• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Table 1 - Percentage composition...
 Table 2 - Percentage composition...
 Table 3 - Effects of crude protein...
 Table 4 - Effects of synthetic...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - University of Florida Dept. of Animal Science ; AL-1983-3C
Title: The protein sparing effects of Mecadox and lysine in swine diets
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073159/00001
 Material Information
Title: The protein sparing effects of Mecadox and lysine in swine diets
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 7 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Campbell, Donnie Ray, 1949-
Coffey, M. T
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1983
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antibacterial agents -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Proteins in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Medicated feeds   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: D.R. Campbell, M.T. Coffey and G.E. Combs.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August, 1983."
General Note: Pages numbered 10-16.
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073159
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 82181873

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 10
    Results and discussion
        Page 11
    Summary
        Page 12
    Table 1 - Percentage composition of experimental diets, trial 1
        Page 13
    Table 2 - Percentage composition of experimental diets, trial 2
        Page 14
    Table 3 - Effects of crude protein level and mecadox on the performance of pigs
        Page 15
    Table 4 - Effects of synthetic lysine and mecadox on the performance of pigs
        Page 16
Full Text




Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1983- 3 -(2 -10- Experiment Station
August, 1983 ==- Gainesville, FL


THE PROTEIN SPARING EFFECTS OF MECADOX AND LYSINE
IN SWINE DIETS

D. R. Campbell, M. T. Coffey and G. E. Combs2

Today, antibiotic supplementation of young pig diets is a common
practice. This generally results in improved growth and feed efficiency.
Although the research in this area has been extensive, reports are not
consistent in regard to benefits from antibiotic supplementation. Further,
the mode of action of antibiotics in enhancing performance is still not
clearly understood, but some data suggests that antibiotics may function to
lower the protein requirement.

Lysine is the most limiting amino acid in a corn soybean meal diet for
swine, and the optimum dietary crude protein level in a swine diet is required
primarily to satisfy the need for lysine. Therefore, it may be possible to
feed diets containing lower levels of dietary crude protein with supplemental
lysine and maintain adequate growth of swine.

The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of the
antibacterial Mecadox and/or synthetic lysine to permit usage of lower levels
of dietary crude protein in diets fed to swine.

Experimental

Two trials were conducted utilizing crossbred pigs with an average
initial weight of 7.5 kg. Pigs were allotted to treatments on the basis of
weight, sex and litter origin. Six pigs were assigned to each pen with three
replicate pens per treatment. In trial 1, the initial dietary treatments
(table 1) were (1) a 18% crude protein corn-soybean meal diet; (2) treatment 1
with .25% Mecadox added; (3) a 16% crude protein corn soybean meal diet; and
(4) treatment 3 with .25% Mecadox added. In trial 2, the initial dietary
treatments (table 2) were (1) a 16% crude protein corn soybean meal diet; (2)
treatment 1 with .25% Mecadox added; (3) treatment 3 with .25% synthetic
lysine added; and (4) treatment 3 with .25% Mecadox and .25% synthetic lysine
added. The initial diets in both trials were fed until pigs reached 33 kg
body weight, then the dietary crude protein level was decreased in all diets
by 3 percentage units. In trial 2, the synthetic lysine level was reduced to
.10% when pigs attained 33 kg body weight (treatments 3 and 4).

Experiment 268.

2Campbell, Graduate Research Assistant; Coffey, Assistant Animal Nutritionist
and Combs, Animal Nutritionist, Department of Animal Science, Gainesville.


Mecadox is the Pfizer trademark for Carbodox.






-11-


All pigs were housed during the nursery period in an enclosed building
equipped with elevated pens having expanded metal floors and wire-mesh sides.
At 33 kg of body weight, the pigs were moved to a semi-enclosed concrete
growing-finishing barn with solid floors. Feed and water were supplied ad
libitum. Pig weights and feed consumption were determined bi-weekly. The
data from both trials were analyzed by analysis at variance for a randomized
complete block design containing a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments.
Data were subjected to analysis of variance for period 1 (7.5 kg to 33 kg body
weight), period 2 (33 kg to 90 kg body weight) and over the entire experiment.
Least squares means were used to interpret significant differences.

Results and Discussion

The results from trial 1 are presented in table 3. In period 1, pigs fed
the 18% crude protein diets grew faster (P<.05) then pigs fed diets containing
16% protein, .58 and .55 kg/day, respectively. Feed efficiency of the 18%
protein groups improved (P<.1) over that of pigs fed diets containing 16%
protein; 2.33 and 2.40, respectively. The addition of Mecadox at either crude
protein level improved (P<.05) average daily gain but did not significantly
(P<.05) improve feed/gain (.55 and .59 kg/day for 0 and .25% Mecadox,
respectively). Feed intake was not influenced by the experimental factors.

During period 2, the crude protein level of all diets was reduced by 3
percentage units. Pigs fed 18 and 16% crude protein diets in period 1 were
fed 15 and 13% crude protein diets in period 2, respectively. The lower
protein diets continued to depress (P<.05) pig gains compared to the higher
protein diets, .82 vs .87 kg/day, respectively. However, protein level had no
(P<.05) influence on feed efficiency or daily feed intake. The addition of
Mecadox to the diets in period 2 did not (P<.05) increase growth or feed
intake, but feed efficiency was improved (P<.05); 2.84 vs 2.91. There was a
significant (P<.05) sex x protein level interaction. Barrows grew faster than
gilts when fed the 13% crude protein diet. When 15% crude protein was fed the
average daily gain of gilts was increased, but the growth of barrows did not
improve compared to those fed 13% Crude Protein diets. This indicated that
the dietary protein required for barrows to reach their genetic potential for
growth was less than for gilts.

Daily gain and feed efficiency over the entire experimental period were
improved (P<.05.) when pigs consumed the higher protein sequence throughout.
The supplementation of Mecadox did not improve (P<.05) daily gain over the
entire experiment, but the feed required per unit of gain was less (P<.01)
when compared to pigs fed no antibiotics. These data indicated that
supplementing 16% vs 18% Crude Protein swine diets with Mecadox increased
growth rate and improved feed efficiency for young swine (7.5 to 33 kg);
however, adding Mecadox to the 16% crude protein diet did not allow
performance equivalent to the 18% crude protein diet containing Mecadox. Over
the entire experimental period (7.5 to 92 kg) supplementing diets with Mecadox
resulted only in improved feed efficiency. At the levels of protein fed in
this trial supplemental Mecadox did not decrease the protein requirements of
swine.






-12-


The results from trial 2 are presented in table 4. In period 1, there
was a significant Mecadox x lysine x sex interaction. Average daily gain of
all pigs was improved (P<.05) by the addition of .25% synthetic lysine or by
the inclusion of Mecadox and was further improved (P<.05) by the combination
of lysine and Mecadox. Feed intake and feed efficiency were not influenced
(P<.05) by the dietary treatments. Males and females responded (<.07)
differently to the supplementation of synthetic lysine or Mecadox. The gains
of barrows increased (P<.05) when either synthetic lysine or Mecadox was
included in the diet. An additional increase (P<.05) resulted by the addition
of both compounds. In contrast, the growth of gilts was not significantly
(P<.05) influenced by single additions of either lysine or Mecadox, but
average daily gain was increased (P<.05) when both were added to the diet and
was not different (P<.05) from that of barrows fed both ingredients.

In period 2, performance of pigs was not affected (P<.05) by dietary
treatment. There was no benefit from adding synthetic lysine and/or Mecadox
to the 13% crude protein corn-soybean meal diet for pigs weighing greater than
33 kg. Similar to trial 1, the supplementation with antibiotic during this
period did not affect (P<.05) pig performance.

Over the entire experimental period, daily gain and feed efficiency were
improved (P<.05) by the addition of lysine to the corn soybean meal diet.
Similar to the results of trial 1, the addition of Mecadox to the diet did not
improve (P<.05) the daily gain of pigs between 7.5 and 90 kg body weight, but
feed efficiency was improved (P<.05).

These data indicated that Mecadox had a protein sparing effect when added
to the 16% crude protein diet for young barrows but not for young gilts
(Period 1). Further, Mecadox had a sparing effect on the protein requirement
of barrows and gilts when feed in combination with synthetic lysine. Research
has shown that gilts have a higher protein requirement than barrows, and the
results from trial 1 confirmed this. The different response between sexes in
trial 2 was likely due to the difference in protein requirements of gilts and
barrows.

The protein and amino acid content of diets affected the response of
young swine to Mecadox. The data form trials 1 and 2 indicated that Mecadox
alone will not support performance from a 16% crude protein diet equivalent to
a diet containing 18% crude protein and Mecadox for young swine (7.5 to 33
kg). Adding synthetic lysine and mecadox to the 16% crude protein diet (trial
2) provided growth and efficiency that was similar to the diet containing 18%
crude protein with mecadox added (trial 1).

Summary

Two trials involving one hundred forty four crossbred pigs with an
initial weight of 7.5 kg were conducted to examine the ability of Mecadox
and/or synthetic lysine to permit feeding of lower levels of dietary crude
protein to growing-finishing swine. In trial 1, inclusion of mecadox
significantly (P<.05) improved the growth of pigs fed either 16 or 18% crude
protein diets between 7.5 and 33 kg body weights. Although the addition of
Mecadox did not significantly (P<.05) influence the performance during the
finishing period, the efficiency of gain over the entire trial was improved
(P<.05) by adding Mecadox. Pigs fed a diet containing 18% dietary protein







initially and finished on a 15% crude protein diet grew faster (P<.05) when
compared to feeding a 16% and 13% crude protein diet during the same periods.
In trial 2, supplementation of the 16% protein diet with synthetic lysine or
Mecadox improved (P<.05) the growth of pigs between 7.5 and 33 kg. Further,
Mecadox had a sparing effect on the protein requirement of young swine (7.5 to
33 kg) when fed in combination with synthetic lysine.

The growth of pigs from 33 to approximately 90 kg was not effected by the
dietary treatments. However, the average daily gain and feed efficiency
overthe entire experimental period were improved by the addition of lysine.
Similar to the results of trial 1, the addition of Mecadox to the diet did not
improve (P<.05) the average dialy gain of pigs between 7.5 and 90 kg of body
weight, but feed efficiency was improved. Adding synthetic lysine and mecadox
to the 16% crude protein diet (trial 2) allowed growth and efficiency that
were similar to the 18% crude protein diet with mecadox added (trial 1).


Table 1. Percentage Composition of Experimental Diets, Trial 1

% Crude Protein 18 18 16 16
% Mecadox 0 .25 0 .25


Ground yellow corn 72.61 72.36 77.55 77.30
Soybean meal 24.19 24.19 19.25 19.25
Dynafos 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60
Limestone 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90
Salt 1 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals (CCC1 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (UF) 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Mecadox --- 0.25 --- 0.25


1Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, IL. contained
iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.10% cobalt


20% zinc, 10%
and 2% calcium.


2Contained 13,200 mg riboflavin, 44,000 ng niacin; 26,400 mg pantothenic acid;
176,000 mg choline chloride; 22,000 mcg vitamin B12; 5,500,000 IU vitamin A;
880,000 ICU vitamin D3 and 22,000 IU vitamin E per kg at premix.






-14-


Table 2. Percentage Composition of Experimental Diets, Trial 2


% Mecadox 0 .25 0 .25
% Synthetic Lysine 0 0 .25 .25

Ground yellow corn 77.55 77.30 77.30 77.05
Soybean meal 19.25 19.25 19.25 19.25
Dynafos 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60
Limestone 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90
Salt 1 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals (CCC1 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (UF) 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Mecadox --- 0.25 --- 0.25
Synthetic Lysine -- ---- 0.25 0.25


Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, IL. contained
iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.10% cobalt


20% zinc, 10%
and 2% calcium.


2Contained 13,200 mg riboflavin, 44,000 ng niacin; 26,400 mg pantothenic acid;
176,000 mg choline chloride; 22,000 mcg vitamin B12; 5,500,000 IU vitamin A;
880,000 ICU vitamin D3 and 22,000 IU vitamin E pe kg at premix.





-15-


Table 3. Effects of Crude Protein Level
The Performance of Pigs


and Mecadox on


Crude Protein, % 16 16 18 18
Mecadox, % 0 .25 0 .25

Period 1

Average initial weight, kg 7.46 7.46 7.48 7.48
Daily gain, kg .53 .57 .56 .60
Daily feed intake, kg 1.32 1.34 1.29 1.37
Feed/gain 2.48 2.33 2.31 2.26

Period 2

Average ini il weight, kg 33.51 34.04 34.97 37.27
Daily gain, .82 .81 .84 .90
Daily feed intake, kg 2.40 2.29 2.41 2.44
Feed/gain 2.93 2.84 2.89 2.84

Overall

Average initial weight, kg 7.46 7.46 7.48 7.48
Average final eight, kg 90.91 92.04 93.56 97.30
Daily gain, kg .70 .71 .72 .75
Daily feed intake, kg 1.95 1.90 1.95 2.00
Feed/gain c 2.70 2.65 2.79 2.67

aLeast squares means.

significant crude protein effect (P<.05).

cSignificant Mecadox effect (P<.05).
d
Significant crude protein effect (P<.1).
eSignificant crude protein x sex interaction (P<.05).






-16-


Table 4. Effects of Synthetic Lysineaand Mecadox on the
Performance of Pigs


Mecadox, % 0 .25 0 .25
Synthetic Lysine, % 0 0 .25 .25


Period 1 16% Protein

Average initial weight, kg 7.46 7.46 7.48 7.54
Daily gain, kg"' .53e .57 57 .659
Daily feed intake, kg 1.32 1.34 1.34 1.52
Feed/gain 2.48 2.33 2.37 2.33

Period 2 13% Protein

Average initial weight, kg 33.51 34.04 35.23 39.46
Daily gain, kg .82 .81 .84 .84
Daily feed intake, kg 2.40 2.29 2.40 2.34
Feed/gain 2.93 2.84 2.83 2.82

Overall

Average initial weight, kg 7.46 7.46 7.48 7.54
Average final Weight, kg 90.91 92.04 94.24 97.63
Daily gain, kg .70 .71 .73 .76
Daily feed intake, kg 1.95 1.90 1.95 2.00
Feed/gain"' 2.79 2.67 2.68 2.65

aLeast squares means.
bSignificant lysine effect (P<.05).

CSignificant Mecadox effect (P<.05).

Significant Mecadox x lysine x sex interaction (P<.1).
e,f Means in the same row with different superscripts are different.




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