• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Table 1 - Composition of diets
 Table 2 - Performance of pigs fed...
 Table 3 - Performance of pigs fed...
 Table 4 - Performance of pigs fed...
 Table 5 - Performance of pigs fed...
 Table 6 - Performance of pigs fed...
 Table 7 - Performance of pigs fed...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1982-4
Title: Dietary protein and compensatory growth of growing-finishing swine
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073136/00001
 Material Information
Title: Dietary protein and compensatory growth of growing-finishing swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 9 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Coffey, M. T
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Proteins in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: G.E. Combs and M.T. Coffey.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August, 1982."
General Note: Leaves numbered 4-12.
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073136
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 81144135

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 4
    Results and discussion
        Page 5
    Summary
        Page 5
    Table 1 - Composition of diets
        Page 6
    Table 2 - Performance of pigs fed diets containing 12, 14, and 16 percent protein (grower period), experiment 1
        Page 7
    Table 3 - Performance of pigs fed diets containing 12, 14, and 16 percent protein (finisher period), experiment 1
        Page 8
    Table 4 - Performance of pigs fed diets containing 12, 14, and 16 percent protein (grower-finisher period), experiment 1
        Page 9
    Table 5 - Performance of pigs fed diets containing 12, 14, and 16 percent protein (grower period), experiment 2
        Page 10
    Table 6 - Performance of pigs fed diets containing 12, 14, and 16 percent protein (finisher period), experiment 2
        Page 11
    Table 7 - Performance of pigs fed diets containing 12, 14, and 16 percent protein (grower-finisher period), experiment 2
        Page 12
Full Text



Department of Animal Science 4 Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1982-4 Experiment Station
August, 1982 Gainesville, FL


DIETARY PROTEIN AND COMPENSATORY GROWTH OF
GROWING-FINISHING SWINE1

G. E. Combs and M. T. Coffey2


Under certain economic situations, swine producers may want to consider
feeding for less than maximum performance. As protein supplement feeds are
normally a high cost feedstuff, the challenge is to formulate diets on the
basis of the current economic situation that will result in acceptable per-
formance and the greatest economic return.

The objective of this study was to determine if the pig could be fed
protein restricted diets during the growing stage and compensate for the
reduced performance during the finishing phase.


Experimental

Two experiments were conducted with 252 growing-finishing crossbred pigs.
All pigs were housed in concrete-floored pens equipped with self-feeders and
automatic watering devices. Each experiment consisted of a grower period and
a finisher period. During the grower period, pigs were fed diets containing
12, 14 or 16 percent protein until they weighed approximately 68 kg. During
the finisher period, two pens from each of the grower period treatments were
fed diets containing 12, 14 or 16 percent protein to market weight.

EXPERIMENT 1

Grower period. One hundred forty-four pigs averaging 32 kg body weight
were allotted on the basis of initial weight, litter and sex to the three
treatment groups. Each of these groups consisted of 6 pens containing 8 pigs
each.

Finisher period. After 8 weeks on the grower diets, the average body
weight for all pens was 67 kg. The pigs were switched at this time to
finisher diets until reaching a market weight of 96 kg.

EXPERIMENT 2

Grower period. One hundred eight pigs averaging 26 kg body weight were
allotted to experimental pens on the basis of initial weight, litter and sex
to the three treatments. Six pens containing 6 pigs each were utilized with
each of the groups.

Finisher period. The pigs averaged 68 kg after 8 weeks on the grower
diet. At this time, they were fed the finisher diets until they averaged a
market weight of 93 kg.


1Experiment 257A and 257B. See Res. Rept. AL-1979-2 for previous work in this
area.
2Combs, Animal Nutritionist and Coffey, Assistant Animal Nutritionist, Animal
Science Department, Gainesville.






- 5 -


Diet composition is presented in table 1.


Results and Discussion

The performance data are summarized for experiment 1 in tables 2, 3 and
4 and for experiment 2 in tables 5, 6 and 7.

During the grower period in both experiments, the pigs given the 12
percent protein diet gained more slowly and less efficiently (P<.05) than
pigs fed diets containing 14 or 16 percent protein. These findings are in
agreement with previous results (Fla. Res. Rept. AL-1979-2) and were expected
as the National Research Council recommends 14-16 percent dietary protein for
pigs in this weight range.

Performance data collected during the finisher period showed inconsis-
tencies. Rate and efficiency of gain were different (P<.05) among treatments
for experiment 1; whereas in experiment 2, these parameters were not different
(P<.05). Also, in contrast to previous work (Fla. Res. Rept. AL-1979-2) pigs
fed the 12 percent protein diet during the grower period did not exhibit com-
pensatory gain during the finisher period when changed to either the 14 or
16 percent protein diets. The causes of the discrepancies between the experi-
ments in this study and between this and other studies are not readily apparent.

Performance data for the entire grower-finisher periods show that in
experiment 1, the gain of pigs fed the 16-14 protein sequence was higher
than that of pigs fed the 12-12, 12-14, 12-16 or 14-12 sequence. The daily
gain of pigs on the remaining treatments was similar to that of pigs fed
the 16-14 protein sequence. Feed efficiency in general followed the gain
data in that pigs given the 12 percent diet during either period were less
efficient than other treatment groups. In experiment 2, pigs fed the 12
percent protein diet during the grower phase gained less (P<.05) than pigs
on other treatments. Feed efficiency differences were non-significant (P<.05)
but as was found in experiment 1, pigs fed the 12 percent protein diet at
any time tended to be the most inefficient.

Summary

Two experiments utilizing 252 pigs were conducted to compare the per-
formance of pigs fed diets containing 12, 14 or 16 percent protein during
all or part of the grower-finisher periods. During the grower period, pigs
fed the 12 percent protein diet gained more slowly and less efficiently than
those given the 14 or 16 percent protein diets. Rate and efficiency of gain
during the finisher period were not improved by feeding 14 or 16 percent
protein diets to those pigs given the 12 percent diet during the grower
period. The performance data for the entire grower-finisher period indicated
that the pigs did not exhibit compensatory growth. Consequently, the results
of this study would not support the previous observation (Fla. Res. Rept.
1979-2) that pigs have the ability to compensate during the finishing stage
for protein inadequate diets fed during the grower stage.






- 5 -


Diet composition is presented in table 1.


Results and Discussion

The performance data are summarized for experiment 1 in tables 2, 3 and
4 and for experiment 2 in tables 5, 6 and 7.

During the grower period in both experiments, the pigs given the 12
percent protein diet gained more slowly and less efficiently (P<.05) than
pigs fed diets containing 14 or 16 percent protein. These findings are in
agreement with previous results (Fla. Res. Rept. AL-1979-2) and were expected
as the National Research Council recommends 14-16 percent dietary protein for
pigs in this weight range.

Performance data collected during the finisher period showed inconsis-
tencies. Rate and efficiency of gain were different (P<.05) among treatments
for experiment 1; whereas in experiment 2, these parameters were not different
(P<.05). Also, in contrast to previous work (Fla. Res. Rept. AL-1979-2) pigs
fed the 12 percent protein diet during the grower period did not exhibit com-
pensatory gain during the finisher period when changed to either the 14 or
16 percent protein diets. The causes of the discrepancies between the experi-
ments in this study and between this and other studies are not readily apparent.

Performance data for the entire grower-finisher periods show that in
experiment 1, the gain of pigs fed the 16-14 protein sequence was higher
than that of pigs fed the 12-12, 12-14, 12-16 or 14-12 sequence. The daily
gain of pigs on the remaining treatments was similar to that of pigs fed
the 16-14 protein sequence. Feed efficiency in general followed the gain
data in that pigs given the 12 percent diet during either period were less
efficient than other treatment groups. In experiment 2, pigs fed the 12
percent protein diet during the grower phase gained less (P<.05) than pigs
on other treatments. Feed efficiency differences were non-significant (P<.05)
but as was found in experiment 1, pigs fed the 12 percent protein diet at
any time tended to be the most inefficient.

