• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Introduction
 Experiment I
 Experiment II
 Table 1 - Influence of a microbiotic...
 Table 2 - Average cumulative weight...
 Table 3 - Clinical observations...
 Literature cited














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1983-7
Title: Studies on the performance of a viable microbial oral paste and gel in reducing the incidence and severity of neonatal diarrhea
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073152/00001
 Material Information
Title: Studies on the performance of a viable microbial oral paste and gel in reducing the incidence and severity of neonatal diarrhea
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 3, 3 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Asquith, Richard L
Ott, E. A ( Edgar A )
Wren, W. B ( Wallace Bruce )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1983
 Subjects
Subject: Foals -- Diseases -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Diarrhea in animals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 6).
Statement of Responsibility: R.L. Asquith, E.A. Ott, W.B. Wren.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "November, 1983."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073152
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 82142576

Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Experiment I
        Page 2
    Experiment II
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table 1 - Influence of a microbiotic paste on the severity and duration of foal diarrhea during the first 30 days of life (experiment I)
        Page 4
    Table 2 - Average cumulative weight increases of foals treated with a live microbiotic gel and the untreated controls (experiment II)
        Page 4
    Table 3 - Clinical observations of fecal consistency of neonatal foals receiving a placebo or a viable microbiotic gel (experiment II)
        Page 5
    Literature cited
        Page 6
Full Text



AcrJ Department of Animal Science
'' Research Report AL-1983-7
2 (November, 1983


Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station
Gainesville, Florida


STUDIES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A VIABLE MICROBIAL ORAL PASTE
AND GEL IN REDUCING THE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF NEONATAL DIARRHEA

R. L. Asquithl, E. A. Ott2, W. B. Wren3

Neonatal foal diarrhea is a perennial problem experienced during the
foaling season for which many etiologies have been described (1, 2, 3, 4, 5.)

Foal heat diarrheas are the most common of the intestinal upsets in the
neonatal foal, occurring most commonly between the 6th and 7th day of age,
the terminology coming from the fact that it often corresponds with the dam's
first heat following parturition. Many causes for this condition have been
described, including: -
I. -Approximate time of hJyCt1 milk solids in the milk of the mare.
2. Ingestion of genital discharges accumulated on the-mare's udder.
3. Altered milk during the horn f$I) changes of estrus.
4. Strongyloides westeriInfection.

It is interesting to note,-,wev6r, that in one study, foals which
were removed from their dams, fed a-synthetic diet and maintained parasite
free, developed a-diarhITe-which was self-limiting and clinically indistin-
guishable from a foal heat diarrhea (6). It has been suggested by some that
the foal heat diarrhea syndrome may be the result of the intestimal micro-
flora becoming established throughout the maturing gastrointestinal tract at
about that age (7).

Although the incidence of diarrhea during this period may be high, the
mortality is usually low. Individual cases, however, may become severe
and/or protracted, resulting in a debilitated, slow growing foal or even
death.

The control of, or at least, the reduction of the severity of the
diarrhea is often preferred by horsemen. The oral use of viable beneficial
microbial cultures to help control neonatal diarrhea in man and other animals
has been documented (8, 9). Earlier studies of the usage of a viable micro-
bial product in neonatal foals has indicated a lessening of the incidence
and severity of diarrhea by its use (10, 11).

1R. L. Asquith, D.V.M., Associate Professor of Equine Health, Department
of Animal Science
2E. A. Ott, Ph.D., Professor of Animal Nutrition, Department of Animal Science
3W. B. Wren, D.V.M., Ph.D., Manager, Animal Scientific Services, Pioneer
Hi-Bred International, Inc., Des Moines, IA









Experiment I

Experimental Design

Thirteen neonatal foals (4 Thoroughbred and 9 Quarter Horse) born at
the-University of Florida's Horse Research Center, Ocala, Florida, were
assigned at random to one of two treatment groups. The foals and their
dams were pastured together in 20 acre pastures and brought into box stalls
twice daily for concentrate feeding. Group A foals were the controls and
received no treatment. Group B foals received an oral dose of 12.5 cc of
a live microbiotic paste4 on the 5th and 7th days of age. Foals were
weighed within 8 hours and at 28 days of age. Fecal scores were recorded
daily following the morning feeding. Scores were: 1 normal, 2 sticky,
3 loose, 4 watery.

Results

All foals accepted the paste readily and no adverse effects were
encountered. The microbiotic paste reduced the average length of the
diarrhea by about two days and markedly decreased the.severity of the
diarrhea. : "Watery feces", the most severe scored fecal consistency,
was seen in 71% of the control, untreated animals and was present only in
33% of the treated foals. No foals died in either group and the average
gains for the first 28 days of life were about equal for both groups with
101.9 Ibs for the controls and 101.7 lbs for the treated foals.

Experiment II

Experimental Design

Twenty neonatal foals (5 Thoroughbred and 15 Quarter Horse) born at
the University of Florida Horse Research Center, Ocala, Florida, were used
in this study. The pregnant mares were housed in 10-20 acre open paddocks
and brought into box stalls twice daily to receive their concentrate feed
ration. As the pregnant mares approached parturition, they were monitored
24 hours per day and a foaling attendant was present at birth. The mares
were assigned a different paddock post-foaling and as each mare foaled,
she was isolated to the mare and foal paddock, separate from the other
pregnant mares. Both mare and foal were brought into box stalls twice
daily for concentrate feeding and examination. All foals were randomly
assigned to one of two treatment groups at birth. Treatment Group A was
given either a placebo or received no treatment. Treatment Group B received
12.5 cc of a live microbiotic gel5 within 12 hours after parturition and
again at 4 days of age.

4Probios Brand Equine One Paste, containing viable cultures of Lactobacillus
acidophilus. Microbial Genetics Division, Pioneer Hi-Bred International,
Inc., Johnston, IA
5Probios Brand Equine One Gel, containing viable cultures of Lactobacillus
acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. casei and Streptococcus faecium. Microbial
Genetics Division, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., Johnston, IA









Experiment I

Experimental Design

Thirteen neonatal foals (4 Thoroughbred and 9 Quarter Horse) born at
the-University of Florida's Horse Research Center, Ocala, Florida, were
assigned at random to one of two treatment groups. The foals and their
dams were pastured together in 20 acre pastures and brought into box stalls
twice daily for concentrate feeding. Group A foals were the controls and
received no treatment. Group B foals received an oral dose of 12.5 cc of
a live microbiotic paste4 on the 5th and 7th days of age. Foals were
weighed within 8 hours and at 28 days of age. Fecal scores were recorded
daily following the morning feeding. Scores were: 1 normal, 2 sticky,
3 loose, 4 watery.

Results

All foals accepted the paste readily and no adverse effects were
encountered. The microbiotic paste reduced the average length of the
diarrhea by about two days and markedly decreased the.severity of the
diarrhea. : "Watery feces", the most severe scored fecal consistency,
was seen in 71% of the control, untreated animals and was present only in
33% of the treated foals. No foals died in either group and the average
gains for the first 28 days of life were about equal for both groups with
101.9 Ibs for the controls and 101.7 lbs for the treated foals.

Experiment II

Experimental Design

Twenty neonatal foals (5 Thoroughbred and 15 Quarter Horse) born at
the University of Florida Horse Research Center, Ocala, Florida, were used
in this study. The pregnant mares were housed in 10-20 acre open paddocks
and brought into box stalls twice daily to receive their concentrate feed
ration. As the pregnant mares approached parturition, they were monitored
24 hours per day and a foaling attendant was present at birth. The mares
were assigned a different paddock post-foaling and as each mare foaled,
she was isolated to the mare and foal paddock, separate from the other
pregnant mares. Both mare and foal were brought into box stalls twice
daily for concentrate feeding and examination. All foals were randomly
assigned to one of two treatment groups at birth. Treatment Group A was
given either a placebo or received no treatment. Treatment Group B received
12.5 cc of a live microbiotic gel5 within 12 hours after parturition and
again at 4 days of age.

4Probios Brand Equine One Paste, containing viable cultures of Lactobacillus
acidophilus. Microbial Genetics Division, Pioneer Hi-Bred International,
Inc., Johnston, IA
5Probios Brand Equine One Gel, containing viable cultures of Lactobacillus
acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. casei and Streptococcus faecium. Microbial
Genetics Division, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., Johnston, IA









A physical examination was conducted on each foal within 12 hours
after birth and twice daily for 28 days in order to identify health
problems and determine the consistency of the feces. Rectal temperatures
were taken daily for 14 days and then whenever there was a suspected
illness. Each foal was weighed within 12 hours after birth and then on
days 7, 14, 21 and 28. Hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volumes (PCV) were
determined on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28. All foals were monitored while
in their stalls for evidence of diarrhea and the general consistency of the
feces. The results of these examinations were recorded as: 1 normal,
2 loose, 3 watery or 4 bloody.

Results

Determinations of Hb and PCV indicated no difference between the
treated and nontreated groups. There was an increase of weight gain in
Group B (treatment) as-compared to Group A (control)(table 2). Although
these data may not be statistically significant, those foals in Group B
(treatment) exhibited a more rapid gain of weight during each weekly period
than those in Group A (control). The greatest weight response occurred
during the first week of life. The recorded observations of fecal consis-
tency during the trial are shown in table 3. The information found in this
table points out that both the incidence and severity of diarrhea were
markedly reduced in the microbial gel treated foals. Further, the duration
of any diarrhea-which occurred in the treated foals was shortened consider-
ably as compared to the untreated controls. One animal in Group A (control)
developed a severe.diarrhea on day 8 and was referred to the University of
Florida College of Veterinary Medicine for diagnosis and treatment. The
etiology remains unknown and the foal was removed from the trial at this
point.













