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 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1983-4
Title: Mist cooling of growing and finishing swine
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073149/00001
 Material Information
Title: Mist cooling of growing and finishing swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 5 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Harrison, Michael Dean, 1957-
Coffey, M. T
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1983
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Effect of temperature on -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Swine -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: M.D. Harrison, M.T. Coffey and G.E. Combs.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August, 1983."
General Note: Pages numbered 17-21.
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073149
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 82141767

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 17
    Results and discussion
        Page 18
    Summary
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
Full Text



Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1983-4 -17- Experiment Station
August, 1983 Gainesville, FL


MIST COOLING OF GROWING AND FINISHING SWINE1

M. D. Harrison, M. T. Coffey and G. E. Combs2

Growing swine exposed to high ambient temperature (>21.1 C) (70 F)
exhibit a marked decrease in feed consumption, rate of gain, and efficiency3of
feed conversion. These effects were clearly noted by Heitman et al. (1958)
through research conducted with swine reared in an artificial envrionment in
which temperature and humidity were controlled. It was demonstrated that
growing finishing swine (30-120 kg) gained best when reared in an environment
where temperature remained below 22.4 C (72.3 F). These data have been
supported in several more recent studies which have generally established that
a positive relationship exists between increased temperature and average daily
gain in temperature ranges of 4 to 21.1 C (40 to 70 F). Then upon increasing
ambient temperature to343.3 C (110 F) rate of gain drops significantly
(Heitman et al., 1958) Wallace et al. (1957) reported that continuous mist
cooling of swine reared in a drylot improved (P<.01) average daily gain. More
recent research has indicated that intermittent sprinkling of finishing swine
when ambient temperature is greater than 26.6 C (80 F) is more effective in5
reducing heat stress than continuous mist, showering or no mist treatments.

These trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of both continuous and
intermittent mist upon growing-finishing swine reared under confinement
conditions on concrete.

Experimental

Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of misting on
growing-finishing swine exposed to representative summer conditions.
Trial 1

One hundred forty-four crossbred pigs averaging 35 kg were allotted on
the basis of weight, sex and ancestry to three treatment groups. Eight pigs
were allotted to each pen with six pens per treatment. The treatments were as
follows: treatment 1, no mist; treatment 2, intermittent mist, 1/2 hour of
mist every two hours when ambient temperature was above 22 C (75 F) (from 35
kg to 57 kg) 21.1 C (70 F) (57 Kg to market); treatment 3, continuous mist,
applied when ambient temperature was at or above 21.1 C (70 F).

Experiments 271, 271A and 2718.

2Harrison, Graduate Research Assistant; Coffey, Assistate Nutritionist and
Combs, Nutritionist, Animal Science Department, Gainesville.

Heitman, H., J. Anim. Sci. 17:62.

4Wallace, H. D., Anim. Sci. res. Rept. AL-58-3.

5Brown, K., Hog Farm Management Vol. 16, No. 6:26.






-18-


Trial 2

Sixty-three crossbred pigs averaging 66 kg were allotted on the basis of
weight, sex and ancestry to three treatment groups. Seven pigs were allotted
to each pen with three pens per treatment. The treatments were as follows:
treatment 1, no mist; treatment 2, intermittent mist, 1/2 hour of mist every
two hours when ambient temperature was above 21.1 C (70 F) (from 66 to 100
kg); treatment 3, continuous mist, applied when ambient temperature was at or
above 21.1 C (70 F).

Trial 3

Seventy-two crossbred pigs averaging 58 kg were allotted on the basis of
weight, sex and ancestry to three treatment groups. Eight pigs were allotted
to each pen with three pens per treatment. The treatments were as follows:
treatment 1, no mist; treatment 2, intermittent mist, sprinkle 1 minute every
30 minutes when temperature was 21.1 C (70 F), treatment 3, continuous mist,
applied when temperature exceeds 21.1 C (70 F).

In all trials, corn-soy diets were formulated to provided 17.5% crude
protein (CP) during the growing period (35 to 50 kg) and 14.7% CP during the
finishing period (50 to 100 kg) (table 1). Pigs were housed in a concrete
block barn with solid concrete floors during the entire study. All pigs were
self fed and water was provided with automatic watering devices. Misting
devices were activated with a thermostat and time clock so that treatments 2
and 3 were administered consistently throughout the experiment. Pig weight
and feed consumption were determined bi-weekly. Upon completion of the 110
day trial, performance data were subjected to analysis of variance and
Duncan's multiple range test.


Results and Discussion
A summary of the performance data for trials 1-3 is presented in tables
2-4, respectively.

Trial 1. There were no differences (P<.1) in average daily gain, feed
consumption or efficiency of feed conversion during the growing period. Both
intermittent and continuous mist (treatments 2 and 3 respectively) improved
daily gain during the finishing period (P<.01) when compared with pigs
receiving no mist (treatment 1). There were no differences in feed efficiency
during the finishing period. Results from the entire trial indicated that
misting (intermittent or continuous) improved (P<.01) daily gain and that this
occurred regardless of the type of misting used.

