• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Experimental and results
 Discussion
 Table 1 - Composition of conce...
 Table 2 - Influence of level of...
 Table 3 - Influence of level of...
 Table 4 - Influence on level of...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1982-9
Title: Influence of level of feeding on weight, measurements and reproductive efficiency of foaling mares
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073141/00001
 Material Information
Title: Influence of level of feeding on weight, measurements and reproductive efficiency of foaling mares
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 2, 7 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ott, E. A ( Edgar A )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Horses -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mares -- Performance -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: E.A. Ott.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "May 1982."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073141
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80018463

Table of Contents
    Experimental and results
        Page 1
    Discussion
        Page 2
    Table 1 - Composition of concentrate
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table 2 - Influence of level of feeding on feed intake, weight gain and body measurements of foaling mares
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Table 3 - Influence of level of feeding of broodmares on growth of their foals
        Page 9
    Table 4 - Influence on level of feeding of foaling mares on their rebreeding efficiency
        Page 9
Full Text


F' 0. Department of Animal Science -1- Florida Agricultural
'J Research Report AL-1982-9 Experiment Station
a2-c1 May 1982 Gainesville, Florida


INFLUENCE OF LEVEL OF FEEDING ON WEIGHT, MEASUREMENTS AND
REPRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY OF FOALING MARES

E. A. Ott


Concentrate intake represents a major expense for most of Florida's horse
breeders. Feeding levels vary greatly between farms and suggest that informa-
tion on the effect of concentrate intake on mare condition, foaling, foal
growth and breeding efficiency is needed. This experiment was designed to com-
pare two feeding programs using different feeding levels of concentrate with
ad libitum forage.


Experimental

Eighteen foaling mares, 12 Thoroughbred and 6 Quarter Horses were assigned
at random to two treatment groups. Group C was individually fed a coarse grain
concentrate containing 1.36 Mcal DE/lb and 13.8% crude protein (table 1) at a
rate of .5% BW during late gestation, 1.0% BW during early lactation and .75%
BW in late lactation. Group D was fed the same concentrate at .75% BW during
late gestation, 1.5% BW during early lactation and 1.0% BW during late lactation.
Coastal Bermudagrass hay was offered at levels up to 2% BW and was decreased as
pasture availability increased. Mares received Bahiagrass pasture in season.

Mares were weighed and measured weekly from 56 days before expected foaling
date until weaning at 112 days. Feed intake was adjusted weekly to keep the
intake close to the projected levels. Foals were weighed and measured at 28
day intervals from birth to weaning. Mares were teased, palpated when in estrus
and bred when ovulation was eminent. Mares were only bred when ovarian and
uterine conditions were considered suitable for conception.


Results

Concentrate intake for both groups of mares closely paralleled the project-
ed levels (table 2). During the last 56 days of gestation the groups C and D
gained 38 and 35 pounds, respectively. This is about 3% of the mare's body
weight (BW) and is probably slightly less than desired since fetus development
during this period is very rapid. Mares in group C lost 64 Ib over the dura-
tion of the study while group D mares lost only 27 lb. This difference was
due mainly to the difference in post foaling gain by the mares. Very little
difference in girth, height or length of the mares was detected.

Birth weights and post foaling gains in weight, height and girth by the
foals were similar for both groups (table 3). Foals gained an average of 2.5
Ib per head per day during their first 112 days. Rebreeding efficiency was
not affected by diet. Seven mares in each group conceived and produced a live
foal. Average number of services, estrus periods bred and days from foaling
to conception were similar for both groups.








Discussion

The mare's ability to consume adequate energy is limited by her capacity
and the availability of feedstuffs of suitable energy density. The mare in
late gestation has reduced capacity due to the space occupied by the fetus.
She is often unable to consume adequate levels of forage to meet their energy
needs. Concentrates are higher in energy than forages and therefore can be
fed to increase energy intake. In this experiment, both groups of mares,
those receiving .5% BW and those receiving .75% BW, appeared to be able to
consume adequate energy during late gestation to support normal foal develop-
ment. During lactation, the lower level of concentrate intake (1% BW) was not
adequate to support milk production and permit the mare to regain weight lost
at parturition. However, this weight loss was not found to be detrimental in
this trial since rebreeding efficiency was not affected. It can be concluded
that restricted concentrate intake for broodmares can be usedito reduce feeding
costs without detrimental effects on the rebreeding efficiency of most mares.
Care should be taken to ensure adequate protein, mineral and vitamin intake.
Adequate energy intake after weaning is essential to return the mare to accept-
able body condition.


















TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF CONCENTRATE

Ingredient

Corn, shelled 39.5

Oats, rolled 30.0

Soybean meal (49%) 8.0

Wheat bran 5.0

Alfalfa, dehy. 10.0

Molasses 5.0

Limestone, gr. 0.5

BioFos1 0.75

Salt 0.75

Premix2 0.5
100.0

Calculated Analyses:

Dig. E., Mcal/lb 1.36

C. Protein, % 13.8

Calcium, % .61

Phosphorus, % .47


International Minerals and Chemical Corp.,
Mundelein, IL 60060.
2Premix provided the following: Mn, 8.0 mg;
Fe, 9.8 mg; Cu, 1.6 mg; Zn, 18.7 mg; Co, 0.1
mg; I, 0.1 mg; Vit. A, 5000 IU; Vit. D, 599
IU and Vit. A, 10 IU per lb.
















56 Days 28 Days Foaling Foaling Foaling Foalling Late gest. Foaling Lact.
prefoaling prefoaling Prefoalinga Postfoaling +28 days +56 days +84 days +112 days gain gain gain

Mare weight, Ib
Group C 1266 1286 1304 1132 1152 1160 1194 1202 38 -172 50
Group D 1222 1246 1257 1089 1124 1131 1177 1195 35 -168 71

Mare girth, inches
Group C 74.2 74.2 73.8 73.1 72.6 72.4 73.1 72.9 -.4 0.7 .2
Group D 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.0 71.6 71.4 71.6 72.3 0 0.4 .3

Mare height, inches
Group C 61.4 61.5 61.2 61.5 61.4 61.6 61.1 61.3 -.2 + 0.3 .2
Group D 61.1 60.9 61.0 61.4 61.0 60.9 61.0 60.8 -.1 + 0.4 .6

Mare length, Inches
Group C 65.4 65.4 65.1 65.2 64.6 64.2 64.7 64.3 -.3 0.1 .9
Group D 65.3 64.8 64.8 64.7 64.7 6-4.6 64.5 64.5 -.5 0.1 .2

Daily conc. Intake, lb
Group C --- 6.13 6.38 --- 11.28 11.73 11.72 8.72 -
Group D --- 9.02 9.93 --- 16.95 17.44 16.81 11.00 -

Daily conc. intake, % BW
Group C --- .48 .50 --- 1.00 1.02 1.01 .73 --
Group D --- .74 .80 --- 1.56 1.55 1.49 .94 ---

Daily hay intake, lbb
Group C --- 9.44 2.90 --- --- --- --- --- ---
Group D --- 11.60 4.25 --- --- --- --- -

aWeight taken within 7 days of foaling.
Pasture intake not determined.


TABLE 2. INFLUENCE OF LEVEL OF FEEDING ON FEED


INTAKE, WEIGHT GAIN AND BODY MEASUREMENTS OF FOALING MARES















56 Days 28 Days Foaling Foaling Foaling Foa ilng Late gest. Foaling Lact.
prefoaling prefoaling Prefoaling Postfoaling +28 days +56 days +84 days +112 days gain gain gain

Mare weight, lb
Group C 1266 1286 1304 1132 1152 1160 1194 1202 38 -172 50
Group D 1222 1246 1257 1089 1124 1131 1177 1195 35 -168 71

Mare girth, inches
Group C 74.2 74.2 73.8 73.1 72.6 72.4 73.1 72.9 -.4 0.7 .2
Group D 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.0 71.6 71.4 71.6 72.3 0 0.4 .3

Mare height, inches
Group C 61.4 61.5 61.2 61.5 61.4 61.6 61.1 61.3 -.2 + 0.3 .2
Group D 61.1 60.9 61.0 61.4 61.0 60.9 61.0 60.8 -.1 + 0.4 .6
I
Mare length, inches
Group C 65.4 65.4 65.1 65.2 64.6 64.2 64.7 64.3 -.3 0.1 .9
Group D 65.3 64.8 64.8 64.7 64.7 64.6 64.5 64.5 -.5 0.1 .2

Daily conc. intake, Ib
Group C --- 6.13 6.38 --- 11.28 11.73 11.72 8.72 -
Group D --- 9.02 9.93 --- 16.95 17.44 16.81 11.00 --

Daily conc. intake, % BW
Group C --- .48 .50 --- 1.00 1.02 1.01 .73 -
Group D --- .74 .80 --- 1.56 1.55 1.49 .94 --- --

Daily hay intake, lbb
Group C --- 9.44 2.90 --- --- --- ---
Group D --- 11.60 4.25 --- --- --- --- --- ---

aWeight taken within 7 days of foaling.
Pasture Intake not determined.


