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Niles' weekly register
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073182/00007
 Material Information
Title: Niles' weekly register
Physical Description: 47 v. : ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Niles, Hezekiah, 1777-1839
Niles, William Ogden, d. 1857
Publisher: H. Niles
Place of Publication: Baltimore
Creation Date: March 28, 1818
Publication Date: 1814-1837
Frequency: weekly
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- United States -- 19th century   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Maryland -- Baltimore -- Baltimore
Coordinates: 39.283333 x -76.616667 ( Place of Publication )
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Available on microfilm from University Microfilms (American periodical series: 1800-1825); on microfiche from Library Resources, Inc.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 6, no. 1 (Mar. 5, 1814)-v. 52, no. 26 (Aug. 26, 1837).
Numbering Peculiarities: Issues for Mar. 5, 1814-Aug. 26, 1837 called also: Whole no. 131-whole no. 1,352.
Numbering Peculiarities: Vols. 13-21 called also: New ser., v. 1-9; v. 26-35: 3rd ser., v. 2-11; v. 37-49: 4th ser., v. 1-13; v. 51-52: 5th ser., v. 1-2.
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Editors: Mar. 1814-Aug. 1836, H. Niles; Sept. 1836-Aug. 1837, W.O. Niles.
General Note: Supplements accompany some volumes.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 07329918
lccn - sn 85022629
System ID: UF00073182:00007
 Related Items
Preceded by: Weekly register (Baltimore, Md.)
Succeeded by: Niles' national register

Full Text







NILES' WEEK Y REGISTER.

Nr:w SEnI.s. No. 5-VoL.. I ] BALTIMORE, MARCH 28 1318, [No. 5-VoL XIV. wo.onp No. 343

T'ie PAST-TH. PtlES0NT-FOH THE FUTURE.

PRINTED AND) PUBLIStiED B II. lTILK.S, AT "5 mvtt A_ autm, PAVAIILR I.N ADVA-.trV.

.. .... .. d..r.- ..i.,, i i i . l.i .,:. ,. ..1.i.. .I .i ",, .i1 his catholic majesty's government offers immediately
,.,I I,.. -<] ,..1,, ".,,r > r,...,LI i .. .1. ,. I ,i-s j l .11 i i ihe j st pretensions which the govern ent ufthie I. i'
.. i T .....n ....... ,ii i., i' i i inoi l ce, I do on .iin .... r .. .I ..' .. I ..*' .11 .... i ..... -.
S,1 h....,r ., h. .,l, i "..r rr, .r t ,,i a,, i hiii .. tiperial Oumjesty judged necessary to el,'or up all doubts, if a1y are yet entertained
cannot but be extremely sensible to the uncertain and uneasy posi- by the United States, on this matter.
ion in which two powers, in amity with France. are placed by this This point then being separated from those connected with the
misunderstanding, and that he will certainly dio whatever may de- question of claims for injuries, losses, and damages, because _that is
pend on him to prevent its coming to an uniforttiinate issue. already settled between i ranlce and the United States, or is Io be
'It is several months since I was it. ..i i. rl,. ..1,,, T'I:. a-tled with France directly, ifiany tling still remains to be perfitia'm.
hires near i'.. I.,t..rt s ..... Ir ..i tl.. I'.., ,.i.--i i. .r ...s I e wocan agree upo I just and suitable modeof determining a
erniiment, .-| i.. (. i *, i im r i ..I ., -,. I- i... i ...iprocal satiisfuetione fi)r the injuries, losses and damages, hetfor
i ,.. I,...., *. .. i. ...' et of ambition to tile Amserilans, iIn spoken of, and included in the three points of the first clasm, as eilu
t..- ii,. u r. 11.i i1..... ..1' their revenue system: and it seemed merated in this note. in order that we may proceed more clearly and
to me, from this information, that it was important that the federal methodically. These three points, as I have before said, will lie sub.
government should use all the means in its power to obtain the an- emitted to the judgment and decision of the joint commission. in vir-
anexation of this fiontier portion of Florida to Louisiana; but the opi- tue of the convention to be formed on the basis of that of 1802, sirm.
sion due to the justice and moderation s.l, i; i s,. .i; 1, the per- pliying and rectifyirigit in sh minannue as will ensiue itsmost ex-
1, ..h it... i ..fil. 1. ,r of tie .... ..I I r. ,, I, is not. nor peditious and faithful execution.
!... ;..r, r.. '..ii[ ,,, r.. Itin.k that menaces, provocation and Inthis noteand the twoudters ivhichi I have already had thie ho-
j- ,'ti ii i. Ind I s., 1 r .. ..I..1....1 is ri r as the most suitable nor toaddrh i l i.,. i: .'i *" I il i ,r -.', isi t i- i -:i
h. s., sil i 1 i. i i. r .. t. a portion ofterritory the govern ,,i I.. .i l. .'..i. r, ,ii i '"r I I1. L' .I i.o1 '
belonging to a foreign power, which suits their convenience. States; and .. .. .... .. r ir. I. i .. ,- .. ;i. hI I ir .. -.
Respecting the second point its dispute, wh.,i- i ,. ..,. ii..... .1I I1 ,.. th-ir regular order, with precissios, simnl erty, and clear-
ldoes me the honour to speakofin yoer note, I .0' r .h 0i I I.-J 11. '..'i can examine each of them, sir. with the impartiality and
ph',i.i. ..l '.i. I... I ni. ..r i. A i t ;i.1. .1. 'l i. I ,, .'..is .. ..- si le hi. di-si.t.i;i,t., i s ir tharaeter; aud I latter rmyselfthat
It n1.,r i. i .. r 1is. i, 1 i; .i. i ,i, l i i 1 ..,. iI..., ii I '. is- 1l .".. ." I. I.. 1 .I..*1 I. ooutrooversy will be com pletely
;,...,i i iI r *... .i 1 i L .1* -.' i ..., '.. rt .' I .visdom as you will not fail to
i,,l,..ll ,. l.l., I ,.% .1 1 1. .I .Ii J.II, 1I .r, h-1. Xsi r' .1 wha whathasbeel ,arnd is now de.
t. ,ii.' i,. ... I .. sl.' i. % i i ..,,'r .. i' n .. ',..', s rths ese, notes, with
.., .1 si r, .. .... . .., .i ,..., jlj .. .. ii, >. tn n.. .. ... i. .. usidered, aid a decision fbrmi ed
satistfietion Msould lsave been expressed stillnore wA:rmly to tr .. .* ., .. .1 1 ." i i s- e should definitively settle and
ernmnrent of the United States than to that of Spaiin. There is every ternliiatte tihe controversy, without leaving any room for dispute iin
reason to suppose that the court of Spain, by thus yielding to an future.
improper demand, has emboldened the American government, and 'This general and definitive arrangement of all the points in dis.
determiner d it i.. i ,....r- i ." !-- A j .. .... ... i.. C . uf.. 1.i, 1, I future and ir.su stances, precede the negoeia.
sion. Asfibrtt'-r-... Sr, Il.1.. . .... i 'i... .. ,',. 1 or cession ofthe Floidais,sinee untilitbede-
. .. ,1.n i.,..,u. ,,,_ ll..1 i ... .h In fl .. l. l,,-.r. ,,J I,... ., r .-I't *' s*I .h* I I t a -. ti,, h ,,2,... i, ri, .-i outier w h ich
< l .. i ... .. ,.ii l ,r .. 1 1 I I ..... I i l.l .1 l l" .. I .... 3 r. i. v.d, ,l I. ... I a I- 1 z- I th e U n ite dl
iof his imperial 5 ..' ...... r ,.r,.I.. ,. ....' .1 it,. .. ,, :.. t I r,', *ble to estimate the equivalent to be given to
formed by his h ..i r I .. lir, i. i ti.. .. ... I i ... .. 'i1 I'nI I i I wridas. Nevertheless, as it is tile earnest desire
the subieet of a long negoeiatiou and of a formal convention be- of his catholic majesty to meet the wishes of the United States in
tween Frince and the United States, cannot again become a subject every thing that may be compatible with the rights and honour of'
iof discussionl" his royal crown, you irmay, sir, devise and propose a mode by which
"Such, Monsieur l'Anibassadeur, are the remarks that I have we may at one and the same time adjust all the points of the co.i-
ttihoight proper to make iin tihe firstst i tance, in answer to the pre- trover '. I., i ..i.,'. Iris .. \. 1.1 i r .* -,. i' It i ri ridas. iu
liminary noteof your exceleicy. Inaddition, I mustobserve,that ease : ..11 -i ....-., iii ,, .. r ,r,. i. settling
irn miy opinion, the delmonsLtratiiills which appear to me to have giv- the points connected with the question of boundaries, and estabiiish-
irn our govermllenit the uneasiness it hits charged you i.. i 'rp, i'1 .'veration, ill conformity to the basis of that of 1803, for the
Zire somewhat exaggerated, either from the impression l r 1 *.... 1. coi ii ensation of losses and injuries, according to the order
produced at Madrid, or from the construction,lpossibly too extensive. I have adopted in my note.
'hidci the minister of the United states to his catholic majesty, may I expect, therefore, your answer, sir, whether it be confined dia.
have. perhaps, given to his instructions. There is no room to suli- tinetly to the subject of each one of my notes, eeordling to their
pose that a government, anxious as that of thie United States is, to respectiveorder, or to pi :. ., .-. 1 1., .*.i .,- pi i.. ....1,.
establish a general opinion of its wisdom and moderation, would re pheladed in tihm, iy 'ii ,, I. i n. ..*s.i '. 'I nt.I,[
S .. ... .. .. ;!. .. ...' t warthrough m motives 1. ., .. .' .. ... i s ,, f .,,,
L...'r TIh. L ,,.(.:,I, i ,' .,i., great im portance to ti... -.' ,i .. i i I n.' i I' I .... P.. .I 11. ",
of apartof Florida suitedtotheirconvenience, it is nttn bedoubt- a certainproof ot r,. i,,.,,-. .s i ... ..' .r i i- 2i.. .. ii. ..
edthat they will make everyeffort toobtain it. Thegroid undfthis erlimenit. and of i .. .. i ..... i ..l ,, run.'.ri.. .1 i .L
dispute, therefore, rests entirely on this point. Perhaps the federal the king, my master, ior the United States.
government may have thought that it would tend to promote a ne.- I mmelude, with the renewed assurances of my respects, and I
gaciation for exchange.by exciting a diplomatic quarrel. Tihe wis. pray God to preserve you many years.
doi of his catholi iciajesty will certainly suggest to him what is (Signed) LUIS DE ONIS.
proper to be done on tiis occasion, with a view to terminate a dis- Ilt7oshntoitn. -tih January, 1818.
pute, which. I have no doubt, will incessantly he revived, so long as NO, 8.
S .. I ik. I.i.... i. ri.--. ,i .t r..i ..i .. ... rLouisian (Trauslation.)
,..1 ...I ...i.... tn,,r i is, l**.iil i, I ... -.. i ofI iseath. The m ee to tthe .ame.
olic naijesty to decide. The United States are noa founded in mak- SIR-In the National r .I i the 6th of this month. I
ing any claim on his majesty. A positive declaration A,. i-.,i .,. I., -. .- ., 1 .i i ...; ,,. .. .- I tie occupation of Aielia
them, that Louisiana iwas delivered to them, such, Imls, ..,n ir I I iii.... I, i. .. *..i l-., United States. I had already anticipated
same extent it had when acquired i by France, and this declaration this unpleasant event, by the tnote which 1 had the honour to ;ad-
will again be made to them as often and as positively as his Catholic dress you on the 6th of last month, in which I remonstrate-l in the
majesty will desire it. I name ofrhis catholi nuaiesty', against the measures ianiooneed iro
il.--... --:. i, ". .' .. f my hii- that part o tilhe Presideut's message to buth I-louses of Conigress,
est .v .. .i .-.,v-. 1,. r !, : I ll i' i. .A 'r. 'ti 'ravina, which maiiilcsted an intention to invade, and foricily seize.ol pla-
i-.ilbassadorof ihis catholic majesty." oes and territories, belonging to the crown of Spamii. Having re.
You see, sir. that this declrp-tioni of thie French government is ceived no a rswer to that note, I now feel myself obliged to repeat
conclusive, and that the responsibility fior losses and injuries caused its contents to you, and to protest, as I now do stroinly protest, in
by French treizers and tribunals on the coasts and in the ports of the nasneofthe king, may master, against '.,,- occupation of Amelia
Spain, is ruemoed from the period of that agreement: and that to slain, effected by the naval and military sorees of this Republic,
renew a elaim it r what has been already paid and satisfied, would destined to operate against that Island. forming a part of Iost Flo-
.-. ': .- ..1 .. .. .. .. ,. ., i the same injury, and diiu- rida. one of the possessions of the Spanish monarchy, on this coati.
i. .' r .r ,i n ,. ,. .' i| I. ., i ,, .:, ;f the nent
united i'ttes have still a claim for the conl ii I .ir.....,.[ ,..' this What. ,.. i, i,-i ii, ... on which the government
satisthetion and paynient, his catholic mlaiestv is rseidy to unite his of the U.;, I..i .r I, .. 'i.'.1 I *,, adoption of this ileail e, it
good officer and earnest requests to this cAinm of your goverinmeii e.imnot but be considered by all nations. as a violent invasion of the
onl that of Franee. in order that she may perform, 'and cause to be dominions of Spain, at the time of la i b'olud peace, wsheni Irs cath-
perl(itrlned. whatever may be jistly required in behalfof Annrien'Can olic rtin it'ty points ndthinig to give the most generous proofs of his
,itiizens vtiro have sustained losses and injuries by her cruisers and perfect friendship, and high Consideration for the United States,
:.-'bunals. To this the obligaioul of Spail. -: ir pri-sent etse, is I therefore trust, that upon your comumunieawintg this solemn re-
,S X I" -- --aa..







NILES' i i-:G1 STER-MARCH 28, 18LS--RELATIONS WITH SPAIN.


clamlaion said protest to the President, he will be pleased to direct copied, the American government would have been spared the ne-
th:i suitable order, be given to the American commanders at Aine- cessity of the measure which was taken, and which was dictated
ia Island, and on that station, forthwith to restore he said island,to- by the duty of protecting the interest, as well of this country as of
either wi:h all its depedlencies to his catholic majesty, and to de- those with whom wv- are in friendly commercial relaIio. -,inclId-
lirer up the same to the Spanish commnananant, ani officers present- ing Spain herself. But Spain cannot expect that the United States
ing thiemsehles for that purpose, in the name of their sovereign. should employ their forces for the defence of her territories, or to
it is also mv duty to represent to you, sir, that at the time of the rescue then) for her exclusive advantage, from the adventurers
inra io:l and occupation of that island by the American troops, there who are projecting, and in the act ofexecuting, expeditious against
as, and I believe still is, a considerable property belonging to Span- them, from territories without the jurisdiction ofthe Unitd States.
ihl s uljects which, in atll cases, it is required by strictjustice, should Neither can the United States permit that the adjoining territo-
bie delivered to the owners, 'lhich I douit not has already been, or ries of Spain should be misused by others, for purposes ofannoyance
will lie done,in a due and proper manner, care being taken in the to them.
utran tihnse,that it be not removed, or sufferiijury. Under these circumstances, the president is persuaded that you
I ,,, ..' ....., r.. tlt I ..i ...,;,on and protest, tlat I may be will perceive the necessity, either of accepting the proposals h-rein
S.,.,1 .1,I i. .-** .u" "aiil,. 'llh t,.--l, and instructions to the gov- contained, as the basis of an adjustment of the long standing differ-
(,, .. i I., I ... itain general of tie island of ences bIStwveen the United States and Spain, or of offering such as
:t.'la, provided thep reidclnt, as I letter myself will resolve on the can, by any possibility, be acceptable to tlis government without
tprmnpt restitution and delivery of Amelia and its dependencies, t.. r-..-., ,:. r., ...... of proceeding, the only result of which must
,, .. ; .. | 1 .1. a t io n .
.I .,. ....... ir ..rr .,I he effected, confiding I pray you, sir, to accept the assurance of my very distinguished
,. I| i,.. .. .. I i I- i. ..- i i tiii I I.. ar. and in the inviolable considtratitn.
i.... .. ,,i, i ,.i, .,, i ....ty of nations ieposes. (Signed) JOHN Q. ADAMS.
I have the unor to ellew\ the assurances of iny respects, and pras No. 10.
God to preserve you many years. (Tianslation.)
(Signed) LUIS UE ONIS.
Ittshintton, t/h Jeanuary, 18ts. The chevalier don Luis de Onis to the secretary of
state.
T" s, r Stteto Din Lsie ons. Sta-- have received your letter of the 16th of
';' .r .... I Sutae, tlish'ington. 16th .JIf aryI, 1818. this month, by which I see with great regret, that
Slt.-Your lettersoitl29thlDcenmerandof5tlh,ald8thoftie pre- in acknowledging the receipt of those I had the
'i-ts moitli have been rec ved,ansd laid before the President of the t the 29eh o last month,
United States. ho-or to address to you on the 29th of last month,
I lc has seen, not without surprise and regret,tlhat they consist al. and the 5th and 8th of the present, you omit to an-
i,,st enttirely of renesred discussions Upon tile several points oftlif- e
', ..llt re e .eidise ll ..... sl,, t riited States swer em, and de cline taking into consideration
i '.... '.' .,'. .d s... .... .,I 1, I,.e. correspondence the indisputable facts and grounds, and the irresis,
0 ..i. .. ....... I. .i,..p"- ...... ..-,' ... L I, Staws, at Ma- tible arguments advanced in then, in relation to
-1I "',, .1... ",-,, .... ... ', ii,, ti. i sp ciad I each of the points embraced by the dispute set on
extraordinary mission t he United States to your court, in 1805; a Foot by thie government oFthe United States. You
,ission,,institutedby the American government, umder the inllu- sav it iS useless again to discuss the facls, reasons
e an 'C o I I r . I. I I :, ..,.. ..... M il a[ .t o ( t h e a I -,
lisfhieti-....,l,.. ,1 l.'" ., 1I ,,1 .1.".. .... .,.t wtiici, tier and argume'ris produced by the Spanish govern-
ive iionthrloflnegociationat AranieKz,issuedinitherefuisalolf Spain inent in the years 1802 and 1803, and in 1805, the
it agie satisfaction to tile Unsited Stttes, lpon any one of tile e tue American plenipotentiaries and the special extra-
ofcrenlaint whlichb ere to be adjiusted,or even to settle the rque A
tionsoi boundaries, existing between the United States and the ordinary mission, conjointly with him, having then
Spanish provinces bordering upon them. The President considers replied to the dillereit points of the. notes of the
til tit wouildhe an unprofitable swste of time, to enter again at Sp I ministry, in a manner capable of elucidat-
larige upon topicsof controversy, which were at that time so tor- Spanish ministry, a manner capable e
shlicli was not then substantially urged by Don Pedro Cevallos,and and of establishing the pretensions oi' the gov:-rnl
to wliich every reply essential to elucidate the rights, and establish
tle pretiensioons oie art ofthe United States, was then given. ment of the United States; for proof of which you
For proof whieh,I begleave merely to refer yon to the letters of refer me to tie letters ofMessrs. Monroe anll Pinck-
tr. Mouroeand Mr. Pickney, to Mr. Cevallos, of 2Rth u ney, to hi catholi maiesty's minister, don Pedr
21, February, 8th and I6th March, tIh and 20th April, antd 12 iL ney, to ma tys minister, don Pedro
1805. aum instructed hy the President to propose to you atn adjust. Cvallos, ofthe 28th of.January, 26t1 February, 8th
imeat of all the differences between the two countries, byan arrange- and 16th March, 9th and 20th April, and 12th May,
nScur on the following terms;
1. Spain to cede all her claimsto territory, eastward of the lis- 1805.
sioPU ado. I think it proper to observe, in the first place,
2. The Colorado, from its mouth toitssorce, and from thenlce to that although the facts, grounds and arguments,
..i s.,,, ,,.hir .... .i.... *i .... i t.. .......er. dary; or, to then produced by the Spanish government, do not
"*I ,. '.. ...- .. ....... .. .. ii i it,... i., or differ essentially filom those stated in my notes,
Freich ithi Spanishl jorisictioi, and for the sppressio o their irresistible and conclusive force is neither al-
dt-,psit at News Orleaus. to be arbitrated laid settled by coainlision-
cis, iin the manner agreed upon hi the unratified convention of s102. tered north in ally manner impaired. TruthI is of all
4. 'lic lauds in East Florida, and to the Perdido, to be made an- times; and reason and justice are founded on im-
tvetiable for the amount of the iindemnities which may he awards hated
iv te eotimissioners. Under this arbitration: with n olti on the mutable principles. It is on these pinciples that
Uitdii States, to take the lands and pay the debts, or to sell the the rights of the crown of Spain are founded to
hinds sbr the payment of the debts, distributing the aiouat receiv- the territories eastward and westward ofLouisiana,
cdl, esqusily. areording to the amount of their respective liquidated
cltai i aong the claimants. No grants of land, subsequent to the claimed by your government as making part of that
111: of Ausgust, 1802,to be valid. province; rights of immemorial property and pos-
Spatit to be eaxolerated f'rm the payment df the debts, or any sessions, never disputed, but always notorious and
Tihes,. moposals do not materially differ from those made to Don acknowledged by other nations.
Pedrd Ceallos, on the l2th of May, 1805. The president has seen is the second place I must remark to you, that
tloiliilur ill alny events which arve since occurred, nor it the Con-
s... I. otes, which can aford ta reason or a native ibr de- throughout the whole correspondence ons this sub-
p'arting from them. of the motives for coming to an immedi- ject, between the ministry of the United States and
rate arrangement, the urgency cannot escape your attention. The that of his catholic majesty, there is not a single
evsts wlsie have recently oceured in a part of the the territory,
which you have informed Sm the king of Spain is willing to esde fact, o0t a single argument, that can aifect the ser-
to the United St tes. those which are notoriously ilmpending over tainty, or decisive force of the facts, grounds and
;,.,',5,.' c, X ,"'. r.,> ,. ,,-, sdtet. 1 uninSati reasons, which support and determine the aforesaid
of your government'in this negoeialion should be octed on with- rightsof the crown ofSpain. There does not appear
oqt delay. Theexplanations reitrasted byyor notes of heilli to be a single incident to give the smallest sup-
D1-ceniber, and 8th Janilary, of the imottives of this governm.illlt inl
the ocupaetioi of Amelia Island, have been given in the n, ssage port to the pretentioits of your gove-lnnenlt. All
of the president to Congress of the 13th instant, and cannotsliiil the vague positions on which it has been attem rted
sielnl satis tory to ylar government. You a s i i thre dis. to f~mIn them, have been refitted and dissipated by
z.ilvtly an id exfpliLeity declared that the mess- 1, i 1.i,;, o fio n
c.Lrutlmeit found itself under Lie necessityof :.,I...o -.*, .I ...... .,ll.nish government by a demonstration so lu-
to t'.iat island, were taken, not with a view I.; .,- .Ii and convincing, as Io leave I0o alternative to
Spain. You well know that if Spain could have kept, or reeover-
'l thle possession of it from the trifling free by w!hi l it was oc reason to resist it.








NILES' REGISTER-MARCHI 8S, 1818--RELATIONS WITH SPAIN 75


To lay all this a side, and merely to say, "that it
is a matter already thoroughly debated, on which
nothing further essential can be urged, and that the
American government insists on maintaining a con-
trary opinion," is to adopt an arbitrary cause, be.
cause, this opinion not being supported by any so-
lid foundation, and being, as it is, diametrically op
posite to the unquestionable result of facts, and to
the incontestible principles and arguments, does
not, nor can it give to the United States any right
to the pretensions they have formed. Neither can
it be required, that the government of Spain should
subscribe to this opinion, and renounce its rights
to the territory which the United States wish to
possess in the Spanish provinces bordering on
those states, since that opinion, as I have already
said, is altogether groundless and arbitrary, and
since, on those rights, their neither does nor can
there fall any doubt.
It is the sincere wish of his catholic majesty, that
a just mode of amicably settling all pending dliffer-
ences may be adopted, and he has authorized me,
for this purpose; but neither the pv-wers he has con-
ferred on me, nor my own sense of duty, permit me
to enter into an arrangement which is not based
upon the principles of common justice, combined in
good faith with the suitable considerations of recip-
rocal utility or convenience. Being anxiously de-
sirous of carrying the wishes and frank dispositions
of my sovereign into execution, I suggested to you
in our lastverbal conference, the expediency of your
making to me such proposals as you might think
fit, to reconcile tlhe rights and interests of both
powers, by a definitive arrangement of the differ-
ences pending between them. Si-nce you commu-
nicated the present state of things to the president
you have proposed to me in your note a plan of ar-
rangement or adjustment, embracing the question
of boundaries, and that of indemnities, which is as
follows:
To settle the former, you propose "that Spain
shall cede all her claims to territory eastward of
the Mississippi, (that is to say, the two Floridas;)
and that the Colorado, from its mouth to its
source, and from thence to the northern limits of
Louisiana, shall be the western boundary of that
province."
I have expressed in one proposal what you have
stated in two, as both are reduced to the cession
of territory by Spain.' I is not only pretended that
Spain shall cede both Floridas to the United States,
but that she shall likewise cede to them, the vast
extent of Spanish territory comprehended within
the line following the whole course of the Colora-
do. I presume that it is the river Colorado of Na-
chitoches you speak of, and not of another bearing
the same name and which is still farther within the
limits of the Spanish provinces. I leave it to you,
sir, to examine the import of these two proposals,
and to see whether they are compatible with the
principles of justice, or with those of reciprocal
utility or convenience. It is demanded of Spain
to cede provinces and territories of the highest
importance, not only to the eastward, but to the
westward of Louisiana and that without proposing
any equivalent or compensation.
To settle the question of indemnities, you make
the following proposals:
1. That indemnity for spoliations on American
citizens, committed by Spaniards or by French
within the jurisdiction of Spain; as.well as for inju-
ries sustained by American citizens by the inter-
ruption of the deposite at New Orleans, shall be


settled by ajoint commission, as agreed upon in the
convention of 1802.
2. The lands in East Florida and in West Flori-
da, to the Perdido, to be made answerable to the
United States for the amount of the indemnities
which may appear to be due by Spain to American
citizens,on the settlementto be made by comitission-
ers appointed according to the convention of1802; it
being at the option of the United States to take the
lands and pay the amount of the indemnities ac-
cording to the award on the claims, or to sell the
lands and effect the payment with the proceeds of
thesales. To this proposal you add, that all grants
of land subsequent to the 11th of August, 1802,
are to be null and void.
3. That Spain shall be exonerated from the pay-
ment of the debts, or any part of them.
Before I reply to these three proposals, I must
repeat the uniform declaration of the Spanish go-
vernment to the United States, that his catholic
majesty is, and always has been, ready to settle uie
question of indemnities, with a view to the full sa-
tisfaction of the just claims of the parties irterest-
ed; and that his majesty has always manifested' the
same sincere desire to settle definitively the ques-
tion of boundaries to the satisfaction of both pow.
ers; and that if neither of these objects has been
accomplished, it has not depended upon the go-
vernment of Spain. The contrary is evident, be-
yond the possibility of denial, from the official
correspondence between his catholic majesty's
minister of state, and the plenipotentiaries of the
American government, who suspended and broke
off the negotiation at Aranjuez, after having obsti-
nately refused to accept tihe modifications founded
on strict justice, which were proposed by the Spa-
nish government.
I now proceed to state the most obvious and es-
sential difficulties which render your three propo-
sals for the settlement of indemnities inadmissible.
I observe that in speaking of them, you only men-
tion the indemnity for ;spoliations suffered by Ame-
rican citizens, and omit that which is equally due
to Spaniards for spoliations committed on them by
the citizens and authorities of this republic, in vio.
lationof the law of nations and the existing treaty.
I also observe that you not only omit this indispen-
sable basis of reciprocity and common justice, but
propose the immediate cession of both the Fi'oridas,
which two Spanish provinces are to be retained by
the United States, as an indemnity or payment of
what may appear to be due by Spain to American
citizens, according to the arbitration of the joint
commission.
You cannot fail to admit sir, that this propass!,
independent of its injustice, is offensive to the dig-
nity and honor of his catholic majesty. It is nu.
just, because it demands an indemnity or antici-
pated payment of claims yet to be proved and li-
quidated, while, at the same time, it provides for
no correspondent indemnity or payment of what
may be due by the United States to Spanish sub-
jects. It is offensive to the dignity and honor of
Spain, because, by the very fact of demanding this
anticipation, a want of confidence in the integrity
and punctuality in his catholic majesty's govern-
ment, is manifested, whereas a single ins ance does
not exist of Spin having filed in fulfilling her en.
gagements, the most scrupulous exactness, good
faith and strict observance of the point of honr
having at all times invariably formed the distin.
gushing traits of her character. It, therefore, be-
comes unnecessary to point out to you the enormous.
disproportion between the value of the two 'lor''








76 NILES' REGISTER--MARCH 28, 1818--RELATIONS WITH SPAIN

das, and that of the probable amount of claims of though it is well known, how highly impor ant
American citizens on the government of Spain, af- those two provinces are to cover and secure the
ter they are ascertained and liquidated, This dis possessions of Spain in that part of America, his
proportion will be still more enormous, when you majesty is ready to cede them provided he is com-
consider that, in the first of the three proposals, to pensated by an equivalent in territory belonging to
which I am now replying, is included the indemnity the United States, and bordering on the Spanish
for spbliations on citizens of this republic by possessions; and it is under this idea, that the pow-
French cruizers and consuls on the coasts and in ers and instructions I have from my government,
the ports of Spain, and by the tribunals of cassation are conceived. But you cannot fail to admit that
in France, confirming the condemnation of Ameri- the plan of adjustment proposed involves exorbitant
can prizes, and enormous sacrifices to the prejudice of Spain,
It has been proved to mathematical demon, since without offering any equivalent or compensa-
stration, that Spain neither is nor can be respon- tion on the part of the United States, it requires
sible in any way for this indemnity. It is France not only the cession of both the Floridas, but also
which must be responsible, if she has not already that of immense territories belonging to the Spa-
satisfied the claim, as her government assures she nish monarchy westward of Lousiana; and, that in
has done. relation to the question of reciprocal indemnities,
Nor can I omit to declare to you, sir, that the it only comprehends those respecting American
pretension of annulling the, grants of lands in Flo- citizens, omitting those due to the crown and sub-
rida, since August, 1802, would be in opposition to jects of his catholic majesty. This plan of adjust-
all the principles of justice. These grants are ment would amount to the following one: "Give
made in a lawful manner, and by a lawful authority me all 1 wish to ask, and give up all you may justly
Spain was the owner and peaceful possessor of claim or show is yours." I am, however, perfectly
those lands. She had then an indisputable right persuaded, that this neither is nor can be your in.-
to make the grants you allude to, as she now has tention, or that of your government; and that in
to the property of the territory afterwards forcibly making these proposals for an adjustment, your on-
taken possession of by the United States, since a ly object was to afford me an opportunity to make
violent dispossession never deprives an individual such as you might consider just and admissible.
or nation of their lawful rights. I proceed to your I shall, therefore, point out to you such as I con-
last proposal, which is, that on the admission of ceive to be founded in justice and reciprocal con-
those preceding, Spain shall be exonerated from all venience, and therefore cannot fail to meet the
obligation to pay the debts or claims which may wishes of the United States.
be due to American citizens, on their settlement 1. "The dividing line between Louisiana and the
and liquidation by the joint commission. I con- Spanish possessions to be established in one of the
ceive this to be the import ofthe expressions, stat- branches of the Mississippi, either that of La
ing that "Spain shall be exonerated from the pay- Fourche, or of the Achafalaya, following the course
ment of the debts or any part of them." This pro- of that riveti to its source. Spain to cede the two
position is a corolory of the two preceding it, Floridas to the United States in full and complete
since if Spain should cede the two Floridas to the sovereignty."
United States as an indemnity or compensation for In c.use this proposal should not app.-ar admissa-
the losses and injuries done to the citizens of this ble to your government, the following may be sub-
republic, she would necessarily be exonerated from swituted; "Tne iti aossidetis, or state of possession
this responsibility the cession being in such case, in 1763, to form the basis, and the western line of'
equivalent to a final discharge of the claims refer. division to be established from the sea, at a point
ed to. I go further. Supposing your two last propo- between the rivers Carcasa and the Marmentas or
sals for the definitive adjustment of the question of Marmentao, running thence bo Arroyo Hondo, till
indethnities to be admitted and carried into effect, it crosses the Colorado of Nachitoches, between
one preceding, namely, that which refers this busi- that post and Adaes, thence northward to a point to
ness to the award of commissioners, to be appoint- be fixed and laid down by commissioners respec-
ed by both governments, agreeable to the conven- tively appointed for the purpose."
tion of 1802, would be useless and contradictory. 2. His catholic majesty, to ratify the convention
As none of the proposals offered by you, provide of 1802, and both governments to abide by the de-
any indemnity for the losses and injuries caused to cision of indemnities, classing as such those which
Spaniards, or even makes any mention of them; regard American citizens and the crown and sub-
ind as by the two last proposals, if admitted, the jets of his catholic majesty, for spoliations reci-
losses and injuries sustatained by American citi- procally committed to the period of the said con-
zens, would be indemnified and compensated, ac- vention, and thereafter to the date of the confirma-
cording to the wishes of your government, and tion of tle adjustment by the joint committee.
Spin would, consequently, be exonerated from all Five or seven mIembers to compose the commission,
responsibility on this head, it is clear, that the busi- with this condition, that if they are five, each gOe
ness would then be settled and cancelled, and there vernment shall respectively nominate a person for
would be no necessity for recurring to arbitration, the fifth member, to be chosen by lot, provided
Finally, I cannot refrain from expressing my they cannot agree on the person to be so chosen;
great concern, at not being able in any degree to the same to take place for tle fifth, sixth, and se-
reconcile the proposals you have made me by order venth, if there be seven.members; but the fifth, in
of he president, with the inviolable principles of the first instance, and tile fifth, sixth, and seventh,
oonnmmon justice; and on perceiving that on the part in the second, shall neither be, Spaniards nor citi-
of the United States, no basis is presented of a due zens of the United States by birth or naturalization.
reciprocity for the adjustment of the differences T'ley shall, moreover, be, by their profession and
pending, the said proposals being altogether inad. office, judges of the number of those subjects, who
missable among maritime and commercial nations, are usu-
I repeat to you, sir, that the king, my master, ally employed to judge and decide on matters con-
Ieilg; desirous to meet the wishes of the United n.-cted with maritime law and the 'law of nations,
-lates in respect to the cession of the Floridas, al- whether in France, England, Russia, Austria, or






NILES' REGISTER--MARCH 28.1818-RELATIONS WITH SPAIN. 77

the Netherlands. In both cases, the person so de- stacle to the acceptance of the proposals, I have
signated, to be provided with a certificate of the now the honor to make to you, and are of opinion,
government of the country he belongs to, proving that by any other mode we may attain the desired
theopinion entertained of his integrity and capacity, object, without deviating from the fundamental
his quality and actual profession as a judge in the principles and basis of justice and reciprocal con-
matters referred to, and also the assurance, that venience, I will, with great pleasure, be ready to
permission shall be granted to him for discharging adopt it, provided it be compatible with the pow-
the duties of the commission, in case the said per- ers given me by the king, my mas'er. In this
son shall be chosen by lot. view, you can propose such changes or modifica.
With these modifications suggested by prudence, tons, as you may see fit, as are calculated to remove
impartiality, and the most perfect rectitude, and all difficulties on both sides, and reconcile the
excluding, as is just, the indemnity for the spolia- rights, interests and wishes of both powers.
tions committed on the commerce of this republic, In the mean time, I hope that the course pursu-
by French privateers and consuls on the coasts and ed by the president (en la march de su conduct)
in the ports of Spain, and by the Iribunals of cassa- will correspond with the sentiments and uniform
tion in France. The convention of 1802 to berati- profession of amity and perfect harmony existing
fled and carried into execution, between his majesty and the United States; and I
3. His catholic majesty, to unite with the United am therefore constrained to reclaim and protest.
States in using their best endeavors to obtain from formally, as now do, against all measures whatso-
France the correspondent indemnity for the spolia- ever, injurious to the rights of the crown of Spain,
tions just mentioned, in case that question has not and to renew, as hereby do, the protest already
already been settled between the French and Ame- made against the occupation of Amelia-Island, and
rican governments. against the orders to occupy Galvezton, inasmuch
4. The government of the United States to en- the United States, have no right whatever, either.
gage to take effectual measures to prevent all hos- to the said island, or to Galvezton, they neither had
tile armaments in their ports and territory against nor could have, a just motive or cause to sanction
the commerce and possessions of Spain, either by similar acts of violence in the midst of peace.
Americans or any other power, or by adventurers I await your answer to this note, in order that
of any other nations, or by the rebels of Spanish we may accelerate the moment of agreeing on just
America; and for their due execution, the presi- and fit measures for carrying the definitive settle-
dent to issue positive orders to all persons employ- ment of all pending differences into effect.
ed by the government, charging them, on their re- In the mean time, I renew to you, sir, the assu.
sponsibility, to guard against any infraction or vio- rances of my constant respect.
nation of them whatsoever, extending the same mea- God preserve you many years.
sures to the preventing of any vessels employed in (Sirned LUIS DE ONIS.
cruizing against the Spanish commerce or other II 24th Janmuary, 1818.
wise hostilely engaged against the government and No. 11.
subjects of his catholic majesty, from arming in, (Translation.)
or entering armed, the harbors and waters of the The same to the same.
United states. Every vessel of this description, Sir-The multiplicity of business which I believe
found within the jurisdiction of the United States, has, and still does engage your attention, from the
to be seized without remission and subjected to necessity of preparing and laying before the con-
thle rigor of the law by the American officers and gress, the papers and information called for on dif-
au horities; and the vessels and property so captur- ferent subjects, must assuredly have prevented you
ed, belonging to the subjects of the crown of Spain, from replying as yet to my note of: he 24th of last
to be laid under attachment, and definitively de- month; it is, therefore, unnecessary for me to trou-
livered up to his majesty's minister, or the nearest ble you, by trespassing on your attention, to urge
Spanish consul, to be held by them at the disposal the importance of your answer, as I feel assured,
of the lawful owners. This proposal contains no- you are as fully aware of it as I am. But the ear-
thing beyond the obligations, already imposed by nest wish I have to accelerate tie negotiation that
the laws of the United States, the law of nations, has been opened, and thereby to come to a final
and the existing treaty. But as it is evident to you, settlement of the differences pending between his
and to the whole world, that abuses and infractions catholic majesty's government' and yours, impels
of these laws and solemn compacts, have been, and me to take this step. I therefore request you, sir,
continue to be, frequently practised, it is absolutely to be pleased to inform me, as soon as you possibly
necessary that suitable measures be adopted, fully can, whether the proposals offered in my aforesaird
and effectually to prevent the repetition of similar note come up to, or approach the wishes of this re-
abuses and infractions. public; and if, v.'ith the view of satisfying them, you
By these tour proposals, the rights and interests can devise another just mode, calculated to recon-
of both powers are reconciled, upon principles of cile the rights of both nations upon some principle
manifest justice and reciprocal utility; they settle of reciprocal utility and convenience, I hope you
and terminate all pending differences, in my judg- will communicate it to me, in full confidence, that
ment, satisfactorily to both nations; and I must pre- I shall not hesitate a moment to accede to :nv mo-
sume, that the president will view them in tie dification or expedient, founded on a basi:. of ac,
same light, and substantially admit them. In case knowledge justice, and mutual utility, because it
there be any other question of secondary, or minor is to such a basis, that all the instructions and
importance, to be in like manner included in the powers I have received from my sovereign refer.
general and definitive adj';:tment, it will be easy, The United States having manifested a wish to
and follow of course, after we have agreed on the obtain the Floridas, his catholic majesty has con-
most essential articles or, points; we will then also descended to accede thereto, as a proof of his
determine the true import of the several proposi friendship and high consideration for the U. States,
tions laid down, and explain each one of them with and has authorized me to stipulate the cession ot"
the necessary clearness, accuracy and precision, those two provinces for an equivalent of territory
'If, however, you should find any difficulty or ob. westward of Mississippi. Ha.vlng proved, on the






78 NILES' REGISTER-MARCH 28, 1818--RELATIONS WITH SPAIN.


part of his majesty's government, by the most com-
plete evidence of which moral facts are susceptible,
and by a conviction in no wise inferior to that of
mathematical truths, that the proper boundaries of
Louisiana, eastwaard of the Mississippi, are defined
by the course of that river, and thence by the Iber-
ville and the lakes Maurepas and Pontnhartraio;
and that to the westward, they never did, nor could
extend beyond the rivers Carcasu and Marmentas
or Marmentao, running between Nachitoches and
Adaes, ;cioss Red River, and thence northward to a
line not yet fixed, and to be settled by commission-
ers to be appointed by both governments, it is clear,
that the proposals offered in my note for the final
settlement of the question of boundaries, cannot
fail to appear advantageous to your government,
and satisfactory to the just wishes of the United
States. But if, for their greater satisfaction, you
can point out an expedient by which the said pro
posals may be further modified, without detracting
from the acknowledged principles of common jus-
tice and reciprocal convenience, I am ready to at-
tend to, and stipulate it immediately, if it comes
within the sphere of my powers and instructions;
and in case it should not, by presenting, perchance,
combinations which could not be foreseen by his
catholic majesty, I will immediately dispatch a
courier to Madrid, to inform my government of the
demands of yours, and request more ample powers
adapted to them.
The question of indemnities can be attended
with no difficulty. The Spanish government has
always been willing to give due satisfaction for the
losses and injuries sustained by citizens of this re-
public,and committed by Spaniards, contrary to the
law of nations and the existing treaty, but it cannot
relinquish it claim to comprehend, in like manner,
in the adjustment of those losses and injuries, such
as have been committed by citizens and authorities
of this republic, on the crown and subjects, of
Spain, in violation of the same right and treaty.-
Your government, sensible of the justice of this
demand, cannot fail to accede to it; thus by ratify
ing the convention agreed on in 1802, as I have al-
ready proposed to you, the question of indemnities
will be easily settled and determined.
The king my master, being desirous of giving
the United States and the whole world, incontes-
table proofs of the rectitude and sincerity of his
dispositions, and of his love of justice and good
faiih, is ready to submit all the questions embraced
by thepending differences, to the arbitration of one
or more of the powers of Europe, in whom the
United States may have the greatest confidence,
they and his majesty respectively engaging to abide
irrevocably by the decision of such arbitration. In
cases where justice alone is sought for, this refer.
ence must be particularly desirable, and has been
frequently resorted to, as well by individuals, as
by the most respectable nations, on controverted
questions.
The British government, on being informed of
the difficulties attending the negotiation pending
between Spain and the United States, made an offer
of its mediation for the purpose of reconciling
them, and the president has not been pleased to
accept it, as I have been lately informed by the
minister of England to these states. From this re-
fusal, I am to infer, that the president is willing,
on his part, to remove all the obstacles which op-
pose the promnp and happy termination of the ne-
gociation pendi g, and under this impression, which
is due to the uprightness, rectitude, and good
faith, of the American government, I flatter myself,


that it will not be necessary to have recourse to
the mediation or arbitration of friendly or neutral
powers, to settle and terminate on principles of
justice, the existing differences between the Unit-
ed States and Spain; and if unfortunately this should
not be the case, I also flatter myself, that your go-
vernment will approve of one of those modes, as be-
ing dictated by a sincere love of peace and justice
due to such occasions.
I therefore hope, sir, that you will reply, as soon
as possible, to the proposals made in my last note,
and communicate to me whatever you may think
most conducive to the happy termination of the
pending negotiation, and still fiuther to strengthen
the bonds of friendship and good understanding be-
tween the .wo nations.
In the mean while, I have the honor to renew to
you, the assurances of my respect, and I pray God
to preserve you many years.
(Signed) LUIS DE ONIS.
Washington, lOth F'ebruary, 1818.
(No 12.)
T'he secretary of state, to Don Luis de Onis, enivoy
extraordinary and minister pleniptenctiary from
Spain.
Department of State, March 12th, 1818.
Sin-The admission in your letter of the 24th
of January, that all the facts, grounds, and argu-
ments, alleged in your previous notes of 29th De.
member, and of 5th and 8th January, in support of
the pretensions of your government, upon the seve-
ral points of difference which have so long subsist-
ed between the United Slates and Spain, are essen-
tially the same as had already been advanced and
discussed at the period of the extraordinary mission
to Spain, in 1805; wl:ile it justifies the reluctance,
on the part of the American government, manifest-
ed in my letter of the 16th January, to the renewal
of an exhausted discussion, cannot but excite some
surprise, as comporting so little with the profes-
sions of the earnest desire of your government to
bring those differences to a speedy and happy ter-
mination, which have been so strongly and so re-
peatedly expressed, as well in your notes, as in the
recent communications from Don Francisco Pizar-
ro to the minister of the United States at Madrid.
Tlie observation, that truth is of all times, and that
reason and justice are founded upon immutable
principles, has never been contested by the United
States; but neither truth, reason, nor justice con-
sist in stubbornness of assertion, nor in the multi-
plied repetition of error. I referred you to the let-
ters from the extraordinary mission of 1805, to Don
Pedro Cevallos, for an ample and satisfactory refi-
tation of the supposed facts, grounds, and argu-
ments now reproduced by you. You reply by tel-
ling me, that "there does not appear to be a single
incident to give the smallest support to the pre-
tensions of my government; that all the vague po-
sitions on which it has been attempted to found
them have been refuitedand dissipated, by the Spa-
nish government, by a demonstration so luminous
and convincing, as to leave no alternative to reason
to resist it." And you, more than once, intimate,
that the American government does not, itself, be-
lieve in the validity of the statements and argu-
ments used by its ministers, in support of the claims
of the United States, as asserted by them.
To language and sentiments such as these, the
government of the United States cannot reply; nor
can it, without an effort, continue at all a discus-
sion sullied by such unworthy and groundless impu
stations.
1 am directed by the president to confine the ob-






NILES' REGISTER-MARCH 28, 18 8-RELATIONS WITH SPAIN. 79


serva ions upon your late notes, to those p.ars ro Louisiana, to Spain and England, were made on the
them .-hich have relation to the essential subjects of same day, may serve no less as a reply to all the
controversy between the two nations. verbal criticisms, so gravely urged by Mr. Cevall.s,
To give a single instance of that course of argn- and now repeated by you, on the force of the terms
meant which you represent as equivalent to mathe- retrocede and retrocession, used in the treaty of St.
matical demonstration in favor of Spain, it will be Ildephonso. The plain import of the words is nei-
sufficient to refer to your assertions, in relation to ther more nor less than giving back, restoring. It
to the question of the eastern boundaries of Louisi- does not, and cannot be made to imply, that. both
ann, as retroceded to France by the treaty of St II- the parties to the restoration must, of necessity, be
dephonso, in 1800, and ceded by France to the Unit- the same as both the parties to the grant. They
ed States in 1803. The claim of the United States, only imply that the object and the party granting,
under that cession to the territory, east of the -Mis- orthe party receiving it, as restored, are the same.
sissippi, as far as the river Perdido, rests, as you weil To use an illustration from the concerns of individu-
know, upon the words in the two treaties, describ- al life-Suppose A, by two separate deeds, grants
ing the colony or province of Louisiana, ceded by half an acreofland to B, and the other half to C. B, by
them, as having the same extent, not only that it subsequent purchase obtains the half acre granted to
had at the time of the retrocession in the liands of C, and then regrants the whole acre back to A. By
Spain, but also that it had when France possessed ii, whatever denomination the two half acres may have
and such as it should be, after the treaties subse- been called, in the interval between the first grant
quently entered into between Spain and other uad the restoration, B might, with the most perfe-t, .
states. You know also with what force it was urged propriety, be said to retrocede the whole; and if in
by the ministers of the United Sta! s at Aranjuez, the act of restoration the acre should be called by
in 1805, that those words, referring to the primitive the same name, and expressly described as having
possession of the province by France, could have the same extent as when it had been first owned by
had no other meaning than that of extending the A, with what shadow of justice could B pretend
retrocession to the Perdido, because the province that his regrant was only of the half acre
had always had that extent when in the possession he had first received from A, because the other
of France. And what is your reply to this argu- half acre had, in theinterval, been called by another
ment, which you are pleased to include under the name, and for some time owned by another person?
general censure of vague and groundless positions? That the term retrocession, is in common use, ill
It is no other than the supposition of a treaty of this sense, take the following passage from the En-
1764, by virtue of which you say France ceded the glish translation of Alcedo's Dictionary.
western remnant of Louisiana to Spain, a year after "By a treaty in 1783, Great Britain. retroceded to
having ceded the eastern part of it, from the Mis- Spain all the territority which both Spain and France
sissippi to the Perdido, to lngland. With the aid had ceded to Great Britaiin 1763."
of this ,re o ,1, \ ou are enabled, first, to discover an There would then be nothing in the terms retro-
interval ot I.i.. between lle two cessions, and dur- cede or retrocession, which could limit the territo-
ing which France possessed Louisiana, bound east- ries restored by Spain to the boundaries under which
ward by the Mississippi; and, secondly, to include she had first received part of them from France;
this treaty between Sp7ain and France among those even if the original cessions of the two parts had
described in the article of the treaty of St. Ilde- been made at dillerent times; and even ifthose words,
phonso, as "the treaties subsequently entered into "'ith the sate e extent it had w.vhen in the hands of
between Spain and other states." I'France." had not been inserted in the treaty of St. 11-
There is reason to believe that no such treaty of deplionsdf. But when it is considered thatthe cessions
1764 ever existed; that the cessions of Louisiana, byvFrance, ofthetwo parts ofLnou. were madeto Spain
westward of the Miissssippi, to Spain, and eastward and toEnglandon thesameday when we know thatthe
of thu. river to the Perdido to England, were made cession of the part ceded to England, had been m;ide
by France both on the 3d of November, 1762, is for the benefit of Spain, as it was an equivalent for
certiin,and that the acceptance bythe king of'Spain of the restoration by England of the island of Cuba, to
the session made to him, took place on the 13th of Spain, and whenwe seek for any possible meaning to
the same November, 1762; the proof of which is in the words' referring to the extent of Louisiana, when
the iery o.der from the king of France to L'Abba- before owned by Vrance, to our minds, sir, thle con-
die, for the delivery of tile province to tile officers of clusion is irresistible, that the terms retrocede and
of the king of Spain. The province had never be. retrocession cnn have, in this case, no other meaning
long-d to France a single day, without extending to thall that fir which we contend, and that they
the terdido. Nor can itbe necessary to remind young include the giving back to France the whole of
that the very treaty of cession, by which France Louisiana, which had ever belonged to France, and
surrmdered her possession of Louisiana to Spain, which it was, at the time of the signature of the
cannot be comprehended in the description of trea- treaty of St. Ildephonso, in the power of Spain to
ties subsequently entered into between Spain and restore.
other' states. By the words in the third article of the treaty of
As this simple reference to a notorious and un- St. Ildephonso, adopted in the treaty of cession of
questionable fact annihilates all that course of rea- 1803 to the United States, Spain retrocedes to
soling uponl which your understanding rejects all France the colony or province of Louisiana, with tile
doubt, so a recurrence to another fact, equally noto- same extent that it "now has in the hands of Spain,
ricus, replies as decisively to your appeal to the and that it had when France possessed it, andl such
treaty of 6th February, 1778, between the United as itought to be after the treaties subsequently en-
States and France. You say that in the year 1800, tered into between Spain and other states." At the
France could not have acquired any territory east negotiation of Aranjuez in 1805, your alleged treaty
of the Mississippi, without a monstrous vioultion of of 764, never occurred to the imagination of AM. Ce-
that treaty, forgetting that that treaty, and all its ob- vallos, as one of these subsequent treaties; for, after
ligations upon France, had, before the year 1800, citing this clause of the article, he says, in his letter
ceased to exist, to Messrs. Pinckney and Monroe, of the 24th Ilebrt!-
SThe fact, that the cessions of ihe t'wo parts of ary, 1805, "the treaties here allutdcd to, are not, noC







80 NILES' REiGSTER--AIARCH -S, 1818--RELATIONS WITH SPAIN.

can be others than those of 1783, between Spain and of this Union; but she could restore that part of the
Entland and 1795, between Spain and the U. States." colony, of which she had become possessed by a trea-
Th, American ministers, in their answer of 8th ty of 1783, with Ureat Britain. Mr. Cevallos urged
March, 1805, explicitly agreeing opinion with Mr. Ce- with some earnestness, that the first clause having
vallos on this point; and your intimation of a treaty of marked the extent of the colony or province, such
1764, to which you suppose the clause also to apply, "as it then had in the hands of Spain," it would
is as incompatible with the pretensions of your own be inconsistent andabsurd to suppose, thatthewords
government in 1805, as with those of the United "and that it had when France possesssed it," could
States at this day. be intended to mark a greater extent, because it
To account for the peculiar phraseology used in would be saying in one breath, that the cession was
this description, inserted in the third article of the of.tthe same extent, and of more than the same ex-
treaty of St. Ildephonso, we must advert to the pe- tent, that it had in the possession of Spain. But
culiar situation of the territory to be conveyed, and there is no absurdity or inconsistency in modifying,
to what nmust have been the intention of the parties, by one clause of a definition, an extent described in
It was a colony or province to be restored; and there- another clause of the same definition; no more than,
fore the object of France could have been no other in the description of a surface, the line in breadth
than to obtain the restoration of the whole original is inconsistent with the line in length. According
colony, so far as it was in the power of Spain to re- to this argument of Mr, Cevallos, the words "and
store it. But there was a part of the original colony, that it had winen France possessed it," had no mean-
which had been ceded by France to England, which ing at all; they merely repeated, what had been fully
had, inprocess of time, become a part of the United and completely expressed by the preceding clause;
States, and which not being then in the hands of but if they had no meaning, what possible motive
Spain, she could not restore. There was another could the parties have for inserting them, when it
part which had been ceded by France, directly to must have been perfectly familiar to the memory of
Spain, which still remained in her hands, but subject both, that the extent of the provinceor colony, w-hen
to certain conditions stipulated by Spain, in a treaty in the hands of France, had included West Florida
with the United States; and there was a third part to the Perdido, which territory was also then in the
which France had ceded to England, in 1762, but actual possession of Spain. If it were possible to
which had afterwards fallen into the hands of Spain, suppose that the ministers of Prance and Spain, in
and which she was equally competent to restore, as the very article defining tile extent of the country to
if it had been ceded by France to herself. As the be conveyed, could have been so careless as to admit
boundaries of this colony or province never had an idle wasteof words, the very composition of this
been precisely defined, and had been, from its first article carries internal evidence with it, that no such
settlement, a subject of dispute between France and improvidence is imputable to those by whom it was
Spain, the parties had no means of recurring to any drawn up. The reference to the extent of the colo-
former definition of boundaries, to carry their inten- ny in the primitive possession of France, could not
tion into effect; as they had no geographical lines or be to a time when thle property of it had been no
landmarks to which they could recur, they assumed longer hers. It could not be to say over again, what
their definition from circumstances incidental to the had been said fin the immediately preceding clause:
present and past time. If the intention had been to every word of the description carries with it evidence
cede back theprovince, only with the extent it actu- of deep deliberation and significance. The first
ally had in the hands of Spain, the parties would clause marks the intention of tile parties, by the
have said so, asd omitted the other clause, which, in incident ofactualpossession by Spain; all of which was
that case, would have been not merely supA-fluous, to berestored; tile second clause modifies by enlarg-
but tending to perplex that which would have been ing the extent, from the incident of original posses-
lear without it. Ifit had been intended that Spain sion by France; and the third clause modifies, by
should' restore to France, only what she had received restricting the grant to the conditions which Spain
from France, nothing could have been more clear and had stipulated concerning the territory, with other
easy than to have said so; but then, the reference to states. Altogether, the clear and explicit meaniig-
the extent of the colony, when France possessed of the whole article is, that Spain should restore to
it, would have been not merely absurd, bitt contra- France as much of old French Louisiana as shehald
victory to that intention. The very use of botn the to restore; but under such restrictions as the en-
terms, provinceor colony, shows that the parties were gagements contracted by Spain with other pmoers
looking to the original state, as well as to the actual acquired of her good faith to secure.
condition of the territory to be restored. Louisiana, Let us pass to the consideration of the western
,he actual Spanish province, was one thing, and Lou- boundaries of Louisiana.
isiantt, the original French colony, was another; the With the note of Messrs. Monroe and PinckneL- to
adoption of both the words, is of itself a strong pre- Don Pedro Cevallos, ot 28th January, 1805, a menoir
sumiption, that the intention was to restore, not only upon these boundaries 'was presented to that mIlis-
lthe actual province, as was then in the hands of Spain, ter, proving that they extended eastward to thl Per-
and had formed part of the original French col- dido, and westward to the Rio Bravo, or Grande:lel
ony. Norte. They observed in that note, that "the acts
Assume the intention of the parties, to have and principles which jusifyt this conclusion, areso
been that for which we contend, and under the satisthctory to their government, as to convince it
existing circumstances they could scarcely have ex- that the United States have not a better right to the
pressed it by any other words than thosc'which m.re island of New Orleans, under the cession, referred
f id in the article, Assumle that they had any other to, than they have to the whole district of territory
inttention, and ypu can find no rational meaning Ibr thus described."
their words. 'I Ie province was to be restored, with In their note of the 20th April, 1805, to the same
the extent it actually had in the hands of Spain: the minister, replying to his .argument in support of the
colony, was to he restored, with the extent it had pretensions of your government withregard to those
when formerly posssessed by France. Spain could limits, they laydown and establish, byachain of rea.
not restUe the parts of ile original colony which soning, wlich neither -Mr. Cevallos, at tile time, nor
were not in her actual possession, and which alrea- your government, at any period since, have ever at-.
flyfotrmed parts of the western states and territories tempted to break, three principles, sanctioned alike






NILES' REGISTER~-MARCH 28. 1818-RELATIONS WITH SPAIN. 81

by immutable justice, and the general practice of and the Texas had always been known, even when
of the European nations, which have formed settle- the French possessed Louisiana; but he had just be-
ments and field possessions in this hemisphere; and fore acknowledged, that they had never been fixed.
by the application of which to the facts also stated He spoke ofmissions founded near the beginning'of the
in their note, this question of the western boundary last century by the venerable Margel, of the order of
ought then to have been, and, eventually, must be St. Francisco; he alluded to plans and documents
settled. These principles were, and historical relations, which were notto be found
First. "That when any European nation takes pos- in his department, but many of which, he added,
session of any extent of sea-coast, that possession is were in the department of the interior, besides those
understood as extending into the interior country, which were in the vicervyalty of Mexico. But he
to the sources of the rivers emptying within that never pretended a possession, by Spain, of the ter-
coast, to all their branches, and the country they co- ritories in question, of an earlier date than 1690.
ver, and to give it a right in exclusion of all other And what are these plans, and documents, and
nations to the same." historical relations, which, after the lapse of thirteen
Secondly. "That whenever one European nation years, you have drawn forth from all the archives of
makes a discovery and takes possession of any por- Spain and all the historical disquisitions, upon the
tion of this continent, and another afterwards does discovery and conquest of the New World? Is it
the same at some distance from it, where the boun- to that catalogue, biographical aud geographical, of
dary between them is not determined by tlhe princi- Spanish adventurers, and of the numberless regions
ple abovementioned, that the middle distance be- explored by them in the sixteenth century, which
comes such of course." swells your note of the 5th of January, that we are
Thirdly. "That whenever any European nation to look for the limits of Louisiana and Texas? Or
has thus acquired a right to any portion of territory is it to that "Royal order issued by Philip the Se-
on this continent, that right can never be diminished cond, enjoining the extermination of all foreigners
or affected by any other power, by virtue of pur- who would dare to penetrate into the Gulf of lexi-
chases made by grants or conquests of the natives, co," by virtue of which the viceroy fitted out the
within tile limits thereof." expedition to scour the country and hunt out the
The facts stated in this last mentioned note, and French of La Salle's settlement; is it to that royal
to which these principles were applied in support of order that you appeal for proof of the prior title of
the claim of the United States, under the cession of Spain? It is even so. But as the voyages of Police
Louisiana by France to them, were, de Leon in 1511, of Francisco de Garay in 1518, and
1. That the Mississippi, in its whole length to of Hernando de Soto, in 1538, have no more bearing
the ocean, was discovered by French subjects from upon this question than the voyages of Christopher
Canada, in 1683. Columbus and Sebastian Cabot, so you must be sen-
2. That La Salle, a Frenchman, with a commission sible that the royal exterminating order of-Philip
and authority from Louis XIV., discovered the bay the Second, if it proved .,'v n.l,,, would prove fatal
of St. Bernard, and formed a settlement there, on to the whole province or colony of Louisiana. If that
the western side of the river Colorado, in the year orde could have been carried into execution, no
1685, and that the possession, thus taken, in the bay sulch colony as that of Louisiana could ever have
of St. Bernard, in connexion with that on the Mis- been established by France. That order, and any
sissippi, had always been understood, as of right it proceeding of the viceroy of Mexico under it, can
ought, to extend to the Rio Bravo. no more affect the right of the United States to the
3. That the boundary, thus founded upon posses- limits marked by the settlement of La Salle, than it
sion, was described as forming the limits of Loui: can impair their title to the island of New Orleans.
an ., in the grant by Louis the XIVth, to Crozat, in Far more honourable would if be, sir, to the charac-
1712. ter of your nation and the credit of your govern.
4. That it was supported by the testimony of the nent, to bury, in the profoundest oblivion, the me-
historical writers, Du Pratz and Champigny; by a his- mory of that atrocious order, than at this day to pro-
torical and political memoir on Louisiana, written by duce it, for the purpose of bolstering up a title, for
the count de Vergennes, the minister of Louis the which you have in vain ransacked the records of the
XVIth; by a chart of Louisiana, published in 1762, Spanish monarchy to discover a better support.
by Don Thomas Lopez, geogrIapher to the king of To the efficacy, however, of this royal order, your
Spain; and by a map of De ,isle, of the Academy of whole argument, in behalf of the pretend ions of your
Sciences, at Paris, revised and republished there in government, perpetually recurs; for although in
1782. some passages of your note, you appear disposed to
To these principles, thus clear, equitable and ex- allow to the colony of Louisiana, at least the eastern
plicit-to these facts, thus precise, authentic and banks of the Mississippi, yet you are as frequently
unsophisticated, what was opposed by Don Pedro shrinking even from this concession,and representing
Cevallos at that time, and what is now alleged by the whole colony as an encroachment upon the do-
you? minion of Spain; at one time representing it as a pro-
Mr. Cevallos began by admitting that the western fund stratagem of Louis the fourteenth, seizing with
limits of Louisiana had never been exactly fixed; rapacious avidity, the 'in--;-,'lr-' moment of con-
and alleged, that in the year 1690, five or six years fidence of his grandson I'... Il., while placing'
after the possession taken and the settlement formed him upon the throne of Spain; and at another, hold-
by La Salle, captain Alonzo de Leon, under a com- ing it up as the act of a disordered imagination of
mission from the viceroy of Mexico, examined tile the same Louis fourteenth, manifested in lii. r,,, ..i,
bay of Espiritu Santo, (St. Bernard,) took posses- 1712, to Crozat. This grant you pronounce to be
sion of the territory, and founded the mission of absurd and completely despicable; but for what rea-
St. Francisco de Texas. Mr. Cevallos asserted, that son itis not easy to conjecture.. It certainly does not
it.-eould Ie very easy to make it appear, that France favor the pretensions of your government, and it has
never had claimed this extent for Louisiana; but he none of the -\i. r.;.i.,; 'ii.- features ofthe royal order
did not make it appear. He also said that if France of Philip the second; but we consider it, as it has al-
had claimed it, Spain had never recognized, and was ways been considered by the world, as a document
not bound t .... 1.... .1.:, the claim. not only indicative of sound judgment and i ,- I,
Mr. Ce.i'I .: I:'. '- limits between Louisiana but as marking the limits qf Louisiana, as alwar..







g2 NIL i'- i 5l iEi -7, M C' i 28, 1818--RELATIONS WITH SPAIN.

claimed by France, and transferred, as relates to the 7. A geographical work, publib.sed in 1717, at
western limits, with her title to that province, to thel London, entitled Atlas Geog'raphicus, or a com-
United States. plete System of Geography Ancient and Modern,
It isremarkable, that in imitation of Mr. Cevallos, in which the map of Louisiana marks its extent
you also, after repeatedly insisting that the bounda- from the Rio Bravo to the Perdilo. In both these
riesofLonisianawere wellknow, andaltaysacknow- maps, the fort built bv La Saile is laid down on
pledged by France, finally conclude b3 admitting, that the soot now called Matagorda.
the never were fixed or agreed upon. You repeat, 8. An official British map, published in 1753, by
time after time, that the French never disputed the Bowen, intended to point out the boundaries of the
right of Spain to all the territory westward of the British, Spanish and French colonies in North Amc-
Mississippi, while you cannot deny the settlement of rica.
Ia S.,lle at the Bay of St. Bernard, in 1684; nor that 9. The narratives published at Paris, of IIennepin,
the French settlements ofNatchez and Natchitoches in 1683; ofTonti, in 1697; and ofJoutel. in 1713.
were made and maintained in spite of all the military 10. The letter from colonel La IIarpe to Don Mar-
expeditions, rigorous executions, and exterminating tin D'Alarconne, of 8th July, 1719. (A. 1. B. 2.)
orders, which the viceroys of Mexico could send 11. The order from the French governor of Lou-
against them. isiana, Bienville, to La Harpe, of 10th of August
We may admit that so long as the Spanish vice- 1721. (C. 3.)
roys could exterminate every foreigner who dared 12. The geographical work of Don Antonio de
to penetrate into the Gulf of Mexico, they had the Alcedo, a Spanish geographer of the highest emi-
royal order of Philip the second for so doing. The nence; this work and the map of Lopez having been
bull of pope Alexander the sixth is a document of published after the cession of Louisiana to Spain, in
still earlierdate, and at least of less disgusting im- 1762, afford decisive evidenceof what Spain herself
port, upon which Spain once rested her claims to yet considered as the western boundary of Louisiana,
more extensive dominion in this western world, when she had no interest in contesting it against ano-
With equal show of reason, and with less outrage their state. (D. 4.)
upon the rights of humanity, might you have alleged On the part of Spain.
that bull as the incontrovertible proof of the Spanish 1. The voyages of Ponce de Leon, Vasquez de
claims, as to bring forth at this day, for its only sub- Ayllon, Panfilo de Narvaez, Hernando de Soto, Luis
stitute, that royal order of Philip the second. Moscoso, and other Spanish travellers, in the six--
You know,'Sir, and your own notes furnish, them- teenth century, who never made any settlement upon
selves, the most decisive proofs, that France, while any of the territories in question; lbt who travelled,
she held the colony of Louisiana, never did acknow- as you observe, into countries too tedious to enume-
ledg the Mississippi as the western boundaryofthat rate.
province. The claim of France always did extend 2. The establishment of the new kingdoms of
westward to the Rio Bravo, and the only boundaries Leon and Santander, in 1595, and the provinceof Co-
ever acknowledged by her, before the cession to haquila, in 1600.
Spain of 3d Nov. 1762, were those marked out in the 3. The province of Texas, founded in 1690.
grant from Louis fourteenth to Crozat. She always Here you will please to observe begins the conflict
claimed the territory, which you call Texas, as being with the claims of France to the western boundary of
within the limits, and forming part of Louisiana; Louisiana, transferred by the cession of the province
which in that grants declared to be bounded west- to the United States. The presidios, or settlements
ward by New Mexico, eastward by Carolina, and ex- of Las Texas were, by your own statement, adverse
tending inward to the Illinois and to the sources of settlements to that ofLa Salle, who, six years before,
the Mississippi, and of its principal branches. had taken formal possession of the country in the
Mr. Cevallos says that these claims of France were name of, and by authority of a charter from, Louis
never admitted nor recognized by Spain.' Be it so. fourteenth. They were preceded by an expedition
Neither were the claims of Spain ever acknowledged from Mexico the year before, that is 1689, to hunt
or admitted by France; the boundary was disputed out the French remaining of the settlement of La
and never settled; it still remains to be settled; and Salle. Now, what right had the viceroy of Mexico
here is a simple statement of the grounds alleged to hunt out the French who had formed a settlement
by each ofthe parties in support of their claims: under the sanction of their sovereign's authority?
0n; the part qf the United States. You will tell me that from the time when Santa ie,
1. The discovery of the Mississippi, from near its the capital of New Mexico, was built, Spain consi-
source to the ocean, by the French from Canada, in deredallthe territory east and north of that province
1683. as far as the Mississippi and the Missouri, as her
2. The possession taken and establishment made property; that the whole circumference of the Gulf
by La Salle, at the Bay of St. Bernard, west of the of Mexico was hers; and that Philip the second had
rivers Trinity and Colorado, by authority from Louis issued a royal order to exterminate every foreigner
fourteenth, in 1685. who should dare to penetrate to it; so that the
3. The charter of Louis fourteenth to Crozat, in wholequestion of right between the United States
1712. and Spain, with regard to this boundary, centres in
4. The historical authority of Du Pratz and Chan- this-the naked pretension of Spain to the whole cir-
pigny, and of the Count de Vergennes. cumference of the Gulf of Mexico, with the exter-
5. The geographical authority of )e Lisle's map; minating order of Philip the second on one side, and
and especially that of the map of Don Thomas Lopez, the actual occupancy of France, by a solemn charter
geographer to the king of Spain, published in 1762. from Louis fburteenth, on the other. Well might'
These documents were all referred to in the letter Messrs. Pinckney and Monroe write to Mr. Cevallos,
from nMessrs. Pinckney and Monroe to Mr. Cevallos, in 1805, that the claim of the United States to the
of 20th April, 1805. Since which time, and in fur- boundary ofthe Rio Bravo was as clear as their right
other confirmation ofthe same claims, the government to the island of New Orleans!
of the United States are enabled to refer you to the In the letter of Messrs Pinckney and Monroe
following. to Mr. Cevallos, of the20th of April 1805, referring to
6. A map published by Homann at Nuremberg, in the historicaldocuments relativeto the discovery.and
171. ,- il.:' Louisiana, they state that the Hississippi







NILES' REGISTER-MARCH 28, 1818 -RELATIONS WITH SPAIN. 83


-was discovered with "its waters and dependent coun- to found a title, can you talk of the rights of posses-
try as low down the river as the Arkansas, by the s ion derived to Spain from the travels of Ponce de
Sieurs Joliet and Marquette, fiom Canada, as early Leon, Francisco de Garay, and Vasquez de A lion?
as the year 1572, and to its mouth by the tfther Your view of the expeditions and adventures or
Hennepin, in 1680; and by De la Salle and Tonti, La Salle, is equally remote from the real and well
who descended the river with sixty men to the authenticated facts. "Let us see," you say "whai
ocean, and called the country Louisiana, in 1682; importance can be attached to what is said of Ber-
and in respect to the bay of'St. Bernard in 1685." nard [R.-bert] de la Salle, who in 1679 descended
That this was done at these periods in the name and from Canada to the Mississippi, and there built
"under the authority of France, by acts which pro- Fort Crevecoeur according to Mr. du Pratz, or Fort
claimed her sovereignty over the whole country, to Prud'homme, according to others. I/Wht is certain,
other powers, in a manner the most public and so- amounts to this, that lie onlymade a rapid incursion
lemn, such as making settlements and buildingforts from Canada to the Mississippi, as any other ad-
within it." venture might do, crossing the territories of anoth er
To this Mr.Cevallos made no reply in 1805. But nation; that he returned to Quebec, without anyfur-
you, after giving an account of the murder by Spa- their result, than that of an imperfect exploration of
niards of Rene de Laudonniere, observe, that "the the country, and that he embarked at Quebec for
story related of a Recollet Friar, called father Hen- France, from whence he returned in 1684, with an
nepin is still more ridiculo?. who is said to have expedition composed of four vessels, commanded by
been a made prisoner by the Indians at the time they captain Beaujeu to explore the mouth of the Missis-
were at war with the French of Canada, and taken sippi," &c. In this passage you represent,
to the, Illinois, whence he was occupied in exploring 1. The fhets attending the expedition ofLa Salle
the country as far as the banks of the river St. Lou- as uncerrtain.
is or Mississippi, ofwhich he took possession in the 2. That he only made a rapid incursion, as a pri-
nameof Louis the Fourteenth, and gave it the name vate adventurer, and so far as related to his explor-
of Louisiana, (doubtless in his secret thoughts and ing expedition, with an imperfect result.
by a mere mental act.)" You add, that these ac- 3. That he only went fi-om Canada to the Missis-
counts and others of the like nature are "contempti- sippi, and thence returned to Quebec, whence he
ble in themselves, even although the facts they re- embarked for France.
late were authentic, since nothing can be inferred 4 That lie only crossed the territories of another
from them that can favor the idea started by those nation, (meaning Spain.)
who speak of those transient adventures and incur. I examine this part of your note, with a minute-
sions." ness, which will be tedious to vou, because it is pre-
I have in my possession, sir, and it shall when you cisely upon the character of La Salle's expedil ins
please, be subject to your inspection, a volume, pub- that the grant of Louisiana to Crozat, by Louis tle
listed at Paris in the year 1683, the, title of which XIVth, is in express terms founded; because you
is,"Description de Ia Louisi;ae, nouvellenient decou- have represented these expeditions in the colours
verte, au Sud-Ouest de la Nouvelle France, par or- thus marked, with the avowed purpose of'we:-ken.
dre du Roy, dedice a samajeste. Par le R. P. Lou- ing the original title of Louisi ma, and because you
is Hennepin, Missionaire Recollet et Notaire apos- know that the characters, dimnietricallv opposite,
tolique." (Description of Louisiana, recently disco- which I shall now prove to have belonge- to l'hem,
vered to the southwest of New France, by order of must lead to the result of an incontestable title, in
the king. Dedicated to his majesty by the Rev. Fa- France, and consequently, at this time, in the United
their Louis Hennepin, a Recollet missionary and a- States. I answer the above insinuations, in the order
postolic notary.) In the preface to the king, the in which they have been stated.
author says-" Sire, Ishould never have dared to There are three narratives of the expeditions of
take the liberty of offering to your majesty, the nar- La Salle, all published at Paris, by persons who ac-
rative of a new discovery, which the Sieur de la companies him in them.
Salle, governor of Fort Frontenac, my companions The first in 1633, by father Louis Hennepin; the
and myself have just made to the southwest of New same volume from which I have already presented
France, if it had not been undertaken by your orders." you an extract.
"We have given the name of Louisiana to this Tile second by the chevalier Tonti, governor of
great discovery, being persuaded that your majesty Fort St. Louis, at the Illinois, published in 1697.
would not disapprove that a part of the earth water- The third of Joutel, who was with him in his last
ed by a river of more than eight hundred leagues, expedition, and almost by his side when lie fell by
and much greater than Europe, which may be call the hands of an assassin.
ed the delight of America, and which is capable of Of all the heroic enterprises, which in the six-
forming a great empire, should hence forth be known teenth and seventh centuries signalized the disco-
by the august name of Louis, that it may thereby veries of Europeans upon this continent, there is not
have asortof'rightto your protection, and hope for one, of which the evidence is more certain, authen-
the advantage ofbelonging to you." tic, and particular than of those of La Salle.
Now, sir, permit me to request you to compare LaSalle, after having resided many years in Cana-
this authentic statement, with that perversion of all da, as governor of fort Frontenac, formed the pro-
historical evidence, by which you have styled and ject of exploring the country fiom thence to the
have attempted to make the story of father Henne- Gulph of Mexico, and of taking'possession of it, in
pin's discovery of Louisiana ridiculous. Here is a the name of his sovereign. He went to France fbr
book published at Paris, dedicated Louis the XIVth, the purpose of obtaining the sanction to his enter-
at the most glorious period of his reign, declaring prize; "his majesty, (says Tonti,) not content with
to the world the discovery of Louisiana-declaring merely approving his design, caused orders to be
that it was made by his orders, and called by his given to him, granting him permission to go and
name, for the express purpose of entitling it to be- put it- in execution; and to assist him to carry so
come his property. Is this contemptible? Is this vast a project into effect, shortly after the neecessa-
a secret thought, or a mere mental act? Is this a ry succors were furniished him, with entire liberty
transient adventure or incursion? And after calling to dispose of all the countries which he .' dis-
this information too vague an!d uncertain, upon which cover."







84 NtLES' REGISTER-MARCH 28, 1818-RELATIONS WITH SPAIN.

He sailed from La Rochelle the 14th ofJuly, 1678, dred persons, for the purpose of forming a colony at
and arrived at Quebec, the 15th of September. On the mouthof the Mississippi. One of these ships
the 18th of November, of the same year, he left was a frigate of the king, of 40 guns, commanded by
fort Frontenac to proceed upon his expedition with Mr. de Beaujeu, in which La Salle himself, his bro-
thirty men, Tonti and Father Hennepin being of their Cavelier, and the principal persons belonging
the company. After spending more than year in to the expedition embarked. Another was a smaller
traversing the four Lakes, now known by the names armed vessel, which the king had given to La Salle.
of Ontario, Erie, Huron, and Michigan, and erecting The third, a flute of three hundred tons, laden with
forts at suitable places, where he landed, from them all the articles necessary for the settlement of the
he embarked upon the Illinois river, and having de- country; and the fourth, a small sloop of 30 tons,
scended it for somedistance was obligedto stop, freighted for St. Domingo, where the expedition
from the disappointment of losing a boat from which stopped on its way, but before their arrival at which
lie expected supplies. Here, upon the Illinois river, this last vessel was taken by Spanish cruizers. This
he built fort Creveccur-divided his company into expedition sailed from La Rochelle on the 24th of
two separateparties, oneforascending theMississip- July, 1684.
pi to its source, and the other for proceeding down They failed in finding the mouth of the Mississip-
thatriver. Father Hennepin was of the former of pi, their destination; an accident similar to that
these parties, and in their progress upwards, which which had happened to the first settlers of New-
they accomplished higher than the Falls-of St. Antho- England; and after many disasters, landed and built
ny, was taken prisoner by the Indians, and, after some a fort in February, 1685, at the head of the bay of
time, was released by them; found his way back to St. Bern:;rd, or as they call it, of St. Louis, and west-
Quebec, and thence returned to France, and pub- ward of the river Colorado. Beaujeu returned with
wished the book of which I have spoken. In this the frigate to France; the two other vessels were
book, published in 1683, at Paris. and marked as lost in the bay; and La Salle,after several unsuccess-
having been finished printing the 5th ofJanuary. of ful attempts to find the Mississippi, on the 12th of
that year, three months before La Salle had reach- January, 1687, left, at his fort, twenty persons, in-
ed the mouth of the Mississippi, there is a map of eluding seven women, under the command of Le
the river as far down as Hennepin descended it, after Barbier, and took his departure with sixteen others,
lheparted from La Salle, and upwards, to the Falls to go by land to the Illinois, and thence through
of St. Anthony, and the river St. Francis, above Canada to France, to seek further reinforcement and
them; at some distance above which, within a few supplies. On this journey he was basely assassin-
leagues of its source is the Oak Tree upon which ated on the 19th of March, 1687, by two of his own
the u-ms of France were carved, by the detachment men, and left a name among the illustrious discove.
from La Salle's expedition, authenticating with the rers ofthenew world, secondonly to thatofColumbus
most minute precision, the discovery of the Missis- with whose history and adveritures, his own bear in
sippi, to within a small distance of its source, as well many particulars, a striking resemblance. His bro-
as its course to the Gulf of Mexico. On the same their Cavelier, however, with Joutel, father Anastase
map are also marked the fort at the Miamies, and and several others of the party with whom he had
that of Crevecceur, on the Illinois river, construct- commenced the journey, successfully accomplished
ed by La Salle's orders. it, arrived at the French fort at the Illinois, where
In the meanwhile La Salle was obliged to leave they found Tonti stillin command, after having again
the other part of his company, under the command been down to the mouth of M ississippi, conforma-
of Tonti, and.go back to Fort Fronte: ac, for the sup- bly to his orders from La Salle, to meet the expedi-
plies and reinforcements which had failed him, by tion from Europe, and after waiting some time there,
the loss of his boat. lie returned and joined them returning to his post. From the fort at the Illinois,
again, in November 1682, proceeded down the Mis- Cavelier, Joutel, and father Anastase, proceeded to
sissippi, and to the mouth of the Wabash, where Quebec, and thence returned to France, where they
they built the fort Prud'homme, which you have arrived in October, 1688, and where Joutel publish.
confounded withthat of Crevecc-ur, after which they ed the narrative of the expedition, to which I have
continued descending and successively meeting the referred.
Cappa, Arkansas, Tensas, Abenake, Tacucas, and From this work of Joutel it likewise appears,
Natchez Indians, and, on the 7th of April, 1683, that.the fort and colony left by La Salle at the west-
reached the mouth of the Mississippi, where, after ward of the Colorado, was destroyed, not as you
the religious solemnity of a Te Deum, they took state by the Indians, but by the Spaniards fi-om
formal possession oftthe country, erected a cross, Mexico; who, until that time, had never had any
fastened the arms of France upon a tree, and built settlement of any kind, nearer than Panuco, and
several huts, which they surrounded with suitable who, by your own account, had no other right or
intrenchments. La Salle, having thus accomplished authority for this act, than the royal order of Phi-
the object of his expedition, returned by the same lip the Second, to exterminate all foreigners pene-
way, ascending the river, to his fort of Prud'homnme, treating into the Gulf of Mexico.
which he reached on the 12th of May, and where The settlements ofLa Salle, therefore, at the head
lie was some time detained by sickness. -'On his of the bay of St. Bernard, westward of the river
arrival at Quebec, (says again Tonti,) he informed which lhecalled Riviere aux Boeufs, but which you
the whole city of his great discoveries, and of the call Colorado of Texas; was not, as you have repre-
voluntary submission of so many different Indian sented it, the unauthorized incursion of a private
nations to the power of the king, A Te Deum was adventurer into the territories, of Spain, but an es-
celebrated as a thanksgiving for this happy accession tablishment having every character that could sanc-
totheglory ofthecrotwn, The eagerness ofMr, de tion the formation of any European colony upon
La Salle to goand makeknown to theking and his this continent; and the viceroy of Mexico had
ministers the success of his travels, obliged him to no more right to destroy it by a military force,
hasten his departure. He left Canada in the begin- than the present viceroy would have, to send an
ningof October, 1633." On his return to Francelie army and destroy the city of New-Orleans. It
was received with many marks of distinction by the was a part of Louisiana, discovered by La Salle un-
king and his ministers, and a.new expedition der formal and express authority from the king of
was fiti'd out of four yessels and nearly three huu- France; and the royal exterminating order of Philip







