• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Experimental
 Table 1 - Composition of diets
 Table 2 - Effect of lysine source...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - University of Florida Dept. of Animal Science ; AL-1984-1
Title: The effect of Mecadox on the performance of swine fed isolysine diets from natural or sythetic sources
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073158/00001
 Material Information
Title: The effect of Mecadox on the performance of swine fed isolysine diets from natural or sythetic sources
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 5 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Campbell, Donnie Ray, 1949-
Coffey, M. T
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1984
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antibacterial agents -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Medicated feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 3).
Statement of Responsibility: D.R. Campbell, M.T. Coffey and G.E. Combs.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "May, 1984."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073158
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 82180608

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 1
        Results and discussion
            Page 2
        Summary
            Page 3
        Literature cited
            Page 3
    Table 1 - Composition of diets
        Page 4
    Table 2 - Effect of lysine source and mecadox on the performance of swine
        Page 5
Full Text



r/

SDepartment of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
., Research Report AL-1984-1 -1- Experiment Station
May, 1984 Galnesville, FL


THE EFFECT OF MECADOX ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SWINE FED ISOLYSINE
DIETS FROM NATURAL OR SYNTHETIC SOURCES1

D. R. Campbell, M. T. Coffey and G. E. Combs2


Antibiotic supplementation of swine diets is a common practice to
promote growth and Improve feed efficiency. Mecadox Is a synthetic
antibacterial compound that has been shown to improve performance when
Incorporated into the diet of weanling pigs. Mecadox Is cleared only for
use In diets of pigs weighing less than 34.1 kg and there is a 10-week
withdrawal requirement.

The mode of action of Mecadox in enhancing performance Is not clearly
understood. Previous research has indicated that Mecadox may have a
protein and/or lysine sparing effect in low protein corn-soybean meal
diets fed to young pigs. Campbell (1982) concluded that Mecadox had a
sparing effect on dietary amino acids in general, but that this action was
not specific for lysine.

The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of adding
Mecadox to diets formulated to contain similar levels of lysine provided
by corn and soybean meal or by adding synthetic lysine to a corn-soybean
meal diet containing lower protein. A second objective was to monitor the
performance of swine after withdrawal of Mecadox to determine if improved
performance during the early period of growth would result in a benefit
over the entire study, from weaning to market weight.

EXPERIMENTAL

Seventy-two crossbred pigs with an average Initial weight of 7.5 kg
were allotted to four treatment groups on the basis of weight, sex and
litter origin. Six pigs were assigned to each pen with three replicate
pens per treatment. The initial dietary treatments (table 1) were (1) an
18% crude protein corn-soybean meal diet; (2) Treatment 1 with .25%
Mecadox added; (3) a 16% crude protein corn-soybean meal diet with .25%
synthetic lysine added; (4) Treatment 3 with .25% Mecadox added. The
initial diets were fed until pigs reached 33 kg body weight, then the
dietary crude protein level was decreased in all diets by 3 percentage
units, Mecadox was removed and In diets containing synthetic lysine this
supplement was reduced to .10%. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum.
The pigs were housed during the nursery period In an enclosed building
equipped with elevated pens having expanded metal floors and wire-mesh


1Experiment 268.

2Campbell, Graduate Research Assistant; Coffey, Assistant Animal
Nutritionist; and Combs, Animal Nutritionist, Department of Animal
Science, Gainesville.


Mecadox is the Pfizer Trademark for Carbadox.






-2-


sides. The pigs were moved to a semi-enclosed concrete growing-finishing
barn with solid floors after attaining 33 kg body weight. Pig weights
and feed consumption were determined bi-weekly.

The data were analyzed by least squares analysis of variance for a
randomized complete block design containing a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement
of treatments. Data were subjected to analysis for period 1 (7.5 kg to 33
kg body weight), period 2 (33 kg to 94 kg body weight) and over the entire
experiment. Initial weight was used as a covariate for period 1 and for
the entire experiment. Significant differences were interpreted by
comparing least square means.

Results and Discussion

In period 1 (table 2), average daily gain (ADG) of pigs fed the diets
containing Mecadox was improved (P<.05) compared to pigs fed the
unsupplemented diets (.63 and .57 kg/d, respectively). Providing lysine
from corn-soybean meal or by the addition of synthetic lysine to a lower
protein diet did not affect performance or the response of pigs to Mecadox
supplementation. Feed intake and efficiency were not altered by the
experimental factors.

During period 2, performance of pigs and feed intake were not affected
by dietary treatments. Over the entire experiment (7.5-94 kg), the pigs
that consumed the Mecadox supplemented diets during period 1 gained
faster (P<.05) than the pigs fed the non-supplemented diets. Providing
lysine by the addition of synthetic lysine to lower protein diets
supported performance similar to that obtained with diets higher in
protein. Mecadox was effective in improving the performance of pigs fed
lower protein diets formulated to utilize synthetic lysine and supported
performance similar to pigs fed a higher protein (similar lysine level)
diet supplemented with Mecadox (period 1). Calculated analysis of
treatments (table 1) Indicated that lower protein diets supplied essential
amino acids other than lysine In adequate quantities to meet the
requirements of young swine (NRC, 1979). The results of this study showed
that the effect of Mecadox was consistent as long as the lysine content of
the diets was similar.

The mode of action by which Mecadox increased performance of young
swine is not apparent. Lysine is the first limiting amino acid In
corn-soybean meal diets for swine (Baker, 1973). If the mode of action of
Mecadox is to spare dietary lysine or essential amino acids in general,
the data from period 1 suggest that diets containing 18% CP and .95%
lysine are not adequate for weanling pigs. NRC (1979) has recommended
.95% lysine for 5-10 kg pigs, but Lewis et al. (1981) suggested that 5.5
kg weanling swine require 1.15-1.25% lysine in their diets.

Data from this experiment are in agreement with results indicating a
growth promotant action of Mecadox when Included In diets of weanling
pigs. However, there have been few reports on the performance of swine
after withdrawal of Mecadox. Average daily gain was significantly (P<.05)
Improved over the entire study by Mecadox supplementation during period 1.






-3-


Summary

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding Mecadox
to diets containing similar levels of lysine provided by corn and soybean
meal or by adding synthetic lyslne to a corn-soybean meal diet containing
lower protein. During period 1, the addition of Mecadox improved (P<.05)
ADG compared to unsupplemented diets. Adding Mecadox to diets that were
lower In protein but contained synthetic lyslne supported performance
similar to diets higher in protein with Mecadox added. Over the entire
study ADG was increased (P<.05) by Mecadox supplementation during
period 1.

Literature Cited

Baker, D. H. 1973. Amino acid nutrition of swine and poultry. Proc.
1973 Georgia Nutr. Conf. p. 11.

Campbell, R. G. 1982. The effects of carbadox on the performance and
carcass characteristics of early weaned pigs given high and low
protein diets. Anim. Prod. 34:11.

Lewis, A. J., E. R. Peo, Jr., B. D. Moser and T. D. Crenshaw. 1981.
Lyslne requirement of pigs weighing 5 to 15 kg fed practical diets
with and without added fat. J. Anim. Scl. 51:361.

NRC. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals, No. 2. Nutrient
Requirements of Swine. Eighth Revised Ed. National Academy of
Sciences National Research Council, Washington, DC.






-3-


Summary

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding Mecadox
to diets containing similar levels of lysine provided by corn and soybean
meal or by adding synthetic lyslne to a corn-soybean meal diet containing
lower protein. During period 1, the addition of Mecadox improved (P<.05)
ADG compared to unsupplemented diets. Adding Mecadox to diets that were
lower In protein but contained synthetic lyslne supported performance
similar to diets higher in protein with Mecadox added. Over the entire
study ADG was increased (P<.05) by Mecadox supplementation during
period 1.

Literature Cited

Baker, D. H. 1973. Amino acid nutrition of swine and poultry. Proc.
1973 Georgia Nutr. Conf. p. 11.

Campbell, R. G. 1982. The effects of carbadox on the performance and
carcass characteristics of early weaned pigs given high and low
protein diets. Anim. Prod. 34:11.

Lewis, A. J., E. R. Peo, Jr., B. D. Moser and T. D. Crenshaw. 1981.
Lyslne requirement of pigs weighing 5 to 15 kg fed practical diets
with and without added fat. J. Anim. Scl. 51:361.

NRC. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals, No. 2. Nutrient
Requirements of Swine. Eighth Revised Ed. National Academy of
Sciences National Research Council, Washington, DC.






-4-


a
Table 1. COMPOSITION OF DIETS


Treatments

Ingredients 1 2 3 4


Corn (IFN 4-02-935) 72.61 72.36 77.30 77.05
Soybean meal (IFN 5-04-612) 24.19 24.19 19.25 19.25
Mono and dicalclum phosphateb 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60
Limestone .90 .90 .90 .90
Salt .50 .50 .50 .50
Trace mineral premixc .10 .10 .10 .10
Vitamin premixed .10 .10 .10 .10
Mecadoxe --- .25 -- .25
L-Lysine --- --- .25 .25


Calculated analyses, %
Crude protein 18.00 18.00 16.00 16.00
Lysine .95 .95 .98 .98
Methionine + cystine .63 .63 .58 .58
Tryptophan .20 .20 .17 .17


percentage of diet on as-fed basis.

bContalned 18.5% phosphorus and 20-14% calcium.

cContained 20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.10%
cobalt and 2% calcium.

dProvided 13,200 mg riboflavin, 44,000 mg niacin, 26,400 mg pantothenic acid,
176,000 mg choline chloride, 22,000 ug vitamin B12, 5,500,000 IU vitamin A,
880,000 ICU vitamin D3 and 22,000 IU vitamin E per kg of premix.


eProvided 55 ppm carbadox.










Table 2. EFFECT OF LYSINE SOURCE AND MECADOX ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SWINEa


Lysine Source CS CS Syn Syn
Mecadox, % 0 .25 0 .25
Item SEb


Period 1, 7.5-33 kg

Avg. daily gain, kgc .57 .61 .58 .65 .01
Avg. daily feed, kg 1.29 1.30 1.21 1.30 .04
Avg. feed/gain 2.25 2.20 2.12 2.00 .03


Period 2, 33-94 kg

Avg. daily gain, kg .85 .85 .85 .83 .02
Avg. daily feed, kg 2.42 2.44 2.45 2.49 .08
Avg. feed/gain 2.89 2.95 2.93 2.95 .04


Overall, 7.5-94 kg

Avg. daily gain, kgc .72 .75 .72 .76 .01
Avg. daily feed, kg 1.95 2.00 1.96 1.98 .04
Avg. feed/gain 2.71 2.68 2.65 2.65 .02


aLeast square means.

bStandard error of the means.

CMecadox linear effect (P<.05).




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs