• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Literature cited
 Table 1 - Diet composition
 Table 2 - Starting period
 Table 3 - Growing period
 Table 4 - Finishing period














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1982-7
Title: The effect of antibiotic supplementation on rye utilization by starting, growing and finishing swine
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073139/00001
 Material Information
Title: The effect of antibiotic supplementation on rye utilization by starting, growing and finishing swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 4 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Harrison, Michael Dean, 1957-
Coffey, M. T
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Rye as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antibiotics in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 2).
Statement of Responsibility: M.D. Harrison, M.T. Coffey and G.E. Combs.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August, 1982."
General Note: Leaves numbered 22-25.
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073139
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 81144519

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 22
    Results and discussion
        Page 22
    Summary
        Page 23
    Literature cited
        Page 23
    Table 1 - Diet composition
        Page 24
    Table 2 - Starting period
        Page 25
    Table 3 - Growing period
        Page 25
    Table 4 - Finishing period
        Page 25
Full Text



Department of Animal Science 22 Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1982-7 Experiment Station
August, 1982 Gainesville, FL


THE EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTIC SUPPLEMENTATION ON RYE UTILIZATION
BY STARTING, GROWING AND FINISHING SWINE1
M. D. Harrison, M. T. Coffey and G. E. Combs2

Previous research has indicated that rye could replace up to 50% of the
corn in a corn-soy diet without affecting pig performance and that the re-
sponse to antibiotic supplementation was greater with rye diets than with
corn-soy diets (Harrison et al., 1979). This antibiotic effect has also.
been reported for broilers (Marusich et al., 1978). This study was con-
ducted to further evaluate the influence of dietary energy source (rye vs.
corn) on the response to antibiotic supplementation in swine diets.

Experimental

Seventy-two crossbred pigs averaging 9 kilograms (kg) were allotted on
the basis of weight, sex and ancestry to four dietary treatment groups. Six
pigs were allotted to each pen with three pens per treatment. The dietary
treatments (table 1) consisted of a fortified corn-soy control diet (CS),
the control diet supplemented with the antibiotic ASP-250 (CSA), and two
diets which contained Weser rye substituted for corn on a weight for weight
basis, rye-soy (RS) and rye-soy plus antibiotic (RSA). The experiment was
divided into starting (9 to 30 kg), growing (30 to 60 kg) and finishing (60
to 100 kg) periods.

Corn-soy diets were formulated to provided 18.7%, 17.5% and 14.7% crude
protein (CP) during the starting, growing and finishing periods, respectively.
During the starting period, the pigs were housed in an enclosed nursery
building equipped with wire mesh cages. Pigs were housed in a concrete barn
with an aluminum slatted floor during the growing and finishing periods. All
pigs were self-fed and water was furnished by automatic watering devices.
Pig weight and feed consumption was determined bi-weekly. Upon completion
of the 110 day trial, performance data were subjected to analysis of variance
and Duncan's multiple range test.


Results and Discussion
A summary of the performance data is presented in tables 2-4.

Starting period. Average daily gain and feed consumption were lower
(P<.05) for pigs fed either rye-soy diet when compared with pigs fed either
corn-soy diet. Addition of the antibiotic increased average daily gain
(P<.05) for pigs fed diets containing rye. Feed consumption was lower (P<.05)


1Experiment 277 and 277A.
2Harrison, Graduate Assistant; Coffey, Assistant Animal Nutritionist; and
Combs, Animal Nutritionist, Animal Science Department, Gainesville.







Department of Animal Science 22 Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1982-7 Experiment Station
August, 1982 Gainesville, FL


THE EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTIC SUPPLEMENTATION ON RYE UTILIZATION
BY STARTING, GROWING AND FINISHING SWINE1
M. D. Harrison, M. T. Coffey and G. E. Combs2

Previous research has indicated that rye could replace up to 50% of the
corn in a corn-soy diet without affecting pig performance and that the re-
sponse to antibiotic supplementation was greater with rye diets than with
corn-soy diets (Harrison et al., 1979). This antibiotic effect has also.
been reported for broilers (Marusich et al., 1978). This study was con-
ducted to further evaluate the influence of dietary energy source (rye vs.
corn) on the response to antibiotic supplementation in swine diets.

