase
money, the trustees will execute a deed in fee simple to the
purchasers. HENRY KEMP,
WM. M. KEMP,
j The subscriber, owner of one-half of the above property,
will, on the same day and place, immediately after the sale
above advertised, sell his interest on the same terms, thus en-
abling persons to purchase the whole of this desirable property.
june 19-2awtds DANEL BUCKEY.
In EDICAL COLLEGE, in Richmond, Virginia.
V The next Winter Term of Lectures in the Medical De-
partment of Hampden Sydney College, at Richmond, will com-
mence on Monday, October 21, 1839, and continue until the
last of February following.
AUGUSTUS L. WARNER, M.D., Professorof Surgery and Sur-
JOHN CULLEN, M.D., Professor of the Theory and Practice of
THOMAS JOHNSON, M.D., Professor of Anatomy and Physi-
L. W. CHAMBERLAYNE, M. D., Professor of Materia Medica
R. L. BOHANNAN, M. D., Professor of Obstetri:s and the Dis-
eases of Women and Children.
SOCRATES MAUPIN, M. D., Professor of Chemistry and
The College Infirmary, attached to the College Building,
has been in successful operation for the last eight months, and
furnishes constantly a number of interesting Medical and Sur-
giaal cases, to which the Student has access at all hours.
The College Infirmary, together with the Alms House, Peni-
tentiary, and Armory, (which are all under the charge of two of
the Professors,) will afford the student an opportunity of wit--
nessing the various diseases incident to a Southern climate.
The abundance of materials for Anatomical purposes, and the
reduced price at which t--y are furnisahed, witt enable the stu-
dent to acquire an intimate knowledge of the anatomy of the
human body, and the use of Surgical instruments.
During the last Winter Course of.Lectures, from the number
of Surgical cases admitted into the Infirmary, the Professor of
Surgery was enabled to exhibit before the class nearly all the
important Surgical operations upon the living subject; and,
from the growing popularity of the Infirmary, there is reason to
believe that hereafter the Surgical cases in the house will greatly
Good Boarding, including fuel, lights, servant's attendance,
&c. can be obtained in this city for $4 per week.
We are authorized to state that a full Course of Lectures in
this Institution will be received as equivalent to one in the fol-
lowing Medical Schools: University of Pennsylvania, Jefferson
Medical College of Philadelphia, Medical College of the State
of South Carolina, Transylvania University, Lexington, Ky.;
University of Maryland, &c.
The Professor of Anatomy will open the Dissecting rooms of
the College on the first of October.
AUG'S L. WARNER, M. D.
Dean of the Medical Faculty.
RICHMOND, MAY 17, 1839. may 23-cp6in
L RANKLIN HOUSE, Louisville, Kentucky.-
A.. The subscriber having greatly enlarged and improved
Itis House, and furnished it entirely new and in a superb man-
oer, it will be open for the reception of travellers and boarders
by the 1st day of April next, when he- would be pleased to re-
ceive the patronage of old acquaintances and friends and of the
The Houie is situated in a central part of the city, on the
corner of Main and Sixth streets, and within a square of his old
stand ; is four stories high, and occupying a front of 100 feet or
more on.ach street. The arrangement of the House is admira-
bly adapted for the convenience and comfort of travelling and
boarditegltialUde, affording pleasant and convenient suits of
roomasnopering ite. large, elegant, and airy saloons, and com-
manding a ine view of the city and falls of the Ohio. Public
entrance through she bar-room from Main street. Private
entrance on Sixth street. The bar will at all times be sup-
plied with the cboicest wines and liquors.
JOHN FISHER, Proprietor.
ap 1---cp2m Louisville, March 25.
'i HEAD OVt OUGtI BRED DURHAM
21t VATTl W fl be sold stz Wednesday, the 26th
of June nextv at my rdslenc, situated onthe Maysville Turn-
pike Road, tbur afes -nortahet of Paris, Kentucky, 21 head
of thorough bred Durham Catte., oodtaMBig of Bulls, Cows,
Heifers, (part of which I bought at CGl. Poweli'sels, 1836,) and
their produce, and another pertica of then. deMeaedit Aom the
importation of Sanders, Tegardten& Co.: There are i t.is
herd 15 females and 6 males, and four of the latter yearlnfmi.
There will be in addition about 20 part bloods sold.
Pedigrees will be published in handbiH far. b.
Also, 11 head of Jacks and Jennies, 8.or 10 Mares:and
Horses, 31 head of two year old mules, and a Carriage tht can
be close or open.
The above property will be sold on a credit of 12 nmoths, ex-
cept the mules, which will be sold on a credit until the" first of
January next. CHAS. S. BRENT,
may 31-dtd Bourbon County, Kentucky.
ONE HUNDRED DOLLARS REWARD.-Ran
away, on the llth May last, my negro man MOSES. He
is about 25 years of age, dark completed, active, and well-
formed, and is supposed to be about aix feet high ; has a small
scar on one side of his face, near the ear, occasioned from a
burn when he was small. He was hired to Mr. Sheckelford, in
Charlotte Hall, Saint Mary's county, Maryland, whom he left.
A few days previous to his departure he was whipped, by order
of a justice of the peace, for stealing, and it is supposed it indu-
ced him to run away, being ashamed to see his mistress again.
He was seen in Prince George's county, near the District, a
few days before Whitsuntide, and perhaps may be now in Wash-
ington, unless he has made his way for a free State.
I will give the above reward, if taken out of the District or
State of Maryland, and fifty dollars if taken in the District or
State of Maryland. In either case he must be secured so that
I get him again.
Any communication relative to him must be addressed to me,
near Georgetown, D. C. or to Harrison Posey, near Charlotte
Hall, Saint Mary's county, Maryland.
Montgomery county, Md.
_____~ __ ~__ __~ ___ ~__
_ X _ __ _ ___ ___ _~ I __ __
" Liberty and Union,now and forever, one and
WEDNESDAY, JUNE 19, 1839.
We have real pleasure in being able to state
that the People of Adams county (Pa.) have
resolutely defended their inalienable rights,
trampled upon by a factious majority in the
House of Representatives of Pennsylvania, by
returning THADDEUS STEVENS as their Repre-
sentative in that body which had arbitrarily
and tyrannically declared his seat to be vacated.
Mr. STEVENS'S majority in the county was 465.
Well done, People of ADAMS COUNTY!
TERRITORY OF FLORIDA.-At the late elec-
tion held in this Territory, CHARLES DOWNING
was re-elected Delegate to Congress by a ma-
jority of eight or nine hundred votes over Mr.
BALTZELL, his opponent.
The Constitution of State Government framed
by a Convention of Delegates, and submitted to
the People of Florida for their decision there-
upon, has been rejected by a majority of 200
THE MILITARY ENCAMPMENT.-The Prince-
ton Whig, referring to the encampment of U.
S. troops in New Jersey, for the purpose of in-
struction and drill, says, under date of Friday
The United States troops are weekly increasing their
numbers in Trenton. They now amount to about nine
hundred in all, of which near one-fourth are cavalry.
The most interesting time of visiting them is said to be
during their morning parade, which is between 9 and 11
o'clock. They also parade between 4 and 7 in the af-
ternoon. Report says their numbers are soon to be in-
creased from 2,000 to 3,000 men."
The antiquity of the date of the Letter of Mr. KER,
which appears in another columnn, makes it necessary that
its present appearance should be accompanied by the fol-
lowing explanation of its being hitherto delayed, and now
published : The Letter was received just after the opening
of the late Session of Congress, when space in our columns
was in much demand. With a number of other communi-
cated articles, it was deferred (its immediate publication
not being thought important) until, with many of the other
papers referred to, it was considered rather out of date, and
our purpose was therefore to have withheld it from the
press altogether. We have, however, on further conside-
ration, concluded to place it before our readers, and on this
ground: Although the facts stated in Mr. KER'S affidavit
immediately affect only himself and the Postmaster at
Natchez, yet the whole population of the United States
have a secondary but a deep interest in the matter. It may,
by cursory readers and hasty reasoners, be considered a
small matter that Mr. KER has had to pay his newspaper
postage two or three times over, and that he has been
rudely denied the only remedy against the repetition of
such petty vexations. But he is not the only citizen inter-
ested in these small matters. The Public, throughout the
Union, has a great interest in the proper administration of
the Governmern and perhaps more immediately in the
management of e Post Office than of any of the other
Departments of Government. It is only by the exhibition
and proof of particulars, as in this case, that general abuses
can be exposed and put in a way to be redressed.
The Pen nsylvania House of Delegates has passed a law
to establish an asylum for the insane poor of the Common-
wealth. The author of that bill, like the estimable dele-
gate from Baltimore, who advocated so feelingly the esta-
blishment of such an institution in the State of Maryland,
will receive countless blessings in after ages for his disin-
The DECATUR, a new corvette of 16 guns, says the Jour-
nal of Commerce, just constructed at Brooklyn, is nearly
ready for sea, having her armament on board. Prepara-
tions are making at the same yard for laying the keel of a
The decision rendered last week by Judge BETTS, of
the United States District Court for New York, in which
the provisions of the act of Congress regulating steam-
boats were declared to be of a character that could not be
dispensed with by captains or owners of such boats, came
most opportunely (says the Baltimore American) to arrest
the ill effects which might otherwise have arisen from the
decision previously rendered in reference to the same act
by Judge McKINLEY, in a trial at New Orleans. In re-
gard to the latter, we find the following opinion in the
Cincinnati Gazette, the editor of which is a sound lawyer:
JUDGE McKINLEY'S DECISION.
The newspaper press, from New Orleans to Louisville,
seems greatly to approve Judge McKinley's nullifying de-
cision, in the steamboat cases. We regret this. There
is an unjustifiable repugnance to this law among steam-
boat owners and navigators. This proceeds from impa-
tience of legal control-self-opiniated, self-willed confi-
dence. an indifference to consequence, nothing of which
should be indulged by persons whose business is so inti-
mately associated with the safety of life and property.
Judge McKinley's decision never can be sustained. He
who violates the law, in faith of that opinion, may be sure
of paying the penalty in due season.
The immense number of letters now carried from this
port, and brought here by the steam and packet ships, make
it of sufficient importance for the two Governments to un-
dertake, by negotiation, the carrying of a regular mail.
The communication of the Old World and the New is
now chis fly via New York. It would be a great conveni-
ence if a letter here could be paid to any part of England
or Europe, and vice versa, or so that a Wisconsin emigrant
from Scotland could write, post paid, or thus receive back
a letter in return from home. The mails are now carried
over the ocean by private ente rprise, and subject to indivi-
dual caprice. We cannot write to a friend in London with-
out subjecting him to a postage tax. It seems to us that
an international intercourse now so extensive and so im-
portant is a fair matter for negotiation.-N. York Express.
SHEEP SHEARING.-We have heard of the large yield of
wool from the back of the Bakewell and other sheep, re-
cently introduced into the country at heavy prices. At a
late shearing, in the neighborhood of Warrenton, Fauquier
county, Va., a sheep of an old stock, familiar to the farm-
ers of that county, and known as the Whiting sheep, which
was raised by Dr. Macrae, of Prince William, yielded, at
15 months old, 10 pounds, down weight. Another sheep,
of the common stock raised by the owner, yielded at the
second shearing 8T pounds. In both cases, the tags and
other filthy wool were not weighed. It appears to us, from
these and other instances, that too little attention is paid to
this branch of husbandry, and by far too little care is be-
stowed on these valuable animals. Not excepting those
counties in which the raising of sheep is the predominant
interest, we think our own, of all the earth, the best adapt-
ed to it. We have millions of acres on which the plough
cannot be employed, which might be rendered highly pro-
PENNSYLVANIA WHIG CONVENTION.
The Whigs proper of Pennsylvania met in
Convention at Chambersburg on Thursday lasi,
with the object of appointing Delegates to the
WHIG NATIONAL CONVENTION which is to as-
semble at Harrisburg in December next, for the
nomination of candidates for President and
Vice President of the United States. About
sixty-five delegates were in attendance. On
motion of JOSEPH LAWRENCE, of Washingtq ,
JOHN BINNS, of Philadelphia, was appointed
Chairman pro tem. and Mr. MAXWELL, of North-
ampton, Secretary. After a short recess, the Con-
vention again assembled in the afternoon, when
it was regularly organized by the appointment
of the following officers:
Hon. GEORGE CHAMBERS, Franklin co.
ALEX. REED, Washington.
JNO. PRICE WETHERILL, Philadelphia city.
WILLIAM CLARK, Dauphin.
GIDEON PALMER, Schuylkill.
ROBT. M. RIDDLE, Allegheny.
HENRY D. MAXWELL, Northampton.
THOS. W. DUFFIELD, Jr. Philadelphia co.
The authenticated report of the proceedings
of the Convention has not reached us. In the
absence of that report, the reader will gather
the results of the Convention from the following:
CHAMBERSBURG, JUNE 14, 1839.
The Convention has closed its labors, and performed its
duties, though not without great and persevering opposi-
tion from a few, who evidently came to it with the inten-
tion of using it, in case they had had a majority, for the
purpose of registering and approving the proceedings of
the late Anti-Masonic Convention at Harrisburg, or, in
case they failed in this, to break it up in a row. They
have been disappointed, and failed in both these objects.
The business which came in order before the Conven-
tion this morning was the reports of committees. These
being called for, Mr. INGERSOLL reported a series of reso-
lutions, one of which recommended HENRY CLAY as
the irst choice of that body as a candidate for the Presi-
dency, but approving the reference of the nomination of
a candidate to the NATIONAL CONVENTION, and pledging
the Convention and its constituents to abide by such nom-
ination, and support the candidate thus selected.
A portion of these resolutions Mr. PENROSE moved to
strike out, for the purpose of inserting a preamble and res-
olution, which he offered, and which required this Con-
vention to break up forthwith, and call an Anti- Van Bu-
ren State Convention, to be held at Harrisburg in Au-
Mr. PENROSE supported his motion in a very able speech
of about an hour's length, in which he passed a high eulo-
gium upon Mr. CLAY, and declared him to be his first
choice as a candidate for the Presidency. He was replied
to by Mr. INGERSOLL, Mr. SCOTT, and Mr. CLARKSON, all
of whom spoke in strains of strong and impassioned elo-
uence. Mr. INGERSOLL turned a metaphor used by Mr.
. most happily and ingeniously upon him, and also brief-
ly reviewed Mr, CLAY'S public life and important public
services. He particularly dwelt upon that sagacity which
he had always shown in foreseeing the effects of measures,
and that undaunted courage and decision he had ever ex-
hibited in doing at the critical moment what at the time
seemed to many, and even his own friends, to be impolitic,
if not ruinous, but which invariably proved to have been
the most wise and politic measure.
Mr. SCOTT said, in reply to Mr. P. that he did not come
there to raise a temporary flag, an anti-Van Buren flag, and
one which must of course be taken down as soon as Mr.
VAN BUREN should be defeated or retired, but he came
to raise the great Whig banner in Pennsylvania, and to in-
scribe upon its broad folds those principles which the Whigs
maintained', and which alone could sustain our Republican
Government; a flag which shall float long after Mr. VAN
BUREN should have been forgotten, and the effects of his
unwise and mal-administration should have ceased to be
felt or remembered.
Mr. CLARKSON thought, if he voted for the proposition of
the gentleman from Cumberland, he should not be allowed
the honor of representing his constituents in the proposed
Convention, and that, if it were adopted, this body would
be very much like the King of France's men, who march-
ed up a hill, and then marched down again.
The gentlemen from the city each spoke somewhat at
length, and went into a full discussion of the present and
past relative position of the Whig and Anti-Masonic par-
ties, the acts of the Government, &c. Mr. PENROSE re-
The question was taken, and decided in the negative, or
against Mr. P. by nearly 3 to 1.
Mr. DICKEY then moved to amend the resolutions by
striking out the name of HENRY CLAY, wherever it occur-
red, and inserting that of WM. HENRY HARRISON; and
supported his motion in a short speech, in which he charg-
ed the Whigs with packing the National Convention.
This charge was thrown back by Mr. N. SARGENT, who
stated that it had been the intention of the friends of Gen.
HARRISON, when they thought they should have a majri-
ty in this Convention, to appoint the whole delegates of
the State, and that the Dauphin county delegation came
there instructed to do so. He asked whether, as they now
found the majority, they were prepared to obey their in-
structions, and advocate the election of Congressional dele-
gates to the National Convention '
Mr. FISHER, of Dauphin, replied, and the question was
then taken on Mr. DICKEY's motion, and decided in the
Mr. PENROSE and his friends, to the number of 17, then
presented a protest, and withdrew from the Convention,
because they were out-voted.
The resolutions were then adopted.
Mr. SARGENT then reported and read an address to the
Whigs of Pennsylvania.
The Convention then went into the election of Sen-
atorial delegates to the National Convention. JOSEPH
LAWRENCE, E'q. of Washington, was nominated and
elected. JOHN ANDREW SHULTZ was then nominated,
and an objection being made that he was already on an
electoral ticket, a letter was read from him to a friend,
stating his approval of the reference of the Presidential
nomination to a National Convention, and declaring
HENRY CLAY to be his first choice. This being satis-
factory, he was then elected.
Mr. BINNs'S preamble and resolution were taken up, and
State, executive, and corresponding .committees of 15
were then appointed.
After some other minor business was transacted, the
Convention adjourned sine die.
LYNCH LAW AT DETROIT.-There are few, if any, who
look upon a scene like that at the foot of Griswold street
yesterday, without a thrill of horror. Yet, we must con-
fess, there are crimes committed by those wearing the form
of man for which there is no legal remedy. Paul Maples,
a butcher here, and a disgrace to the family and his trade,
(for our butchers, generally, are a worthy class of men,)
received in his employment some months since a deserter
from the British army, and, after becoming indebted to him
some 50 or 70 dollars, cancelled his obligation by getting
the poor fellow intoxicated, conveying him across the river,
and surrendering him to British officers, for the ordinary
reward on such occasions. But to their honor and manli-
ness, let it be said, they allowed him to be whipped and
chopped for his pains. Yet laws must be executed and
rules enforced, and it being understood that yesterday was
the day appointed for the execution of the deserter, certain
individuals took the wretch who could sell the life of a
WHIG MOVEMENTS IN MISSOURI.
The Whigs of St. Louis held an animated
meeting on the 6th instant, at which prelimi-
nary steps were taken in reference to the ap-
proaching State convention. Among the reso-
lutions passed at the meeting, we find the fol-
Resolved, That although we do not desire to forestall the
action of the National Convention in its selection of can-
didates for President and Vice President, we still cannot
withhold the expression of our decided preference for
HENRY CLAY, as the Whig candidate for President, and
our entire confidence in his talents, patriotism, and devo-
tion to the whole Union.
The Republican, noticing the meeting, ob-
serves: "The Whig meeting yesterday, at the
Court-house, was all that we could have desi-
red. The small space. left in our columns at
the hour of adjournment prevents us making
many remarks upon the tone and character of
the proceedings, if, in fact, this were necessary.
The preamble and resolutions speak the senti-
ments of the meeting, and are such as will meet,
we doubt not, with a hearty response from the
Whig party throughout the State. It will be
seen, that whilst the Whigs of this county are
willing to support whomsoever may be nomi-
nated-by the National Convention for the Pre-
sidency, their preferences are for that unwaver-
ing, never-tiring, and much abused patriot and
statesman, HENRY CLAY."
MARYLAND, SEVENTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT.
The following correspondence has been com-
municated to us for publication :"
NEAR CHAPTICO, JUNE 3, 1839.
DEAR SIR: Having been called to preside in the Con-
vention which met at Charlotte Hall, in St. Mary's county,
on the 30th of May last, composed of members from the
several counties forming the Seventh Congressional Dis-
trict, the object of which was to select a candidate to repre-
sent the said district at the next election for Congress, the
duty was assigned to me, by resolution, 'of making known
to you that you were designated by the Convention as the
proper person to be supported by the Whig party of this
district at the next election for Representatives to the Con-
gress of the United States.
Believing it to be essential to the best interests of the
People, and necessary to the success of the Whig cause, I
hope you will yield to the wishes of your. fellow-citizens,
and consent to serve them again in the station the duties
of which you have discharged for several years past with so
much credit to yourself and satisfaction to them.
With great respect and esteem, your ob't serv't,
BEN'T J. HEARD.
Hon. D. JENIFER, Charlestown, near Harris's Lot, Md.
CHARLESTOWN, JUNE 8, 1839.
DEAR SIR: I received yesterday yours of the 3d Instant,
informing me of my nomination by the Whig Convention,
which met at Charlotte Hall on the 30th ultimo, as a can-
didate for the next Congress from the Seventh Congres-
sional District of Maryland.
In accepting the nomination, I am aware of the difficul-
ties I shall have to encounter ; but, as they have not been
of my seeking, I shall not shun the responsibility. You
will, therefore, please to make known, in such manner as
you may deem most expedient, my acknowledgments to
the Convention for the honor they have done me, and ac-
cept for yourself my thanks for the flattering manner in
which you have made the communication.
Very respectfully, yours,
Col. B. J. HEARD, President
of Charlotte Hall Whig Convention.
THE SILK CULTURE.
FROM THE RICHMOND (VA.) ENQUIRER OF JUNE 11.
Mr. MORRIS POLLOCK, the enterprising Throwster of
Glasgow, has arrived in the Great Western, and has pro-
ceeded to Pittsylvania county, in this State, where he pro-
poses to establish a large mulberry plantation, a cocoonery,
and a filature for reeling the silk. He has availed him-
self of the act of Assembly of 1833, and has already be-
come a quasi citizen of the State, for the purpose of hold-
ing lands. We had the pleasure of witnessing an inte-
resting interview on Friday evening between Mr. POL-
LOCK and Mr. D'HOMERGUE. They agree in their views
of the best manner of conducting the silk business in the
United States. They think that Virginia is calculated to
be a great silk State; but that she ought to confine her-
self at present to the raising of mulberry and the worm,
and of reeling the silk from the cocoons; and that it is
probably best to establish large filatures, which will fur-
nish a market for the cocoons, and supersede the necessi-
ty of each silk culturist having a reel of his own ; and that
it is better for us to export the raw silk, to be manufactur-
ed in Europe.
Mr. POLLOCK seems to possess great knowledge of his
subject; and to show the most liberal disposition to com-
municate it to others, and to encourage the enterprise in
this State. He was much surprised by the accounts that
were given him of the active and prolific qualities of the
Morus Multicaulis. He has brought out with him a
quantity of the white Italian mulberry, and presumes that
he could riot get his cocoonery in operation before the
third year; but the character of the multicaulis will ena-
ble him to go to work much sooner.
Mr. D'HOMERGUE has also great experience in the busi-
ness. He is a decided enthusiast; but at the same time
prudent and considerate. From the elements of calcula-
tion with which he furnished us on Friday, it appears
that, barring all accidents, and with cocooneries economi-
cally built and properly conducted, each acre of ground
will produce a nett profit of at least $200. In fact, he con-
tends that it will be a more profitable business than rais-
ing tobacco in Virginia, and cotton in the South. We
shall lay before our readers, in a few days, some numbers
which have been prepared for popular use by the author
of" The Silk Culturist's Manual."
FROM THE NASHUA (N. H.) TELEGRAPH.
HEAR! HEAR !-What say ye, Grahamites and Saw-dust
eating philosophers, to the following article from the New
England Farmer ? Is it not rank heresy ? Salt, Vinegar,
Mustard, Olive-oil, and. Pepper! 0 horror of horrors !
That a man should ever eat such a thing as Lobster
Domestic Medicine.-The castors on a dinner table are
said, by a late London work, to be a kind of medicine-
chest, containing drugs of great virtues. 1. Salt.-This
is a decided cathartic in the dose of half an ounce. It is
also a vermifuge in large doses. Criminals in Holland
were formerly sentenced to live without salt, and became
terribly afflicted with worms. 2. Vinegar.-This is refri-
gerent and diaphoretic, and applied externally is moderate-
ly stimulant. If an over-dose of soda has been taken, or
of any other alkali, it is a certain antidote. 3. Mustard.-
Mustard emetic is said to be infallible in the cholera; a
mustard poultice is almost equal to a blister plaster. 4.
Olive oil.--This, say the dispensaries, is demulcent, re-
laxent and laxative." It is an antidote against acrid poi-
sons, and seems to be obnoxious to worms, killing them, it
is supposed, by stopping up their breathing holes. 5. Pep-
per.-This relieves diarrhea, and the relaxed sore throat.
Pepperin, alcholoid extract from the pepper, has cured the
ague in the hands of Dr. Meli and others.
JEWELRY.-Scarcely any branch of manufacture has ad-
vanced more rapidly and steadily in this county, during
the last twenty years, than that of articles of jewelry. In
1820, it might be said with almost literal truth that nothing
of the kind was manufactured in the United States. But
now, much the larger part of all the more rich and solid
articles are made in this country. There are very good
and extensive assortments in the stores. where not a sin-
FROM FLORIDA. W
ST. AUGUSTINE, JUNE 8.
ARMY INTELLIGENCE.-Picolatis to be abandoned, and
the sick are to be removed to Fort Heileman.
On the 26th ultimo, eighteen miles from Fort Fanning,
two privates of Captain BRADLEY'S volunteer company
were killed by Indians. One of the party was scalped three
A FORT KING, MAiO0.
A few Indians have come in since I last wrote. A large
number, with Tiger Tail and several other chiefs, will be
here in a day or two. The chiefs never asked Gen. MA-
COMB whether they would be permitted to remain perma-
nently south of Pease creek, and he never told them that
they would not. If the Indians should be permitted to re-
main in Florida, it will be a fatal blow to the prosperity of
the Territory, and every Floridian ought to raise his voice
against so suicidal a measure.
Since writing the above, our negro interpreter, (Mur-
ray,) who is the best and most useful man we have in that
capacity, was shot in the side by a scoundrel named Edgar,
who is orderly sergeant of the company that garrisons this
post. The ball passed immediately over the stomach, but
under the peritoneum, and I think is lodged in the liver.
He is still alive, but his chance of recovery is very slim.
He had not been shot more than an hour, when a couple
of chiefs arrived here; but, having no interpreter, I cannot
tell you what news they bring from the interior. To-mor-
row they will bring in with them from a camp nine miles
from here another Indian negro, who will interpret for us."
[The murder of the negro Murray was accompanied
with circumstances of great wantonness. Sergeant EDGAR
complained to Colonel WHISTLER that Murray was inso-
lent to him, and was informed that the matter should be
examined into, and, if guilty, punished. The Sergeant
insolently demanded it then, and was ordered to his quar-
ters, from whence he took a rifle, and went to Murray's
tent, and, whilst sleeping, discharged the contents into his
Murray was captured in 1836, and belonged to Micapo-
taka, now west, and was considered the best guide, in the
nation. It is rather surprising that, under these circum-
stances of outrage, Edgar should have been bailed at New-
ACCIDENT AT JACKSONVILLE.-A melancholy accident
occurred at Jacksonville on Monday last, by the upsetting
of a sail boat belonging to that place. A party of gentle-
men, consisting of Captain STRATTON and son, Mr. MAYO,
and Dr. STEWART, were sailing on a pleasure excursion,
and, the wind freshening rather too much,were engaged in
shortening sail, when the boat capsized, and Mr. MAYO
and Dr. STEWART perished. Capt. STRATTON and son were
discovered in their perilous situation, and rescued from the
fate of their companions.-Ibid.
LATEST FROM MEXICO.
NEW ORLEANS, JUNE 10.
The schooner Creole, Captain CORMIERE, arrived on
Saturday from Tampico, which place she left on the 1st
instant, brings intelligence of the capture of an armed
schooner, belonging to the Federal party, after about ten
minutes' action ; and finally of the possession of the bar of
Tampico by the Centralists, under the command of Gen.
ARISTA. The forces of the Federalists in Tampico, un-
der command of General URREA, are said to amount to
Gen. BUSTAMENTE was hourly expected from Altemira,
with 1,500 men. Gen. ARISTA despatched a schooner to
Vera Cruz for eight pieces of heavy artillery, upon the
arrival of which he purposed making the attack upon the
town of Tampico; and so confident is he of success, that
he said to our informant that he would take the place
without the loss of a man! The Government forces about
Tampico are estimated at 4,000 men.
The captain of the armed schooner and five or six of his
men were severely wounded in defending their vessel.
ONE DAY LATER.-The brig A. E. Captain DRISCOLL,
also arrived heie in the same tow, from Matamoras, hav.
ing left that port on the 2d instant. The report of his
having been captured by the Government party turns out
to be unfounded. It appears, they wasted to purchase his
vessel, but not having sufficient means, the orders were
issued to seize her; accordingly, the persons so ordered
came on board, and desired him to set sail, to which he
objected, and they, finding him resolute, again shoved off
from the vessel: in their absence he hoisted his sails and
cleared out. Captain Driscoll says that, had he remained
a day longer, his vessel would certainly have been lost to
him. He also states that they are very severe on all
American vessels, in regard to duties. .
The schooners Byron, Emblem, and Camanche had
arrived from New Orleans, and a schooner, name not
known, from Boston.-Louisiana Advertiser.
TRIAL IN NEW YORK.-In the case of Dr. Septimus
Hunter, charged with causing the death of Justin Cozzens,
the jury brought in a verdict of guilty of manslaughter in
the fourth degree, but recommended him to mercy.
We understand that the resignation by Mr. LOT CLARK,
of his situation as President of the Southern Life Insurance
and Trust Company, does not imply a separation from its
concerns, but that he is to take charge of the agency which
the company are about to establish at New York.-N. Y.
Mr. ALEXANDER CUNNINGHAM, of Baltimore, was acci-
dentally drowned in the Patapsco on Saturday last. He
was in a small boat with several others on a fishing excur-
sion; the boat was upset, but the rest all escaped. He
swam for a considerable distance, but sunk before he could
reach the shore.
RAILROAD STRIKE.-On Tuesday morning last, a gene-
ral strike took place among the hands employed on the dif-
ferent sections of the railroad between Reading and Ham-
burg. About three hundred men left work, demanding an
advance in their wages of from $1 to $1 121 per day.
RIOT AMONG THE FIREMEN.-The Philadelphia firemen
continue to disgrace themselves and their fair city by con-
tinued attacks upon each other in a manner that would al-
most lead one to suppose that they had no more respect for
themselves, or feeling for each other, than- so many dogs.
At a fire on Sunday morning, a fight occurred between the
"Washington" and "Fairmount" engine companies.
H. Ladd has been hauled up in New York for pass-
ing a $100 note, purporting to be issued by the New York
Loan Company, there being no such company in existence.
He was required to give bail in the sum of $3,000, and his
partner in iniquity in the amount of $2,000, for their ap-
pearance for trial; which they did, and were discharged.
RESPECT.-The flags of the shipping at Philadelphia
were half masted on Sunday for the death of Captain
CHARLES Dixry, late of the ship Susquehanna.
DANGEROUS ASCENSION OF A BALLOON.-A few weeks
ago an experimental inflation of a balloon took place in a
meadow near tie Beulah Spa, Norwood, (Eng.) A number
of men were employed in holding the vast machine, which
was of unusual large dimensions. In the space of twelve
minutes the balloon was completely filled with heated air,
generated in a furnace from chopped straw, birch, and al-
derwood; the ascending power on a sudden then became
so great, that ii removing the machine from the furnace it
escaped from tie hands of most of the men, and ascended
to a great heiht, taking up five persons clinging to the
ropes and sidesof the car. A youth, when thirty feet from
the ground, cold hold no longer, and dropped, sustaining
much injury; the others remained clinging to the balloon,
and were convved about a mile. when the machine de-
TO THE EDITORS.
ON THE ST. JOHN'S RIVER, (E. F.) JUNE 9, 1839.
Messrs. GALES & SEATON: I had the satisfaction of see-
ing in the Intelligencer of the 18th of May a letter copied
from the National Gazette, in which the writer expresses
a deep sympathy for the imagined fate of the regiment to
which I am attached. Such an exhibition of disinterested
and kind feeling on the part of the Gazette's correspondent
merits a princely reward, and, should it ever be our good
fortune to know him, he shall be made sensible of the ob-
ligations imposed on us by his kindly notice.
A large majority of the officers of the regiment, particu-
larly the senior ones, incline to the belief, however, that we
shall not be so scurvily treated as our friend presupposes.
They say that Mr. POINSETT stands pledged to relieve the
seventh regiment immediately, and direct them to either
Jefferson Barracks, or to the posts near New Orleans. The
general inference is, that because we came here last we are
to remain. But the circumstances which led to our pre-
sence in Florida are incorrectly viewed. General TAYLOR
required the aid of a regiment to complete his force for the
campaign contemplated during the winter; but the non-
arrival of the seventh regiment--the one selected because
of its proximity to Florida-prevented his taking the field
until March, when his operations were arrested by the new
instructions for a military occupation of the Eastern Ter-
ritory; and as the Secretary had promised a withdrawal
of the seventh from their long servitude and seclusion in
the West, they could be as conveniently and economically
transported to their new location from Florida as from
West Arkansas. As to the time, the honor of Mr. POIN-
SETT is a sufficient guaranty that it is not far distant,
To retain the seventh infantry in this country would be
tantamount to its disbandment; for none of the old and
experienced captains could, with consistent self-respect,
continue to hold their commissions; and a very large ma-
jority of the enlistments being about to expire, but few of
the men, and none of the experienced soldiers, would re-
enlist for service here.