NILES' REGISTER-MARCH 28, 1818-RELATIONS WITH SPAIN. 85


the second, was but one of the multitude of sangui- Of f, t,:n.a ':r ,n,'l ; ,1;- ,, i c: i,,, .,;t ,',. i. .'.n,and
dwell .',,,v u.. I,.k. a rh, ..,,, i.. ,l,,,r ?r,' I ..-. .,here il
Inary acts which signalized the reign and name of not,.,. L. t- -.' ,.. I ,, .,.,-. corn
that monarch, while the name of La Salle is entitled forts and enjoyments of life, to the genius alid energy of La Salle.
to stand high in the glorious roll of the benefactors was in the order of Providence, that he should lt live to
tconplish the whole I f,, *.,, il 0;,;- b "I ai ,h should so .;eady
of mankind. After this statement, founded upon the accomplish it as to 1'- ..I ,. ,jr r ..1 ,: 1 events, that it
most authentic documents, the foundation of the should perish with him. His project was revived immediately after
preside of Te s, i 1693, as y your o h the peace of Rswick. and settlements were effected by d'Ib;crvilie
residio of Texas, in 1693, was by your own show- d his brother, near the inoutlof the Mississippi. upon the gul" of
ing. an unlawful encroachment upon theterritories of N[t; ,,., i. i ,,, ,. .. ;... ,i,. ..arof
F9ance, which bv the first of the three principles '. ,,,' .- .' .,: w -..t 'I *..-* .. t was
,*. t .d r.,,L,: .i : ;i.i ,. .'!. .f. I i u an afier t-h:c peace of
laid down by Messrs. Pinckney and Monroe, at A- `i., ,, : N, .v ,. ... .. i ater th iia e
ranjuez. and above referred to, extended on the coast i r., : .. .....i-. .. .. .I %Ico cold have exter-
of the Gulf of Mexico, half way to the nearest Gna- miiiated 'lberville and lis expelditioi, ino Preneh settlement on tie
gulf, weld have beero made. fhe Spanih establishment uti ens a
nish settlement of Pantco, namely to the Rio Bravo. cola had been made only one monllti before he arrived there, ansd
Your' thorough investigation" ofthe historyoftheoriginalFrenrch ..i Ii I ii,. I.,il,, .. ( l..ventinghin. The Slpanuiards protiestda
settlements at the Illinois, and the Arkansas, is as unfortunate, and ..,,e r..i ,, .. 1., .,i I .. > i ,. ,Ir.. I rien
as wide from the facts, as all the rest of your dissertation upon the the French settlement 1\ ,. .. Lr: ,,t 1. a.i 'j,..11 .i ,a(eily at-
history of Louisiana. The Lbllowing translated extracts from the terwards, was founded the post at Adaes. Wherever a Frenchman
work entitled "DernieresDecouvertes, dans 1'Ameriqne Septentri- took a seat there appeared a Spaniard from Mex I.. ... .!: ...i,
onaled M. de a Salle, mises anlour parM.le Chevalierde Tonti, righttoit; hutthe original usrpiatioin, which visih1 ,i ...
gouvernmur dii fort St. Louis, auix Illinois," (Last discoveries in ihilowed, was the foundation of the Presidlo of T. ... .....
North America. of Mr. de la Salle, published by the chevalier Tn. .r i. i .. i. ... :. ..ii .t the b:y of St. Hernard. And
ti, governor offoirt St. Louis, (at the Illinois, Paris, 1697) will fur- t i .... r.... r i.... ,, ...... .. or abdiicting any part of the
nish you more correct ideas .i ..' ri, i right asserted in the charter to Crozat, that under the lisi. ippi
Whenii La Salle left his fort -,- -. ,, .i :.,- the 8th of Novpmblitr, conipany Mr. de BouIrnion was apple cited, wilt a salary, i.s cin)iiiin-i.
1680. to go back to Canada for supplies, "on the third day (says danit on the Missouri, and Berinard a H-arpe, com;iiind;uiti, for the
Tonti) lie arrived at the great village of the Illinois, where, afier bay of st. Bernurd. II ,,,. '- 1, he went there, and left tnew
having observed the situation of tie country, in the midst of ilnpression of the ... ,t us a continued assertion of tlh
several nations of the Mialmis, Kieapoos, Ainoos, Mescontaws, title. A vessel c ...,- .1 i I ........ .. ...... eint there, and
and several others, watered by a beautiful river, he thought lie halI ief'ta sergeai ..i '... .. .. I .i l rlhe orrlespoln
ought to buildafort ..,, ,,..% ,.L, ..i;.,, i,. i.. ..,,,. deiuce beti een Di II j .'. .1.. .i... ... the respective
as well to make hill. II 'r, I .11 ii .,. .1i r. il, ir., ., i clain s both of Fluneeand Spaim atthtat tin', iur do thev appeal. to
serveasa retreat and a rampart for our Freinch peoplee' (p. 91.) have been, nor have )ou exhibited any docuniI)nt to shov that they
Mr. lde la Salle, after learning" tllat his boat was "lost, was not in hal; beion,in aiy) miianner var'icd, until tlheeession of the province i;
the least discomposped, hut wrote to me immediately, sent ine with Spai in i Novelmber, 1762.
his letter thep plan of the fort that he had designed, and ordered i, Youi alirmn, that "fro, thle year 1693 the eproviince of Texas has
to cone and set to workiupontit without dela) T..ti: .... -.:.. conetiilued il perfect ttianqiiliti under the Spanish government. and
ly went and began the building of the fort, .. .i, i., ... *' it .r.. I I ... I tihe Freich Inpenr* t .inia -nv
untowardI events, lie was soon obliged to abandon. La Salle after- I !.. I. I- i. I I ia Harpe to de-n .1 -t I 1. .:
wards, before rejoining 'Toti to proceed down the river, went to Ine. of Sth July. 1719, is sufficient to refute this assertion.
tie new fort,and left several wor kmen to continue, and same so)- You assert, that thie Frtinch settlements of Natchelz alld Natchi-
diers to guard it. But it was upon his return from the nouth of touches, were made only through ihe suflfrlance or permission of the
the M ississippi, on leaving Michilimarlkidnae, to go to Franee, that Spanish governors, for the sole purpose of trading with the Indians.
he ep:iv orders to Tonti to finish the fort. We say that you hv.. I '. .." I ,T i.isa.s
S ....I nme with the duty to go and finish fort St. Louis of seCition, and that the I. I ......I .. .. I the
which ihep gav e e the government, with a full power to dispose aof 'i ... .. I l'* was established
lhe lands in lie neighborhood, and left all his people under i ..I1 ,1 .. i-. u.... I,.i hestablislnint
miy coiniand, with the exc-eption of six Frenchmoen, whom he i ...I i .. i ,. i.- i, i took with lnii to accompany hli to Qitebee. Wedeparted on tile '' :,i ... ,o it. You admit, yourself, that although
S...... F ., i i .. ,i,. Illinois. it.. .. .. *.. .. -.I by the Spanish governors, to diiv e tile
S.. .. ... .. .. t round which a regular nd i e li r the whole district, and to destroy both the posts of
-p.1 .nl.n..d, iir ..1s i i. i [ h,, v ,. 1, I ., c z a. 1' r .. i 1.. i. i i,. .,I ..I ii .
displaced him in t eche d f t e ih .. .. i r,. ...,, lot heord .1.,. .. ....., i ..ii:... .... .I .. ,.. .
through the influence ofLa Salle by a regular colnmission from tle iiacl:cded tu i .. .,i .. i... ,r, .. ,, ,,
king, Louis the 14th. 1H, ido0, i.' i ... ... in .1.- ,,1 1.I.. I ,.. ...
So ituch for the settlement at the Illinois. You have seent that I .i ., i,. .. .. ,.. .. ,. .... ... i .,. i .... .
when La Salle, in 1683, returned to Frallee, to fit out the new cxpe. I ,. r, i '1, 1 .,. i ...,, ,.... II ...,ii .,. .. ..I' I. .. ..
edition for the mouth o 'the lississippii. he ordered I'onti, at the Iiro- *. .. ... I r, ,r ,, .roufcoul be required, that
l .'. I ..i ,, I .. i .,. .i i i ,.,. erhitl tbir'le. In the I the I'renelh never Ireilnoteed their claiml to the countries watered by

La Salle had sailed from La Rochl ellt .. .. i ii i .1 ... i .. .. I.. ,,., ir, i ., ...,, ,,,,,., I .-... ..
Mexico. He,tlireibrefe,tookLw itlh in: I, **. r i *. i. ..i' .. i ...... L ..,,,
and wentdown the river to the gulf. where he waited until Easter I I i .. ... L ... -....i .......
Monday. 1655, for La Salle's arrival He was illiged to go ncback. I .... ., ,. i, .. .. i 'h. i. 1 r ,
disappointed, ald on his way upwards, when lie eaine to the Arkan- Il' .. 1 ,, ,, ,. *, ..... .. .... ,,1 ... ,,
sas, iesays, "muy Freich ncoipnlions, delig ted with tli beauty ofe i i *i '.'* I *I r' .. .... r, ., .. ,( .
the climate. asked my permission to Lettle there. As our itiention ,i .i ... I,, i. .. S,
wason ...., ,,, 1,, i i., : ,,:.. .;i. i tiun of l is proper extent and limits, I ," '
theml, .Ir, ,. i ... I ,I- 1 i ) r your asusertiul.s. Permit mne to observe I 1. .I .i.. p.P-, -.,l ,i...
I r.[.. i,' ,, i .. .. : itself; t tlm ightbe a subject o i ... t r
.I. i... i.ll,. I. I.. ., .r .... 1. iI 1..I1,, 1 l l .,, I .. produced it, you cannot expectit should be considered as
;*.. .. ......I! ..., hrr ,. ,(r...' 1 1 r ,. t. ..... til uIr .. .. .l h'I di h... ., ..,, I ,. i ,.,. -folis thefsu rh
--1I .1 .1 II Ir.. 1, 1 .... 1.. ... r rI... ... ** s.. by .... L ... 1.s '.. '. from the subls -
creased and multiplied that it has become a resting place for the qjent ,men .. ...... ... t.,t .tf,, i, ,
'renchnmen who travel in ithat country. the United States can i 1., ... .. ... I i .,....... ,.
Itrustl, ir, we shallhear no more of the independent antd uncon- i ..i" t '. 'r i r'. ..,.,i,,,,. I, i.. i i ..1. .. i .. ,.
ectded Itaitan colonies of the Illinois and the Arkiansai; nor uftlle .. rI .. i,.. .uaostrationsol the Spanilsh
'pretended settlement of the French there. I .i I' 1 ... ,1. I .1 i', with these,you will do well
You consider the charter of Louis the 1.thi to Crozat,as a solitary to spare yourself und ime the waste of time, which it would take to
.' ,.,,, i, .inrii i i. .. r i.,,. i. i et I I ,, I p 1 ., .I otiee them. You have the goodness to inform mle,
I hl .. IIi I I I.. .. r .. ,j ..I I. ... .i -. i .,. th e k inl yetour Ii .. .. ., ii1 1.
S r r ..... i r., .i' 1700. I h ve shown i right to ill the right: bank of ,i.- I. .. i i .
you, sir, that that expedition was fittedout, asi i is represented in hlas resolved to cliim it, solely i. i .i.... .
the grant to Crozat. merely to carry ..... ri, ..'.. ,; Ipossidetis of 1764 If ,,, .,11' ] i,:' :.-!.,.- .Mi... i ,
finally fa rmed by La Salle. The 1i. ... .. .. i ... I I .- ., .,i I. ..... ,,j ...I. .1
to the oceai, had been discovered by him in an expedition mIeditat. ...... .. I t .n.I .I States, with all the attention to whicil
ed by him for many years before, for which he had obtained the au- it call beentitled. In the mean time you cannot but perceive, th:t
i,,., F. ..., I ,,; i ,. i ii, i,.-.. th .....,. .. ,i- .. ... this retention is utterly incompatible bo th with that advanced in
S" i- ... i ,' *. another part of your note, of a right in Spaii to the whole circtuli-
ly an envious rival attempt, to foiestal the 1 .I- l.h was erenc of the gulf of' Mexieo, and with that of the uti poosidetit of
even -i ... i, l.,... 1. .1 i. T I i .. I' ,I. had 1764.
already, L- ..- i ... i ,,,. ......-,, I .1- Joliet The question of disputed boundaries between European settle.
reached the Mississippi anid returned without making any other dis. nentts in America is not new. From the nature of those settlements,
covery or aly settlement; but La Sal!e's unldertakingd has every ehal.- 1' I .I: -. .,.. i.,. i i ,. i ...
Maeteristicof sublime genius, maguaniimous enlterprize, and hervie i. I. 11..t ...0! I- ,, .. i. '..... t ..
execution. To hini, and ti him alone, the people of this continent the grasping spirit by whiel they were all more or less animated in
iire indebted fir- th,. ,i- r, r ltr its source to the ocean, of the ifoming them, it was inevitable thai disputed boundaries should he
Missi -ppi, i I .t, i .-i,! df tiem ntrhts, ili(ono an aplie-rttg to thIem a t. -t'. i.. .. 1










aG NILES' REGISTER-MARCH 28, 1818--RELATIONS WITH SPAIN.


