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 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Table 1 - Diet composition
 Table 2 - Summary of performan...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1982-3
Title: Effect of heat treatment on the feeding value of cowpeas (Vigna sinesis) for finishing swine
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073135/00001
 Material Information
Title: Effect of heat treatment on the feeding value of cowpeas (Vigna sinesis) for finishing swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 3 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Harrison, Michael Dean, 1957-
Coffey, M. T
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Cowpea -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: M.D. Harrison, M.T. Coffey and G.E. Combs.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August, 1982."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073135
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 81144107

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 1
    Summary
        Page 2
    Table 1 - Diet composition
        Page 3
    Table 2 - Summary of performance
        Page 3
Full Text



Department of Animal Science 1 Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1982-3 Experiment Station
August, 1982 Gainesville, FL


EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON THE FEEDING VALUE OF
COWPEAS (Vigna sinesis) FOR FINISHING SWINE'

M. D. Harrison, M. T. Coffey and G. E. Combs2

Cowpeas are leguminous plants commonly cultivated for human consumption
and in many parts of the world as a feed for livestock. Cowpeas vary in
crude protein content from 18 to 29 percent and are good sources of lysine
with methionine and tryptophan being the most limiting amino acids. Like
other leguminous seeds, cowpeas contain a trypsin inhibitor which has been
reported to be heat labile. However, the temperature needed to destroy the
inhibitor has not been well defined (Borchers, R. and C. W. Ackerson, 1950).

This study was conducted to determine if heating cowpeas in a gas fired
commercial roaster to 121 C would improve their utilization when fed to
finishing swine.

Experimental
Ninety crossbred pigs averaging 48 kilograms (kg) were allotted based
on weight, sex and ancestry to five dietary treatments with three repli-
cations per treatment and six pigs per replication. All diets were formu-
lated to contain 17.5% crude protein. Cowpeas were substituted for corn
and soybean meal at 20 and 30 percent of the diet. These two dietary levels
of cowpeas were duplicated using cowpeas which were heated to a temperature
of 1210C over a gas flame in a commercial roaster. The five dietary treat-
ments are designated as follows: corn-soy control (CS), 20% cowpeas (P-20),
20% cowpeas cooked to 1210C (PC-20), 30% cowpeas (P-30), 30% cowpeas cooked
to 1210C (PC-30).

All pigs were housed in a semi-enclosed concrete floored barn with
feed and water supplied ad libitum during the entire experiment. The pigs
were weighed and feed consumption determined bi-weekly. Upon completion of
the 32 day trial, performance data were subjected to analysis of variance
and Duncan's multiple range test. Diet composition is presented in table 1.

Results and Discussion
A summary of the performance data is presented in table 2.

There were no differences in feed intake (ADF) for pigs fed any dietary
treatment. There was a reduction (P<.01) in average daily gain (ADG) and
feed efficiency (FE) for pigs receiving the twenty percent cowpea diets
when compared with the corn-soy fed pigs. Pigs fed the 30 percent cowpea


1Experiment 278.
2Harrison, Graduate Assistant; Coffey, Assistant Animal Nutritionist; and
Combs, Animal Nutritionist, Animal Science Department, Gainesville.







Department of Animal Science 1 Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1982-3 Experiment Station
August, 1982 Gainesville, FL


EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON THE FEEDING VALUE OF
COWPEAS (Vigna sinesis) FOR FINISHING SWINE'

M. D. Harrison, M. T. Coffey and G. E. Combs2

Cowpeas are leguminous plants commonly cultivated for human consumption
and in many parts of the world as a feed for livestock. Cowpeas vary in
crude protein content from 18 to 29 percent and are good sources of lysine
with methionine and tryptophan being the most limiting amino acids. Like
other leguminous seeds, cowpeas contain a trypsin inhibitor which has been
reported to be heat labile. However, the temperature needed to destroy the
inhibitor has not been well defined (Borchers, R. and C. W. Ackerson, 1950).

This study was conducted to determine if heating cowpeas in a gas fired
commercial roaster to 121 C would improve their utilization when fed to
finishing swine.

Experimental
Ninety crossbred pigs averaging 48 kilograms (kg) were allotted based
on weight, sex and ancestry to five dietary treatments with three repli-
cations per treatment and six pigs per replication. All diets were formu-
lated to contain 17.5% crude protein. Cowpeas were substituted for corn
and soybean meal at 20 and 30 percent of the diet. These two dietary levels
of cowpeas were duplicated using cowpeas which were heated to a temperature
of 1210C over a gas flame in a commercial roaster. The five dietary treat-
ments are designated as follows: corn-soy control (CS), 20% cowpeas (P-20),
20% cowpeas cooked to 1210C (PC-20), 30% cowpeas (P-30), 30% cowpeas cooked
to 1210C (PC-30).

All pigs were housed in a semi-enclosed concrete floored barn with
feed and water supplied ad libitum during the entire experiment. The pigs
were weighed and feed consumption determined bi-weekly. Upon completion of
the 32 day trial, performance data were subjected to analysis of variance
and Duncan's multiple range test. Diet composition is presented in table 1.

Results and Discussion
A summary of the performance data is presented in table 2.

There were no differences in feed intake (ADF) for pigs fed any dietary
treatment. There was a reduction (P<.01) in average daily gain (ADG) and
feed efficiency (FE) for pigs receiving the twenty percent cowpea diets
when compared with the corn-soy fed pigs. Pigs fed the 30 percent cowpea


1Experiment 278.
2Harrison, Graduate Assistant; Coffey, Assistant Animal Nutritionist; and
Combs, Animal Nutritionist, Animal Science Department, Gainesville.






-2-


diets gained slower and were less efficient (P<.01) than those pigs fed
either the corn-soy or 20 percent cowpea diets. There were no performance
differences between pigs fed the heat treated cowpea diets and those fed
the untreated cowpea diets. The data indicated that cowpeas are of limited
value when used at 20-30% of the diet and that heating to 121oC did affect
their utilization by finishing swine. Cowpeas may be economical to use
i.n the diet of finishing swine when the cost of feed ingredients indicate
that slower pig growth is economically acceptable.


Summary

Ninety crossbred pigs averaging 48 kg were studied to determine if
addition of cowpeas at 20 and 30 percent of the diet affected pig performance.
In addition, the effect of heating cowpeas to a temperature of 1210C and
feeding at the same dietary levels of 20 and 30 percent was studied.

No differences were observed with ADF for pigs fed any of the five
dietary treatments. Both ADG and FE were reduced (P<.01) for pigs fed the
20 percent cowpea diets when compared with the corn-soy fed pigs. Further
reductions in ADG and FE were observed (P<.01) when the level of cowpea.
supplementation was increased to 30 percent.

Heat treatment of cowpeas did not affect pig performance at either the
20 or 30 percent level of cowpea supplementation. It was concluded that
heating the cowpeas to 1210C in a commercial roaster did not improve pig
performance.







- 3 -


TABLE 1. DIET COMPOSITION


20% 30%
20% Cowpeas 30% Cowpeas
Ingredients CS Cowpeas cooked Cowpeas Cooked1

Ground yellow corn 82.60 70.40 70.40 76.40 76.40
Soybean meal (48%) 14.50 6.70 6.70 0.70 0.70
Cowpeas (Vigna sinesis) --- 20.00 20.00 30.00 30.00
Dynafos 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70
Limestone 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80
Iodized salt 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Trace minerals (CCC)2 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (UF)3 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05

ICowpeas in these diets were cooked in a commercial roast-a-tron at a tem-
perature of 1210C.
2Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, IL. Contained 20% zinc,
10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.10% cobalt and
2% calcium.
3Contained 13,200 mg riboflavin; 44,000 mg niacin; 26,400 mg pantothenic
acid; 176,000 mg choline chloride; 22,000 mcg vitamin B12; 5,500,000 IU
vitamin A; 880,000 ICU vitamin D3 and 22,000 IU vitamin E per kg of
premix.






TABLE 2. SUMMARY OF PERFORMANCE

20% 30%
Control 20% Cowpeas 30% Cowpeas
Treatment Corn-soy Cowpeas Cooked Cowpeas Cooked

Rep. I-III

Initial weight, kg 48.63 48.54 48.55 48.49 48.58
Final weight, kg 99.97 95.85b 95.56 90.04 91.96
Daily gain, kg 0.97a 0.89 0.89 0.79c 0.82c
Daily feed, kg 2.73 2.80 2.77 2.65 2.71
Feed/gain 2.81a 3.14 3.11 3.38 3.30bc


differ significantly


abcMeans on the same line with different superscripts
(P<.01).







- 3 -


TABLE 1. DIET COMPOSITION


20% 30%
20% Cowpeas 30% Cowpeas
Ingredients CS Cowpeas cooked Cowpeas Cooked1

Ground yellow corn 82.60 70.40 70.40 76.40 76.40
Soybean meal (48%) 14.50 6.70 6.70 0.70 0.70
Cowpeas (Vigna sinesis) --- 20.00 20.00 30.00 30.00
Dynafos 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70
Limestone 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80
Iodized salt 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Trace minerals (CCC)2 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (UF)3 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05

ICowpeas in these diets were cooked in a commercial roast-a-tron at a tem-
perature of 1210C.
2Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, IL. Contained 20% zinc,
10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.10% cobalt and
2% calcium.
3Contained 13,200 mg riboflavin; 44,000 mg niacin; 26,400 mg pantothenic
acid; 176,000 mg choline chloride; 22,000 mcg vitamin B12; 5,500,000 IU
vitamin A; 880,000 ICU vitamin D3 and 22,000 IU vitamin E per kg of
premix.






TABLE 2. SUMMARY OF PERFORMANCE

20% 30%
Control 20% Cowpeas 30% Cowpeas
Treatment Corn-soy Cowpeas Cooked Cowpeas Cooked

Rep. I-III

Initial weight, kg 48.63 48.54 48.55 48.49 48.58
Final weight, kg 99.97 95.85b 95.56 90.04 91.96
Daily gain, kg 0.97a 0.89 0.89 0.79c 0.82c
Daily feed, kg 2.73 2.80 2.77 2.65 2.71
Feed/gain 2.81a 3.14 3.11 3.38 3.30bc


differ significantly


abcMeans on the same line with different superscripts
(P<.01).




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