Experimental

Seventy-two crossbred pigs averaging 9 kilograms (kg) were allotted on
the basis of weight, sex and ancestry to four dietary treatment groups. Six
pigs were allotted to each pen with three pens per treatment. The dietary
treatments (table 1) consisted of a fortified corn-soy control diet (CS),
the control diet supplemented with the antibiotic ASP-250 (CSA), and two
diets which contained Weser rye substituted for corn on a weight for weight
basis, rye-soy (RS) and rye-soy plus antibiotic (RSA). The experiment was
divided into starting (9 to 30 kg), growing (30 to 60 kg) and finishing (60
to 100 kg) periods.

Corn-soy diets were formulated to provided 18.7%, 17.5% and 14.7% crude
protein (CP) during the starting, growing and finishing periods, respectively.
During the starting period, the pigs were housed in an enclosed nursery
building equipped with wire mesh cages. Pigs were housed in a concrete barn
with an aluminum slatted floor during the growing and finishing periods. All
pigs were self-fed and water was furnished by automatic watering devices.
Pig weight and feed consumption was determined bi-weekly. Upon completion
of the 110 day trial, performance data were subjected to analysis of variance
and Duncan's multiple range test.


Results and Discussion
A summary of the performance data is presented in tables 2-4.

Starting period. Average daily gain and feed consumption were lower
(P<.05) for pigs fed either rye-soy diet when compared with pigs fed either
corn-soy diet. Addition of the antibiotic increased average daily gain
(P<.05) for pigs fed diets containing rye. Feed consumption was lower (P<.05)


1Experiment 277 and 277A.
2Harrison, Graduate Assistant; Coffey, Assistant Animal Nutritionist; and
Combs, Animal Nutritionist, Animal Science Department, Gainesville.






- 23 -


for pigs fed diets containing rye when compared with pigs fed corn diets.
Feed efficiency was improved (P<.05) by antibiotic supplementation to the
corn-soy diet. There was no improvement in feed intake or feed efficiency
when rye-soy diets were supplemented with antibiotic.

Growing period. Both average daily gain and average daily feed in-
take were depressed (P<.05) by the substitution of rye for corn. Supple-
mentation of the rye-soy diet with antibiotic increased (P<.05) average
daily gain and average daily feed intake to the same level as the control
(CS). There was a 6.3% improvement in average daily gain when antibiotic
was supplemented to the corn-soy diet. Supplementation of the rye-soy
diet with antibiotic resulted in an 11.8% improvement in average daily gain.
There were no differences in feed efficiency during the growing period.

Finishing period. There were no differences in average daily feed in-
take during the finishing period. Substitution of corn with rye again re-
sulted in a reduction (P<.05) in average daily gain. The addition of the
antibiotic improved (P<.05) average daily gain for pigs fed rye-soy diets.
Pigs fed the rye-soy diet were less efficient (P<.05) than any other treat-
ment group. -Addition of antibiotic improved (P<.05) feed efficiency of the
pigs fed the rye-soy diet.

Wallace (1970) cited the nutrient sparing effect as one of the possible
modes of action of antibiotics in livestock diets. The improved pig per-
formance due to the presence of antibiotics in rye diets could be attributed
to an improvement in nutrient absorption. Rye contains a complex carbohydrate,
pectin, that interferes with nutrient absorption in monogastric animals. The
absence of pectin in corn could explain the difference in the response to
antibiotics of pigs fed rye when compared with pigs fed corn.


Summary
Seventy-two crossbred pigs having an average weight of 9 kg were used
to evaluate the effect of antibiotic supplementation on the utilization of
diets containing rye by starting, growing and finishing swine. Pigs fed
rye-soy diets consumed less feed and gained at a slower rate (P<.05) than
pigs fed corn-soy diets. The addition of the antibiotic (ASP-250) to the
rye-soy diet improved average daily gain by 17.9, 11.8 and 14.5%.for starting,
growing and finishing swine, respectively. Supplementing corn-soy diets with
antibiotic improved average daily gain for starting, growing and finishing
swine by 7.5, 6.3 and 4.7%, respectively. The percent improvement in average
daily gain due to antibiotic supplementation in rye-soy diets was twice as
great as for pigs fed corn-soy diets. However, the antibiotic supplementation
of the rye-soy diet did not provide performance equal to that of the corn-
soy diets.

Literature Cited
Harrison, M. D., J. L. Copelin and G. E. Combs. 1979. The feeding value of
Florida grown Weser rye for weanling and growing-finishing swine. Anim.
Sci. Res. Rept. AL-1979-6.

