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 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Table 1 - Percentage composition...
 Table 2 - Pig performance during...
 Table 3 - Pig performance during...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1983-2B
Title: The influence of vitamin and mineral supplement withdrawal on the performance of finishing swine
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073147/00001
 Material Information
Title: The influence of vitamin and mineral supplement withdrawal on the performance of finishing swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brewton, Dewie Willie, 1960-
Coffey, M. T
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1983
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Vitamins in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Minerals in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: D.W. Brewton, M.T. Coffey and G.E. Combs.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August, 1983."
General Note: Pages numbered 6-9.
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073147
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 81149197

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 6
    Results and discussion
        Page 7
    Summary
        Page 7
    Table 1 - Percentage composition of diets
        Page 8
    Table 2 - Pig performance during 56 day experimental period
        Page 8
    Table 3 - Pig performance during 70 day experimental period
        Page 9
Full Text




Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1983-2 P -6- Experiment Station
August, 1983 Gainesville, FL


THE INFLUENCE OF VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENT
WITHDRAWAL ON THE PERFORMANCE
OF FINISHING SWINE

D. W. Brewton, M. T. Coffey and G. E. Combs2


Supplemental calcium, phosphorus, trace minerals and vitamins are known
to be required in adequate amounts for optimal performance of swine fed corn
soybean meal diets. The addition of these nutrients to swine diets
increases the cost of feeding. The possibility exists that during the
finishing period these supplemental nutrients could be removed from the diet
without adversely affecting performance. This would decrease the cost of
production and increase profits. Experiments were conducted to study the
performance of finishing swine when the dietary ingredients, corn and
soybean meal, provided the sole source of calcium, phosphorus, trace
minerals and vitamins.


Experimental

In experiment 1, ninety-six crossbred pigs averaging 56.8 kg were
allotted according to initial weight, litter and sex. Sixteen pens
containing six pigs each were assigned to one of two treatments. Treatments
consisted of (1) a corn soybean meal control with calcium, phosphorus, trace
minerals and vitamins provided in adequate amounts; or (2) a corn soybean
meal diet to which only supplemental salt was added. Dietary treatments
were fed for 8 weeks.

In experiment 2, seventy-two crossbred pigs averaging 42.5 kg were
allotted according to initial weight, litter and sex to one of four dietary
treatment groups. Three pens containing six pigs each were assigned at
random to each of the four treatments. The vitamin and mineral supplements
were removed from the diets of pigs when a weight of 56.8, 68.2, or 79.5
kg was reached. A control treatment in which the supplemental nutrients
were not removed was included. Dietary treatments were fed for 10 weeks.

All pigs were housed in concrete floored pens. Feed and water were
provided ad libitum. Weight gains and feed consumption were determined on a
bi-weekly basis. The data were analyzed by least squares regression
procedures. Diet composition is presented in table 1.

Experiment 259 and 259A.
2
Brewton, Graduate Assistant; Coffey, Assistant Animal Nutritionist; and
Combs, Animal Nutritionist, Animal Science Department, Gainesville.








Results and Discussion

Results of experiment 1 are summarized in table 2. Withdrawal of
mineral and vitamin supplementation from the diet of the 56.8 kg pigs
resulted in reduced (P<.01) feed intake and average daily gain.and increased
(P<.01) feed required per unit of gain. The results indicated that a corn
soybean meal diet without supplemental minerals and vitamins would not
support maximum gain in pigs from 56.8 kg to market weight.

The results of experiment 2 are summarized in table 3. Vitamin and
mineral supplement withdrawal resulted in a linear decrease (P<.05) in gain
and a linear increase (P<.05) in feed required per unit of gain. As was
observed in experiment 1, the unsupplemented corn soybean meal diet did not
support maximum gain when the withdrawal occurred with pigs weighing 56.8
kg. The effect of supplement withdrawal over the period of the experiment
was less severe as the weight of the pigs increased at time of withdrawal.
Pigs fed supplements to 79.5 kg had performance similar to the control which
indicates that at this withdrawal weight some savings in production costs
may be realized.

Summary

One hundred sixty-eight crossbred pigs were utilized in two experiments
to evaluate the ability of finishing hogs to obtain adequate vitamin and
mineral nutrition from an unsupplemented corn soybean meal diet. In
experiment one, 56.8 kg pigs were fed a control diet supplemented only with
salt for eight weeks. Average daily gain, feed intake and feed efficiency
were adversely affected (P<.01) by the withdrawal of vitamin and mineral
supplementation from the diet. In experiment two, there were 4 dietary
treatments. The vitamin and mineral supplements were removed from the diets
of 42.5 kg pigs when weights of 56.8, 68.2 or 79.5 kg were reached. A
control treatment in which the supplemental vitamins and minerals were not
removed was included. Vitamin and mineral supplement withdrawal resulted in
a linear (P<.05) decrease in average daily gain and a linear (P<.05)
increase in feed/gain. Pigs that received supplemental nutrients to 79.5
kg performed similar to the controls.








Results and Discussion

Results of experiment 1 are summarized in table 2. Withdrawal of
mineral and vitamin supplementation from the diet of the 56.8 kg pigs
resulted in reduced (P<.01) feed intake and average daily gain.and increased
(P<.01) feed required per unit of gain. The results indicated that a corn
soybean meal diet without supplemental minerals and vitamins would not
support maximum gain in pigs from 56.8 kg to market weight.

The results of experiment 2 are summarized in table 3. Vitamin and
mineral supplement withdrawal resulted in a linear decrease (P<.05) in gain
and a linear increase (P<.05) in feed required per unit of gain. As was
observed in experiment 1, the unsupplemented corn soybean meal diet did not
support maximum gain when the withdrawal occurred with pigs weighing 56.8
kg. The effect of supplement withdrawal over the period of the experiment
was less severe as the weight of the pigs increased at time of withdrawal.
Pigs fed supplements to 79.5 kg had performance similar to the control which
indicates that at this withdrawal weight some savings in production costs
may be realized.

Summary

One hundred sixty-eight crossbred pigs were utilized in two experiments
to evaluate the ability of finishing hogs to obtain adequate vitamin and
mineral nutrition from an unsupplemented corn soybean meal diet. In
experiment one, 56.8 kg pigs were fed a control diet supplemented only with
salt for eight weeks. Average daily gain, feed intake and feed efficiency
were adversely affected (P<.01) by the withdrawal of vitamin and mineral
supplementation from the diet. In experiment two, there were 4 dietary
treatments. The vitamin and mineral supplements were removed from the diets
of 42.5 kg pigs when weights of 56.8, 68.2 or 79.5 kg were reached. A
control treatment in which the supplemental vitamins and minerals were not
removed was included. Vitamin and mineral supplement withdrawal resulted in
a linear (P<.05) decrease in average daily gain and a linear (P<.05)
increase in feed/gain. Pigs that received supplemental nutrients to 79.5
kg performed similar to the controls.








TABLE 1. PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF DIETS


Ingredient Control No Supplements

Ground yellow corn 82.10 85.25
Soybean meal 15.00 14.50
Iodized salt 0.25 0.25
Dynafos 1.70 ----
Ground limestone .80 ----
Trace minerals (8cc)a .10 ----
Vitamin mix (UF) .05 ----


aSupplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, Illinois. Contained 20%
zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, and 12% calcium.
Contained 13,200 mg riboflavin, 44,000 mg niacin, 26,400 mg pantothenic
acid, 176,000 mg choline chloride, 22,000 meg vitamin Bip, 5,500,000 IU
vitamin A, 880,000 ICU vitamin D3 and 22,000 IU vitamin E per kilogram of
premix.







TABLE 2. PIG PERFORMANCE DURING 56 DAY EXPERIMENTAL PERIODa

Treatment
Item Control No Supplements

Initial weight, kg 56.82 56.82
Final weight, kg 96.82 90.14
Daily gain, kg .71 .57
Daily feed intake, kgc 2.57 2.27
Feed/gain 3.64 3.92

aLeast squares means, each mean represents the average of(48 observations.

bTwo pigs died on the unsupplemented treatment; one pig was unable to walk.

cSignificant treatment effect (P<.01).


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TABLE 1. PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF DIETS


Ingredient Control No Supplements

Ground yellow corn 82.10 85.25
Soybean meal 15.00 14.50
Iodized salt 0.25 0.25
Dynafos 1.70 ----
Ground limestone .80 ----
Trace minerals (8cc)a .10 ----
Vitamin mix (UF) .05 ----


aSupplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, Illinois. Contained 20%
zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, and 12% calcium.
Contained 13,200 mg riboflavin, 44,000 mg niacin, 26,400 mg pantothenic
acid, 176,000 mg choline chloride, 22,000 meg vitamin Bip, 5,500,000 IU
vitamin A, 880,000 ICU vitamin D3 and 22,000 IU vitamin E per kilogram of
premix.







TABLE 2. PIG PERFORMANCE DURING 56 DAY EXPERIMENTAL PERIODa

Treatment
Item Control No Supplements

Initial weight, kg 56.82 56.82
Final weight, kg 96.82 90.14
Daily gain, kg .71 .57
Daily feed intake, kgc 2.57 2.27
Feed/gain 3.64 3.92

aLeast squares means, each mean represents the average of(48 observations.

bTwo pigs died on the unsupplemented treatment; one pig was unable to walk.

cSignificant treatment effect (P<.01).


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TABLE 3. PIG PERFORMANCE DURING 70 DAY EXPERIMENTAL PERIODa


Pig Weight at Supplement Withdrawal
Item 56.8 68.2 79.5 Control

Initial weight, kg 42.48 42.50 42.53 42.53
Final weight, Ng 87.25d 94.97df 100.50 f 91.09
Daily gain, kg .64 .75 .79' .82
Daily feed, kg 2.43 2.55d 2.73d 2.67
Feed/gain 3.99 3.39, 3.47e 3.25

aLeast square means, each mean represents the average of 18 observations.

Significant linear effect (P<.0001).

cSignificant linear effect (P<.05).
defMeans in the same row with different superscripts are different
(P<.05).




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