• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Materials and methods
 Results
 Table 1 - Experimental design
 Table 2 - Concentrate composition...
 Table 3 - Daily feed intake (as...
 Table 4 - Daily nutrient intak...
 Table 5 - Weight and body...
 Table 6 - Radiographic aluminum...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - University of Florida Dept. of Animal Science ; AL-1984-7
Title: Influence of level of feeding and nutrient content of the concentrate on the growth and development of yearling horses
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073160/00001
 Material Information
Title: Influence of level of feeding and nutrient content of the concentrate on the growth and development of yearling horses
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 6 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ott, E. A ( Edgar A )
Asquith, Richard L
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1984
 Subjects
Subject: Horses -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Horses -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: E.A. Ott and R.L. Asquith.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "May, 1984."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073160
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 82182754

Table of Contents
    Materials and methods
        Page 1
    Results
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table 1 - Experimental design
        Page 3
    Table 2 - Concentrate composition and analyses
        Page 3
    Table 3 - Daily feed intake (as fed)
        Page 4
    Table 4 - Daily nutrient intake
        Page 4
    Table 5 - Weight and body measurements
        Page 5
    Table 6 - Radiographic aluminum equivalence of the third metacarpal of yearling horses
        Page 6
Full Text






Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1984-7 Experiment Station
May, 1984 Gainesville, Florida


INFLUENCE OF LEVEL OF FEEDING AND NUTRIENT CONTENT OF THE
CONCENTRATE ON THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF YEARLING HORSES

E. A. Ott and R. L. Asquith


Yearling horses fed to appetite consume more feed and consequently
more energy and other nutrients than recommended by the NRC (1978).
Results of a previous trial at our station indicate that limiting the
nutrient intake of yearlings to close to the NRC (1978) recommendations
did not reduce growth of the animal as indicated by body measurements of
height and length but did reduce weight gain and heart girth. It was not
possible to determine whether the effect was due to energy or protein
intake. This experiment was designed to verify the previous observation
and determine whether the energy or the protein was limiting.

Materials and Methods

Twenty-four Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse yearlings averaging 315 4
days of age were assigned at random within breed and sex subgroups to one
of three treatments. The horses were weighed, measured and x-rayed for
bone density at the start of the experiment and at 14-day intervals for
140 days. All three groups received Coastal Bermudagrass hay at a rate of
1 lb per 100 Ib body weight (BW). Group A received a 12% crude protein
(CP) concentrate at 1.25% BW. Group B received the same concentrate ad
lib. Group C received a 15% CP concentrate at 1.25% BW. The experimental
design is shown in table 1. The pelleted concentrates and their
composition on a dry matter basis are shown in table 2.

The yearlings were confined to dry lot pens 30' x 115' with 555 ft2
of covered area. Each pen contained 5 or 6 animals. Concentrates were
individually fed in 4'2" x 10' stalls. The animals were permitted two,
1-1/2 hour feeding periods daily. Hay was group fed in the paddocks. One
animal was removed from the experiment due to health problems not related
to the trial.

Results

Concentrate intake by Groups A and C were 1.22 and 1.23 lb/100 lb BW,
respectively. This was only slightly below the 1.25 lb/100 lb BW we were
striving for. Group B consumed 1.62 lb/100 lb BW. Hay intake on all
three groups was only slightly below or equal to the 1.0 lb/100 Ib BW
which was the planned level of feeding. Average total feed intake was
2.20, 2.58 and 2.23 lb/100 lb BW for the A, B and C groups, respectively
(table 3).

Daily digestible energy intake was calculated using NRC (1978) values
(table 4). Groups A and C consumed similar amounts of energy while Group
B consumed about 20% more. Group A consumed .688 kg CP daily which was
below NRC recommendations. Group B consumed .859 kg CP and Group C










Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1984-7 Experiment Station
May, 1984 Gainesville, Florida


INFLUENCE OF LEVEL OF FEEDING AND NUTRIENT CONTENT OF THE
CONCENTRATE ON THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF YEARLING HORSES

E. A. Ott and R. L. Asquith


Yearling horses fed to appetite consume more feed and consequently
more energy and other nutrients than recommended by the NRC (1978).
Results of a previous trial at our station indicate that limiting the
nutrient intake of yearlings to close to the NRC (1978) recommendations
did not reduce growth of the animal as indicated by body measurements of
height and length but did reduce weight gain and heart girth. It was not
possible to determine whether the effect was due to energy or protein
intake. This experiment was designed to verify the previous observation
and determine whether the energy or the protein was limiting.

Materials and Methods

Twenty-four Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse yearlings averaging 315 4
days of age were assigned at random within breed and sex subgroups to one
of three treatments. The horses were weighed, measured and x-rayed for
bone density at the start of the experiment and at 14-day intervals for
140 days. All three groups received Coastal Bermudagrass hay at a rate of
1 lb per 100 Ib body weight (BW). Group A received a 12% crude protein
(CP) concentrate at 1.25% BW. Group B received the same concentrate ad
lib. Group C received a 15% CP concentrate at 1.25% BW. The experimental
design is shown in table 1. The pelleted concentrates and their
composition on a dry matter basis are shown in table 2.

The yearlings were confined to dry lot pens 30' x 115' with 555 ft2
of covered area. Each pen contained 5 or 6 animals. Concentrates were
individually fed in 4'2" x 10' stalls. The animals were permitted two,
1-1/2 hour feeding periods daily. Hay was group fed in the paddocks. One
animal was removed from the experiment due to health problems not related
to the trial.

Results

Concentrate intake by Groups A and C were 1.22 and 1.23 lb/100 lb BW,
respectively. This was only slightly below the 1.25 lb/100 lb BW we were
striving for. Group B consumed 1.62 lb/100 lb BW. Hay intake on all
three groups was only slightly below or equal to the 1.0 lb/100 Ib BW
which was the planned level of feeding. Average total feed intake was
2.20, 2.58 and 2.23 lb/100 lb BW for the A, B and C groups, respectively
(table 3).

Daily digestible energy intake was calculated using NRC (1978) values
(table 4). Groups A and C consumed similar amounts of energy while Group
B consumed about 20% more. Group A consumed .688 kg CP daily which was
below NRC recommendations. Group B consumed .859 kg CP and Group C











consumed .791 kg, both of which were in excess of NRC (1978)
recommendations. Calcium and phosphorous intakes exceeded NRC (1978)
recommendations.

Weight and body measurement gains revealed no differences between
Groups A and C (table 5). Group B had greater (P<.01) weight and girth
gains than either of the other two groups. Withers height gain was
greater for Group B than Group C (P<.05) and length and hip height was
greater for Group B than Group A (P<.05). No sex differences were
detected.

For most of the bone density parameters (table 6), Group B had greater
numerical gains than the other two groups but none of the differences were
significant (P<.05). Bone width gain for Groups A and B were greater than
width gains for Group C (P<.05). These results are similar to data
obtained previously and suggests that bone development follows other
growth parameters.

Results of this experiment suggest that energy intake is critical for
maximum growth and development of yearling horses. Restricting energy
intake will limit growth even if protein and mineral intake exceed NRC
(1978) recommendations.










TABLE 1. Experimental Design


Ration
A B C


No. Animals
Colts 4 3 4
Fillies 4 4 4

Coastal Bermudagrass hay, % BW 1.0 1.0 1.0

Concentrate HR-77, % BW 1.25 ad lib

Concentrate HR-78, % BW -- 1.25





TABLE 2. Concentrate Composition and Analyses


Ingredient HR-77 HR-78



Corn, gr 47.60 38.85
Oats, pulverized 27.00 25.00
Soybean meal, 44% 8.00 18.00
Wheat bran 10.00 10.00
Alfalfa, dehy. 17% 5.00 5.00
Limestone, gr 1.00 1.25
Bio Fos .25 .75
Mono propionate .10 .10
Salt .50 .50
Premix, TM1 .50 .50
Premix, Vitamin2 .05 .065
100.0 100.0


Analyses, DM basis
Dig. Energy Mcal/kg3 3.49 3.42
C. Protein, % 13.5 16.8
Calcium, % .67 .86
Phosphorous, % .48 .59

1Premix provided 10.8 mg manganese, 40.0 mg iron, 7.5 mg copper,
39.6 mg zinc, .2 mg cobalt and .2 mg iodine per kg concentrate.
2Premix provided 11,000 USP units Vitamin A, 580 USP units Vitamin D3,
and 11 IU Vitamin E per kg concentrate.
3Calculation from NRC 1978.










TABLE 1. Experimental Design


Ration
A B C


No. Animals
Colts 4 3 4
Fillies 4 4 4

Coastal Bermudagrass hay, % BW 1.0 1.0 1.0

Concentrate HR-77, % BW 1.25 ad lib

Concentrate HR-78, % BW -- 1.25





TABLE 2. Concentrate Composition and Analyses


Ingredient HR-77 HR-78



Corn, gr 47.60 38.85
Oats, pulverized 27.00 25.00
Soybean meal, 44% 8.00 18.00
Wheat bran 10.00 10.00
Alfalfa, dehy. 17% 5.00 5.00
Limestone, gr 1.00 1.25
Bio Fos .25 .75
Mono propionate .10 .10
Salt .50 .50
Premix, TM1 .50 .50
Premix, Vitamin2 .05 .065
100.0 100.0


Analyses, DM basis
Dig. Energy Mcal/kg3 3.49 3.42
C. Protein, % 13.5 16.8
Calcium, % .67 .86
Phosphorous, % .48 .59

1Premix provided 10.8 mg manganese, 40.0 mg iron, 7.5 mg copper,
39.6 mg zinc, .2 mg cobalt and .2 mg iodine per kg concentrate.
2Premix provided 11,000 USP units Vitamin A, 580 USP units Vitamin D3,
and 11 IU Vitamin E per kg concentrate.
3Calculation from NRC 1978.











TABLE 3. Daily Feed Intake (As Fed)


Ration
Colts Fillies A B C


Grain intake, lb 9.341+.31 10.03.33 8.68t .38 11.83 .41 8.54 .38

Hay intake, Ib 6.74.03 7.20.04 6.98. .04 6.97 .05 6.98 .04

Total intake, lb 16.09.32 17.23.33 15.66a.39 18.80b,.42 15.52a,.39



Grain intake,
lb/100 lb BW 1.36 1.36 1.22 1.62 1.23

Hay intake,
lb/100 lb BW .98 .98 .98 .96 1.00

Total intake,
lb/100 Ib BW 2.35 2.34 2.20 2.58 2.23


TABLE 4. Daily Nutrient Intake


Ration
A B C


Dig. energy from grain, Meal 12.08 16.48 11.66
Dig. energy from hay, Meal 6.25 6.25 6.25
Dig. energy, total, Meal 18.33 22.73 17.91

C. protein from grain, kg .470 .641 .573
C. protein from hay, kg .218 .218 .218
C. protein, total, kg .688 .859 .791


Calcium from grain, g 23.4 31.8 29.4
Calcium from hay, g 18.2 18.2 18.2
Calcium, total, g 41.6 50.0 47.6

Phosphorous from grain, g 16.7 22.8 20.2
Phosphorous from hay, g 7.9 7.9 7.9
Phosphorous, total, g 24.6 30.7 28.1











TABLE 3. Daily Feed Intake (As Fed)


Ration
Colts Fillies A B C


Grain intake, lb 9.341+.31 10.03.33 8.68t .38 11.83 .41 8.54 .38

Hay intake, Ib 6.74.03 7.20.04 6.98. .04 6.97 .05 6.98 .04

Total intake, lb 16.09.32 17.23.33 15.66a.39 18.80b,.42 15.52a,.39



Grain intake,
lb/100 lb BW 1.36 1.36 1.22 1.62 1.23

Hay intake,
lb/100 lb BW .98 .98 .98 .96 1.00

Total intake,
lb/100 Ib BW 2.35 2.34 2.20 2.58 2.23


TABLE 4. Daily Nutrient Intake


Ration
A B C


Dig. energy from grain, Meal 12.08 16.48 11.66
Dig. energy from hay, Meal 6.25 6.25 6.25
Dig. energy, total, Meal 18.33 22.73 17.91

C. protein from grain, kg .470 .641 .573
C. protein from hay, kg .218 .218 .218
C. protein, total, kg .688 .859 .791


Calcium from grain, g 23.4 31.8 29.4
Calcium from hay, g 18.2 18.2 18.2
Calcium, total, g 41.6 50.0 47.6

Phosphorous from grain, g 16.7 22.8 20.2
Phosphorous from hay, g 7.9 7.9 7.9
Phosphorous, total, g 24.6 30.7 28.1










TABLE 5. Weight and Body Measurements


Ration
Colts Fillies A B C


Weight, lb
Initial 609.58 652.08 637.00 631.62 623.87
Final 760.75 823.64 784.25 825.70 766.62
Gain 151.177.67 171.568.09 147.25a+9.40 194.08b+10.15 142.75a+9.40

Height, in
Initial 52.96 53.69 53.53 53.34 53.09
Final 56.11 56.69 56.50 56.84 55.84
Gain 3.15 .15 3.00:t .16 2.970d_.18 3.50C+ .20 2.75d .18

Girth, in
Initial 55.90 57.43 56.94 56.80 56.25
Final 60.82 62.50 61.19 63.09 60.69
Gain 4.92 .19 5.07+ .20 4.25e+ .23 6.29f+' .25 4.44e+ .23

Length, in
Initial 52.40 53.42 53.31 52.85 52.56
Final 56.05 57.61 56.56 57.35 56.56
Gain 3.65 .21 4.19: .22 3.25g& .25 4.50h .27 4.00gh+.25

Hip height, in
Initial 55.06 55.69 55.62 55.26 55.25
Final 57.68 58.30 57.84 58.27 57.87
Gain 2.62+ .16 2.61 .17 2.22i+ .19 3.013+ .21 2.62ij+.19

a,b,e,f P<.01
c,d,g,h,i,j P<.05











TABLE 6. Radiographic Aluminum Equivalence of the Third Metacarpal
of Yearling Horses


Area Peak 1 Mid. Pt. Min. Peak 2 Width
Group mm2 mm mm mm mm mm


A
Initial 647.5 21.57 19.58 19.21 20.42 40.50
Final 738.1 22.29 20.54 19.70 22.36 45.38
Change 90.6 .72 .96 .49 1.94 4.88a

B
Initial 636.7 21.18 19.49 18.68 20.64 40.08
Final 760.0 22.70 21.24 20.43 22.80 44.62
Change 123.3 1.52 1.75 1.75 2.14 4.54a

C
Initial 652.0 21.62 19.69 18.78 20.43 40.25
Final 727.1 22.31 20.37 19.84 22.30 43.38
Change 75.1 .68 .68 1.05 1.87 3.13b

a,bValues in the same column with different superscripts are different (P<.05).




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