Wallace, H. D. 1970. Biological responses to antibacterial feed additives in
diets of meat producing animals. J. Anim. Sci. 31:1118.






- 23 -


for pigs fed diets containing rye when compared with pigs fed corn diets.
Feed efficiency was improved (P<.05) by antibiotic supplementation to the
corn-soy diet. There was no improvement in feed intake or feed efficiency
when rye-soy diets were supplemented with antibiotic.

Growing period. Both average daily gain and average daily feed in-
take were depressed (P<.05) by the substitution of rye for corn. Supple-
mentation of the rye-soy diet with antibiotic increased (P<.05) average
daily gain and average daily feed intake to the same level as the control
(CS). There was a 6.3% improvement in average daily gain when antibiotic
was supplemented to the corn-soy diet. Supplementation of the rye-soy
diet with antibiotic resulted in an 11.8% improvement in average daily gain.
There were no differences in feed efficiency during the growing period.

Finishing period. There were no differences in average daily feed in-
take during the finishing period. Substitution of corn with rye again re-
sulted in a reduction (P<.05) in average daily gain. The addition of the
antibiotic improved (P<.05) average daily gain for pigs fed rye-soy diets.
Pigs fed the rye-soy diet were less efficient (P<.05) than any other treat-
ment group. -Addition of antibiotic improved (P<.05) feed efficiency of the
pigs fed the rye-soy diet.

Wallace (1970) cited the nutrient sparing effect as one of the possible
modes of action of antibiotics in livestock diets. The improved pig per-
formance due to the presence of antibiotics in rye diets could be attributed
to an improvement in nutrient absorption. Rye contains a complex carbohydrate,
pectin, that interferes with nutrient absorption in monogastric animals. The
absence of pectin in corn could explain the difference in the response to
antibiotics of pigs fed rye when compared with pigs fed corn.


Summary
Seventy-two crossbred pigs having an average weight of 9 kg were used
to evaluate the effect of antibiotic supplementation on the utilization of
diets containing rye by starting, growing and finishing swine. Pigs fed
rye-soy diets consumed less feed and gained at a slower rate (P<.05) than
pigs fed corn-soy diets. The addition of the antibiotic (ASP-250) to the
rye-soy diet improved average daily gain by 17.9, 11.8 and 14.5%.for starting,
growing and finishing swine, respectively. Supplementing corn-soy diets with
antibiotic improved average daily gain for starting, growing and finishing
swine by 7.5, 6.3 and 4.7%, respectively. The percent improvement in average
daily gain due to antibiotic supplementation in rye-soy diets was twice as
great as for pigs fed corn-soy diets. However, the antibiotic supplementation
of the rye-soy diet did not provide performance equal to that of the corn-
soy diets.

Literature Cited
Harrison, M. D., J. L. Copelin and G. E. Combs. 1979. The feeding value of
Florida grown Weser rye for weanling and growing-finishing swine. Anim.
Sci. Res. Rept. AL-1979-6.

Wallace, H. D. 1970. Biological responses to antibacterial feed additives in
diets of meat producing animals. J. Anim. Sci. 31:1118.













TABLE 1. DIET COMPOSITION


Starter Grower Finisher
CS CS + ASP CS CS + ASP CS CS + ASP
or or or or or or
Ingredient RS RS + ASP RS RS + ASP RS RS + ASP

Grain' 72.05 71.80 74.25 74.00 82.10 81.95
Soybean meal (49%) 25.00 25.00 22.00 22.00 15.00 15.00
Dynafos (IMCC) 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70
Limestone 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80
Iodized salt 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Trace minerals (CCC)2 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (UF) 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.05 0.05
ASP-2504 --- 0.25 --- 0.25 --- 0.15

1Yellow corn or Weser rye.
ZSupplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, IL. Contained 20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1%
copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.10% cobalt and 2% calcium.
3Contained 13,200 mg riboflavin; 44,000 mg niacin; 26,400 mg pantothenic acid; 176,000 mg choline chloride;
22,000 mcg vitamin B12; 5,500,000 IU vitamin A; 880,000 ICU vitamin D3 and 22,000 IU vitamin E per kg of
premix.
Contained 44 g chlortetracycline, 44 g sulfamethazine, 22 g procaine penicillin per kg of supplement.






- 25 -


TABLE 2. STARTING PERIOD


Corn soy Rye-soy
Treatments Corn-soy + ASP Rye-soy + ASP

Rep. I-III

Initial weight, kg 9.06 9.07 9.06 9.06
Final weight, kg 31.49 32.86 25.75 28.49b
Daily gain, kg 0.53a 0.57a 0.39c 0.46b
Daily feed, kg 1.08b 1.05 0.88 0.95
Feed/gain 2.03 1.85a 2.20c 2.04b

abcMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).

TABLE 3. GROWING PERIOD

Corn soy Rye-soy
Treatments Corn-soy + ASP Rye-soy + ASP

Rep. I-III

Initial weight, kg 35.2 34.9 34.9 34.5
Final weight, kg 68.9 b 70.6 63.7 c 66.2 b
Daily gain, kg 0.80a 0.85a 0.68c 0.76
Daily feed, kg 2.04 2.12a 1.72 1.96
Feed/gain 2.55 2.49a 2.53a 2.59

abcMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).

TABLE 4. FINISHING PERIOD


Corn soy Rye-soy
Treatments Corn-soy + ASP Rye-soy + ASP

Rep. I-III

Initial weight, kg 68.9 70.6 63.7 66.2
Final weight, kg 97.5 100.4 86.6 92.5
Daily gain, kg 0.86a 0.90a 0.69 .79
Daily feed, kg 2.73 2.78 2.74 2.74
Feed/gain 3.18a 3.09a 3.97b 3.48a

abcMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).






- 25 -


TABLE 2. STARTING PERIOD


Corn soy Rye-soy
Treatments Corn-soy + ASP Rye-soy + ASP

Rep. I-III

Initial weight, kg 9.06 9.07 9.06 9.06
Final weight, kg 31.49 32.86 25.75 28.49b
Daily gain, kg 0.53a 0.57a 0.39c 0.46b
Daily feed, kg 1.08b 1.05 0.88 0.95
Feed/gain 2.03 1.85a 2.20c 2.04b

abcMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).

TABLE 3. GROWING PERIOD

Corn soy Rye-soy
Treatments Corn-soy + ASP Rye-soy + ASP

Rep. I-III

Initial weight, kg 35.2 34.9 34.9 34.5
Final weight, kg 68.9 b 70.6 63.7 c 66.2 b
Daily gain, kg 0.80a 0.85a 0.68c 0.76
Daily feed, kg 2.04 2.12a 1.72 1.96
Feed/gain 2.55 2.49a 2.53a 2.59

abcMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).

TABLE 4. FINISHING PERIOD


Corn soy Rye-soy
Treatments Corn-soy + ASP Rye-soy + ASP

Rep. I-III

Initial weight, kg 68.9 70.6 63.7 66.2
Final weight, kg 97.5 100.4 86.6 92.5
Daily gain, kg 0.86a 0.90a 0.69 .79
Daily feed, kg 2.73 2.78 2.74 2.74
Feed/gain 3.18a 3.09a 3.97b 3.48a

abcMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).






- 25 -


TABLE 2. STARTING PERIOD


Corn soy Rye-soy
Treatments Corn-soy + ASP Rye-soy + ASP

Rep. I-III

Initial weight, kg 9.06 9.07 9.06 9.06
Final weight, kg 31.49 32.86 25.75 28.49b
Daily gain, kg 0.53a 0.57a 0.39c 0.46b
Daily feed, kg 1.08b 1.05 0.88 0.95
Feed/gain 2.03 1.85a 2.20c 2.04b

abcMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).

TABLE 3. GROWING PERIOD

Corn soy Rye-soy
Treatments Corn-soy + ASP Rye-soy + ASP

Rep. I-III

Initial weight, kg 35.2 34.9 34.9 34.5
Final weight, kg 68.9 b 70.6 63.7 c 66.2 b
Daily gain, kg 0.80a 0.85a 0.68c 0.76
Daily feed, kg 2.04 2.12a 1.72 1.96
Feed/gain 2.55 2.49a 2.53a 2.59

abcMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).

TABLE 4. FINISHING PERIOD


Corn soy Rye-soy
Treatments Corn-soy + ASP Rye-soy + ASP

Rep. I-III

Initial weight, kg 68.9 70.6 63.7 66.2
Final weight, kg 97.5 100.4 86.6 92.5
Daily gain, kg 0.86a 0.90a 0.69 .79
Daily feed, kg 2.73 2.78 2.74 2.74
Feed/gain 3.18a 3.09a 3.97b 3.48a

abcMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).




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