• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Literature cited
 Table 1 - Basal diet
 Table 2 - Effect of sulfate, choline...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1984-2
Title: Methionine, choline and sulfate interrelationships in weanling swine
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073153/00001
 Material Information
Title: Methionine, choline and sulfate interrelationships in weanling swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 5 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lovett, Thomas Dozier, 1959-
Coffey, M. T
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1984
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Methionine   ( lcsh )
Choline   ( lcsh )
Sulphates   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: T.D. Lovett, M.T. Coffey and G.E. Combs.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "May, 1984."
General Note: Pages numbered 6-10.
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073153
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 82143386

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 6
    Results and discussion
        Page 7
    Summary
        Page 8
    Literature cited
        Page 8
    Table 1 - Basal diet
        Page 9
    Table 2 - Effect of sulfate, choline and methionine on the performance of pigs (3 to 8 weeks of age)
        Page 10
Full Text
1o0




Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Research Report Al-1984-2 -6- Experiment Station
May, 1984 Gainesville, FL


METHIONINE, CHOLINE AND SULFATE INTERRELATIONSHIPS
IN WEANLING SWINE

T. D. Lovett, M. T. Coffey, and G. E. Combs2

In order to achieve maximum growth for the least cost, swine diets are
formulated to contain minimum levels of required nutrients. The use of
synthetic ingredients may allow formulation of less expensive rations.
However, with the use of synthetic ingredients certain nutrient
interactions may become apparent. There are several dietary nutrient
relationships that may depress performance, if ignored. These include:
calcium and phosphorus; amino acid balance and choline and methionine.
Previous research with rats, humans, chicks and poults have suggested that
a methionine, choline and inorganic sulfate relationship exists. A study
was designed to examine the effect of this interrelationship on the
performance of weanling pigs.

Experimental

Two five-week trials were conducted using a total of 288 three-week
old crossbred pigs, averaging 5.5 kg. Pigs were allotted to equal outcome
groups based on litter, sex and weight. Six pigs were assigned to each
pen and there were three replicates/treatment/trial. Sulfur-free water
obtained by using an iron-sulfur ion exchange filter and feed were
provided ad libitum. The corn-soybean meal basal diet (table 1) was
formulated using synthetic lysine to contain marginal levels of sulfur
amino acids and contained a sulfate-choline free vitamin and mineral
premix. Seven additional treatments were created by adding .17%
DL-methionine, .29% choline dihydrogen citrate or .25% Na2SO4 as
shown.

Treatment
Supplement 1 2 41 A 1

DL-methlonine 0 + 0 0 + 0 + +
Choline dihydrogen citrate 0 0 + 0 + + 0 +
Na2S04 0 0 0 + 0 + + +


The data were analyzed by least squares analysis of variance for a 2 x
2 x 2 factorial model for main effects and interactions, using initial


1Experlments 284B and C.

2Lovett, Graduate Research Assistant; Coffey, Assistant Animal
Nutritionist, and Combs, Animal Nutritionist, Department of Animal
Science, Gainesville.









weight as a covariate. Least squares means procedure was used to examine
means. Further analysis was performed by fitting main effects separately
'to examirre significant 'interactions.
Results and Discussion

The performance data are summarized in table 2. There was a
significant (P<.001) methionine x choline x sulfate interaction for
average daily gain (ADG). Single additions of .25% Na2SO4, .29%
choline dihydrogen citrate or .17% DL-methlonine failed to improve ADG
over the basal. However, when sulfate was added to diets in the presence
of supplemental methionine (trt 7) or choline (trt 6), ADG was improved
(P<.05). Addition of all three supplements (trt 8) to the basal diet did
not support a further increase in ADG.

Baker (1977) listed three conditions necessary for a growth response
to sulfur supplementation in poultry diets: 1) dietary inorganic sulfur
must be inadequate, 2) dietary sulfur amino acids must be limiting and 3)
cystine must be more deficient than methionine. Since the sulfur amino
acid (methionine + cystine) requirement of 5-10 kg swine is .56% (NRC,
1979), the sulfur amino acid content of the basal diets in trial 1 (.55%)
and trial 2 (.52%) was marginal. However, the basal diet in each trial
contained more cystine than methionine (.28, .24 and .30, .25% cystine,
methionine, for trials 1 and 2, respectively). This ratio may have
prevented a response to added sulfate.