Trial 2. There were no differences (P<.1) in average daily gain or feed
consumption in Trial 2. A decrease(P<.1) in feed efficiency was observed for
pigs receiving the continuous mist treatment.

STrial 3. There were no differences (P<.1) in daily gain, feed
consumption, or efficiency of feed conversion for the three treatments in
trial 3.






-19-


There was no difference (P<.1) between the method of misting,
intermittent or continuous, in any trial. During trial 1, animals were on
experiment for the combined growing and finishing periods, a total of 92 days
(28 and 64 days, respectively). However, in trial 2 and 3, pigs were on
experiment only for the finisher period (42 and 48 days, respectively). The
lack of any significant response to misting in trials 2 and 3 may have been
the result of a difference in the length of the study, i.e., the length of
time which the animals were exposed to heat stress. Wallace et al. (1957)
reported that continuous mist cooling of growing finishing swine produced
differences only in the combined growing and finishing periods. The
similarity of response with the continuous mist and intermittent mist
treatments in this study may have been due to the high humidity experienced
during the summer in Florida. Mist cooling is produced by the evaporation of
water from the skin and during periods of high humidity this evaporative
cooling effect is inhibited.

Summary

Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of misting
(intermittent or continuous) on the performance of growing-finishing swine
during periods of thermal stress. During trial 1, there was an improvement
(P<.01) in daily gain for pigs receiving the intermittent or continuous mist
treatments when compared to pigs receiving the no mist treatment. There were
no differences (P<.1) in daily gain or feed consumption during trials 2 or 3.
Based on the present and prior research it is apparent that improvement in
animal performance due to mist cooling is more evident when the animals are
exposed to thermal stress for both the growing and finishing period (>90
days). These trials indicated that there was no difference between
intermittent mist and continuous mist as measured by animal performance
parameters.



Table 1. Diet Composition

Ingredient Grower Finisher


Yellow corn 74.10 82.10
Soybean meal (48%) 22.00 15.00
Dynafos (IMCC) 1.70 1.70
Limestone 0.80 0.80
Iodized salt 0.25 0.25
Trace minerals (CCC1 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (UF) 0.10 0.05
ASP-250 0.15


aSupplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, Illinois. Contained 20%
zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, and 12% calcium.
bContained 13,200 mg riboflavin, 44,000 mg niacin, 26,400 mg pantothenic
acid, 176,000 mg choline chloride, 22,000 meg vitamin Bi, 5,500,000 IU
vitamin A, 880,000 ICU vitamin D3 and 22,000 IU vitamins per kilogram of
premix.






-20-


Table 2. Trial 1 Growing Period, Fingshing
Period and Overall Performance '

Treatments No mist Intermittent Continuous


Growing Period

Initial weight, kg 34.9 34.9 34.9
Final weight, kg 58.0 58.7 58.8
Daily gain, kg .83 .85 .86
Daily feed, kg 2.06 2.14 2.13
Feed/gain 2.49 2.52 2.49

Finishing period

Initial weight, kg 58.8 58.7 58.8
final weight, kg 97.6 d 102.4 102.9
Daily gain, kg .71 .78 .79
Daily feed, kg 2.41 2.68 2.75
Feed/gain 3.42 3.44 3.49

Overall trial 1

Initial weight, kg 34.9 34.9 34.9
Final weight, kg 97.6 d 102.4 102.9
Daily gain, kg .75 .80 .81
Daily feed, kg 2.30 2.37 2.54
Feed/gain 3.08 2.95 3.14

aAverage temperature: growing period high 33.3 C (91.9 F), low 21.1 C (70 F);
finishing period high 31.8 C (89.3 F) low 21.9 C (71.5 F); overall high 32.6 C
(90.6 F) low 21.6 C (70.9 F).
Relative humidity, %: growing period 51.0; finishing period 52.9; overall
52.0.
'dMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.01).






-21-


Table 3. Trial 2. Finishing Period Performancea'b


Treatments No mist Intermittent Continuous

Initial weight, kg 66.23 66.21 66.27
Final weight, kg 98.7 99.6 99.9
Daily gain, kg .77 .78 .80
Daily feed, kg 2.51 2.59 2.69
Feed/gain 3.25 3.26 3.36


aAverage temperature: high 34.6 C (94.4 F), low 22.0 C (71.7 F).
Relative humidity, %: 47.0.


Table 4. Trial 3. Finishing Period Performanceab


Treatments No mist Intermittent Continuous


Initial weight, kg 57.9 57.9 57.9
Final weight, kg 97.6 96.8 97.8
Daily gain, kg .83 .81 .83
Daily feed, kg 2.78 2.63 2.76
Feed/gain 3.37 3.24 3.32

aAverage temperature: high 32.4 C (90.3 F); low 20.8 c (69.5 F).
Relative humidity, %: 52.6.




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