Summary

Two experiments utilizing 252 pigs were conducted to compare the per-
formance of pigs fed diets containing 12, 14 or 16 percent protein during
all or part of the grower-finisher periods. During the grower period, pigs
fed the 12 percent protein diet gained more slowly and less efficiently than
those given the 14 or 16 percent protein diets. Rate and efficiency of gain
during the finisher period were not improved by feeding 14 or 16 percent
protein diets to those pigs given the 12 percent diet during the grower
period. The performance data for the entire grower-finisher period indicated
that the pigs did not exhibit compensatory growth. Consequently, the results
of this study would not support the previous observation (Fla. Res. Rept.
1979-2) that pigs have the ability to compensate during the finishing stage
for protein inadequate diets fed during the grower stage.







-6-


TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF DIETS


% Protein 12 14 16

Gr. yellow corn 88.75 84.00 78.75

Soybean meal 8.25 13.00 18.25

Dynafos 1.60 1.60 1.60

Limestone 1.00 1.00 1.00

Iodized salt 0.20 0.20 0.20

Trace minerals (CCC)l 0.10 0.10 0.10

Vitamix premix (UF)2 0.10 0.10 0.10

Total 100.00 100.00 100.00


ISupplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, IL. Contained 20% zinc,
10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.10% cobalt and
2% calcium.
2Containedl3,200mg riboflavin; 44,000 mg niacin; 26,400 mg pantothenic
acid; 176,000mg choline chloride; 22,000 mcg vitamin B12; 5,500,000 IU
vitamin A; 880,000 ICU vitamin D3 and 22,000 IU vitamin E per kg of
premix.






- 7 -


TABLE 2. PERFORMANCE OF PIGS FED
AND 16 PERCENT PROTEIN
Experiment


DIETS CONTAINING 12, 14
(GROWER PERIOD)
1


Protein, % 12 14 16

Number of pigs 48 48 48

Avg. initial weight,-kg 31.8 31.8 31.8

Avg. final weight, kg 63.4 67.7 69.6

Avg. daily gain, kg .641 .73 .77

Avg. daily feed, kg 2.14 2.14 2.15

Avg. feed/gain 3.341 2.93 2.79


ISignificantly different (P<.01) from 14 and 16 percent protein.












TABLE 3. PERFORMANCE OF PIGS FED DIETS CONTAINING 12, 14 AND 16 PERCENT PROTEIN (FINISHER PERIOD)
Experiment 1


Protein % (Grower) .12 ,14 16
Protein % (Finisher) 12 14 16 12 14 16 12 14 16
Treatment number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Number of pigs 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16
Avg. initial weight, kg 63.9 63.2 63.2 67.6 67.6 68.0 69.6 69.8 69.4

Avg. final weight, kg 93.6 92.0 93.3 92.7 98.9 99.9 99.2 100.8 97.9

Avg. daily gain, kgi .71 .69 .72 .60 .75 .76 .70 .74 .68

Avg. daily feed, kg 2.71 2.41 2.29 2.40 2.49 2.56 2.69 2.60 2.43
Avg. feed/gain2 3.82 3.49 3.18 4.00 3.32 3.36 3.84 3.51 3.57

ITreatments 5, 6 and 8 significantly (P<.05) different from treatment 4.
2Treatment 4 significantly (P<.05) different from all other treatments.
Treatment 1 and 7 significantly (P<.05) different from treatments 2, 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9.
Treatments 2, 8, 9 significantly (P<.05) different from treatments 3, 5 and 6.
Treatment 3 significantly (P<.05) different from all other treatments.












