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Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1983-1
Title: Field trial with Ivermectin (oral paste) in foals
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073144/00001
 Material Information
Title: Field trial with Ivermectin (oral paste) in foals
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 3 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Asquith, Richard L
Kivipelto, Jan, 1948-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1983
 Subjects
Subject: Horses -- Parasites -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Ivermectin   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 2).
Statement of Responsibility: R.L. Asquith and J. Kivipelto.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "January, 1983."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073144
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 81147121

Table of Contents
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        Page 1
    Reference
        Page 2
    Table 1 - Summary of fecal analysis by eggs per gram (EPG) and larval incubation
        Page 3
Full Text

Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
:Id Research Report AL-1983-1- Experiment Station
Gainesville, Florida

FIELD TRIAL WITH IVERMECTIN
(ORAL PASTE) IN FOALS

R.L. Asquith and J. Kivipelto

Avermectins are a chemically complex group of compounds derived from fermen-
tation of Streptomyces avermitilis. The spectrum of activity is broad and includes
arthropods as well aishe-Iminths. The efficacy and safety when used as an equine
antiparasitic agent in an injectable formulation has been demonstrated (Asquith
et al, 1981; Slocombe et al, 1980; Craig et al, 1980; Egerton et al, 1981; Klei
et aT, 1980a, 1980b; Lyon et al; Bello et ai; Dipietro et al, T982T. The present
triaT was designed to assess the safety an-acceptability of Ivermectin (a chemical
modification of avermectin Bl) on young foals when administered in an oral paste
formulation.

Experiment

Twenty suckling Thoroughbred or Quarter Horse foals (11 males and 9 females)
were used in this trial. Replicates were formed by five consecutive births at
the Horse Research Center. Assignment to treatment groups was done by random
drawing of one of five cards, one marked:control and four marked treatment to
comprise a replicate. This procedure was repeated for a total of four replicates.

At six weeks of age those foals in each of the four treatment groups received
200 mcg/kg of ivermectin (paste formulation) orally and the single foal serving
as the control in each group was given an equivalent volume of the vehicle (placebo)
in the same manner.

Foals were housed with their dams in 10-20 acre paddocks of Bahia grass and
each pair was brought into a barn twice daily and confined to an individual stall
to allow the mare to eat her assigned ration. Water was provided ad libitum.

Fecal samples were collected prior to treatment and again 14 days after treat-
ment. The number of parasitic ova per gram of feces (EPG) was determined by a
modified McMaster technique.

When the results of this method demonstrated an EPG of <50, a second analysis
was performed by the concentration flotation centrifugation method. All deter-
minations were based on natural infection of internal parasites.

Animals were observed for clinical behavior for four hours immediately post-
dosing and then daily for any evidence of altered behavior or drug reactions.

Discussion & Results

No reactions to the use of ivermectin oral paste (MK-933) or vehicle for the


R. L. Asquith, Associate Professor of Equine Health; J. Kivipelto, Chemist II,
Department of Animal Science.







paste were seen. The oral paste was easily administered and was well tolerated
by the foals. One foal received approximately 4.4 grams of ivermectin when the
knurled locking hub of the syringe came free and all of the medication in the
cylinder was administered as the plunger pushed downward. Observation of this
foal revealed no adverse reactions nor abnormal behavior from having received an
overdose of three times the recommended level. Foals are naturally coprophagic
and frequently ingest feces from other horses that may contain nematode eggs,
therefore statistical significance cannot be adequately placed on the EPG count.
However of the 16 foals treated with ivermectin (MK-933) all 16 had reduced EPG
levels for Strongyloides westeri. Nine had reduced EPG levels for Strongyle spp.
while two remained the same and 5 had an increased EPG count. Only one foal had
a pre-treatment Parascaris equorum EPG, and it became negative at day 14 while
4 other treated foals became positive (Table I).

The demonstrated acceptance and safety of ivermectin oral paste suggests
that this compound may be an appropriate anthelmintic for internal parasite
control in the young foal.

REFERENCES
1. Asquith, R.L. and Kulwich, R.: Safety and Therapeutic Activity of Ivermectin
as an Equine Anthelmintic. J. Eq. Vet. Sci. 1:18-20, 1981.

2. Bello, T.R., Norfleet, C.M.: Critical Antiparasitic Efficacy of Ivermectin
Against Equine Parasites. J. Eq. Vet. Sci. 1:14-17, 1981.
3. DiPietro, J.H., Todd, K.S., Lock, T.F., McPherron, T.A.: Anthelmintic
Efficacy of Ivermectin Given Intramuscularly. Am. J. Vet. Res. 43:145-148,
1982.

4. Egerton, J.R., Brokken, E.S., Suhayda, D., Eary, C.H., Wooden, J.W. and
Kilgore, R.L.: The Antiparasitic Activity of Ivermectin in Horses, Vet.
Parasitol. 8:83-88, 1981.

5. Klei, T.R., Torbert, B.J.: Efficacy of Ivermectin (22-23-dihydroavermectin
B]) Against Gastrointestinal Parasites in Ponies. Am. J. Vet. Res. 41:1747-
1750, 1980b.

6. Klei, TR., Torbert, B.J. and Ochoa, R.: Efficacy of Ivermectin (22-23-
dihydroavermectin Bi) Against Adult Setaria equina and Microfilarae of
Onchocerca cervicalis in Ponies. J. Parasitol. 66:859-861, 1980a.

7. Lyons, E.T., Drudge, J.H., Tolliver, S.C.: Antiparasitic Activity of
Ivermectin in Critical Tests in Equids. Am. J. Vet. Res. 41:2069-2072, 1980.

8. Slocombe, J.O.D., McCraw, B.M.: Evaluation of Pyrantel Pamoate, Nitramisole,
and Avermectin Bla against Migrating Strongylus vulgaris larvae. Can. J.
Comp. Med. 44:93-100, 1980.

9. Slocombe, J.O.D., McCraw, B.M., Pennock, P.W., Llewellyn, H.R.: Anthelmintic
Treatment of Migrating Stages of Strongylus vulgaris. Proc. 20th AAEP, Anaheim,
CA: 37-43, 1980.




Summary of fecal analysis by eggs per gram (EPG) and larval incubation


Pre-Treatment EPG Post-Treatment EPG Post-Treatment Larvae Incubation
Foal Number Strongyles S.westeri Ascarids Strongyles S.westeri Ascarids Strongyles S.westeri Ascarids


274
283
208
281
282
2A2
280
284
2S-10
276
252
285
272
225
231
2462
256
258
238
2651


22
4
8
2
0
100
300
0
50
1,500
50
26
50
150
26
50
50
8
20
50


9.350
150
2,900
300
0
5,500
86
1,650
350
950
1,000
2
1,050
3,700
14
250
400
50
450
300


166
4
2
8
0
0
120
0
0
600
2
6
8
24
8
200
450
50
150
50


0
2
0
0
0
6
20
0
0
900
0
0
0
0
26
0
0
0
0
500


2
0
2
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
150
0


____________ __ __ __ J _


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
+
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


* (T) = Treatment Group
(C) = Control Group


Table 1.




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