TABLE 1. Influence of a Microbiotic Pastel on the Severity and
Duration of Foal Diarrhea During the First 30 Days of.Life.
(Experiment I)

A B
Control Microbiotic Paste


No. of Foals


Fecal Consistency


Normal
Sticky
Loose
Watery


(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)


74.3
10.0
5.7
7.7


81.7
10.7
4.0
4.0


Percentage of foals (total)
experiencing watery feces
during the 30-day trial

Average length of diarrhea, days


71.0 33.0


7.0


5.6


'Probios Brand Equine One Paste, containing viable cultures of Lacto-
bacillus acidophilus. Microbial Genetics Division, Pioneer Hi-Bred
International, Inc., Johnston, IA.
2% of 30 daily observations on each foal.


TABLE 2. Average Cumulative Weight Increases of Foals Treated With
a Live Microbiotic Gel1 and the Untreated Controls.
(Experiment II)

Average Weight Increases
Days Group A (Control) Group B (Microbiotic gel')

0 7 21.3 Ibs 25.5 Ibs (increase of 20%)

0 14 51.9 Ibs 54.6 Ibs (increase of 5%)

0 28 97.0 Ibs 102.0 lbs (increase of 5%)
IProbios Brand Equine One Gel, containing viable cultures of Lacto-
bacillus, L. plantarum, L. casei and Streptococcus faecium. Microbial
Genetics Division, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., Johnston, IA.













TABLE 1. Influence of a Microbiotic Pastel on the Severity and
Duration of Foal Diarrhea During the First 30 Days of.Life.
(Experiment I)

A B
Control Microbiotic Paste


No. of Foals


Fecal Consistency


Normal
Sticky
Loose
Watery


(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)


74.3
10.0
5.7
7.7


81.7
10.7
4.0
4.0


Percentage of foals (total)
experiencing watery feces
during the 30-day trial

Average length of diarrhea, days


71.0 33.0


7.0


5.6


'Probios Brand Equine One Paste, containing viable cultures of Lacto-
bacillus acidophilus. Microbial Genetics Division, Pioneer Hi-Bred
International, Inc., Johnston, IA.
2% of 30 daily observations on each foal.


TABLE 2. Average Cumulative Weight Increases of Foals Treated With
a Live Microbiotic Gel1 and the Untreated Controls.
(Experiment II)

Average Weight Increases
Days Group A (Control) Group B (Microbiotic gel')

0 7 21.3 Ibs 25.5 Ibs (increase of 20%)

0 14 51.9 Ibs 54.6 Ibs (increase of 5%)

0 28 97.0 Ibs 102.0 lbs (increase of 5%)
IProbios Brand Equine One Gel, containing viable cultures of Lacto-
bacillus, L. plantarum, L. casei and Streptococcus faecium. Microbial
Genetics Division, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., Johnston, IA.










TABLE 3. -Clinical Observations of Fecal Consistency of Neonatal
*Foals Receiving a Placebo or a Viable Microbiotic Gel1.
(Experiment II)
A B
Control Microbiotic Gel

No. of Foals 9 10

Fecal Consistency %2

Normal (1) 46.0 82.9
Loose (2) 41.3 15.0
Watery (3) 11.9 2.1
Bloody (4) 0.0 0.0

Average length of diarrhea, days 7.4 2.4
IProbios Brand Equine One Gel, containing viable cultures of Lacto-
bacillus, L. plantarum, L. casei and Streptococcus faecium. Microbial
Genetics Division, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., Johnston, IA.
2% of 14 daily observations on each foal.










Literature Cited

1. Page, E. H. and H. E. Amstuz. 1972. Equine Medicine and Surgery
(2nd Ed.) p. 260. American Veterinary Publications, Wheaton, IL.

2. Martens, R. J. 1980. Non-infectious Diarrhea in the Foal. Proc. Am.
"Assn. Equine Pract., p 205.

3. Merrit, A. M. 1980. Pathophysiology of Diarrhea in the Foal. Proc.
Am. Assn. Equine Pract., p 197.

4. Izipori, S., T. Makin, M. Smith and F. Krautil. 1982. Enteritis in
Foals Induced by Rotavirus and Enterotoxigenic E. coli. Australian
Vet. J. 58:20.

5. Conner, M. E. and R. W. Darlington. 1980. Rotavirus Infections in
Foals. Amer. Vet. Res. 41:1699.

6. Stowe, H. D. 1967. Automated Orphan Foal Feeding. Proc. Am. Assn.
Equine Pract., p 65.

7. Merrit, A. M. 1983. Personal Communications, Gainesville, FL.

8. Cruickshank, R, 1925. Bacillus Bifidus: Its Characteristics and
Isolation from the Intestine of Infants. J. Hygiene 24:241.

9. Muralidhara, K. S., W. E. Sandine, P. R. Elliker and D. C. England.
1972. Effect of Feeding Lactobacillus Concentrates on Coliform
Excretion and Scouring in Swine. J. Dairy Sci. 55:661.

10. Sautter, J. I. 1980. Perconal Communications, Lexington, KY.

11. Skewes, A. R. 1980. Personal Communications, Lexington, KY.




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