When sulfate and methionine were provided simultaneously (trt 7),
growth rate was improved (P<.05) by 11.4%. In the presence of
supplemental methionine, cystine may have become more limiting in the
diet, therefore permitting a response to added sulfate. The combination
of sulfate and choline (trt 6) increased (P<.05) ADG by 14.3% over the
basal. These results are in agreement with those reported in a similar
study with chicks. Miles et al. (1983) indicated that the maximum benefit
obtained from either supplement (choline or sulfate) was dependent on the
presence of each in the diet at the same time. Choline shares a common
function with methionine as a source of labile methyl groups (Mann et al.,
1938; Griffith and Mulford, 1941) and may have spared methionine for this
purpose. The increased growth produced by supplementing choline and
sulfate (trt 6) may have been due to a sparing effect of choline on
methionine. For this reason, cystine became more limiting in the diet
than methionine, which prompted the response from supplemental sulfate.

There was a choline x sulfate x methionine interaction on feed
efficiency (P<.02). In general, feed efficiency values followed similar
trends as ADG. However, only pigs fed diets supplemented with methionine
and sulfate (trt 7) were more efficient (P<.05) than pigs consuming the
basal diet (1.71 vs 1.83). Pigs fed .25% Na2SO4 tended (P=.08) to be
more efficient compared to diets not supplemented with sulfate (t.77 vs
1.83). The addition of all three supplements (trt 8) did not support a
further improvement in efficiency. There was no effect due to dietary
treatment on feed consumption.
With the use of synthetic lysine and therefore less natural protein
situations may result where sulfur amino acid content of swine diets are
marginal. Under these conditions the data indicated that added sulfate in
conjunction with supplemental methionine or choline resulted in maximum





* -


-8-

performance. However, adding sulfate, choline and methonine in the diets
did not support a further increase in growth. This is in agreement with
chick studies. Miles et al. (1983) reported that for choline to spare the
greatest amount of dietary methionine, sulfate must be present.

Summary

Two 35-day trials were conducted to examine the interrelationship
between methionine, choline and sulfate in diets of young pigs.
Three-week old pigs allotted to a pen and there were three
replicates/treatment/trial. Treatments were a basal (B) corn soybean meal
diet containing a choline-sulfate free vitamin and mineral premix and
formulated to supply .56% sulfur amino acids (methionine and cystine).
Seven additional diets were created by adding 0 or .25% Na2SO4 (S), 0
or .17% DL-methionine (M) and 0 or .29% choline dihydrogen citrate (C) in
a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Sulfur-free water filtered through an
iron-sulfur exchange filter and feed were provided ad libitum. There were
significant methionine x sulfate x choline interactions for ADG (P<.002)
and F:G ratio (P<.05). Addition of choline, methionine or sulfate to the
basal did not alter ADG. In contrast, when S was included in diets
containing methionine or cystine, daily gains were increased (P<.05) and
feed efficiency ratio was improved (P<.1). Addition of all three
supplements (choline, sulfate, and methionine) to the basal diet did not
result in a further improvement in performance.

Literature Cited

Baker, D. H. 1977. Sulfur in Non-ruminant Nutrition. National Feed
Ingredients Association, Des Moines, IA.

Griffith, W. H. and D. J. Mulford. 1941. Choline metabolism. VI.
Hemorrhagic degeneration and the labile methyl supply. J. Am. Chem. Sco.
63:929.

Mann, P. J., H. E. Woodward and J. H. Quastel. 1938. Hepatic oxidation
of choline and aresnocholine. Blochem. J. 32:1024.

Miles, R. D., N. Ruiz and R. H. Harms. 1983. The interrelationship
between methionine, choline and sulfate in broiler diets. Poul. Sci.
62:495.

NRC. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals, No. 2. Nutrient
Requirements of Swine. Eighth Revised Ed. National Academy of Sciences -
National Research Council. Washington, D. C.





* -


-8-

performance. However, adding sulfate, choline and methonine in the diets
did not support a further increase in growth. This is in agreement with
chick studies. Miles et al. (1983) reported that for choline to spare the
greatest amount of dietary methionine, sulfate must be present.

Summary

Two 35-day trials were conducted to examine the interrelationship
between methionine, choline and sulfate in diets of young pigs.
Three-week old pigs allotted to a pen and there were three
replicates/treatment/trial. Treatments were a basal (B) corn soybean meal
diet containing a choline-sulfate free vitamin and mineral premix and
formulated to supply .56% sulfur amino acids (methionine and cystine).
Seven additional diets were created by adding 0 or .25% Na2SO4 (S), 0
or .17% DL-methionine (M) and 0 or .29% choline dihydrogen citrate (C) in
a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Sulfur-free water filtered through an
iron-sulfur exchange filter and feed were provided ad libitum. There were
significant methionine x sulfate x choline interactions for ADG (P<.002)
and F:G ratio (P<.05). Addition of choline, methionine or sulfate to the
basal did not alter ADG. In contrast, when S was included in diets
containing methionine or cystine, daily gains were increased (P<.05) and
feed efficiency ratio was improved (P<.1). Addition of all three
supplements (choline, sulfate, and methionine) to the basal diet did not
result in a further improvement in performance.

Literature Cited

Baker, D. H. 1977. Sulfur in Non-ruminant Nutrition. National Feed
Ingredients Association, Des Moines, IA.

Griffith, W. H. and D. J. Mulford. 1941. Choline metabolism. VI.
Hemorrhagic degeneration and the labile methyl supply. J. Am. Chem. Sco.
63:929.

Mann, P. J., H. E. Woodward and J. H. Quastel. 1938. Hepatic oxidation
of choline and aresnocholine. Blochem. J. 32:1024.

Miles, R. D., N. Ruiz and R. H. Harms. 1983. The interrelationship
between methionine, choline and sulfate in broiler diets. Poul. Sci.
62:495.

NRC. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals, No. 2. Nutrient
Requirements of Swine. Eighth Revised Ed. National Academy of Sciences -
National Research Council. Washington, D. C.






-


-9-


TABLE 1. BASAL DIET


Ingredient

Yellow corn (IFN 4-02-935) 59.82
Soybean meal (IFN 5-04-612) 22.94
Sugar (IFN 4-04-701) 10.00
Corn oil (IFN 4-07-882) 3.00
Mono and dicalcium phosphate 2.00
Limestone (IFN 6-02-632) 0.80
Salt (IFN 6-04-152) 0.25
Trace mineral premixa 0.20
Vitamin premix 0.10
Antibioticc (sulfur-free) 0.25
L-Lysine 0.34
Sodium bicarbonated (IFN 6-04-272) 0.30


TOTAL 100.00


Composition: Crude protein 16.18
Lysine 1.13
Sulfur amino acids
(.25 methionine, .30 cystine) .55
Calcium .82
Phosphorus .68

aThe sulfate-free cerelose based custom premix supplied the following
per kilogram of diet:Mg 400 mg (magnesium oxide), Fe 150 mg (ferric
citrate), Zn 100 mg (zinc carbonate), Mn 4.0 mg (manganese carbonate), Cu
6.0 mg (copper carbonate), I .14 mg (potassium iodide), Se .15 mg (sodium
selenite).

bThe custom formulated sulfate and choline-free cornstarch based premix
supplied the following per kilogram of diet: Vitamin A 2,200 IU, vitamin
D3 220 IU, -tocopherol acetate 11 IU, menadione 2.0 mg, riboflavin
3.0 mg, niacin 22 mg, pantothenic acid 13 mg, thiamine hydrochloride 1.3
mg, pyridoxine 1.5 mg, biotin 0.10 mg, folacin 0.60 mg, cyanocobalamine
22 g.

CTylosin phosphate, equivalent to 88 g tylosin/kg.

dSodium bicarbonate, NaHC03, was added to the basal diet as well as
all diets not supplemented withiNa2SO4 to-equalize the sodium content
across all treatments.












TABLE 2. EFFECT OF SULFATE, CHOLINE AND METHIONINE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF PIGS (3 TO 8 WEEKS OF AGE)a


Dietary Treatments
Supplement 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

DL-methionine, % 0 .17 0 0 .17 0 .17 .17
Choline dihydrogen citrate, % 0 0 .29 0 .29 .29 0 .29
Na2S04, % 0 0 0 .25 0 .25 .25 .25 SEb


Daily gain, kgc .35 .33 .36 .33 .37 .40 .39 .36 .012

Feed:galnd 1.83 1.83 1.87 1.87 1.78 1.73 1.71 1.78 .043

Feed consumption, kge .59 .61 .67 .65 .60 .66 .67 .66 .006


aLeast squares means represent pooled data from trials 1 and 2.

bStandard Error.

cCholine x sulfate x methionine interaction (P<.001).

dCholine x sulfate x methionine interaction (P<.05).

eCholine x sulfate x methionine Interaction (P<.0001).




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