gave the most memorable example,by the original pretension of en. It may he proper here to present some obvious remarks upon
grsssilng to hermeif tie whole American hemisphere. The common the frequent appeals to the opinions and assertions of France
sPise and common feeling of mankind could not and did not long! (under tihe government of Napoleon) in reference to the cuntro-
tolerate this assumption. With what lingering reluctance, and by versy between the United States and Spain, which were made
what ungracious gradations Spain was compelled to recede from it, :by Mr.Cevallusat Aranjieez, in 1805, and which are now repeated
-it notorious in the annals of the last three centuries; but it is among by you, with as much confidence as if yon considered France, as
the most curious characteristics ofyour notes to show, thatshe clings 'then governed, the most impartial of umpires, and the most disin-
to these long exploded pretensions still. You have not serupled, itercsted of friends.
'vitn at this day, to style the most ancient settlements of other At that time, when these opinions and representations of France
EIurop ean natil ilsin Anmerica, "attempts to disturb the Spaniards in wer alleged by Mr. Cevallos, they were answered by the American
their possessions in the New World." j ni ters with the irimness which became the representatives of a
You recall to mind with exultation, as if pointing to the most great and independent nation, and with the sentiment, at once of
splendid monumentsof Spanish glory,the ferociousness with which their county's dignity, and of the respect due to the government
they attacked.and made prisoners,and put to death, and overthrew, ofFrance, with which the United States were in amity. With
dissipate. i anI destroyed the forts and settlements of Francis Ii- regard to the eastern limits of Louisiana, they observed that the
baut, anil Renue de Laudonniere, thle companion of Coligny. You question depending upon the construction of a treaty to which the
recite with triumph the expedition of Alonzo de Leon, to scour United States were a party. thie opinion of France concerning it
lie country and hunt out the wretched remnant of the brave and could be of no more weight, in itself than that of the United States.
enterteriziing but unfortunate La Salle's establishment. You re- That in adopting the phraseology of the treaty of St. Ildephonso,
cord, is one ofyour proudest title deeds, the rigorous .execution of when France declined substituting a more specific definition of
the sentence of a court martial upon the Spanish governor of boundaries, tie United States could not be supposed to have siub
Adaes, Sandoval, for yielding a musket shot's length of ground to j-eted themselves to the subsequent explanatory restriction by
the Freach governor of Nachitoches, suffering under the calamity France, of that which site then chose to leave standing upon the
of an inundation. You call the whole colony of Louisiana an in- force ofithe terms themselves; and that, the delivery of the province
trusic i, .. ..,k t k i, ,i.,...l. t', i.. ,t: Louis tile four- by the coullmlissioner of France to the United States. having been
tct-.iillh ttli h i ,,I 1- .1 l ... I .1I 1I ... i .)I -.. I iil, .f --it ,. ...... i.. ... tion, it was obvious that lie had relieved it alike
:;ssertmlore than once aright of Spain to the 1 .u.- .-. i i '' *i l. ...-.. .....
t&i the Gulf of Mexico, and talk of the territo., .. I ...-1......,. A i ".', I the French spoliatiotns within Spanish jurisdie*
the crown of Spain, as if we were living in the age of Ferdinand tion, while the interest of France was so immediate and direct, as
rile catholic, or of Charles the fifth. to take t'in her opinion all right to the consid,-ration dtu- to an
To all such pretensions on the part of Spain, I am directed to iispiartial arbitrator, it was supposed that the proper view of tile
inforntl you, tht thet United States call never accede. The pre- subject hadi niot been presented to the, e liperor; andi the most un-
s ident is willing to lhope that tl t.. ii n 7n. .. ,cal demonstration was given, that no indemnity or satis-
t7ovlrainenit w ill become sensible of -' .... :- ,.. i :i :s'. .,f." had been received, or even demanded, from France, by
ltemn. the United States, for this description of injuries.
Fronm the time when lthe establishments of European nations on At this day your government must be aware that tile umpirage,
these continents became common, and their respective claims of and even the opinions, of France upon these questio.Is, was liable
reeritory under the charters of theirsovereigns were found to inter- to otherand still more decisive objections. Of the use which France
f-re with one another, reason, justice, and necessity concurred in was already making, atd was further contemplating to male, of
: ,..' iat to them certain rulrs and principles, for the adjust- Spain, of her revenues and possessions, nIt tonly in EuIrope, but
i their coullicting claims. By these rules and principles w,- iii every other quarter iX i. .1 t little needs to be said. 'hat
are willing that the quitstion of the western boundary of Louisiana she was conv-ertiuS to .. I,. I irr own all the resources of
inav be decided. Till Spain, who has repeatedly acceded to them Spain, has lieen, since then too sigmally manifested to the world
tieretolore, shall be prepared to abide by them on this occasion, it to require further eluicidation. It was impossible for her to recog-
will be of little avail to pursue a discussion, upon which the princi- nize that Spain was bound to indemnify the United States for the
tp s of the parties are utterly irreconcilable together, spoliations of French eruizers within Spanish jurisdiction, without
With regard to the third of the subjects of difference between acknouwle:lging lerself the debtor of Spain to tile same amount.
Spain and tlhe United States, that remains to be adjusted, the fo call for ler testimony, therefore, was to claim her as a witlless
-f .,.1,,,,; i ., ,i, i.i I.,-, i. .. ii 1 images, suffered in le-r own cause; to appeal to ler opinions was to make her the
i, ,. .- .. ,- I, : ..... i I. I.o .. ...d subjects, and judge of her own delinquencies. By conutenanciing Spai inn the
-.lllh. i .ti Sp Iti j.-it..h( .I..., i II. -1 ..i II I...-i. lie tenor of your denialof justice to others, site did but reserve her as a richer spoil
note, devoted particularly to the consideration of this point, that for herself; nor can it be dissembled, that the recourse of Spain,oi
it is not absolutely unsuseeptible of being brought to a favorable that occasion, was rather to the predominating power than to the
issIe. You express tile willingness of your government to resume justice of France. These observations are made, not with the
thle unratified convention of 1302, and to extend its stipulations to view of reproacihing Spain now, tbr the compliance with which
lhe casts iof complaint ofa similar character to those provided far she then sought anld obtained thie declarations of France in her
in it. which have since that time accrued. It is undoubtedly the favor, upon her controversies with the Unit-d States, but to show
intention of this government, that its engagements should be reci- the solid and i. I- .I. Ail. rounds upon which the United States
proeal, and if this was not expressly declared in my note of the may refuse all 1. Ir.. c-. I t the opinions, and disclaim all credit
16th of January, it was merely because the president was not aware to the statements of France.
that any such claims of Spanish subjects, for indemnities from At tile time when France had ceded Louisiana to the United
tle Amnerican government were in existence. Iam authorized to States, her good offices with Spain to secure the acquisition of
assure you that there will lie no difficult in including any such Florida to the United Statrs, hadd been rt. l;.itis w.I-.i.-id. The
as may exist in the convention, and in making the United States letter of Mr. Moiroe to Mr. Talleyrand -.1 '.i. N .. *,h r. O 1804, ill
answerable for all indemtnities which may I e justly due by them. reminding Iimn of that -a '.. .... had sufficiently shown, that
As youl have ailso been empowered to include the cases of injuries the government of the ".-ii .1 I in calling upon France for
and losses of citizens oftihe United States, in consequence of t ie the performance of her promise, Iad ino intention of admitting her
suppression by the Spanish intendant of the deposit at New Or- to arbitrate upon the extent of the concession wshicl liad been
leans, as stipulated by the treaty of 27th October, 1795, it cannot made by herself 'Trueit is that she not only espoused the side of
ie neeessary fbr ime to reply to ylr objections against the adois- Spain, as considering it her own, but sie even stimulated Spain,
sion of those claims. I the more readily pass over that argument, to the denial of justice to the United States. As her motives, it
because. as it is merely a repetition of what was urged on the same Spain could be doubtful of them then, must he abundantly noto-
point by Mr. Cevallos ill 105, it may suffice to refer -you. flr a rious now, it could scarerly have been expected that Spain should
f'uli tul complete refutation of it, to tile letter from Messrs Pinuck still recurto them, as entitled to the slightest consideration or credit.
lit v and lMonroe to hitm, 26th February of that year. There is no principle of the law of nations more firmly estab-
S utt even upion this branch of the niegociation, it is with regret listed that tlat ws hich entities the property of strangers,within the
that the president perceives a persevering determination of your jurisdiction of a country in frieudshllip with their own, to tile pro
S., 11, i e cloud tiron the consideration of the colminlssion- section of its sovereign, by all the efllrts in his power. This comn-
*. I ... ,.demlnities, the cases of American sufferers by mon rule of intercourse between all civilized nations, has, between
6, .. o.... committed within tie jurisdiction of Spain. In the United States ain Spain, the further and solemn sanction of
answer to your rcti:rence to thie arguments ofMr. Cevallos on this an express stipulation by treaty. In violation both of the coinr
point, in his notes to Messrs, Pinckney and Monroe, oft 0th Feb- mon usage of nations, and of the express promise of Spain in the
rultrir, lnd 5 [- Marlel .80ol. it will be suHcieent for me to refer treaty, nearly two hundred vessels and their eargoes, belonging to
vo, to their letters to him of 28th January, 12th and 26td Feb. 8th citizens of the United States, were seized, many of them within
March, Otth April.and :2tl May. with tie st atement then made by the territorial limits of Spain, and under the eannon of her for-
them of French aptrof A riauvesses f tria ve carried into the ports tresses, by French cruisers; and all of them were condemned with-
of Spain,and the demonstration that no indemnity for any one of!in S, 'i.I i.. ; ..;.
those cases hiad -ven .. ,.1 .e ,,.i .. i., A i,. .- c.jvernnent,' Y. u .. -. ,i.ir Spain has, in the cases to which refer-
of France, much less I,- ...i I I i. ..i, -.... between the[-ence is now made, actually carried into effect the obligations con-
United States andl France, of 1800 and 1803. When you say that tracted hy treaty; thit shie lists used all tier efforts for the defence
"no reply was made on the part of the Uniidl States, weakening and protection of this property. But in what have these efforts
in the least the force of the principles and tie truth of the facts, consisted? These were not cases of vessels seized by sudden vio-
on wlichl the opposition of Spnain to a respoJtibility for those damn. lence and carried away beyond her jurisdiction, before the officers,
ges and in tjsri es was foundcld," it is impossible to account for your appointed f;:r the execution of her laws, could be apprized of the
isstrtion. but by -.pp.. i '. ... have not been furnished by your wrong, and summoned to the performance of their duties. They
government with .% .I1 rie above mentioned statement. I are not cases of eiandstine depredations, eluding the vigilance of
hleref'ore nowl enclose (E. 5.) a copy of i, in v-hich you will find the magistrates; they are cases of friendly mierehants and naviga-
Iot groilsy miistaken, with regard to the facts, ire all the allcga- tors fret-quenting the ports of Spain, uponl the faitl! of treaties, and
ii;llis in the letter of the French minister of foreign relations to ad- for purposes (if a mutual beneficial intercourse, seized, some o f
niral Gravina, of 27th July. 18sol, of which you havy- inserted in theu in the very harbors of' Spain, by foreign cruizersdragged
your note an entire eopyi and of which Mr. Cevallos had already on Spanish ground before a foreign consul, and there plundered
Lthored Messrs Pinckney anld MonrUou \ith an extract,










NILES' REGISTER--MARCH 28, tS118--RELATIONS WITH SPAIN. 87


of their property, before the face of the lawful authorizes of Spain, emitted to the federal government." To every thing that han the
who neither raise a voice nor lift an arm for their defence. What semblance of reason and argument, adduced in the successive notes
then havw been all the efforts of Spain for the protection of this of Mr. Cevallos, the American ministers teimpLrately and patiently
property, conforn'bly to the treaty? replied; they unotlded with a clearness and precision to which north
You say-Secondly, that Spain was not responsible for these de- ifii can now ie added, the claims of the U. States, and the facts and
tredations, because they were made by a nation with which the principles by which they were supported. They proposed, at tile
United States were not at war; and this you say immediately after commencement of the negotiation, a project of a convention filt
quoting the words of the 6th article of the treaty, expressly stipu- the adjustment of all the interests in dispute. After all the subjects
lating protection and defence in the ports of Spain to the vessels had been thoroughly discussed, they presented a second project,
and other effects of citizens of the United States, "whether they modified in the most conciliatory spirit of accommodation to S;,in,.
are at war, or not. with the power whose subjects have taken pos- They invited and reiterated, ahl ost to importunity, the invitation
session of said erectse." to a counter project, or proposals on the part of the Spanisl go-
You observe-Thirtdly, That France and Spain were then allies, vernment. These unwearied efforts were met by a constant, inva-
in a war against Englaind; and that Spain could not prevent tihe riable, inflexible refusal either to accept their proposals or to make
,; .- f hier ally from entering her ports. But it is not that to them any whatsoever in return.
it. Fr privateers were allowed to enter the portsof Spain, of You speak ofthetitles,date,.. ., ., i;...,,...-. r..*d
which tle United States complain, but that they were suffered on the"part of Spain at the i.. .;. l..,...rt.....,I ".,.. 1.,
to n.ake prizs, ani the French consuls 'to condemn them, within abundant and irresistible evidence the rights of the Spanish monar-
the territorial jurisdiction of Spain. You refer to the decision of chy to the territory in question."
a subordinate iritish court of dndmiralty, that the prizes of a bel- If such had been the facts, where would be the pretence that the
ligerent may he earrietl into tthe ports of art ally, and there law- American ministers had prematurely suspended or given up the
fully condemned; hut surely you do not mean to contend, that the negotiation? But Mr. Cevallos produces no such titles, dates or do-
decisions of an admiralty court of one nation constitute the law of cuments; tlhe only title ever alleged by him in support of the p.e-
nations. or can even be adduced as authority for others. Of this tensions of Spain was the title of retrocession, applied to the treaty
principle at least, there canl le no doubt, that an alliance between of St Ildephon so; the only date was that of 1690, which he assigi:-
two nations cannot absolve either of them from the obligations of ed as the period of the first Spanish settlement of Texas, twich
previous treaties. Now thetreaty between Spain andthe United date was five years later than the settlement of La Sail", it the
States, hy which Spain was bound to protect the property of Ame- head of the Bay of St. Bernard; and the only documents were the
rican citizens within her jurisdiction, was concluded before theal- dictatorial and menacing testimonials of ile French minister II'
liance between Spain and France had been contracted; and the al- foreign relations. That all the titles, dates and documents tihe!
fiance could in no wise impair the rights of the citizens of the referred to, were insufficient in the estimation of your own go-
United States to the protection of their property, stipulated in vernment to establish the rights which you have claimed, is maini-
theirfavor by the antecedent engagement of Spain. lest Ironi the effort you have made to bring forward others, and
Your fourth and last expedient, for relieving Spain from respon- from the character ofthose to which you have resorted,an unknown,
sibility for these losses and injuries, suffered by American citizens and it is believed, imaginary, treaty of 1764, and a royal extermi-
tupon her territory, is the positive assertion, that satisfaction has eating order of Philip the second.
already been made for them by France; your only voucher for You perceive, sir, that the government of the United States is
which is the letter of the 27th .1lly, 180.1, from Mr. Talleyrand to not prepared either to renounce any of the claims which it has been
admiral Gravina. Tlhe assertions of that letter I have shown, by so lung urging upon tile justice of Spain, or to acquiesce in any of
reference to indisputable documents, are utterly without founda- those arguments which appear to you so luminous and irresistible.
tion. Determined to pursue the establishment of their rights, as long as
Your subsequent offer, of the good offices of your government, by any possibility they can be pursued through the paths ofpate,.
near that of the present court of France, to obtain indemnities for they haveacquiesced, as the message of the president at the coam-
American citizens bfr French deprepations committed within Spa- mencemient of tie present session of congress has informed you,in
nish jurisdiction, by virtue of an alliance between Spain and Napo- that policy of Spain, which has hitherto procrastinated the amicable
lei,. you doubtless did not expect to be accepted. It is to Spain adjustment of these interests, i.-r 1,... .. i I .... ,. ,i to t'Ieir ir.-
alone, sir.t that e United States still look, and will continue to portance to this union, nor fri...- .,r. ,.......,,,..: I.. the object oi
look, as they always have looked, Ior those indemnities, for which beiig upon cordial terms of', .. ,. ;. i.. ,l i,.. ..
Spain aloneisa responsible to then. I a instructed to renew to o is amlongi the dearest and lnc I .....,, r ..,. i i.. 1..., ,,,
the declaration, repeatedly made by the miinister of the United because they have .o1 ... I. r,.i1, ...I li i .,,;r ; ie, .,I....1 i
States to your government at Aranjuez, in 1805, that no satisfacto- to the principles of I .. .. .. I r, I ,' I i.. i ,
ry arrangement canl he made of the differences between the two nations, to wait for the favoriale operation of time upoin ithepreji-
countries, which shall not include the adjustment of these injuries, dices and plassilons opposed to them, than to resort to the iuntlnece
Before bringing this reply to your four successive notes to a close, scary agency of force. After a lapse of thirteen years of patient
it is necessary to advert to several incidental assertions and remarks, fbrbarlance, iln .;. iior the moment when Spaini should find h:
which you have made in relation to the negotiation at Aranjuez, expedident to :a,. r ii. ,r constant desire of bring ng to a happy,-
equally destitute of foundation, with the claim and pretensions, to and harmoniious termination all the conflicting interests betwvteil
whiliel this letter has already replied. them. it will need little additional effort to wait somewhat longer
In your note of the 29th Detember you affirm, that the negocia- with the same expectation. The president deems this course even
tionat Aranjuez was "early interrupted," and in that of tile 24th Ja- more advisable, than that of referring the questions pending be-
nuary, to-coneirm the assertion, that if all the diffrences between teen the two nations to the arbittamnent or mediation of one or
th,. ...., ,, ,:, i,,. ,.. It ;i been adjusted, it has not de. more friienlly Eulropean powers, as Vou have been aothoriz.,d i.
,,i..i .. ., r.,,,.i. u. 1i p ,ii-, you siay that this is "evident. propose. The statement inl your note of the 10th of Februari iat
I. .,'.1 II.. C. ,' I- ... .. .ir,. i 1... the otfcial correspondelne reference to th sis souject s t ,i,.. ri .. .1. TL is not the
between his catholic majesty's minister of state and the pleoipoten- Brltish goverlllent which, oil til, ... ,i... .' 1 i-.b, b ut t"ii-
tl.,: 11, I .. i;. ,u i t.....t...i ..a .o suspe sded a d ins'e up1 government, which, without first emo sultiiztir C. '. .' .. i eonCeua
i,,, Ii, c,.o .. \.. i... o, r ,..-lc obstinately refused to ac- re 'tce of teit United States, has requested the ,e,,. ..., of Great
,, r ,, .1.. i ......1 .I ...,,..i justice, which were propos- Britain. .The Brriti iri n-rniillt as must e well kno\wnto you
tedlblth( 1. h nave declined the .1I ,. 11 c,.' tion, unless it should be re
The i, i ,ii..I..I ih h I. .l11 i .. '' 'i the United States at quested by hatlh parti-s; and have collumunicat.d t l 2.. i -,
Arnjtiue ,... .... ,. ,'. I I ,- .Iy tive mlontlhs,from the iiient of the United Slates, this overture, On t til 1I I "' I
beginning o. January. when Mr. Monroe arrived at ladrid, to the The pr i i.i. i I i. i, motives which h as ni
22d of Miay. when lie took leaveof the king. to returnto Lundo l.- doubt ,r i .I' ... J i.. I i ., 0 t .. i. o great Britailn ..
In his address to the king on that occasion he said, "on my arrival to decline uniting ill tlis request. He is, indeed, 'iflly r i ..i
here, I had tie hoor to assure your majesty. of the high considera- that. notwithstanding :i g r. i .... I... .- h. i;..ii ... r.e-
tion of my gi'vertnmenlt for your majesty's person and goverLnment, Illenit may have heretol r.. i' i,. I i. .. '1.1 i
I thliu hoped to have had ihc honor to conclude the special ..i..;.. i.'-ii r in cI .i ti ..'-iro i ll. l ..l'.] I, *...- I. l.... ti. ... o .1 i
with which I was charged inconjunction with ltie minister 1.1. ..... ..... .. i .*I. Ilf a mediato". Hit it luis hiilerto been the
r Ii. ,, l.I 1~.,.. i t 1.1 .1 I..11 ,. I.l' .u ... i,,l iod 1i "i. i .i; l,,. .I' I I L-I'I ,.I 1 i.i i-ealndof the United States. to keep aloof from
i i i,'i,,, ,,i i I it *' ,.r .a of' each other. The Eu ope ian strites
i ...r, ,, ,, t t '. ,,, ". ,. i, ". .. I.. I ,. .. I connect ed wi t h one another by a multi-
-..... .. often i t ir ,,, .. i,. .. I .. .. .'' r... r and relations, 'with which the United
.: .,, r., .. ,. ,...,, L..-.. .... ."' .... i. i ti. whi c tl ey have always imanifested tly
This assertion, made to the king of Spain in person, t the close determiination not to interfere, and of which, no com6nitniciatio be-
of the mission, was fully warranted by tlhe transaction unler it.- ing" mailed to theml by the governments of EuropIe, thteRy lhave not iln-
Every one of the tonies, isnoiwinelded in your notes, as enlbracing formation, collpetelt to enable thllem to estimate their extent and
all the subject of di'ferenee between tile two countries were dis- bearings. The United States. in justice to themselves, in justice to
cussed at great length, much .in the same manner which Nou have that harmlony \lhielh they earnestly desire to cultivate with all the
now insisted upon repeating. The questions of ind iti for ps of id niti, or pocr of Europe, ii justice to that fulimame:tal system of police
spoliations, Spanish and French, and for the suppression of tie whiicl forbids them froml entering the labyrinth of it.nipean politics
d'posite at New-Orleanis; of the eastern and of the western houn- ,, I 1 .In,, i.. ... -. .l die l .. interferel:e of ally other
dary of Loulisiana, w\redescanted upon with a pertinacity as in- '," .. .... 1 I i i ., I .r-. I'j..,,:,.' of their differences with
defatigable by don Pedro Cevallos as by yourself. IHe bestow- Spamn.
ed as many pages up on tile terms roi'tecele and retrocession as Buit however discouraging the tenor and character of your recent
you lhave dore. He appealed. with equal confidence and alacrity notes has been to the hopes, which ilte promises iad professions of
to the opinions, anld eited with equal i .....l i .. ... ., I.- r, .. .I ,i .. I excited, t!hat the time for adjustment of' these
of tie ministers of Napoleon, and re,,.... I. I '.- .' :.. .'.'I, -.. I .ii, herself, had at length arrived, tlhe United
l'inekncy, witl a satisfaction not inferior to your I t. i ti dl. I ,' ,,,:O it the expecttion.that more correct viev s of
point d" man..i ., ." i.n .,, ri, .,.l ,i .i i I ,, .' 1, I I i ii ately i e sugge ted to your government, and
M .. T'alleyran .. ... ..... .' *. 1 '''. *I I *'*.. '1 I i .- disposed to nmee! theml in the spirit of justice
observed,thlat "to iakel i, i.. 1,.1 i,. I iamity. \Wth regard to thosepartsof the province of Loulisi-
ed was to iudicifte te ( .'" "- .. '., ~ I.,.: e un. I,., ,whitc have n incorpora:td within the state of ti'Jt naic, it is










88 NILES' REGISTI:i-MAii i :, -1818-RELATIONS WITH SPAIN.


time thalt the discussion should cease. Forming part of tile territory C. 3.
of a sovreisgi and independent state of this unon, to dispose of On the loth of August, 172,, l. de Ia Harpe received the follow*
them is not withllin the competency of thile executive government of ing order:
sie United States, nor will the discussion b hereafter continued. We Jon Baptist de eBienville, Chevalier of the military order
But if you have proposals to make, to which it is possible for the go- of St. Louis, and commandant general for the king in thr province
venriment of the United States to listen. with a prospect of bringirig of Louisiana:
them to any pracicable conclusion, t am authorized to receive thell It is herely decreed, that M. de la Harpe, commandant of the
and to conclude with youa treaty for the adjustment of all the dif bay of St. B-rnard, shall embark in Ithi pack,.,t the Subtile, com-
ferecnesbetween the two nations, upon terns which may be satirsfie handed I In ,,.: ;th a dttIachlimnut oif ,* 1 .. 1', *
., ,iii, M .l la 1. 1 I 1. ,1 proce r.d lortlwith .
i.... "., r.. the motives for the occupation of Amelia Island, nard, belonging to this province,. and take possession in the nate
,. .... ..... tile president of the United States to congress, of tlhe king, and the west co mpany sill plant the arms of tile
and y letter to you of ltis January,have given the explanations I...'.. 1.. l,. ... i i, ill a lort uiun whatever spot appiarz
which, it is presu ired, will Ie sat: I :1 .*. ., I T rs I l. dleni i. .
. i T, r .-II ir If tlle S n-iardsr, or aoly l i .. ,i, a. ,,, .. r \'I.
Cg .,.r I i i I. ii. i.. :'. :. 1. 1.. :l.,,,.....l of de la Harpl will signifyto thrler. that they have no right to the
i. l .il .. .. .. of cot.tuntrv. it ', -. ..I known ti at possession was taki en ill 1685
,t i ..... i *,.i* ^i. l r ri ,.i. ists byM.rde la a t,.. ithenameoft i .1 ,;'1
i 1; ,-..,, ,i ., F, ~. ., I s .... i, 1 .. I .. I ble h.it I is ', l LiL.
t,.. l.i' r.. it i ,, i T .l [.. 1 I. Ii .. r. I -o '1 'ta- D li.
rro10, from n .Messrs. Pineknev and Monroe, to Mr. Cevallo, tile Ext tarcta, tr.latetdl r frown Ac-l:. -cionu-ri .: -
fti t; i 1 -i ,-,;.- i.' tiff -" ar iir' s r 'n .I- 1 1 lSc lar inr/s/.r Orcifefiiritr (' 0li Aier'rn.' b6y
.s ...* .r .... : i i ir I ', .. 1' D e r t In i ... iitcd rf M adrid
I..- ', i ,.*I Ir i .1I ,*.m -'. i.' r excel encv ., : *,'; added icatedr
ii will hie much exposed to the danger "-f bi-4-n -' I 4h, ., 4tri
S---1--------i ..; i' iI .1,h r.... . ..... 1, rth America, one
I .',' s .j.. .1 I I,... ,. i .. the ,.. ... ofthe tswb, lwh rich flrm r I .I tile south by lite
i : li, i l t r. .., ..r i. ,, i n i, '. Mie ico i or, tile i, ,* ** l II.. and the Iindiarn
I" i.,. i.. i i i I 'X anr tle Pamasus, i ,. ontes, Tecaga,
S ,, i. ,ris,,1 a" "or Chlava llons a in others; ii.. .. i i r i i a, Georgia a ld
5 is- I ,, s. ,. ,..r lj i..i. .1. 1 I I **. .. il arut Urolina; anld (u tile west bvi N w M \ice o a ld New Spain, It;
so carly its in Janruary, 1805, to lthe I i r ..t .te'i-'" n tfrrin north to south, isi:,lut lift olr n digr-es; that is to say,
i ecriealized. Pt-lsacr ol ahas beer ,'.. ,i ., s .tom .ll t .2 ..1. i .. I, rtilatit le, iandlion east t
tihe ise on ,. 1,. i ,. ..s i .f ,v st l or I 1 t ... ...1 91 wi.st l g, itude; its lis sit s
.ld Ameliar Island has l leen oculiei ,, ... however ntot I . ., Be Lisle gives it a much
alaiiyancet of hoth latrions, a,.d to ill oitslers engaotd ill lawitil ceon s ieait.r A. i ,'. l ,. l. .1. ti. l, wlere it Iorders on
i. 1 F.,.. ; c. c liefor tles c ine red, the Ca a a, i ,. i ,l r s, ,I, blo ended by NTwi
r .,,, r .. ii. i i i o f ti.t rpet and erowings dall- Yorki, P'e... ,i 1 .. ... ..i by tle river Bra-
I ,ii. 1i ih i .. ... 5 i .. -.,, ,i .. l I vo :Ill S la oi.a
imadei it ie duty of .. .. '. is .a i ;iour;i. an I lrian tribe ofthe i. :.. .1 ... ..-. of
cntii iBgecy to take the t-iporari possessions of tie country ytInell Louisiana, inhabitilng the ibaeks of i.. ... .. ... ot 1
might bhe iecessarv, toavert ithe isi,-... 1, .... I ".- it. iwiliela fiort was built by the Fereicl lfor the defence of that es-
Amelia Island w\sas taken, not from l .. .... L of tablihli nt., "
those fron whom she had been equally inicapable-f keepiig. or of T / s, or 4"aiicfoches ..,a tribe
retoverin. -r .I ..f .-' .1 I.. ,. rising it for purposes ilcoin- ofE I iIiai ns o i tle pr ovin e and ,.. I I ... ,. 1 Nforth
patible -., i1. l. I --.. .. i.l .the United States. No pur- America, living fit- l-Imvr- ,i" thr. Rrd rivir. by which name
S. i f- i ;,. ,r, i :,,,, i i they are sonletimies .11 i I ... tribe has always' been friendly
S, ,, ,., ,.,, .] *, ,., I i ,- .''.. -r is s r t..I t tlhe French and hostile tothe Spaniards; is very niumt rous, and
States, it will be restored whenever the danger ofits being again thus as upw yards of twvo hundreds cabins. IThe French soldiers who
occupied and misused shall have ceased. I had oerplIcted their time of service, settled in an island in the iRed
Itis needless to add, tlhatthe proposal that the Tnited States should river, where lteyn built a fort. and called it Nlttelitochles;hut hav-
take any further measures than those already provided by law tLit .. ....r 1 I.. .. and discovered thlla the sand blown on it by
..... .ii.i ii. .. ii I, -I. -. '. st ,,,, I'i;..,, 1.. i, ; .; ,i "'. I 1 .- d quality, they removed their settle ent toi
:1. ., .1.1. .1 .--. -., it.1. 11.. 1 ..s. ',. *1 'I I. ,,,I the main land, where tley sri cerede ini coltiv: tinr g that plan, st
(i,. t .,i I. ,.i :.. :... ,..-. .I :.- ..; .0 i. .. particular estimation: it is sixty leagues from New
.. i '.i.i. h ... i ."I.lr 5. ir .1 .II. ..I .is of'nieutralitv aresuf s tu -'
...... 11 ... ..... .... 'r .... ... means w ill continue to "Roigrc," Redt river, a large and rapid river of thie province and
be used, as they have been, to etrry tlhem faithfully into exertionr. government of Liouiiara, in north AXnerica. takes its rise about
I have the lionor to he with great consideration. sir, your obcdi the tribe of the Canir-sis, runs south east, and ait ,v r ceiving tllier
ent and veryhulbleservant, JOHN qUINCY ADAMS. streams. changes its course to the south, as far as the tribe alnd
A. 1. fortoflNatchit .., .. ... the southeast, forms
Don Martin D'Alarco ner to ;i rie ina iiriej. several lalnk s s.,I ,l, I .. ...... ... astwtard, joins the
Monsietr,-Iam ve ry se nsible rit the -r. i;r. ., .1 n.: ., the Missisiippi much lrnceased, ni ar wl her the river empties ilto
ville and yourself have had the goodness i .' I, ., the sea."
ders I have received from the king, my rllrster, are to mniaitain a IL- H .
good uind rstanding with the French of Louisiaso ; mi o\v inslina- Ev'ract from a palter roltiilr lifird bir/ Isrs. Piick:ney a-i
tions lead imeequally to afforl them all thie s.-rvices rtat depend tllonrc, to air. Ccrlloa,, dated
pon r me. But I am compelled to say, th;t your arrival at the Ara.njieer, 12th MSay, tSrS.
Nassonite village, surprizes me very much. "From the 1st of Ocaloerr, 17l6, uIlti! ilt -----e there
Your governor could not be ignorant that the ost ou oceu wee the ot yo occuy ter bu it i tIpots. f Ihis cathlie majiesty in Europe and
belongs to r- ..- .i.f ..i ... I 1 ii all the lands west of tli. A tira, by thel.Fr;ncli e li8 vessels.
Ni' ...s;i.- d.r.- '.l .iN....-, M-. ,-:-. Of thle above live been endeniid 74
S.... .-1 s I..- ,l. .. ,.i i.,. Blenville.or yon will Acquitted, ransomed, or conpro, isd . 23
free me to oblire you to abandon lands that the French have no Cases of violations of thle Spanisi ter. itory, coindelmned 1
right to occupy. Rtun ashore and lost ... .
I have the honor to be,sir, (Signed) D'ALARCONNE. Unaccounted fr. .7
Trinity river, May 20, 1719. tlesult not known 5 . . 0
B. 2.
Mions;cur de la taripe to Don Martin D'Alarconne. Total, lo6
MIONSIEUR,-The order from his catholic mailesty-to maintain A statement of the facts relative to American vessels taken by
a good understanding with rte French of Louisiana. and the kind French )pivatrers, and condemned in Spanish ports, obtained lrom
intentions you have yourself expressed towards them, accord tnit the most allheiec stlnelrres. -
-little with your proceedings. Permit me to inform youI thalt M. "Of tile French spoliatiins, there have been fifty :appeals from
ie Bienville is perfectly informed of the limits of his govern- the consular. jdlgments in S:pain to tile council of prizes at Paris,
ment. and is,very certain that thq post of Nassonite depends not of which thirty have been released, nine condemned, and twelve
upon the dominions of his catholic majesty. He knows also E., -, et depending. Not one sous has been paid in any case, noris
tile province of Lastekasof wlicht you say you are governor,. ', *a single rareof such spoliations on the list of liqlidatiuo ;
part of Louisiana. M. de la Salle took possession in 1685, in the noow at the Frenlch treasury, which are to participate of the twerty
name ofhis most christian majesty; and since the above epoch, millions of livres, to lie paid liy the United States to their eiti.
possession lhas been renewed roin time to time. zens, under the treaty of 1803, on account of French .- I .,:. .-
"Respecting the post of Nassonite, I cannot comprehend by The Ameirican. minister never did demand payment *,l r* 1..
what right you pretend that it forms a part of Kesw Mexico. I spoliations made in Spain, knowing then as stch. nor did the
,_ i.,~- i r.- pl.sent to you, that Don Antoine dir Miroir, who American agent ever rdelnarrl it by 'lls order or kIowlc-dge. The
i, :... ,.,. e. Mexico in 1683, never penetrated eastof that pro- i. r .... ,. .... 'ieh thir American govrrrionent had o' appi
vinceor tle iio Bravo. It was tlle French who first madeallian- i. -, ...... ".. I' -, th,- Frencl conuilar tribunals i Spain. t>o
e-s with the savage tribes in this region; and it is natural tocon I- -. I., i I' :, r: il Fanllce, was received frio Spain herself.
clluil. that a river that flows into the Mississippi, and the lands it "As soon as it Was rv-erived, the secretary of state wrote to tie
waf r i, .i '.. ; .i,:, ly master. An-evican minister in Paris, to know what the fact iwas, aind il
'"If .. I- ,l ... 1. pleasure to. come into this quarter, I ir oeted himat the sama time, to prohibit i. i r from acting:
aill convilee vou I hold a post Iknowhow todefenl. in such cases, it I ;,.- ...-1, atall tim ts. -. ... tile go-
I have the honor to be; sir, D1I, LA HARPE." vernment, that .I.. .. ....- wias anstwerable, ut whu'r only hate
Atissnitre J:ll 8, 1719. the recomlpense been dellianded."