One instance of disagreeable and arduous service per-
formed by the seventh regiment was entirely (but no doubt
inadvertently) overlooked by our generous friend. I al-
lude to the campaign during the Texian and Mexican war.
That service was equally trying and perilous as any we
could possibly experience in Florida. It is unnecessary,
however, to recapitulate the services of the regiment, which,
although unknown to the people of the Eastern States,
are perfectly well known at the War Office, and Mr. POIN.
SETT will unquestionably see us properly dealt with. He
is too watchful and jealous of his own rights and dignity
to overlook a proper administration of justice to those over
whom he exercises a supervisory power. As I before re-
marked, his pledge is a guaranty for our speedy removal.
Tendering to the Gazette's correspondent the heartfelt
acknowledgments of the seventh regiment, and requesting
that this may be assigned a place in the columns of the In-
telligencer, I have but to assure you of my regard.
Your obedient servant,
AN OFFICER OF THE 7TH INFANTRY.
In consequence of not being earlier relieved by the fourth
Suddenly, at Shuter's Hill, near Alexandria, D. C. on
the 15th instant, Captain WILLIAM A. ELIASON, of
the Engineer Corps, in the 39th year of his age.
OTICE.-The undersigned intends to visit Baltimore on
Saturday next, as a Collector and General Agent, and
hereafter on the second Saturday of every month, and not on
the second Thursday of the month, as previously advertised.
The undersigned intends to visit the adjoining counties of Ma-
ryland, for the purpose of collecting accounts, during the latter
part of next and several ensuing weeks. He will, therefore,
feel obliged to those persons who may have business with him,
either as a Magistrate or General Agent, (whenever it is prac-
ticable,) to call upon him at his office or dwelling, on Louisiana
avenue, near the Bank of Washington, on Mondays, Tuesdays,
and Wednesdays, when they will almost invariably find him in
The undersigned will generally be found in his office be-
tween the hours of 8 and 2 o'clock, and after 7 o'clock every
evening. While attending to out-door business in Washington
and Georgetown, he will call on any persons who wish to speak
with him at their own residences, on official or professional
june 19-d3t W. THOMPSON.
L OST TRUNKS.-Left on board the steamer Chesa-
peake, some time during the spring of 1838, a black lea-
ther trunk filled with gentlemen's apparel, some articles of
which are marked J. W. Warwick. Also, a gray hair-trunk,
about 3 feet long, filled with woman's apparel. The trunks
have been left with Wm. Radcliff, at Bradley's Wharf.
june 19-3t A. B. WALLER.
ARDENER WANTING A PLACE.-A Gar-
dener and Florist, who can exhibit the most respectable
testimonials as to character and ability, is desirous to establish
himself near to some large market, as New York, Philadelphia,
or Baltimore. He is skilled in the management of fruits, vege-
tables, and flowers ; in horticulture and agriculture generally;
and has had two years' experience in the culture of the morus
muldicaulis and other varieties oftmulberries.
Expecting his father and brother (practical cultivators like
himself) and other members of his family from Great Britain
in August or September next, he is anxious to have a place on
which to receive them on their arrival, and wishes to rent a
piece of ground of ten to forty acres, adjacent to one ofihe cities
above mentioned, or to cultivate the same on shares with the
Please address Box No. 47, Georgetown, D. C.
The New York Journal of Commerce, Philadelphia United
States Gazette, and Baltimore Patriot will please copy the above,
and send their accounts to the advertiser.
OR SALE OR LEASE, a farm, lying ten miles
from the city of Washington, near the road leading .to
Baltimore. It contains about 176 acres, about 80 of which are
in wood, and about 25 in meadow land ; it has on it a com-
fortable dwelling, a young orchard of choice fruit, and perhaps
is as healthy as any place to be found. It is desirable that any
persons who may feel a wish to possess themselves of so fine
and healthy a situation should make immediate application to
the subscriber, at the lumber and wood yard, 12th street, near
june 19-3tif ULYSSES WARD.
HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE, FINE GOLD
LEVER WATCH, CLOTHING, &c.-On
Thursday morning, 20th instant, at 10 o'clock, in front of the
auction store, I shall sell a variety of Household and Kitchen
Furniture ; an elegant Gold Patent Lever Watch, with gold dial,
jewelled,&c. made by Roskell, a first-rate watch in every re-
spect, nearly new, and cost $150; a variety of new Summer
Clothing, leather and hair Trunks, a lot of superior Spanish
Segars, in quarter boxes, and other articles.
june 19-2t Auctioneer.
ALE OF HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE.-A
gentleman wishing to discontinue housekeeping will sell
on Friday, the 21st instant, at the house formerly occupied
by Mr. Williams on C street, nearly opposite Mr. Willet's
hotel, all his household and kitchen furniture, consisting of-
A sideboard, mahogany tables, sofa
Pier tables, new chairs of different patterns
Centre table, mantel glass, looking glasses
Beds and bedsteads, bureau, stair carpeting, passage do
Brass andirons, fenders, China, glass, and Liverpool
About 60 yards of matting, &c.
He will also rent the house, which is large and comfortable.
Terms: For all sums over $10 a credit of four months for
notes well endorsed, to bear interest from date.
Sale to commence at 11 o'clock A. M.
june 19-3t Auctioneer.
VERY VALUABLE PROPERTY on Pennsyl-
vania avenue at Auction.-On Friday, the 14th inst.
at 6 o'clock P. M. in front of the premises, I shall sell at public
auction that extremely valuable and desirable property situated
at the south west corner of Pennsylvania avenue and 14th street,
NEW YORK, JUNE 17.
The packet-ship Rhone brings us Paris papers
of the 16th ult. Paris was quiet. M. SAUZET
has been elected President of the Chamber of
Deputies, having received 213 votes, exactly the
lowest number by which a choice could be ef-
fected. M. THIERS received 206 votes. This
is a victory for the King and his party.
The Rhode Island Whig Convention nomina-
ted for Congress ROBERT B. CRANSTON, of New-
port, and JOSEPH I. TILLINGHAST, of Provi.
The money market in this city is yet in an
uneasy, even in an agitated state. Money is
scarce. The domestic exchanges are disar-
ranged. The real rate of interest is above the
legal rate. The banks are.extremely sensitive.
Merchants, business-men of all classes are again
discontented with things as they are. Stocks
to-day have fallen again, and a common opinion
is that they will fall more.
Arrangements continue to be made ir4this
city by the partisans of Mr. VAN BURlF for his
reception. The Richmond Enquirer is the best
authority we have as to the time when he will
leave Washington. Mr. RITCHIE stands so high
at court, that he evidently has exclusive infor-
Exchange on England continues at 1091.
To-morrow is packet day, when the rate will
Sales Tits Day.
LOOKED COLT AT AUCTION.-On Wednes-
day morning next, the 19th inst. at 9 o'clock, I shall
sell at public auction, in front of Goldin's stable, on 6th street,
back of Gadlby's, a handsome 2-year old colt, by Hotspur.
Terms at sale. EDWARD DYER,
june 18--2t Auctioneer.
A VALUABLE BRICK HOUSE AND LOT,
and Superior Furniture.-On Wednesday, 19th
inst. on the premises, I shall sell at public auction the very
convenient and well-arranged 3-story brick house, formerly
occupied by Baron De Behr, north of Pennsylvania Avenue,
near. the residence of Hon. Mr. Forsyth. This property is
worthy the attention of persons wishing to invest, as it is high-
ly probable that, in addition to its present advantages, the pro-
posed cross-cut canal will be made very near to it. Sale at 10
o'clock A. M.
Also, after the above, a valuable assortment of articles of
household furniture, some of which are choice and elegant, as
2 handsome Brussels Carpets, nearly new; 1 dozen best ma-
hogany Chairs, hair-seats; 1 elegant blue plush (Paris made)
elastic Sofa, with chairs and stools to match; 1 Italian marble
slab Pier Table, with mirror; 1 extra size handsome circular
Table; 1 pair mahogany pillar and claw Card Tables; 1 set
.mahog. Dining Tables, with extra leaves, can dine 40 persons;
2 Gilt mantel Glasses, Bronzed and Gilt Candelabras and
Brackets, Mantel Lamps, handsome China Fruit Baskets, hand-
some bronzed Gothic Chandelier, with nine lights; a very ele-
gant Ormolu Centre-piece, with Cut glass Vase, for fruit, &c.;
set of superior Plated Dishes, for dinner or supper service, with
extra warmers, &c.; sets of Window Drapery, with appurte-
nances; handsome French Dessert Sets, superior Cut-glass De-
canters, Claret Jugs, Ice-creams, Champagnes, Wine Coolers,
English and French Cut Finger Bowls, Chamber Carpets, best
Feather Beds and Mattresses, Bedsteads, Fire sets, Mahogany
Side Tables, &c.
Among the kitchen utensils are many copper vessels of su-
perior quality and patterns, particularly adapted to a French
Terms of sale: For the house and lot, one-third cash, and
the residue at one, two, and three years, for negotiable notes,
bearing interest. For the furniture, over $50, six months' cre-
dit, for approved endorsed notes, bearing interest.
june 13-eo&ds Auctioneer.
VERY VALUABLE AND DESIRABLE RE-
sidence at Auction.-On Monday next, the 24th in-
stant, at 6 o'clock P. M. I shall sell, in front of the premises,
lots Nos. 1, 2, and 18, in square 761, with the very valuable im-
provements thereon, consisting of a very handsome and fashjon-
ably-built two-story brick house, with fine basement and necessa-
ry back buildings, and now occupied by J. B. Rooker, Esq. on
Pennsylvania Avenue, Capitol Hill. This property is within a
few minutes' walk of the Capitol, fronting south, and is certainly
one of the most desirable private residences on the Hill. It has
a fine garden, with a variety'of fruit, &c. good water, and will
be positively sold to the highest bidder. Any gentleman wish-
ing a comfortable residence, in some sort retired, and free from
dust, &c. has now an opportunity of obtaining one. It is not
often that such property is offered at auction.
Terms liberal, and made known at the sale.
june 17-dtsif Auctioneer.
THE POTOMAC PAVILION,
T HE SUBSCRIBER respectfully informs his friends
and the Public that he has taken, for this season, this
popular Bathing Place, and that it was opened for the recep-
tion of Company on the 1set of June.
Piney Point, on which the Pavilion is situated, is a clear, open
cape, (though wooded in the rear on the north and east,) jutting
into the Potomac near its mouth, where the river is eight or ten
miles wide, in full view of the Chesapeake bay. The bathing
is very fine, the water being nearly as salt as that of the ocean,
and the air as pure. It possesses the advantage of the greatest
abundance of the largest oysters, of soft and hard crabs, and all
the varieties of excellent fish with which the waters of the Che-
The proprietors have made very extensive improvements for
the accommodation and convenience of visitors. To the fifty
new Lodging Rooms opened last season, there has been added
a large new separate building, containing 28 Lodging Rooms,
affording, in the whole establishment, ample accommodation for
200 visitors. There are a spacious Ball Room, Billiard Room,
Bowling Alleys, Quoit Yards, &c., the whole fronting the river
to the south, within a hundred yards of the clean white beach.
There are provided, also, two beautiful and commodious Yachts,
under the charge of an experienced and skilful seaman. There
are bathing houses for those who prefer them to the open surf;
also a substantial wharf for the steamboats to come up to, in-
stead of landing and taking off passengers in the small boats;
as heretofore ; which, moreover, enables visitors to bring car-
riages and horses, if they choose.
Besides the salt water luxuries above named, every thing will
be supplied for the table which the markets of the District, Bal-
timore, and Norfolk can afford, to which the steamboat lines
furnish regular access; and the house will be amply provided
with the best wines and other liquors.
The establishment has been well, though plainly, furnished
throughout, including new mattresses and bed furniture.
The steamers which ply between the District and Baltimore
and Norfolk furnish to the inhabitants of those cities regular op-
portunities for visiting and departing from the Pavilion.
The subscriber has procured the aid of efficient and attentive
assistants for the Bar and other departments of the establish-
It is determined that moderate charges shall constitute one
of the advantages of the establishment; to this s'.all be added
the most zealous efforts to please, and the subscriber trusts that
these efforts, united to the experience acquired by him as keep-
er for several years of a public house, will enable him to give
satisfaction to all who may favor him with a visit.
Price of board, for less than a week, $1 50 per day; for a
week, or longer, $1 25 per day.
N. B. Families desirous of spending a considerable portion
of the season will be taken on more moderate terms.
P PUBLIC SALE OF VALUABLE IRON
WORKS PROPERTY.-The subscriber will offer
at public sale, on the 1st day of July next, unless previously
disposed of at private sale, his valuable Iron Works, known as
Union Forge is on Stony Creek, Shenandoah county, Va.
one mile and a half from the Valley Turnpike, two miles and a
half from the Shenandoah river, which is navigable ; five miles
and a half from Woodstock, and in the neighborhood of four fur-
nn.c t.th. neaaraPt t'n .r andl tho rf.rthOt frtn,.ltn mll.A .na-
POLICY AND GOVERNMENT OF THE NA-
TIONS OF ANTIQUITY, BY A. H. L. HEE-
MESSRS. GALES & SEATON: On more than
one or two occasions I have, through the col-
umns of the National Intelligencer, made the
remark how much History was neglected, not
only in the United States, but also in Great Brit-
ain. It is really a subject of great interest, that
the historians and historical critics of France,
Germany, and Italy, are slowly coming into our
language and libraries. The writings of such
men as Sismondi, Berthold George Niebuhr,
Segur, and Salvandy, with many more, must
give a new direction and far wider and clearer
view of the rise, progress, and decline of Na-
tions, than were within the grasp, until recently,
of the Anglo-Saxon branch of the Caucasian
family. But even with the aid of continental
writers, our literature is still not simply barren
of facts on the modern Northern nations, but
such facts as we have in our books, especially
respecting Russia, are, in a peculiar manner,
distorted. In a former paper I have shown from
the best document on that extremely important
subject, that the rise of Russia was early in
modern history, and slow in development, and
that near eight centuries in time had deeply laid the founda-
tions of her power.
Not that I pretend to spread the wide canvass of North-
ern history before your readers; such a task is alike beyond
my means and the nature of a public journal; but I may,
by a few brief articles in the National Intelligencer, draw
public attention towards an empire so greatly influential in
the entire history of the earth; for it may be asserted, truly,
that no other nation of our planet can be altogether exempt
from some impulse from Russian power. One remark I
must make, however, before proceeding in detail, and that
is, that Russia has been from its infancy more or less di-
rected in policy by the Teutonic spirit. Thus the passive
but very powerful physical constitution of Asia has been
animated in all past ages by the moral force of Europe. It
is from the foregoing feature in its policy, and which has
received more strongly drawn lineaments in the more mod-
ern stages of its progress, that Russia derives that superior-
ity over the accidents of human vicissitude so remarkable
during the last two centuries.
It has already been shown that the Varangeans or Nor-
mans of Russia were of the Teutonic stock; and that,
though conquerors,they were not destroyers. As was the case
with their congenerate Normans in Western and Southern
Europe, the Varangeans, when they fixed themselves in
Russia, a little after the middle of the ninth century,
were comparatively few in numbers; but, united amongst
themselves, and better armed and disciplined than the
Slavons, the invaders met no effective resistance. They
soon founded and established Holmgard, supposed to be
modern Kolmogori, on the Dwina, New Holmgard or Nov-
gorod on the Ilmen lake, Aldeignburg on the Ladoga,
and many other places.
Thus, on the very threshold of Russian history, we have
the very important.fact revealed to us, that this great em-
pire was founded by the same race, by different branches
of which was founded almost every Government in the
Christian world. Once established, the power of the Va-
rangeans increased as their narfie became gradually merged
and superseded by that of Russian. In a few ages the
Varangean became Russian from exactly a like cause which
Schangbd Normans into French, English, or Neapolitan.
It is singular," says an elegant French writer, that,
in the 19th century, and amid the other weighty questions
which agitate Europe, such should be raised as, whe.
their the empire of Nicholas I is or is not actually the same
with that of Ruric or Vladimir' And, again, whether
the former really represents the Slavon race in the world ?
Again, whether the Tartar invasions, in the 13th century,
did not break the chain which united the Slavon popula-
tion to there dynasty of their Russian sovereigns ? And,
finally, whether the existing Russian empire has any right
to claim sovereignty over the different branches of that
great family which spreads over most parts of Northern Eu-
rope ? Such reunion and sovereignty appears, indeed, to
be the presiding pIinciple of' the policy of the Czars."
How many breaches of dynasties has France even had
during fourteen hundred years ? Does the monarchy of
^ Louis Phillippe, even, stand on the same ground occupied
"by the Merovvingian or Carlovingian dynasties 1
In the 9th century, fourteen or fifteen Slavon tribes re.
sided on the territory now occupied by the Governments of
Novgorod, Pskoff, Vitebsk, Tchernigoff, Kiow, Pultava,
and some other parts of Central and Southern Russia.
Though for several centuries severed from Russia in the
early stages of that state, it included the Ukraine, Podolia
Thus early, however, there existed beyond the Oka
and Wolga rivers, in the country now comprised within
the Governments of Moscow, Vladimir, and Kostroma,
barbarous tribes, foreign to the more cultivated Slavons in
manners, customs, and language, and who remained long
Pagan and independent. It is probable, nevertheless, that
these rude tribes belonged to the general stock of Slavonic
origin, differing merely from other fragments of the same
race as did the Russians and Lithuanians.
The Slavon cities in which the Varangeans had rule,
similar to the Hanse towns of aftertimes', were governed by
democratic institutions, evincing their Teutonic origin, at
least as far as Government was concerned. Novgorod, on
the Ilmen, as it was then and is yet called, Great Novgo-
rod was the queen of those cities, and powerful from its
commerce, the courage and genius of its people, and no
less eminent for pride and presumption : hence the famous
and boastful proverb, Who can resist the Gods and
Great Novgorod ?" This city was the primitive seat of
that empire now so formidable. Ruric-an4 his Varan-
geans, m,)re enlightened and better organized, established
and perpetuated their power over the Slavons. Theircon-
quests were slow, but durable, and perhaps no other fact
in history is more remarkable than that the Russians of the
9th century regarded Constantinople as their certain prey;
nor have their posterity ever yielded their hopes of ultimate-
ly comingintopossession of the second Rome and first Chris-
tian capital. This hope, we may rationally suppose, had
no slight influence in the early removal of the seat of em-
pire to Kiow. In A. D. 941, a Russian fleet and army
entered the Bosphorus, and actually invested Constanti-
nople, but in that attempt the invaders were defeated and
nearly all destroyed. The history of the times is confused,
and the order of facts distorted and broken, but the prin-
cipal events have been preserved and well authenticated.
Amongst these events one of most enduring consequence
occurred in 945, which proves Ithat an intercourse of
peace, as well as hostility of war, must have then been
established between the southern part of Russia and the
Romano-Greek empire. In the latter year, Olga, or EIga,
Queen of Russia, arrived in Constantinople, and announc-
ed to the Greek Emperor and clergy her desire to embrace
and be received into the pale of Christianity. Her desire
the same time he himself embraced Christianity. That
,religion had been struggling for entrance amongst the
Slavonic nation for more than half a century; and though
many centuries again passed away before its universal es-
tablishment on the Russian plains, it gained gradually and
surely after the entrance of the Greek Princess into those
regions, and, with the meliorating influence of its doctrines,
civilization and all the best attributes of social life were
imperceptibly infused into society.
Kiow, the then capital, began to imitate in literature,
and rival in splendor and power even Constantinople itself.
The various tribes of Russians, Slavons, Varangeans, and
others, as they mixed with or had intercourse with the
more enlightened Greeks, were improved as they slowly
acquired the habits and experienced the benefits of peace
and regular government. The difference of language,
manners, and religion melted away, and during the reign
of Jaroslar the Great, in the eleventh century, the nation
of Slavon Russia was fully established. It has been re-
garded as a character of Russia, that it united the features
of Asia and Europe. That characteristic of modern by
no means applies to ancient Russia previous to the Tartar
invasions. The hordes from Central Asia, under the
names of Tartars and Mongols, which inundated Russia
during the thirteenth, fourteenth, and into the fifteenth
century, imparted a share of Asiatic principles to the Rus-
sian nation, and in more recent ages European manners,
customs, and science have been introduced. The nation
properly called Russian, as it now exists, has in every respect
a peculiar character between Asiatic and European,but with
a much larger share of the latter in its composition. But,
during the four first centuries of Russian history, the na-
tion or tribes formed a world apart, and was as far from
being Asiatic as European. The court and cities, with a
few of the nobility and the priesthood, after their intercourse
with the Greeks was opened, adopted the religion, dress,
and, in a certain degree, the language of Greece; of course
the first extensive change made on Russian manners by
foreign influence was really European. In strictness we
may go back to the original Scandinavian colony, and by
its history show that the empire was from its infancy Eu-
To retard the early advance of Russia in power and civ-
ilization, there were many adverse political causes of exten-
sive and deep existence; causes which long operated to
prevent the nation from consolidating its force for internal
order, or to meet foreign aggression. One, and that not
the least deteriorating in its effects, was common to many
other European monarchies during the middle ages: that
cause was the division of the sovereignty amongst the chil-
dren or nephews of the sovereign. This cause, as was the
case with the monarchy of the Franks, would have been
probably removed in time, had not the natural course of
events been interrupted by the Mongol-Tartar invasions
under Zenghis Khan, and his sons and grandsons; and,
again, before the nation could recover from such calamities,
by the sanguinary inroads made by Tamerlane, at the end
of the fourteenth and beginning of the fifteenth century.
We can see, by retrospect, the predisposing events which
facilitated the destructive inroads of the most murderous of
all the conquering nations of the earth.
In the commencement of the twelfth century, one amongst
the greatest of the grand dukes of Old Russia, Vladimir
Monomachus, either from a desire to extend the benefits
of Christianity to the Pagans, or from a wish to procure
an independent principality for one of his sons, sent a colo-
ny from Kiow to the northeast of what was then called
Russia. This colony, then called Vladimir on Kliazma,
and afterwards indiscriminately Vladimir on Souzdal, gave
foundation to Moscow. It was founded about 1150-1160,
and afterwards fell in appanage to George Dolgorouky, a
younger son of Vladimir.
The colony of Vladimir on Kliazma, though destined in
aftertimes to be the heart of the empire, and for seve-
ral centuries containing the seat of government, yet, in
its immediate effects, was the source of infinite calamities
and long weakness to the nation. Civil war, with all its
train of evils, opened the way to the savage invaders from
Asia, to the encroachments of the Teutonic knights in
Prussia, and to those of the Lithuanians and other Slavonic
tribes to the west of Russia. TACITUS.
W HEAT FANS, HARVEST TOOLS, &c.-
ROB'T SINCLAIR, Jr. & Co., Light street, near Pratt
street wharf, Baltimore, are manufacturing and offer for sale
Wheat Fans of several improved kinds, among which they parti-
cularly notice and recommend to farmers the 'Vatkins's Patent
Fan, which, for simplicity, durability, and effect, is unrivalled iti
this country. The recent improvements made on this Fan have
greatly simplified their construction, increased their despatch
in winnowing grain, and caused a reduction of about 40 per
cent. on the original cost. The high satisfaction expressed by
farmers who purchased these Fans last season, justifies us in
guaranlying them to clean double the quantity of grain, and
put it in a better condition for market than mills in common *se.
Also for sale,
Grain Cradles with wooden and iron braces and warranted
Scythes and Sneaths, in complete order for mowing
Grain, Grass, and Bramble Scythes
German and American Sickles
Scythe Stones, Scythe Rifles, Cradler's Hammers, wooden
Hay Forks and hand Rakes
Revolving and common horse hay-Rakes
Triangular Corn Harrows, Corn Rakes, common and expand-
ing Corn and Tobacco cultivators .
Ploughs, Seeding and Flushing Ploughs, made with cast and
wrought shares. The assortment of Ploughs embraces every
valuable variety, from the small Eastern Shore seeding to the
largest size up country Flushing Plough
Harrows, common square, triangular and hinge harrows
Straw Cutters, cylindrical, Ray's patent, Green's and com-
mon Dutch-Mullier's Corn Mills, Corn Shellers, Corn Crush-
ers, Horse Powers, and Thrashing Machines, Farming and
American and European Field and Garden Seeds of every
Fruit and Ornamental Trees and Plants supplied at the short-
Berkshire and other superior breeds of Pigs
Books on agriculture and gardening, management of stock,
&c. juje 8-2taw4w
. LIVE HUNDRED DOLLARS REWaARD.-
Ran away from the subscribers, living in and near Mid-
dleburg, Loudoun county, Virginia, on Whitsunday, the 19th
inst. the following slaves, viz.
FRANK, a farming hand, about 35 years old, about 5 feet 10
inches high, of very black complexion, rather surly, and down
look when spoken to, has lost three or four of his front teeth ;
has a sore leg occasionally, which pk-oduces lameness. His
clothing was blue cloth close coat, with metal buttons, and blue
cloth pantaloons ; lie also had brown striped and drab filled lin-
sey pantaloons; all his clothing about half worn.
GEORGE, a blacksmith, about 23 years old, very black,
about 6 feet high, stout built, but not fleshy, stoops a lit le in
the shoulders, and is awkward in his movememits ; has a down
look when spoken to, thick lips, and has an oval face, with high
cheek bones; his clothing was blue cloth coat, partly worn, new
gray cassinet pantaloons; other articles not recollected.
PHILLIS,a copper colored negro woman, about 22years old,
of coarse features, stout and tall in her form, her lips thick, and
has a knot on one of her wrists.
ALCE, sister to the above girl, about 20 years old, rather
yellow, and not so stout as Phillis, is well formed, and features
not so coarse, has thick lips, and shows her upper teeth pretty
much when she laughs. They had both good home-made linsey
and cotton dresses, also of white cambric and calico, and blue
and white gingham sun-bonnets, shoes, stockings, &c.
These people all went oil without the slightest provocation,
and have no doubt made towards the Northern States.
The above reward will be given for their apprehension and
safe-keeping, so that we get them again, if taken noith of
Pennsylvania; four hundred dollars if taken and secured in
Pennsylvania; three hundred dollars if taken in Maryland;
and two hundred dollars if taken in Virginia ; and in the same
proportion for taking one or more of them.
JOHN P. H. SHORT,
may 24-cp2awtf JESSE McVEIGH.
7JTHREE HUNDRED DOLLARS REWARD.
Absconded from the subscriber on the 17th ultimo, ne-
cro servant ALFREDl: and. some days nrevionn. .TJIRRY
FROM THE WESTERN STATE JOURNAL.
LOCOFOCOISM-ITpNATURE AND OBJECTS.
Locofocoism bears no more resemblance to
genuine Republicanism than an English haw-
thorn to a Newtown pippin. Locofocoism is a
wild uncultivated scion engrafted upon a once
puretock at the root, by which both stock and
branch have become unnaturally vicious. The
root sends up no more shoots of the original
growth, and the fruit of the tree is so depraved
that it could not be supposed to be nourished by
juices from wholesome sources.
Locofocoism is schismatic in its origin and
tendency. It pretends to more wisdom and vir-
tue than was ever incorporated into the original
belief. Your Locofoco is a Pharisee, who con-
temptuously bids the fathers of the church stand
by, for I am holier than thou!" It is a fanaticism
which discovers new meanings in the book of
faith, interpolates spurious passages into the
common text, and regards the old professors
with a more deadly animosity than the heathen-
ish idolator. It is animated by the spirit of per-
secution and intolerance, and wastes its ener-
gies by a blind fury which makes no compro-
mise with circumstances, and a heated zeal
which consumes itself without diffusing its
warmth to others.
Locofocoism is the false light of an exhala-
tion. Follow it and you are led into quagmires
and morasses. It hovers over hideous wastes
and desolate places. If you approach it, it
eludes your grasp. It is never seen within the
bounds of cultivation, but the poor borderer,
the unfortunate outcast of society, who, "sol-
itary and alone," inhabits an outpost on the
confines of civilized society, is the frequent
witness of its baleful illumination, and regards it
with superstitious awe.
Locofocoism is of Gothic and Vandalic de-
scent. It holds the conveniences and comforts
of life in contempt. Its rude hands are exer-
cised in pulling down and overturning what it
can never build up or establish. It disdains the
arts of peace, and delights in the ravages of
war. Issuing from wild haunts, and accustom-
ed to extreme privation, it cannot appreciate
the institutions which learning, industry, and
commerce have reared, but ignorantly levels pa-
laces, temples, academies, villas, triumphal
arches, columns, and monuments, with the dust.
Procrustes was the first Locofoco. He pos-
sessed an iron bedstead, upon which he stretch-
ed his victims, and, whenever their limbs ex-
ceeded its length, they were hewn off to the re-
quired standard, and if they fell short they were
lengthened by the screw and pully to the pre-
Locofbcoism labors to equalize the condition
of all mankind by levelling every thing down-
ward. Because some men are poor, it seeks to
make all poor alike. Because some are vicious,
it would take away the rewards of virtue. Be-
cause some men are ignorant and depraved, it
would confound the distinctions of knowledge
and rectitude. Because some men prefer idle-
ness and cold meat, it would discountenance
industry, soup, and warm bread. Because all
men cannot wear gold watches, there should be
none manufactured but of pinchbeck. Because
all men cannot get their notes discounted at the
bank, there should be no banks. Because some
men never have much money, none should have
more than the rest. Because railroads, trans-
porting passengers at three cents a mile, are
such odious monopolies, people ought to travel
in post-coaches and pay six.
Locofocoism is a disorganizing and revolu-
tionary" spirit. It is never contented with the
existing state of things. It is constantly foment-
ing anarchy, and breeding discord. It is a reck-
less innovator, and for the love of change is
ever varying its purposes and pursuits. The
machine that was erected yesterday, and operated
to admiration to-day, is battered down to-mor-
row, to make room for some new experiment.
It is the deadly foe of order, harmony, and sys-
tem. If it could control the planets, it would
set them all running in cometary orbits. It
would impart to water "the double property of
running up-hill as well as down. In cold
weather it is in favor of hot, and in summer it
sighs for the blasts of winter. Its motto is-
l" an never is, but always to be blest." Let
well enough alone" is a detestable sentiment,
ill its opinion. It pants for novelty, and though
it conducts the Government and the People
from bad to worse, it pretends that the spice of
variety gives a fresh flavor to every succeeding
Locofocoism is a theorizing agent. It rejects
the results of experience, and leans upon the
fine-spun sophistries of the imagination. It is
a firm believer in the dreams of poets and en-
thusiasts, and reads old romances for veritable
history. Its great men are projectors and in-
ventors. It is persuaded of the fact of Captain
Symmes' hole and the El Dorado. It believes
in the transmutation of metals by the philoso-
pher's stone, and holds that gold may be made
as plenty as iron. It credits the story of the
man in the moon, and thinks that the art of
ballooning will eventually be carried so high as
to afford the means of communication witihat
In short, Locofocoism is an odd fish, and
whoever trusts himself to the sea of politics
upon the Triton's back will soon find himself
floundering among the rocks and shallows, or
resting upon the soft ooze at the bottom.
200 DOLLARS REWARD.-Ran away from the
subscriber, living near Middlebury, Ltudoun coun-
ty, Virginia, on Saturday night, the 18th instant, i negro man
named DADE. Said negro is about twenty-five y arr old, five
feet eight or nine inches high, of a middle size, dak complex-
ion, a little marked in the face with smallpox, his clothing not
known, as he has left all his usual clothing at hoin,, and obtain-
ed an unknown suit elsewhere. He is a keen, sprightly, artful
fellow, and no doubt has obtained free papers aid (probably)
is making for the North.
I will give FIFTY dollars for the apprehension a said fellow,
if taken in the State of Virginia, one hundred ddlars if taken
in the State of Maryland, and two hundred dollars if taken
further North, and brought home or secured in jtil, in either
case, so that I get him. BENJAMIN HIXSON,
may 27-2;twtfcp Aldie, Loudoun county, Virginia.
RAMBLES IN THE SOUTH OF IRELAND.
BY LADY CHATTERTON.
Lady CHATTERTON opens her volume with the
following delightful sketches :
Here I am on a lovely bank of the Lee, where the
sun always seems to me to shine brighter than elsewhere,
and the air feels sweeter and more balmy. The rough
and chilly breath of winter is now softening into the gentle-
ness of spring.
The beautiful scenery of this favored spot is particular-
ly striking, after having so lately left the gloomy fogs of
London. In this mild climate the myrtles are now cover(
with blossom in the open air, and the hydrangias are un-
folding their delicate green leaves.
The window in which I am sitting looks on a lawn of
that bright but delicate green so peculiar to this country,
that lovely tint, of which those who have not visited the
divisa dal mondo ultima Irlanda can form but a faint idea.
Directly in front is a garden, where spring flowers of every
hue meet.the eye, and violets are breathing their delicious
perfume, where the verdure of arbutus trees and brilliant
gold leaf plants give.a cheerful summer air to the scene.
Beyond flows the broad river, upon the glassy surface of
which ships are gliding; some with dark red sails, others
whose gracefully sloping masts and large white sails show
that they come from the shores of Portugal. Near the
beach are boats, in each of which a solitary figure lazily
reclines, as if to enjoy the refreshing breeze and the bright
sunshine. But no; these men are fishing. I see one man
has just raised a small net attached to two long poles, the
end of which droops gracefully into the water. This mode
of fishing, I am told, is here termed Push-a-pike.' Nearer
is a group who are catching salmon; and 1 can hear the
merry laugh of these joyous fishermen as the jest is ban-
died to and fro. On the other side of the river rise sloping
lawns interspersed with villas; and beneath them, close to
the water, is a road, on which coaches are passing, and
some Cork belles, attended by officers in their gay uni-
forms, are cantering along. The brown stems and leafless
branches of the elms and horse-chestnuts show indeed
that the season is what we call winter; but the whole
scene is so smiling, vivid, and warm, that it feels like June.
Another window of this pleasant room commands a
view over the river where it spreads into a magnificent
lake. In the distance, and where the eye loses sight of
the tall ships, is a range of dark blue hills, on which the
everchanging lights produce an endless variety of pictures.
Now towers, groves, and sunny fields appear in crowded
and vivid distinctness; and then all is gray and mysterious
and shadowy again.
Some cows are quietly grazing on my favorite green
lawn. A young girl, with milk-pail and stool, approaches
one of them. No, not a young girl-I forget that I am in
Ireland ; and that I have been told that youthful creature,
apparently not seventeen, is married. How picturesque
she looks, tripping along, her scarlet kerchief folded over her
well-turned shoulders, her bright green dress gathered up
in graceful drapery, leaving her saiall feet visible beneath
the short stuff petticoat!
Her boyish-looking husband bounds across the lawn
to meet her, from under those trees on tie right. He holds
the cow by the horns, while she seats herself and begins
milking-gazing up into his face all the while with looks
of fond and grateful affection. How interesting is her
countenance! happiness and love, struggling with bashful
coyness in those mod-st yet laughing eyes.
SHer task is done. The young man takes the stool
from the hands of his pretty wife, with a look of intense
admiration, which tells, at a glance, that the same exalted
and holy feeling breathes its refining influence over this
rustic pair that we are apt to limit to the cultivated and
On one of the window-frames grows a Pyrus Japonica ;
its brilliant red flowers are in full bloom, and, mingled
with the dark green leaves of the myrtles, form gorgeous
and graceful festoons, through which the' clear blue sky
and changeful clouds are visible. It is delightful to watch
the daily opening of the buds and delicate spring leaves. I
have experienced few moments of greater enjoyment than
when in early morning I throw open my bed-room window,
and inhale the fragrance of the flowers; while, from a
grove hard by, a thousand birds are mingling their harmo-
nious notes with the melody which breathes in all the
awakening world around.
It is impossible to gaze on such a scene as I have en-
deavored to depict without feeling a wish to be in unison
with all Nature, and with it to pay our morning tribute of
joy and gratitude to the Creator of so much loveliness.
These, indeed, are moments when the soul is impelled to
prayer; when all those strivings, and cares, and longings,
which trouble our enjoyments of this life, are converted
intoearnest and hallowed aspirations after that world w hih
is to come. At these precious moments our energies are
directed into the right channel, the spirits become young
and innocent as in early youth, before ambition or folly has
kindled in the heart that burning torch which too often
scorches up the sweet sources of inward joy, and produces
a withering atmosphere around us, destroying the fresh
glow of Nature's loveliness. At such a sweet morning
hour as this, we become children in faith and hope; our
affections are purified; and though the heart forgets not.
yet we cease to bewail the friends who are gone from this
beautiful world ; we long and pray that we may again meet
them in a world still more beautiful.
Just as I had written the above, an old tenant came
from a wild, and what is usually termed uncivilized part
of the country, near Bottle-hill--a name now familiar to
the English reader as the locality of one of Crofton Cro-
ker's Fairy Legends. The old man has certainly not often
seen people in a higher rank of life than his own, and yet
in our short interview he uttered some sentiments which
would do honor to the most refined and cultivated person ;
I wish I could remember all he said. The few following
sentences are not so poetical as some others which he used ;
indeed, to understand their full effect, the speaker should
have been seen: his old but not care-worn countenance,
his long flowing locks, and the mind illumined eye, added
much to the meaning and interest of his words:
Welcome, young lady! welcome to Ireland; I hope
you'll live and die there! I'm eighty-six-that's my years.
In the morning we walk on all fours; at twelve o'clock we
stand upright; evening comes on-'twill soon be night.
Our grave is ready dug for us, and when 'tis the will of
Providence e go down into it. So it is! Good-bye,
young lady! I'll never see you again in this world,
He was going, but I called him back to tell him I should
like to go and see his home. He was overjoyed at the
prospect, and said-
I hope I'll see you at my place, I do; we'll make an
acclamation for you. We'll have a bonfire to light up the
country you'd like to look at. Oh, welcome a thousand
times You'll find a thousand welcomes ready for you.'
"Encouraged by this prospect, he lingered, and broke
forth into lamentations upon our recent loss :
My poor old lady I mourn for her within my heart:
it isn't my clothes that mourn-'tisn't my wearables will
show my grief. My heart is black. I'm eighty-six, and
long ago my grave was dug. 1 thought I'd go into it
before her; she's taken the lead o' me. She was a good
old age-past seventy-seven-but I never thought I'd ever
live to hear she was dead. I'll be the next. I went tosee
the place where I'm to lie, that I might look whether 'twas
long enough for me.'
"Saturday.-We had a delightful drive to-day round by
Cork to the Douglas river, and along its lovely bank, on
the road which leads to Passage and Monkstown. Every
time I come to Ireland, the scenery appears to be more
beautiful. Probably the reason of this is, that our taste
for the beauties of Nature always goes on increasing.
With me it has become a passion, and 1 hope it is one of
the very few that may be indulged in without danger; as
I trust that it draws us nearer and nearer to the great Crea-
tor of all the beauty we admire so intensely. No, there
can be nothing to fear from a passion like this, which puri
fies our taste and exalts our being.
The only thing I miss in Ireland is my favorite rural
scenery-I mean, by rural, the neat honeysuckled cottages,
with their trim little gardens and beehives. Indeed, this
kind of scenery can, I believe, be found nowhere but in
England. The word "rural" is untranslateable into any
other language, and seems formed expressly to describe
English country life. Though a sister land, I fear it will
be long before we find aniy thing rural in Ireland, for the
higher orders have very little taste for comfortable country
life. But then the Green Isle has much without this;
and, indeed, in travelling through it there are so many
amusing scenes and interesting places that there is scarcely
time to observe the defircinev I havo snnloln .-' Ther .
'and with gestures of grace. The very dress, or rather
semi-dress, of the country people, is picturesque; the large
blue cloak worn by the women is sure to be held round
their well-made figures in folds so easy and beautiful as tc
furnish excellent models for the artist and sculptor. Theii
long beautiful hair is generally braided round their small
heads with a taste and simplicity truly classic ; and therm
is an ease and grace in all their movements, which seem, I
think, to denote a feeling of good taste and refinement fai
above the common level of their class in other countries
In an intercourse with the common people, a day, an hour
cannot pass without being struck by some mark of talent:
some display of an imagination at once glowing and enthu-
siastic, or some touch of tender and delicate feeling. How
strange it is that such a people should be content to dwell
in smoky hovels, when, if they chose to exert themselves
and employ the energies which I think they possess, their
condition might be improved! But they are generally hap-
py; therefore, why wish to alter their state? They find
additional clothing an encumbrance. How often have I
heard them say their Sunday dress gave them cold! and
the first illness our old gate-woman ever had was occa-
sioned by her wearing a pair of shoes and stockings!
A poor family were in what we considered a most mise-
rable condition. At Christmas, by way of'making them
comfortable, we had given to each individual a nice suit
of clothes; the consequence was, they were all laid up
with bad feverish colds! Since this, I have come to the
wise determination of allowing people to be happy in their
own way; and the more we see of the world, the more
convinced must we be how totally independent of every
outward cause and circumstance is happiness; that it
springs entirely from the mind within, the Irish are living
and laughing proofs. As I said before, what surprises me
is, that a country where all are clever, shrewd, and intelli-
gent, should not have produced more characters of celeb-
rity. The only reason I can discover for this is, that per-
haps when talent is so common it is but little valued; and
a man who in another country would be considered quite
a prodigy is here raised so little above the co nmmon stand-
ard that he knows not his own worth, and therefore does
not take any pains to improve his natural abilities. *
To my mind, Iieland is a country which, in spite of its
miserable and uncultivated state, inspires more solemn and
poetical ideas than any of those through which I have trav-
elled. Here the ever-changing clouds assume forms, where
airy castles, oceans, mountains, and grotesque shapes of
animals and men may be seen with a startling distinctness
which I never observed elsewhere.
The skies of Ireland, like the faces of its people, arc
ever beaming with smiles, or melting with tears. Moore
seems to have observed this peculiarity of the Irish climate
when he says:
Erin the smile and the tear in thine eyes
Blend like the rainbow that hangs in thy skies.'
Often the sun shines with dazzling brightness on one
'mountain, giving a vivid and rainbow hue to its heath and
rock, while the adjoining heights frown in gloomy stern-
ness, as if in anger at those dark clouds which deprive
them of what the poet I have just alluded to terms a sun-
In many wild regions, very few trees are to be seen;
but the shrubs which grow it profusion amid the purple
rocks, and which sometimes feather down to the shores of
a mountain lake, are, with their ever-green and glistening
leaves, so beautiful, that one can scarcely regret the ab-
sence of a more majestic growth. In some places, how-.
ever, trees may be found, and then they generally surround
some romantic ruins, melancholy memorial of former days,
which are frequently seen, often overhanging the rushing
river-side, or at the entrance of some mountain pass. The
appearance of trees thus combined is so beautiful that we
cannot help regretting that they but seldom occur; for, like
the Irish clouds, the forms of the trees are certainly more
picturesque than in other lands. I cannot describe why,
or how, this is occasioned; but the branches are more
gnarled, the trunk more grotesque, as if the trees grew in
the same unrestrained and easy manner as the figures of
I kno vnot if such be really the case; but Ioften fancy
I trace in different countries a certain tinge or color and
shape, which stanp with a peculiar character both the in-
habii.ants and every thing which surrounds them.
In England, how exactly in keeping with the charac-
ter of its sons are the firm and stately forests of elm, beech.
and oak! They are grand, fine, and majestic; but they
possess more uniformity than sublimity; though their ap-
pearance is noble, all around them looks calm, neat, and
comfortable. The solid country-houses, straight streets,
small windows, avenues and hedge-rows, rounded hills and
peaceful valleys, respectively impart but one and the same
impression-every thing looks more useful and sensible
than beautiful: as if Nature had conspired to give birth
to that expressive word 'snug.'
When in Ireland I g-aze ou the ever-changing colors
and aspects of Nature, I no longer am surprised that the
inhabitants should teem with poetic ideas. Riches and
artificial refinement tend certainly to destroy the impression
which the sight of Nature produces on the mind. The
Irish peasants only sleep within walls! they spend all their
waking hours beneath the broad vault of heaven-their
view bounded alone by the ocean or distant mountains-
no employment save the cultivation of their potato field--
no object in life to divert their thoughts from the observa-
tion of sights and sounds, and the meditative, indolent en-
joyment of wild and magnificent scenes.
"I am particularly struck with the rich and vivid coloring
of the scenery in Ireland ; when the sun shines after one
of the frequent showers, the whole landscape resembles a
highly finished and freshly varnished picture, not by any
well-known master, for the composition, to speak techni-
cally, is totally different, though I thi:.k quite as fine as
any ideal imagery of Claude, Hobbina, or Poussin. The
varieties of green are particularly lovely, yet there is never
too much ; the eye is always relieved by masses of rock of
a dark purple or reddish brown, which harmonize perfect-
ly with the light green tender moss or darker colored grass.
There is in the Irish people a sort of luxurious far ni-
ente enjoyment, which they must certainly derive from an-
cestors of a Soutlern or Eastern clime. This spirit of in-
na!e happiness breaks out through al! their external raise-
ry, and by a strange feeling of contentment they cre-
ate luxuries for themselves. I have often seen a girl recline
against a heap of filth at a hovel door, in an attitude as
graceful, and a countenance beaming with as much in-
tellectual happiness, as if she had been reposing on a Ro-
I wonder that those who like to see and study some-
thing very original and strange do not visit Ireland. 1
should think few countries would afford so much scope for
inquiry, and none so much to please and surprise, if view-
ed with an unprejudiced eye.
Hitherto I have spoken but of the perfections of the
Irish : I must now turn to the less pleasing side of the pic-
ture, and point out their faults.
It is the fashion to attribute to England all or most of
Ireland's sufferings ; but I think that a dispassionate and
accurate view of Ireland, if such can be obtained, would
prove that fashion is wrong. That some of its misery origi-
nated in its imperfect conquest by England, is most certain ;
that this misery was increased by the Union, is a question
I have frequently heard discussed; but no woman ought to
be a politician, for she is sure to judge by the heart, not by
the head. Therefore, without entering upon often-debat-
ed ground, I will venture to assert that, in my opinion, it
forms, volcano-like, the fire within itself, and thus, from the
strange character of its people, the principal miseries and
misfortunes of Ireland arise.
What must strike a stranger most in a visit to this
country, if he happen to preserve his own senses, is the ut-
ter deficiency of that useful quality, common sense, in the
inhabitants. As in quarrels between man and wife there
are generally faults on both sides-so it is in-the dissen-
sions between the different classes in poor Ireland. There
are faults everywhere. The Protestants, Roman Catho-
lics, landowners, and peasants, high and low, rich and poor,
are all more violent, more full of party spirit, in short, more
angry, than in any other country.
It seems as if there were something in the atmosphere
of Ireland which is unfavorable to the growth of common
sense, and moderation in its inhabitants; and which is not
without an influence even on those who go theie with their
brains fairly stocked with that most useful quality. Even
strangers are sure to lose their sober-mindedness after a
few months' residence, and to become most violent parti-
sans. This sort of infatuation, which, to use the words of
an old writer, often makes an Englishman more Iri-h than
the Irish themselves'-which comes over every resident
among this strange people, creates that extreme difficulty of
ascertaining truth, which has always been so wonderful. Ev-
ery one who comes among the Irish is immediately hooked
Sthe warm cloaks which are worn in the hottest day in sum-
Smer-in the manner a peasant girl carries her basket be-
1 hind her back. This is generally done by folding her cloak,
Sher only cloak, round it, and thus throwing the whole
Weight of the basket on this garment, of course to its no
I small detriment. This same want of sense lurks, too, un-
e der the great heavy coat which the men wear during vio-
Slent exertion in hot weather. In short, it is obvious in a
The cause of this remarkable want of sense will be
More difficult to find out than the effect it has on Ireland.
SPerhaps the Irish are sprung from some wandering tribes ;
perhaps-but a truce to speculation; let me confine myself
3 NICHOLAS STONESTRET,
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
Port Tobacco, Charles county, Maryland,
Will attend to any business entrusted to his care in Charlesi
St. Mary's, or the adjoining counties.
THOMAS H. HAGNER,
A TTORNE Y A T LA W, TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA.
Business in the Territory of Florida entrusted to his care
will be promptly and strictly attended to.
Reverdy Johnson, Esq. Baltimore.
Shepherd C. Leakin, Esq. do.
Messrs. Wni. Davidson & Son, Philadelphia.
Caleb Cope & Co. do.
Thomas Elmes & Son do.
Siter, Price & Co. do.
Benj. F. Butler, Esq. District Attorney, New York.
Hon. Garrett D. Wall, New Jersey.
A'RANCI- C. MOORE, LLOYD MORTON,
GAe SETH C. SHERMAN, Illinois Land and
General Agency.--MOORE, MORTON & CO. continue
the agency office of John Tillson, jr. and Tillson, Moore & Co.
at Quincy, Adams county, Illinois. They offer their services
to the Public in the transaction of any business connected with
lands in Illinois, such as paying taxes, recording title papers,
redeeming lands sold at tax sales, buying and selling on com-
mission, investigating titles, &c. Long experience and the va-
rious sources of information which have been accumulating in
their office since the first organization of the State Government,
afford them every requisite facility to execute orders accurate-
ly and without delay.
They also attend to the collection of notes and merchants'
accounts: their business connexions in tie Eastern cities will
enable them to remit promptly and on favorable terms.
John Tillson, jr. Agent of the Illinois Land Company, Quin-
Hon. Nehemiah Eastman, Farmington, N. H.
Dr. Benjamin Shurtleff, Boston, Massachusetts.
Josiah Marshal!, Esq. do do
Southworth Shaw, jr. Esq. do do
Joseph D Beers, Esq. New York city.
Moses Allen, Esq. do
Messrs. Nevins & Townsend, do
Stephen B. Munn, Esq. do
Samuel Wiggins, Esq. Cincinnati, Ohio.
Messrs. J. & J. 'lownsend, Albany, New York.
George B. Holnes, Esq. Providence, Rhode Island.
Hezekiah H. Reed, Esq. Montpelier, Vermont.
Nathan B. Haswell, Esq. Burlington, Vermont.
Arneas Morison, Esq. New Haven, Connecticut.
Romulus Riggs, Esq. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Lemuel Lamb, Esq. do do
Samuel Harden, Esq. Baltimore, Maryland.
Messrs. Tiffany, Duvall& Co. do do
Messrs. S. L. Fowler & Brothers, do
Richard Smith, Esq. Raleigh, North Carolina.
Messrs. J. B. Danforth & Co. Louisville, Kentucky.
Wilson P. Hunt, Esq. St. Louis, Missouri.
Messrs. Van Phul & McGill do do
Messrs. C. J. Fowler & Co. Washington City.
His Excellency Thomas Carlin, Governor of the State of
John D. Whitesides, Esq. Treasurer of the State of Illinois,
Levi Davis, Esq. Auditor of the Public Accounts, Springfield,
Hon. Richard M. Young, United States Senator, Quincy,
Thomas Mather, Esq. President of the State Bank of Illi-
nois, Springlield. ap 16-cp6m
METROPOLITAN STAGE LINE RESTORED.
N ORTHERN and Southern travellers are informed that
there is now a good Line of four-horse post Coaches run-
ning daily from the termination of the Raleigh and Gaston Rail-
road, through Raleigh, Fayetteville, Cheraw, and Camden, to
Columbia, Southi Carolina. Two coaches will always be kept
at the termination of the Railroad to convey travellers to
From Raleigh to Columbia there will be one coach, which
will always carry from nine to ten passengers from Columbia to
Branchville. On the Charleston and Hamburg Railroad there
is a daily line of four-horse coaches.
The great Mail which was formerly carried on this route is
removed to another. That mail was a great inconvenience to
travellers, and often caused disappointment; its large size fre-
quently making it necessary to leave passengers. This can no
longer be the case; and we can now offer to travellers a safe,
sure, and comfortable journey.
The coachesare large, nine-passenger coaches, and in good or-
der. The drivers and teams are not surpassed by any in the
Uniol. Great care has been taken to procure steady v drivers,
knowing that on them greatly depend the comfort and safety of
We admit that the line via Charleston and Wilmington is the
quickest when the connexion is not broken; but when we take
the certainty of this line into consideration, it will often be
found to bear competition with the other even in speed.
Passengers leave Petersburg at the same time with the great
mail, and reach Columbia in a little more than three days.
Should there ie more passengers at any one time than can be
carried by the stage, those who may be left shall have a prefer-
ence the next day over all others; and to prevent confusion,
they will be entered in the stage as their names may appear on
the way-billfrom Petersburg. Preference will always be ffivcu
to those going the greatest distance on the line. The Rateigh
and Gaston Railroad is in rapid progress, and will very soon be
finished, when a much greater expedition can be given to
For safety, this line is unrivalled, and it will be particularly
desirable to those who dislike to encounter the danger and in-
convenience from sea-sickness attendant on a voyage from Wil-
mington to Charleston.
From Raleigh west as far as Greensborough there is a daily
line of four horse coaches running in connexion with the stage
from the Railroad. Passengers from the Railroad have a pre-
ference in that line. There is also a hack twice a week to Sal-
isbury direct. THE PROPRIETORS,
ap 16-3mcp [Balt. Am.] Raleigh, N. Carolina.
lP ARM FOR SALE.-The subscriber will sell his
S farm lying on the old Georgetown road, about half way
between Georgetown and Alexandria, containing sixty-three
acres, more or less, about twenty-four acres in good timber,
twenty acres in timothy, of first-rate quality, two hundred ap-
ple trees, of tie best selected quality, besides dther fruits of
various kids ; also, four thousand strawberry plants, some of
which cost $3 per dozen, and others 50 cents per dozen. 1 he
farm is well enclosed with a good new fence of good materials.
We have one of the best springs in the county rear the house.
Building improvements as follows : a good dwelling-house, in
good order ; stable, cow-house, granary, carriage-house, and
work-shop; besides other improvements. The farm produced
last year twelve hundred dollars worth of produce, and bids
fair for more this year. Persons wishing to purchase can call
and examine soon.
june 3-2aw3w ROBERT HODGKIN.
S1 0 DOLLARS IREWARD.--Ran away from
-115J the subscribers, in Fauquier county, State of Va.
near Upperville, three negro men, in August and September,
1838, NAT, SAM, and ESSEX. We willgive the above reward
in the following manner:
For the apprehension of negro man NAT, five hundred
dollars, if taken, secured, and delivered to me, or secured
in jail so that I get him. Nat is about 22 years old, about 5
feet 10 inches high, weighs about 175 pounds, stout made, but
not very fleshy; he is very black, his hair very nappy, but
short; he has rather a down look, a rather coarse voice, and
but little to say in a general way; he shows his teeth a little
when he talks, they are sound and white; his feet are rather
over the common size. I would not be surprised if he had
a pass or forged paper. I have every reason to believe he in-
tends making for a free State, as he left me without provoca-
tion. The horse, saddle, and bridle which he stole and took
with him I have since got. Nat can be taken either as a thief
or runaway. ROBERT FLETCHER.
For the apprehension of SAM, five hundred dollars. Sam
is a mulatto, of rather a bright copper color, uncommon coarse