TABLE 2. INFLUENCE OF LEVEL OF FEEDING ON FEED


INTAKE, WEIGHT GAIN AND BODY MEASUREMENTS OF FOALING MARES















56 Days 28 Days Foaling Foaling Foaling Foa ling Late gest. Foaling Lact.
prefoaling prefoaling Prefoalinga Postfoaling +28 days +56 days +84 days +112 days gain gain gain

Mare weight, lb
Group C 1266 1286 1304 1132 1152 1160 1194 1202 38 -172 50
Group D 1222 1246 1257 1089 1124 1131 1177 1195 35 -168 71

Mare girth, Inches
Group C 74.2 74.2 73.8 73.1 72.6 72.4 73.1 72.9 -.4 0.7 .2
Group 0 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.0 71.6 71.4 71.6 72.3 0 0.4 .3

Mare height, inches
Group C 61.4 61.5 61.2 61.5 61.4 61.6 61.1 61.3 -.2 + 0.3 .2
Group D 61.1 60.9 61.0 61.4 61.0 60.9 61.0 60.8 -.1 + 0.4 .6

Mare length, Inches
Group C 65.4 65.4 65.1 65.2 64.6 64.2 64.7 64.3 -.3 0.1 .9
Group D 65.3 64.8 64.8 64.7 64.7 6-4.6 64.5 64.5 -.5 0.1 .2

Daily conc. intake, Ib
Group C --- 6.13 6.38 --- 11.28 11.73 11.72 8.72 -
Group D --- 9.02 9.93 --- 16.95 17.44 16.81 11.00 --

Daily.conc. intake, % BW
Group C --- .48 .50 --- 1.00 1.02 1.01 .73 -
Group D --- .74 .80 --- 1.56 1.55 1.49 .94 -

Daily hay intake, lbb
Group C --- 9.44 2.90 --- --- --- --- -
Group D --- 11.60 4.25 --- --- --- --- --- ---


aWeight taken within 7 days of foaling.
Pasture intake not determined.


TABLE 2. INFLUENCE OF LEVEL OF FEEDING ON FEED


INTAKE, WEIGHT GAIN AND BODY MEASUREMENTS OF FOALING MARES













TABLE 2. INFLUENCE OF LEVEL OF FEEDING ON FEED INTAKE, WEIGHT GAIN AND BODY MEASUREMENTS OF FOALING MARES

56 Days 28 Days Foaling Foaling Foaling Foaliing Late gest. Foaling Lact.
prefoallng prefoaling Prefoalinga Postfoaling +28 days +56 days +84 days +112 days gain gain gain

Mare weight, Ib
Group C 1266 1286 1304 1132 1152 1160 1194 1202 38 -172 50
Group D 1222 1246 1257 1089 1124 1131 1177 1195 35 -168 71

Mare girth, Inches
Group C 74.2 74.2 73.8 73.1 72.6 72.4 73.1 72.9 -.4 0.7 .2
Group D 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.0 71.6 71.4 71.6 72.3 0 0.4 .3

Mare height, inches
Group C 61.4 61.5 61.2 61.5 61.4 61.6 61.1 61.3 -.2 + 0.3 .2
Group D 61.1 60.9 61.0 61.4 61.0 60.9 61.0 60.8 -.1 + 0.4 .6

Mare length, Inches
Group C 65.4 65.4 65.1 65.2 64.6 64.2 64.7 64.3 -.3 0.1 .9
Group D 65.3 64.8 64.8 64.7 64.7 6-4.6 64.5 64.5 -.5 0.1 .2

Daily conc. Intake, Ib
Group C --- 6.13 6.38 --- 11.28 11.73 11.72 8.72 --- --
Group D --- 9.02 9.93 --- 16.95 17.44 16.81 11.00 ---

Daily cone. intake, % BW
Group C --- .48 .50 --- 1.00 1.02 1.01 .73 --- ---
Group D --- .74 .80 --- 1.56 1.55 1.49 .94 --- ---

Daily hay intake, lbb
Group C --- 9.44 2.90 --- --- --- --- --- --- -
Group D --- 11.60 4.25 --- -- --- --- --- -- -

bWeight taken within 7 days of foaling.
Pasture Intake not determined.