TABLE 4. PERFORMANCE OF PIGS FED DIETS CONTAINING 12, 14 AND 16
PERCENT PROTEIN (GROWER-FINISHER PERIODS)
Experiment 1


Protein % (Grower) 12 14 16
Protein % (Finisher) 12 14 16 12 14 16 12 14 16
Treatment number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Number of pigs 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16
Avg. initial weight, kg 31.8 31.8 31.8 31.8 31.8 31.8 31.8 31.8 31.8
Avg. final weight, kg 93.6 92 93.3 92.7 98.9 99.9 99.2 100.8 97.9

Avg. daily gain, kg1 .68 .66 .68 .67 .74 .75 .74 .76 .73

Avg. daily feed, kg 2.42 2.25 2.20 2.27 2.29 2.34 2.38 2.37 2.29

Avg. feed/gain2 3,56 3.41 3.24 3.39 3.09 3.12 3.22 3.12 3.14

1Tre&tment 8 significantly (P<.05) different from 1, 2, 3 and 4.
2Treatment 1 significantly (P<.01) different from all other treatments.
Treatments 2 and 4 significantly (P<.01) different from all other treatments.
Treatments 3 and 7 significantly (P<.05) different from all other treatments.






- 10 -


TABLE 5. PERFORMANCE OF PIGS FED DIETS CONTAINING 12, 14
AND 16 PERCENT PROTEIN (GROWER PERIOD)
Experiment 2


Protein, % 12 14 16

Number of pigs 36 36 36

Avg. initial weight, kg 26.2 26.2 26.2

Avg. final weight, kg. 62.4 69.3 72.1

Avg. daily gain, kg .611 .73 .78

Avg. daily feed, kg 2.13 2.21 2.33

Avg. feed/gain 3.491 3.03 2.99

ISignificantly (P<.05) different 14 and 16 percent protein.













TABLE 6. PERFORMANCE OF PIGS FED


DIETS CONTAINING 12, 14 AND 16 PERCENT PROTEIN (FINISHER PERIOD)
Experiment 2


Protein % (Grower) 12 14 16
Protein % (Finisher) 12 14 16 12 14 16 12 14 16
Treatment number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Number of pigs 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

Avg. initial weight, kg 62 62.5 62.5 69 69.5 69.3 72.2 72.2 72.1
Avg. final weight, kg 85.3 85.2 90.6 95.4 95.4 93.3 97.0 98.2 99.5

Avg. daily gain, kgi .55 .54 .67 .63 .62 .57 .59 .62 .65

Avg. daily feed, kg 2.36 2.18 2.37 2.65 2,46 2.22 2.64 2.60 2.64

Avg. feed/gaini 4.29 4.04 3.54 4.21 3.97 3.89 4.47 4.19 4.06

'Differences non-significant (P<.05).












TABLE 7. PERFORMANCE OF PIGS FED DIETS CONTAINING 12, 14 AND 16
PERCENT PROTEIN (GROWER-FINISHER PERIODS)
Experiment 2


protein % (Grower) 12 14 16
Protein % (Finisher) 12 14 16 12 14 16 12 14 16
Treatment number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Number of pigs 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

Avg. initial weight, kg 26.2 26.2 26.3 26.2 26.3 26.1 26.2 26.2 26.2

Avg. final weight, kg 85.3 85.2 90.6 95.4 95.4 93.3 97.0 98.2 99.5

Avg. daily gain, kgi .59 .59 .64 .69 .69 .66 .70 .71 .73

Avg. daily feed, kg 2.18 2.16 2.27 2.40 2.33 2.20 2.45 2.45 2.47
Avg. feed/gain2 3.62 3.66 3.55 3.48 3.38 3.33 3.50 3.45 3.38


'Treatments 1, 2 and 3 significantly (P<.05) different from
2Differences non-significant (P<.05).


all other treatments.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs