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Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - University of Florida Dept. of Animal Science ; AL-1984-8
Title: Influence of level of concentrate fed and nutrient content of the concentrate on growth and development of weanling horses
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073161/00001
 Material Information
Title: Influence of level of concentrate fed and nutrient content of the concentrate on growth and development of weanling horses
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 6 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ott, E. A ( Edgar A )
Asquith, Richard L
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1984
 Subjects
Subject: Horses -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Horses -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: E.A. Ott and R.L. Asquith.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "July, 1984."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073161
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 82189208

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
Full Text






Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1984-8 Experiment Station
July, 1984 Gainesville, Florida


Influence of Level of Concentrate Fed and Nutrient Content of
the Concentrate on Growth and Development of Weanling Horses1

E. A. Ott and R. L. Asquith

The nutrient requirements of the weanling are reported to be 15.60
Meal digestible energy (DE), .79 kg crude protein (CP), 34 g calcium (Ca)
and 25 g phosphorous (P) per day for the foal with an expected mature
weight of 500 kg and 16.92 Meal DE, .86 kg CP, 37 g Ca and 27 g P for the
foal with an expected mature weight of 600 kg (NRC, 1978). Feed intake
levels were estimated at 5.55 kg and 6.05 kg per day (90% DM) for the
above-cited animals, respectively. This would be 2.3 to 2.4 kg/100 kg
body weight (BW) daily. The NRC also recommended 65 to 70% concentrate.
Previous experiments at our station indicate that Thoroughbred and Quarter
Horse weanlings consume more feed, a slightly lower proportion of
concentrate and higher levels of nutrients than specified by NRC (1978).

The current study was designed to compare two concentrate:roughage
ratios and two levels of nutrient density on growth and development of
weanling foals.

Experimental

Twenty-four Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse foals were weaned at 112
days of age and randomly assigned within breed and sex subgroups to one of
four treatment groups. The foals were weighed, measured and x-rayed for
bone density (Meakim et al. 1981, J. Anim. Sci. 53:1019) and started on
the feeding programs shown in table 1 within 14 days after weaning.
Average age of the foals at the start of the experiment was 125.5 1.1
days. Foals were weighed and measured at 14-day intervals and concentrate
and hay offerings adjusted accordingly.

Animals were housed in open drylot pens providing 53.2 m2 of space
per foal, including 8.6 m2 of covered area. Each pen contained six
individual feeding stalls 1.3 m x 3.0 m and an automatic waterer.
Concentrates (table 2) were fed twice daily in the stalls and foals were
allowed 1.5 h to consume the allotted feed. Hay was group fed in the pen.

Coastal Bermudagrass hay fed during the experiment contained 10.3%
crude protein (CP), .49% calcium (Ca) and .26% phosphorous (P) on a dry
matter basis. The dry matter (DM) content of the hay as-fed was 90.4% and
the hay was estimated to provide 1.98 Meal digestible energy (DE)/kg DM
(NRC, 1978).

The experiment was terminated after 112 days and the bone density
x-rays were repeated.












TABLE 1. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNa


Group
A B C D


Coastal Bermudagrass hay, % BW 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5

HR-75 % BW 1.75 -- 1.25

HR-76 % BW -- 1.75 -- 1.25

Fillies 3 4 3 2

Colts 3 2 3 4

aHN-824

Results and Discussion

Concentrate intake for Groups A and B averaged 3.6 kg/day (table 3)
which was 1.55 and 1.62 kg/100 kg BW, respectively. This is less than the
1.75 kg/100 kg BW that was offered. Groups C and D consumed 2.7 and 2.8
kg/day, which was 1.21 and 1.25 kg/100 kg BW and very close to the 1.25
kg/100 kg BW which was offered. Groups A and B consumed 62% concentrate
and groups C and D consumed 48% concentrate. Groups A and B consumed more
concentrate (P<.05) and less hay (P<.05) than groups C and D.

Energy intake was highest for the two groups that received the highest
level of concentrate (A & B). However, all groups were below energy
intakes recommended by NRC (1978). Protein intake was highest for the two
groups receiving the high protein concentrate (B & D). Group D consumed
about the same amount of protein as Group A. Group B consumed the most
protein and Group C the least. Calcium and phosphorous intake for all
four groups exceeded NRC (1978) recommendations and was, therefore, not
considered to be a factor in the results of the experiment.

Weight, withers height, heart girth, body length and hip height gains
and feed efficiency were comparable for groups A and B, indicating that
both diets fed at the high level were adequate for excellent, if not
maximum, growth and efficiency (table 4). Group C grew 20 to 30% slower
than groups A and B based on the above measurements and group D was
between Group C and the other two groups. Feed per kg of gain was higher
for group C than groups A and B (P<.05). Groups A, B and D were not
different.

Radiographic photometry of the third metacarpal revealed an increase
in bone mineral content for all four groups during the experiment. No
significant differences were detected between treatments due to the large
variation between animals.




i,. .


TABLE 2. CONCENTRATE FORMULAS AND COMPOSITIONa



Ingredient HR-75 HR-76



Corn 45.5 37.0

Oats 25.0 25.0

Wheat bran 10.0 10.0

Soybean meal 44% 12.0 20.0

Alfalfa meal 5.0 10.0

Bio Fos .25 .55

Ground limestone 1.00 1.20

Mono propionate .25 .25

Salt .50 .50

Premixb .50 .50

100.00 100.00

Composition:

As-fed, dry matter, % 87.7 88.4

Digestible energy, Mcal/kgC,d 3.4 3.5

Crude protein, %c 15.6 17.8

Calcium, %c 1.18 1.10

Phosphorous, %b .53 .58

aHN-824
bpremix provided per kg concentrate 10.8 mg manganese, 40.0 mg iron,
7.5 mg copper, 40.0 mg zinc, .2 mg cobalt, .2 mg iodine, 6500 USP Vit. A,
660 USP Vit. D3, and 22 IU Vit. E.
CDry matter basis.
dCalculated from NRC (1978).











TABLE 3. AVERAGE DAILY FEED AND NUTRIENT INTAKEa


A B C D


Feed intake, kg
Concentrate 3.6 .2b 3.6 .2b 2.7 + .20 2.8 + .2
Hay 2.3 .1b 2.3 + .1b 3.2 + .10 3.0 + .10
Total 5.8 + .2 5.8 + .2 5.8 + .2 5.8 + .2

Nutrient intake

Digestible energy, Meal
From concentrate 10.7 11.1 8.1 8.7
From hay 4.1 4.1 5.7 5.3
Total 14.8 15.2 13.8 14.0

Crude protein, kg
From concentrate .49 .57 .37 .44
From hay .21 .21 .30 .28
Total .70 .78 .67 .72

Calcium, g
From concentrate 37.3 35.0 27.9 27.2
From hay 10.2 10.2 14.2 13.3
Total 47.5 45.2 42.1 40.5

Phosphorous, g
From concentrate 16.7 18.5 12.5 14.4
From hay 10.2 10.2 14.2 13.3
Total 26.9 28.7 26.7 27.7

aHN-824
a,bValues with unlike superscripts are different (P<.05).










TABLE 4. INFLUENCE OF CONCENTRATE COMPOSITION AND LEVEL OF INTAKE ON GROWTH
AND FEED EFFICIENCY OF WEANLING HORSESa


A B C D


Initial weight, kg 193.3 + 7.4 183.6 7.8 195.3 7.4 191.6 + 7.8
Final weight, kg 270.7 258.8 251.6 257.8
Weight gain, kg 77.4 + 5.9 75.2 6.3 56.3 5.9 66.2 + 6.3

Initial withers height, cm 121.7 + 1.3 122.4 1.4 123.5 + 1.2 125.0 1.4
Final withers height, cm 130.8 131.8 130.8 131.8
Withers height gain, cm 9.1 .7 9.4 .8 7.3 .7 6.8 + .8

Initial heart girth, cm 123.9 1.5 122.4 1.7 126.4 1.5 125.2 + 1.7
Final heart girth, cm 138.7 137.3 136.6 137.3
Heart girth gain, cm 14.8 + 1.4 14.9 1.5 10.2 1.4 12.1 1.5

Initial body length, cm 118.3 + 1.4 117.0 1.5 117.6 + 1.4 118.3 1.5
Final body length, cm 130.0 129.4 126.3 129.2
Body length gain, cm 11.6 1.0 12.4 1.1 8.7 1.0 10.9 + 1.1

Initial hip height, cm 126.9 1.2 127.5 1.3 127.8 1.2 129.7 + 1.3
Final hip height, cm 136.6 137.7 135.2 137.9
Hip height gain, cm 9.7 .9 10.2 .9 7.4 .9 8.2 .9

Feed/kg weight gain, kg 8.6 + .9b 9.0 .9b 12.2 + .9C 9.9 .9bc

aHN-824
b,cValues with unlike superscripts are different (P<.05).











TABLE 5. RADIOGRAPHIC BONE DENSITY OF THE THIRD METACARPAL OF GROWING
HORSES IN mm OF ALUMINUM



Group
A B C D


Peak 1
Initial 17.57 .44 18.38 1.09 18.37 .31 18.55 .68
Final 19.05 .97 19.48 .35 18.91 .50 19.93 .52
Gain 1.48 1.10 .54 1.38

Midpoint
Initial 15.45 .65 16.10 a .84 15.37 + .42 15.37 1.03
Final 16.32 .88 16.96 .76 16.76 + .62 17.46 .73
Gain .87 .86 1.39 2.09

Minimum
Initial 14.36 + .99 15.56 .72 14.26 .29 14.01 .99
Final 15.40 .94 16.43 .84 15.81 .78 16.84 .88
Gain 1.04 .87 1.55 2.83

Peak 2
Initial 17.40 a .64 17.30 .54 16.30 .30 16.82 .83
Final 17.79 .63 18.00 .62 17.44 .64 18.29 .72
Gain .39 .70 1.14 1.47

Area
Initial 481.7 26.4 494.0 39.1 473.2 17.9 471.6 22.1
Final 547.5 31.6 556.3 26.8 536.8 20.0 567.0 20.4
Gain 65.8 62.3 63.6 95.4

Width
Initial 38.7 1.3 38.8 1.3 37.7 .6 37.4 1.5
Final 40.8 0.8 41.3 1.3 40.2 a 1.1 39.2 0.2
Gain 2.1 2.5 2.5 1.8




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