56 Days 28 Days aFoaling Foaling Foaling Foaling Late gest. Foaling Lact.
prefoaling prefoaling Prefoalinga Postfoaling' +28 days +56 days +84 days +112 days gain gain gain

Mare weight, lb
Group C 1266 1286 1304 1132 1152 1160 1194 1202 38 -172 50
Group D 1222 1246 1257 1089 1124 1131 1177 1195 .35 -168 71

Mare girth, Inches
Group C -74.2 74.2 73.8 73.1 72.6 72.4 73.1 72.9 -.4 0.7 .2
Group D 72.4 72.4 72.4 72.0 71.6 71.4 71.6 72.3 0 0.4 .3

Mare height, inches
Group C 61.4 61.5 61.2 61.5 61.4 61.6 61.1 61.3 -.2 + 0.3 .2
Group D 61.1 60.9 61.0 61.4 61.0 60.9 61.0 60.8 -.1 + 0.4 .6

Mare length, inches
Group C 65.4 65.4 65.1 65.2 64.6 64.2 64.7 64.3 -.3 0.1 .9
Group D 65.3 64.8 64.8 64.7 64.7 6-4.6 64.5 64.5 -.5 0.1 .2

Daily conc. Intake, Ib
Group C -- 6.13 6.38 --- 11.28 11.73 11.72 8.72 -
Group D --- 9.02 9.93 --- 16.95 17.44 16.81 11.00 -

Daily conc. intake, % BW
Group C --- .48 .50 --- 1.00 1.02 1.01 .73 --
Group D --- .74 .80 --- 1.56 1.55 1.49 .94 --- --

Daily hay Intake, Ib
Group C --- 9.44 2.90 --- --- -- -- ----- ---
Group D --- 11.60 4.25 --- --- --- --- --- ---


aWeight taken within 7 days of foaling.
Pasture Intake not determined.


TABLE 2. INFLUENCE OF LEVEL OF FEEDING ON FEED


INTAKE, WEIGHT GAIN AND BODY MEASUREMENTS OF FOALING MARES











TABLE 3. INFLUENCE OF LEVEL OF FEEDING OF BROODMARES ON
GROWTH OF THEIR FOALS


Birth


Weaning (112 days)


Weight,
Group
Group

Height,
Group
Group


inches
C
D


Girth, inches
Group C
Group D


111.6 4.0
110.1 3.4


38.95 .72
38.58 .43


32.39 .35
31.33 .54


TABLE 4. INFLUENCE OF LEVEL OF FEEDING OF FOALING
-MARES ON THEIR REBREEDING EFFICIENCY


Group C Group D

Mares foaling 9 9

Mares bred 9 8

Av. no. estrus periods bred 1.2 1.2

Av. no. services 2.67 2.88

Mares producing live foals 7 7

Foaling to conception, days 26.22 29.5


12.9
12.0


.50
.41


400.3
390.4


48.64
49.22


49.56
49.06


I











TABLE 3. INFLUENCE OF LEVEL OF FEEDING OF BROODMARES ON
GROWTH OF THEIR FOALS


Birth


Weaning (112 days)


Weight,
Group
Group

Height,
Group
Group


inches
C
D


Girth, inches
Group C
Group D


111.6 4.0
110.1 3.4


38.95 .72
38.58 .43


32.39 .35
31.33 .54


TABLE 4. INFLUENCE OF LEVEL OF FEEDING OF FOALING
-MARES ON THEIR REBREEDING EFFICIENCY


Group C Group D

Mares foaling 9 9

Mares bred 9 8

Av. no. estrus periods bred 1.2 1.2

Av. no. services 2.67 2.88

Mares producing live foals 7 7

Foaling to conception, days 26.22 29.5


12.9
12.0


.50
.41


400.3
390.4


48.64
49.22


49.56
49.06


I




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