• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Table 1 - Composition of diets,...
 Table 2 - Composition of diets,...
 Table 3 - Laboratory analysis of...
 Table 4 - Effects of dietary additions...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1984-5
Title: The performance of growing-finishing swine fed dehydrated coastal bermudagrass during different seasons
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073156/00001
 Material Information
Title: The performance of growing-finishing swine fed dehydrated coastal bermudagrass during different seasons
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 7 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brewton, Dewie Willie, 1960-
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Coffey, M. T
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1984
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Bermuda grass -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: D.W. Brewton, M.T. Coffey and G.E. Combs.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "May, 1984."
General Note: Pages numbered 22-28.
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073156
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 82161704

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 22
    Results and discussion
        Page 23
    Summary
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Table 1 - Composition of diets, growing phase
        Page 25
    Table 2 - Composition of diets, finishing phase
        Page 26
    Table 3 - Laboratory analysis of diets, %
        Page 27
    Table 4 - Effects of dietary additions of bermudagrass and season on performance of growing-finishing swine
        Page 28
Full Text






Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1984-5 -22- Experiment Station
May, 1984 Gainesville, FL


THE PERFORMANCE OF GROWING-FINISHING SWINE FED DEHYDRATED
COASTAL BERMUDAGRASS DURING DIFFERENT SEASONS1


D. W. Brewton, M. T. Coffey and G. E. Combs2


Florida is a state that is deficient In the production of cereal
grains. A major portion of the grain used in livestock production is
transported from other areas. Alternative feed Ingredients that can be
grown locally have potential use in the swine Industry. Bermudagrass Is a
high fiber forage crop that is grown in Florida.

The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of
dietary level of dehydrated bermudagrass on performance of growing
finishing swine. A second objective was to determine if these effects are
altered by environmental temperature as affected by season of the year.

Experimental

Two group feeding trials utilizing 120 crossbred pigs each (6 pigs/
pen, 4 replicates/treatment/trial) were conducted to determine the
feeding value of dehydrated coastal bermudagrass for growing and finishing
swine. Dehydrated coastal bermudagrass pellets were reground and included
in corn soybean meal diets at 0, 3, 6, 12 or 24%. All diets contained 16%
crude protein (CP) during the growing phase (table 1) and 14% CP during
the finishing phase (table 2). Results of laboratory analysis for con-
centration of crude protein and fiber constituents are shown in table 3.
Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Pigs were fed the grower diet
until a pen reached an average weight of 55 kg then fed the finisher diet
to a market weight of 100 kg.

The trials were conducted in the winter (trial 1) and summer (trial 2)
to examine the effects of season. Pigs were housed in an open sided barn
in pens (5.2 m2) with slotted flooring. Pigs were weighed and group
feed consumption was determined biweekly.

Data were analyzed using least squares analysis of variance. The
level of dietary bermudagrass was a continuous variable, and the other
main effects were season and sex. Initial weight was utilized as
covariatefor performance. Least squares means procedures were used to
examine significant Interactions.



tExp. 287 and 287B

2Brewton, Graduate Research Assistant; Coffey, Assistant Animal
Nutritionist and Combs, Animal Nutritionist, Department of Animal
Science, Gainesville.







-23-


Results and Discussion

There was a-significant treatment by season interaction (P<,,01) on
average daily gain (table 4). Pigs consuming the 24% dehydrated
bermudagrass diet grew slower (P<.05) during the winter compared to pigs
fed 0, 3, 6 or 12% bermudagrass. During the summer pigs fed 12%
bermudagrass grew slower (P<.01) than pigs consuming 0, 3, or 6%, and
gains of pigs fed the 24% bermudagrass were significantly (P<.05) less
than all the other treatments. There was a sex effect (P<.01) on growth
rate. Females grew slower than males. There was a significant (P<.01)
treatment by.season interaction on average daily feed intake. During the
winter there was an increase in feed intake as the level of bermudagrass
in the diet increased (P<.05). Pigs fed the 12 or 24% bermudagrass diets
ate more feed than pigs consuming the 0, 3 or 6% diets. In the summer
there was also an increase in feed intake with Increasing level of
bermudagrass in the diet, but to a lesser extent. Pigs fed the 12 or 24%
bermudagrass consumed more feed during the winter compared to the summer.

During the winter and summer bermudagrass level in the diet had a
significant (P<.05) effect on feed efficiency. Pigs fed the diet
containing 12% dehydrated bermudagrass were less (P<.05) efficient than
pigs fed the 0, 3 or 6% bermudagrass, and including 24% bermudagrass in
the diet resulted in a further depression (P<.05) in efficiency of feed
utilization. The reduced energy content of high fiber diets, not the
fiber level per se, has been shown to be responsible for changes in swine
performance. The poorer feed efficiency of pigs fed the higher levels of
bermudagrass may be related to the increase of dietary fiber constituents
(table 3). There was a season effect (P<.05) on feed efficiency. Pigs
fed during the winter were less efficient than the pigs fed during the
summer. This may be mainly attributed to the decreased efficiency of pigs
fed the 12 or 24% bermudagrass diets. In the winter they ate more (P<.05)
of the lower energy diets, and therefore were less efficient than pigs fed
12 or 24% bermudagrass in the summer.

In general as the level of fiber increased in the diet, performance
declined. This growth depression was likely related to the decrease In
the energy density of the diet as the level of dietary fiber increased.
As the level of bermudagrass increased in the diets, pigs increased their
feed intake in an attempt to consume adequate energy. However, this
occurred to a lesser extent in the summer. Pigs fed 12% bermudagrass
during the winter increased feed intake and maintained a rate of gain
comparable to diets containing lower levels of bermudagrass. In the
summer, pigs fed 12% bermudagrass had lower average daily gains.
Including 24% bermudagrass in the diet resulted in depressed (P<.05)
growth in both seasons. This may have been due to an inability of pigs to
consume enough of this bulkier diet to prevent a reduction in nutrient
Intake.

Summary

Two group feeding trials (6 pigs/pen, 4 replicates/treatment/tr-ial)
were conducted to determine the feeding value of dehydrated coastal
bermudagrass for growing and finishing swine. Dehydrated coastal







-23-


Results and Discussion

There was a-significant treatment by season interaction (P<,,01) on
average daily gain (table 4). Pigs consuming the 24% dehydrated
bermudagrass diet grew slower (P<.05) during the winter compared to pigs
fed 0, 3, 6 or 12% bermudagrass. During the summer pigs fed 12%
bermudagrass grew slower (P<.01) than pigs consuming 0, 3, or 6%, and
gains of pigs fed the 24% bermudagrass were significantly (P<.05) less
than all the other treatments. There was a sex effect (P<.01) on growth
rate. Females grew slower than males. There was a significant (P<.01)
treatment by.season interaction on average daily feed intake. During the
winter there was an increase in feed intake as the level of bermudagrass
in the diet increased (P<.05). Pigs fed the 12 or 24% bermudagrass diets
ate more feed than pigs consuming the 0, 3 or 6% diets. In the summer
there was also an increase in feed intake with Increasing level of
bermudagrass in the diet, but to a lesser extent. Pigs fed the 12 or 24%
bermudagrass consumed more feed during the winter compared to the summer.

During the winter and summer bermudagrass level in the diet had a
significant (P<.05) effect on feed efficiency. Pigs fed the diet
containing 12% dehydrated bermudagrass were less (P<.05) efficient than
pigs fed the 0, 3 or 6% bermudagrass, and including 24% bermudagrass in
the diet resulted in a further depression (P<.05) in efficiency of feed
utilization. The reduced energy content of high fiber diets, not the
fiber level per se, has been shown to be responsible for changes in swine
performance. The poorer feed efficiency of pigs fed the higher levels of
bermudagrass may be related to the increase of dietary fiber constituents
(table 3). There was a season effect (P<.05) on feed efficiency. Pigs
fed during the winter were less efficient than the pigs fed during the
summer. This may be mainly attributed to the decreased efficiency of pigs
fed the 12 or 24% bermudagrass diets. In the winter they ate more (P<.05)
of the lower energy diets, and therefore were less efficient than pigs fed
12 or 24% bermudagrass in the summer.

In general as the level of fiber increased in the diet, performance
declined. This growth depression was likely related to the decrease In
the energy density of the diet as the level of dietary fiber increased.
As the level of bermudagrass increased in the diets, pigs increased their
feed intake in an attempt to consume adequate energy. However, this
occurred to a lesser extent in the summer. Pigs fed 12% bermudagrass
during the winter increased feed intake and maintained a rate of gain
comparable to diets containing lower levels of bermudagrass. In the
summer, pigs fed 12% bermudagrass had lower average daily gains.
Including 24% bermudagrass in the diet resulted in depressed (P<.05)
growth in both seasons. This may have been due to an inability of pigs to
consume enough of this bulkier diet to prevent a reduction in nutrient
Intake.

Summary

Two group feeding trials (6 pigs/pen, 4 replicates/treatment/tr-ial)
were conducted to determine the feeding value of dehydrated coastal
bermudagrass for growing and finishing swine. Dehydrated coastal








-24-


bermudagrass pellets were reground and included in corn soybean meal diets
at 0, 3, 6, 12 or 24%. Trials were conducted in the winter and summer to
examine the effect of season. Diets contained 16% crude protein (CP)
during the growing phase (30 to 55 kg) and 14% CP during the finishing
phase (55 to 100 kg). There was a treatment by season interaction (P<.01)
on average daily gain. Pigs consuming the 24% bermudagrass diet grew
slower during the winter compared to pigs fed 0, 3, 6 or 12%
bermudagrass. During the summer pigs fed 12% bermudagrass grew slower
(P<.01) than pigs consuming 0, 3, or 6%, and gains of pigs fed the 24%
bermudagrass were less (P<.05) than the other treatments. There was a
treatment by season interaction (P<.01) on feed intake. During the winter
there was an increase in intake as bermudagrass increased in the diet.
Pigs fed 12 or 24% bermudagrass ate more than pigs consuming the 0, 3 or
6% diets. In the summer there was also an increase in intake with
increasing bermudagrass, but to a lesser extent. Pigs fed 12 or 24%
bermudagrass consumed more feed during the winter than in the summer.
During winter and summer, pigs fed 12% bermudagrass were less (P<.05)
efficient than pigs fed the 0, 3 or 6% bermudagrass, and including 24%
bermudagrass resulted in a further depression (P<.05) in efficiency.











TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF DIETS, GROWING PHASEa


Bermudagrass, %

Ingredient 0 3 6 12 24

Yellow corn(IFN 4-02-935) 77.35 74.60 71.90 66.43 55.50
Soybean meal (IFN 5-04-612) 19.65 19.40 19.10 18.57 17.50
Dehydrated
bermudagrassb (IFN 1-09-213) 0.00 3.00 6.00 12.00 24.00
Mono and dicalclum phosphatec 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60
Limestone (IFN 4-07-882) 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80
lodized salt (IFN 6-04-152) 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Trace mlneralsd 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (UF)e 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Antiblotlcf 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15

aPercentage of diet on as-fed basis.


bContained 12% crude protein.

CContained 18.5% phosphorus and 20% calcium.


dContained 20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper,
calcium.


0.15% iodine, and 10%


eContained 13,200 mg riboflavin, 44,000 mg niacin, 26,400 mg pantothenic acid, 176,000
mg choline chloride, 22,000 mcg vitamin B12, 5,500,000 IU vitamin A, 880,000 ICU
vitamin D3 and 22,000 IU vitamin E per kilogram of premix.

fContalned 44 g chlortetracycline, 44 g sulfamethazlne, 22 g penicillium per kilogram.











TABLE 2. COMPOSITION OF DIETS, FINISHING PHASEa

Bermudagrass, %

Ingredient 0 3 6 12 24

Yellow corn(IFN 4-02-935) 82.43 79.69 76.96 71.49 60.55
Soybean meal (IFN 5-04-612) 14.57 14.31 14.04 13.51 12.45
Dehydrated
bermudagrassb (IFN 1-09-213) 0.00 3.00 6.00 12.00 24.00
Mono and dicalclum phosphate 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60
Limestone (IFN 4-07-882) 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80
lodized salt(IFN 6-04-152) 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Trace minerals 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (UF)e 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
Antibioticf 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20

aPercentage of diet on as-fed basis.

bContained 12% crude protein.

CContalned 18.5% phosphorus and 20% calcium.

dContalned 20% zinc, 10% Iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, and 10%
calcium.

eContained 13,200 mg riboflavin, 44,000 mg niacin, 26,400 mg pantothenic acid, 176,000
mg choline chloride, 22,000 mcg vitamin B12, 5,500,000 IU vitamin A, 880,000 ICU
vitamin D3 and 22,000 IU vitamin E per kilogram of premix.

fContained 110 g chlortetracyclIne per kilogram.











TABLE 3. LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF DIETS, %

Bermudagrass, %

Item 0 3 6 12 24


Growing Phase

Crude protein 16.06 15.06 15.19 15.44 15.44
Crude fiber 2.33 3.00 3.87 4.57 7.34
Acid detergent fiber 4.09 4.68 5.37 6.57 9.40
Neutral detergent fiber 9.39 11.95 13.57 15.88 25.46


Finishing Phase

Crude protein 13.75 13.63 13.88 13.69 14.06
Crude fiber 2.78 3.14 3.50 4.60 7.86
Acid detergent fiber 3.90 4.65 5.62 6.94 9.92
Neutral detergent fiber 9.16 11.55 13.48 15.81 25.01












TABLE 4. EFFECTS OF DIETARY ADDITIONS OF BERMUDAGRASS AND SEASON ON PERFORMANCE OF
GROWING-FINISHING SWINEa

% Bermudagrass
Item Seasonb 0 3 6 12 24 SEC


Gain, kg/dd W .83 .81 .80 .83 .74 .01
S .84 .84 .81 .77 .73 .01
Mean .84 .82 .80 .80 .74 .01

Feed intake, kg/dd W 2.61 2.56 2.51 2.98 3.26 .03
S 2.62 2.66 2.57 2.69 2.94 .03
Mean 2.62 2.61 2.54 2.84 3.10 .05

Feed efficiencye,f W 3.19 3.21 3.21 3.69 4.53 .05
S 3.10 3.15 3.29 3.49 4.02 .05
Mean 3.15 3.18 3.20 3.59 4.27 .08


aLeast squares means.

b W=winter, S=summer and Mean = winter and summer combined.

CStandard Error determined from the mean of 118 animals in winter, 120 animals in summer
and 238 animals for the winter and summer combined, respectively.

dSignificant treatment x season interaction (P<.05).

eSignificant treatment effect (P<.05).

fSignificant season effect (P<.05).




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