• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Experimental
 Results
 Table 1 - Composition of concentrates...
 Table 2 - Influence of protein...
 Table 3 - Influence of protein...
 Table 4 - Influence of protein...
 Table 5 - Influence of protein...
 Table 6 - Influence of protein...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1982-10
Title: Influence of protein quality on reproductive effeciency of the mare
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073142/00001
 Material Information
Title: Influence of protein quality on reproductive effeciency of the mare
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 2, 5 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ott, E. A ( Edgar A )
Asquith, Richard L
Sharp, D. C
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Mares -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mares -- Reproduction -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Proteins in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: E.A. Ott, R.L. Asquith and D.C. Sharp.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September, 1982."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073142
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 81145082

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 1
    Results
        Page 2
    Table 1 - Composition of concentrates fed to broodmares
        Page 3
    Table 2 - Influence of protein source on daily concentrate intake and nutrient intake from the concentrate
        Page 4
    Table 3 - Influence of protein source on weight, girth, condition score and feed intake of foaling mares
        Page 5
    Table 4 - Influence of protein source on weight, girth, height, length and hip height of foals
        Page 6
    Table 5 - Influence of protein source on reproductive efficiency of mares
        Page 6
    Table 6 - Influence of protein source on bone radiographic density in mares
        Page 7
Full Text


Department of Animal Science -1- Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1982-10 Experiment Station
September 1982 Gainesville, Florida


INFLUENCE OF PROTEIN QUALITY ON REPRODUCTIVE
EFFICIENCY OF THE MARE1

E. A. Ott2, R. L. Asquith2 and D. C. Sharp2


Brewers dried grains (BDG) is an economical source of protein which we
have previously shown to be highly digestible by the horse. However, the
ingredient is low in the amino acid lysine and consequently will not support
maximum growth in foals unless fed with added lysine. The lysine requirement
of the broodmare is not known but based on work with other species would be
expected to be considerably lower than the growing animal. This experiment
was designed to determine whether BDG could be used in diets of gestating and
lactating mares without detrimental effect on mares' reproductive efficiency
or the foals' growth.


Experimental

Twenty-four foaling mares, eight Thoroughbred and sixteen Quarter Horses,
were assigned at random by expected foaling date to two treatment groups.
Group A was assigned to HR-55, a soybean meal based concentrate and Group B
was assigned to HR-56 a Brewers Dried Grains (BDG) based concentrate (table 1).
The concentrates provided comparable levels of digestible energy, crude protein,
calcium and phosphorus but the soybean meal based concentrate provided .57%
lysine and the BDG based concentrate provided .41%. The concentrates were fed
at a rate of .75% BW from 56 days before expected foaling to 28 days prefoaling
and at 1.0% BW the last 28 days of gestation. After foaling the mares received
1.5% BW for 84 days and 1.0% BW to weaning at 112 days. Concentrates were fed
twice daily. The concentrate intake levels were modified according to the fol-
lowing condition score:

Score Description Concentrate Adjustment

7 Very fat -40%
6 Fatter than desired -20%
5 Desired body condition 0
4 Too thin +20%
3 Very thin +40%

Coastal Bermudagrass hay was fed at a rate of 2% BW prior to the experiment
and during late gestation until pasture growth reduced its need. The hay con-
tained 7.22% crude protein, .38% calcium and .28% phosphorus on a dry matter
basis. The remainder of the gestation period and during lactation the mares had
access to well fertilized bahiagrass pasture. Stocking rate was about 2 acres
per mare. Foals had access to the mares diet while the mares were in the barn
and to a 16% soybean meal based creep feed while on pasture.


1HN-791.
2Animal Science Department, University of Florida.







Results

Concentrate intake from 56 days before foaling to weaning at 112 days post
foaling is shown in table 2. Intake levels closely followed the projected in-
take levels when expressed as a.% BW using the initial weights for each period.
Condition scores on the mares were below 5 at.the start of the experiment and
approached 5 as the experiment progressed. The concentrate provided 68 to 110%
of the mares calculated protein requirement (NRC 1978), 73 to 100% of the cal-
cium and 92 to 130% of the phosphorus needs. Assuming 1.5% BW of air dry
forage during late gestation and lactation the total protein intake was 112 to
163% of NRC (1978) total calcium intake was 138 to 165% NRC (1978) and total
phosphorus intake was 170 to 200% NRC (1978).

Mares fed the SBM based concentrate gained an average of 39 pounds and the
mares fed the BDG gained 36 pounds during the last 56 days of the gestation
period (table 3). Foaling weight losses were 139 pounds (11.0% BW and 146
pounds (11.5% BW) for the SBM and BDG groups, respectively. Mares had not re-
gained initial body weight by weaning time at 112 days after foaling but there
was no difference between the two groups.

Birth weight, height, girth length and hip height of the foals were almost
identical for the two groups (table 4). Birth weight was 8.5% of the mare's
initial weight for both groups. Foals gained 321 pounds in 112 days for an
average daily gain (ADG) of 2.87 pounds. The mare's diet did not affect the
growth of the foal suggesting that both concentrates supported similar levels
of milk production.

Rebreeding efficiency of the mares was not influenced by diet. Eleven mares
in the SBM fed group were bred and ten mares in the BDG group were bred. Seven
mares in each group produced live foals the following season. Estrus periods
bred and average number of services for those mares that were bred were similar
for both groups.

Bone density radiographs were taken during the last 28 days of gestation
and at weaning time. Radiographic aluminum equivalence (RAE) values indicated
a general increase in bone mineral content from prefoaling until weaning. Only
area under the density curve was significantly different (P<.05). No dietary
effects were noted indicating that protein source did not influence bone mineral
content. The mineral content of the diet appeared to be adequate to prevent
bone demineralization and permit some deposition.

Results of this experiment indicate that BDG can replace SBM in the diet
for foaling mares without detrimental effect on foaling, milk production or
rebreeding.










TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF CONCENTRATES FED
TO BROODMARESa

HR-55 HR-56
Ingredients % %

Corn 38.5 40.0

Oats 25.0 17.5

Soybean meal (44%) 9.0 --

Brewers dried grains -- 15.0

Wheat bran 7.5 7.5

Alfalfa, dehy. (17%) 10.0 10.0

Molasses 7.5 7.5

Gr. limestone .50 .50

BioFos .75 .75

Salt .75 .75

Premixb .50 .50


Analyses (as-fed):

Digestible energy Mcal/lb 1.34 1.33

Crude protein, % 13.8 13.9

Calcium .59 .58

Phosphorus .51 .53

Lysine .57 .41

aFed with Coastal Bermudagrass hay and/or bahiagrass pas-
bture.
Premix provided the following per kg of feed: Vit. A,
11,000 IU; Vit. D, 1318 IU; Vit. E, 12 IU; manganese,
10.8 mg; iron, 40.0 mg; copper, 7.5 mg; zinc, 39.5 mg;
cobalt, 0.22 mg; and iodine, 0.22 mg.










TABLE 2. INFLUENCE OF PROTEIN SOURCE ON DAILY CONCENTRATE INTAKE AND NUTRIENT INTAKE FROM THE CONCENTRATE

Prefoaling Postfoaling
-56 to -28 -28 to 0 0 to 28 28 to 46 46 to 8 84to 112
days days days days days days


conc. intake, lb (as-fed)
SBM
BDG

cone. intake, % BW
SBM
BDG


protein
SBM
BDG

calcium
SBM
BDG


intake from conc., kg



intake from conc., kg


Daily
A -
B -

Daily
A -
B -

Daily
A -
B -

Daily
A -
B -

Daily
A -
B -


10.12
10.52


.63
.66


27
28


23
25


13.65
13.57


1.04
1.04


.86
.86


37
36


32
33


18.57
18.63


1.60
1.60


1.17
1.18


50
49


43
45


18.48
18.92


1.52
1.55


1.16
1.20


50
50


43
46


18.88
18.49


1.52
1.50


1.18
1.17


51
49


44
45


12.95
12.40


1.06
1.00


.81
.78


35
33


30
30


phosphorus intake from conc., g
SBM
BDG


















TABLE 3. INFLUENCE OF PROTEIN SOURCE ON WEIGHT, GIRTH, CONDITION SCORE AND FEED INTAKE OF FOALING.MARES

56 Days 28 Days Foaling Foaling Foaling Foaling
prefoaling prefoaling Prefoaling Postfoaling +28 days +56 days +84 days +112 days Change


Mare weight, lb
A SBM
B BDG

Mare girth, inches
A SBM
B BDG

Mare condition score
A SBM
B BDG


1265
1273


1303
1293


74.2
74.8


4.75
4.58


74.4
74.3


4.75
4.75


1304
1309


1165
1163


74.5
74.2


4.75
4.75


1211
1217


74.4
74.3


4.92
4.83


1237
1231


73.8
74.0


4.92
5.00


1221
1238


73.9
74.3


4.75
5.00


1232
1246


74.0
73.9


-33
-27


+ .2
- .9


5.00 +
5.00 +


.25
.42












TABLE 4. INFLUENCE OF PROTEIN SOURCE ON WEIGHT, GIRTH, HEIGHT, LENGTH AND HIP
HEIGHT OF FOALS

Age (days)
Birth 28 56 84 112 Change

Weight, lb
Group A 108 225 283 360 430 322
Group B 109 223 290 359 430 321

Girth, inches
Group A 31.2 39.5 43.5 46.8 50.3 19.1
Group B 31.2 40.6 44.0 47.0 50.0 18.8

Height, inches
Group A 38.2 42.6 43.7 47.1 48.6 10.4
Group B 38.1 42.4 45.0 '46.8 48.5 10.4

Length, inches
Group A 28.6 36.0 39.8 43.5 46.6 18.0
Group B 28.7 35.5 39.7 43.0 45.7 17.0

Hip Height, inches
Group A 39.6 44.4 46.7 49.5 51.0 11.4
Group B 39.6 44.0 46.8 48.9 50.5 10.9








TABLE 5. INFLUENCE OF PROTEIN SOURCE ON REPRODUCTIVE
EFFICIENCY OF MARES

Group A Group B
SBM BDG

Number of mares (foaling) 12 12
Mares bred 11 10
Av. no. estrus periods bred 1.2 1.2
Av. no. services 2.0 2.0
Mares prod. live foal 7.0 7.0












TABLE 4. INFLUENCE OF PROTEIN SOURCE ON WEIGHT, GIRTH, HEIGHT, LENGTH AND HIP
HEIGHT OF FOALS

Age (days)
Birth 28 56 84 112 Change

Weight, lb
Group A 108 225 283 360 430 322
Group B 109 223 290 359 430 321

Girth, inches
Group A 31.2 39.5 43.5 46.8 50.3 19.1
Group B 31.2 40.6 44.0 47.0 50.0 18.8

Height, inches
Group A 38.2 42.6 43.7 47.1 48.6 10.4
Group B 38.1 42.4 45.0 '46.8 48.5 10.4

Length, inches
Group A 28.6 36.0 39.8 43.5 46.6 18.0
Group B 28.7 35.5 39.7 43.0 45.7 17.0

Hip Height, inches
Group A 39.6 44.4 46.7 49.5 51.0 11.4
Group B 39.6 44.0 46.8 48.9 50.5 10.9








TABLE 5. INFLUENCE OF PROTEIN SOURCE ON REPRODUCTIVE
EFFICIENCY OF MARES

Group A Group B
SBM BDG

Number of mares (foaling) 12 12
Mares bred 11 10
Av. no. estrus periods bred 1.2 1.2
Av. no. services 2.0 2.0
Mares prod. live foal 7.0 7.0






















TABLE 6. INFLUENCE OF PROTEIN SOURCE ON BONE
RADIOGRAPHIC DENSITY IN MARES1

Group Group
A B
SBM BDG Mean

Medial peak
Initial2 24.61 .33 23.94 .44 24.29 .27
Final3 25.54 .68 23.96 .44 24.79 .44

Midpoint
Initial2 22.18 .46 21.39 .52 21.81 .35
Final3 23.39 .72 21.65 .53 22.57 .49

Lateral peak
Initial2 23.23 .38 22.26 .37 22.77 .28
Final3 24.62 .59 22.59 .47 23.66 .44

Area under curve
Initial2 856.5 15.1 826.9 25.5 842.5 14.5a
Final3 920.6 24.6 846.2 33.7 885.4 21.8

1Bone density expressed in mm of aluminum equivalence.
2Radiographs made during last 28 days of gestation.
3Radiographs made at weaning.
a Comparable values are different (P<.05).




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