• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Literature cited
 Table 1 - Percentage composition...
 Table 2 - Effect of synthetic lysine...
 Table 3 - Main effect performance...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report ; University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; AL-1986-4
Title: The effects of dietary protein content and synthetic lysine supplementation on performance of finishing pigs
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073166/00001
 Material Information
Title: The effects of dietary protein content and synthetic lysine supplementation on performance of finishing pigs
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 6 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Campbell, Donnie Ray, 1949-
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1986
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Proteins in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Lysine   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: D.R. Campbell and G.E. Combs.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August, 1986."
General Note: Pages numbered 21-26.
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073166
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 82202026

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 21
    Results and discussion
        Page 22
    Summary
        Page 23
    Literature cited
        Page 23
    Table 1 - Percentage composition of experimental diets
        Page 24
    Table 2 - Effect of synthetic lysine supplementation in diets containing 12 and 14% protein on performance of finishing swine
        Page 25
    Table 3 - Main effect performance means
        Page 26
Full Text


Ar


Central Science
Department of Animal Science Library Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1986-4 Experiment Station
August, 1986 JUN 21 g Gainesville, FL


University of Florida
THE EFFECTS OF.DIETARYPROTEIN CONTENT AND SYNTHETIC
LYSINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON PERFORMANCE OF FINISHING PIGS

D. R. Campbell and G. E. Combs2

Until recently most swine diets were formulated to contain a minimum
protein content. Today a more common practice is to formulate diets to
supply adequate quantities of individual essential amino acids since swine
do not have a dietary protein requirement as such, but require essential
amino acids. Lysine has been established as the most limiting amino acid
in a corn soybean meal diet for swine. By adding synthetic lysine to
satisfy the dietary requirement, the crude protein content can be reduced
and still maintain adequate swine performance. Along with amino acid
deficiency, excess amino acids can also reduce swine performance by
interfering with absorption, utilization, excretion, etc. of dietary
amino acids. Therefore, reducing the dietary protein content and adding
excess synthetic lysine could be detrimental.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of
finishing swine fed two levels of dietary protein and four levels of
synthetic lysine supplementation.

Experimental

One hundred and twenty crossbred pigs with an average weight of 56 kg
were allotted on the basis of initial weight, sex and litter origin to
eight treatment groups. Five pigs were assigned to each pen with three
replicate pens per treatment. The eight treatment groups, arranged as a
2 x 4 factorial, were as follows;

Supplemental
Treatment No. Dietary protein, % synthetic lysine, %

1 12 .00
2 12 .10
3 12 .20
4 12 .30
5 14 .00
6 14 .10
7 14 .20
-8 14 .30

Diet compositions are presented in table 1.


Experiment 292

2Campbell, Graduate Research Assistant and Combs, Animal Nutritionist,
Department of Animal Science, Gainesville, FL.









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All pigs wer. housed in-a semi-enclosed concrete barn having part4aly.
slatted floors.. ::Feed and water were suppliedjad libitum. Pigs were-
weighed and feed consumption was determined,bi-weekly. Data were analyzed
by analysis of 'variance procedures for a randomized'complete block desigPl,
with a factorial arrangement of treatments. The main effect of synthetir9
lysine level was-divided into single-degree-of-freedom orthogonal
regression;contrasts.- Duncan's mutliple range test was used to determine
individual treatment differences.

Results and Discussion

A summary,.'of:2the performance data is presented in Table 2. The
;average daily gain of pigs fed the unsupplemented 12% protein diet was
depressed (P.cO5.) compared .to pigs fed the 12% protein diet containing .2%
synthetic lysine or diets conta-ining 14% protein (unsupplemented or
supplemented with .1 and,.2%-synthetic-lysine). Growth rate of pigs fed
12% protein diets supplemented with 0, .1 and .3% synthetic lysine or 14%
protejiiirand ,3% synthetic,;lysine were similar ;(P->.05). Compared to pigs ,
fed the unsupplemental 12% protein diets, the inclusion of .2% synthetic
lysine in the 12% protein diet improved (P<.05):Ipig growth equivalent '
(P>.05) to pigs fed the different 14% protein diets regardless of
synthetic lysine supplementation. Adding synthetic lysine to the 14% ,,
protein diet did not improve (P>.05) average daily gain compared to pigs
fed the unsupplemented 14% protein diet.-,

The imposed dietary treatments did-nqt-tinfluence (P>.05) daily feed j
intake. ,.igs fed tbe,,unsupplemented 14%-protein diet required more
(P<.05) feed per unit body weight gain-compared to pigs fed diets .'.
containing 12% protein and 2% synthetic lysine or 14% protein with .1, .2,
or .3% synthetic lysine (Table 2.) However, feed efficiency of pigs fed
the two unsupplemented diets (12 or 14% protein) or the 12% protein diets
containing .1 or .3% synthetic lysine did not differ (P>.05).

As shown in Table 3, average daily gain and feed efficiency of pigs
fed 14% protein diets (averaged across all synthetic lysine levels) were
improved (P<.05) compared to that of pigs fed the 12% protein diets. Feed
intake did not differ (P>.05) between pigs fed the two dietary protein
levels. Comparing the supplemental lysine main effects, addition of
graded levels of synthetic lysine (0, .1, .2 and .3%) resulted in a linear
(P<.05) reduction in feed to gain ratio. However, increasing the lysine
supplementation did not Influence (P>.05) feed intake or growth rate of
pigs. Although pig growth tended to plateau with the inclusion of .2%
supplemental lysine and declined when .3% synthetic lysine was included
There was no interaction (P>.10) between protein level and synthetic
lysine supplementation.

These data indicate that the amino acid lysine was limited in the
unsupplemented 12% protein diet and when synthetic lysine was added in
quantities to supply the lysine requirement of finishing swine, maximum
swine performance was obtained. Therefore, when the price of soybean meal
is expensive, the soybean meal percentage in the diet can be reduced and a









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portih o'f the lysine requireement-Fan-be fulfilled by adding sythetic
lysine. The National Research Council (1) considers the lys'fte
requitieent -for finishing swine to" be .57 percent which is. abov: the
calculated lysine content (.51%) df~the unsupplemented 12%iprotein d-et
and the' decreased performance obtained reflects this lysine- deffictency.
These data also suggest that the"~-Tgh level of synthetic lysine .,
supplementation (.3%) created a dietary amino acid imbalance: st-ince'pig.
growth tended to plateau with the inclusion of .2% synthetic lysnie and
then declined when .3% synthetic lysine was added.

Summaryv .. :

An experiment involving 120 crossbred ,pigs was criducteditdievailu4te~
the performance of finishing swine (56 kg initially)' f ed diets tpntainirgh-F,
two levels of protein (12 and 14%) and four Tev'els 'ofsynthetlcr.ysine
supplementation (0, .1, .2 and .3%). Addition of the graded levels of
synthetic lysine resulted in a linear (P<.05Y.:imprcvement in feed
efficiency. Growth rate and feed intake were not influenced (P>.05): by
the incremental additions of synthetic lysine. Furthermore, average) daily:
gain aid feed efficiency fodr pgs fed 14% dietary protein were superior-s
(P<.05) compared to pigs fed 12% -protein diets. However, adequate lysine
supplementation of the 12% protein diets premitted equal (P>.05) rate and
efficiency of gain compared to'pigs fed the 14%, protein diets.

Literature' Cited.

1.. NRC. 1979. Nutrient RequirementV'srof DomesticdAnimals, No. 2.
Nutrient Requirements of swinon i-'Eigth Revised, d. Nat"'. Academy of
Sqi.---Nat'l. Res. Council, Washington, DC.









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portih o'f the lysine requireement-Fan-be fulfilled by adding sythetic
lysine. The National Research Council (1) considers the lys'fte
requitieent -for finishing swine to" be .57 percent which is. abov: the
calculated lysine content (.51%) df~the unsupplemented 12%iprotein d-et
and the' decreased performance obtained reflects this lysine- deffictency.
These data also suggest that the"~-Tgh level of synthetic lysine .,
supplementation (.3%) created a dietary amino acid imbalance: st-ince'pig.
growth tended to plateau with the inclusion of .2% synthetic lysnie and
then declined when .3% synthetic lysine was added.

Summaryv .. :

An experiment involving 120 crossbred ,pigs was criducteditdievailu4te~
the performance of finishing swine (56 kg initially)' f ed diets tpntainirgh-F,
two levels of protein (12 and 14%) and four Tev'els 'ofsynthetlcr.ysine
supplementation (0, .1, .2 and .3%). Addition of the graded levels of
synthetic lysine resulted in a linear (P<.05Y.:imprcvement in feed
efficiency. Growth rate and feed intake were not influenced (P>.05): by
the incremental additions of synthetic lysine. Furthermore, average) daily:
gain aid feed efficiency fodr pgs fed 14% dietary protein were superior-s
(P<.05) compared to pigs fed 12% -protein diets. However, adequate lysine
supplementation of the 12% protein diets premitted equal (P>.05) rate and
efficiency of gain compared to'pigs fed the 14%, protein diets.

Literature' Cited.

1.. NRC. 1979. Nutrient RequirementV'srof DomesticdAnimals, No. 2.
Nutrient Requirements of swinon i-'Eigth Revised, d. Nat"'. Academy of
Sqi.---Nat'l. Res. Council, Washington, DC.









-24-


Table 1. Percentage Composition of Experimental Diets


Protein,% 12 14 ,
Supplemental Lysine,% 0 .1 .2 .3 0 .1 .2-. .3


Ground yellow corn 87.50 87.40 87.30 87.2Q 82.40. 82.30 82.20 02.10
Soybean meal 9.50 9.50 9.50 9.50 14.60 14.60 14.60 14.60
Dynafos 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60
Limestone 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 51.00 1.00 1.00
Salt .20 .20 .20 .20 .20 .20 .20 .20
Trace minerals (CCCa .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10
Vitamin premix (UF) .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10
Synthetic lysine -- .10 .20 .30 -- .10 .20 .30
100 100 100. 100 100 100 100 100

Calculated lysine,%c .51 .59 .67 .74 F .66 .74 .82 .89


Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, IL. Contained 20% zinc, 10%
iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.10% cobalt and 2% calcium.


bContained 13,200 mg riboflavin; 44,000 ng niacln;T
176,000 mg choline chloride; 22,000 mcg: vltamin.3B
A; 880,000 ICU vitamin D and 22,000 IU v4tamin'E

CNRC (1).


26,400 mg pantothenic acid
; 5,500,000 IU vitamin
per kg of premix. ii









Table 2. Effect of Synthetic Lysine Supplementation in Diets Containing 12 and 14% Protein on
Performance of Finishing Swine.

Protein,% 12 4

Supplemental Lysine,% o0 '-, .30 .i0'~ 20 I .30

Average initial weight, k 56.11 56.14 56.11 56.17 56.14 56.17 56.11 56.17
Average final weight g 94.61 96.58 99.88 99.00 99.52 100.94 101.00 99.58
Sabc ab abc
Average daily gain kg .67 .70bc .76ab .74abc .76ab 78ab .79a 75abc

Average daily fee< intake, kg 2.64 2.79 2.78 2.75 2.95 2.76 2.77 2.56

Average feed/gai 3.95a 3.98a. j bcd 3.2abc 3.89ab 3.55cd 3.51cd 3.44d

a'b'cdMeans in the same row with different superscrfpts 'are-different (P<.05)








Table 3. Main Effect Performance Means.


Protein Supplemental Lysine
Main Effects ,_ Main Effects
Item 12% 14% 0 .10% .20% .30%


Average initial weight, kg 56.14 56.15 56.13 56.16 56.11 56.17

Average final weight, kg 97.52 100.26 97.06 98.76 100.44 99.29

Average daily gain, kg .72 .77 .71 .74 .78 .74

Average datly feed intake, kg 2.74 2.76 2.79 2.78 2.78 2.65

Average feed/gain 3.82 3.60 3.92 3.76 3;58 3.58
Average ____ ______ feed/gain___ ____ ^- ----*' ___ __ ^ ___ __ ^ ______ -^____________


protein effect (P<.05).

bSupplemental lysine level linear effect (P<.05).




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