• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Experimental
 Results
 Table 1 - Concentrate formulas...
 Table 2 - Influence of dietary...
 Table 3 - Influence of dietary...
 Table 4 - Influence of protein...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1982-2
Title: Influence of protein and mineral intake on growth and bone development of weanling horses
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073134/00001
 Material Information
Title: Influence of protein and mineral intake on growth and bone development of weanling horses
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 6 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ott, E. A ( Edgar A )
Asquith, Richard L
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Horses -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Proteins in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Minerals in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Horses -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: E.A. Ott and R.L. Asquith.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "January 1982."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073134
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80986125

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 1
    Results
        Page 2
    Table 1 - Concentrate formulas and composition
        Page 3
    Table 2 - Influence of dietary protein and mineral levels on the daily feed and nutrient intake by weanling foals
        Page 4
    Table 3 - Influence of dietary protein and mineral levels on growth of weanling horses
        Page 5
    Table 4 - Influence of protein and mineral intake on bone radiographic density expressed in mm of aluminum
        Page 6
Full Text





Department of Animal Science 1- Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1982-2 Experiment Station
January 1982 Gainesville, Florida


INFLUENCE OF PROTEIN AND MINERAL INTAKE ON GROWTH
AND BONE DEVELOPMENT OF WEANLING HORSES1

E. A. Ott and R. L. Asquith


The dietary requirements of the growing foal are high at birth and grad-
ually decrease as the animal matures (NRC, 1978). This decrease occurs be-
cause the animal's growth potential decreases with age. At 12 months of age,
a foal will have accumulated 94% of the mineral (ash), including 98% of the
calcium and 94% of the phosphorus that it will have in its body when it is
24 months of age,(Schryver et al., 1974. J. Nutr. 104:126). Since most of
this mineral is deposited in the bones and teeth the first 12 months of the
foal's life are extremely critical to proper bone development. Restricting
crude protein (CP) and energy intake or the use of low quality protein not
only reduces weight gain of foals but also decreases bone development (Ott
et al., 1979. J. Anim. Sci. 49:620). Since the deposition of bone and
muscle is consistent in the young animal, there is a direct relationship be-
tween weight gain by foals and the calcium and phosphorus requirements (Schryver
et al., 1974. Cornell Vet. 64:493). This experiment was designed to test
the effect of increasing protein, calcium and phosphorus content of the diet
together on the growth and bone development of the weanling horse.


Experimental

Twenty-four Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse weanlings averaging 120.5
1.0 days of age were assigned at random within breed and sex subgroups to
three treatments. The foals had been fed and managed alike from foaling to
weaning at 112 days of age and fed a 16% crude protein commercial diet and
Coastal Bermudagrass hay from weaning until the start of the experiment.
Each foal was started on the trial within 14 days after weaning. The foals
were weighed and measured at the start of the experiment and at 14-day inter-
vals for 112 days. Radiographs of the third retacarpal (MCIII) were made at
the start of the experiment and at the end of the experiment for photometric
density scans as described by Meakim et al. (1981. J. Anim. Sci. 53:1019).

The animals were housed in open drylot pens providing 53.2 m2 of space
per foal including 8.6 m2of covered area. Each pen contained six individual
feeding stalls 1.3 m x 3.0 m and an automatic waterer. Concentrates were
fed individually twice daily at 5-10% above intake. Hay was group fed in
the pen at 1 kg per 100 kg body weight.

Coastal Bermudagrass hay fed during the trial contained 9.95% CP, 36.90%
fiber, 2.24% fat, 4.77% ash, .68% Ca and .47% P on a dry matter basis. The
dry matter content of the hay as-fed was 87.12?. Composition and formulas
for the experimental concentrates are shown in table 1. The concentrates
were formulated to provide 14.0, 16.0 and 18.0 crude protein (CP) on an as-
fed basis. The analyzed values slightly exceeded the calculated values.


1HN-795








Calciuni and phosphorus content of the concentrates were increased as the pro-
tein increased to insure that the minerals did not limit bone development.
The low protein diet was formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1978) recommendations
for calcium and phosphorus while the other two diets provided higher levels
proportioned to the protein increase.

One animal had colic due to a twisted intestine and was euthanized when
surgery failed to correct the problem. Her data was deleted from the study.


Results

A significant diet x sex interaction on feed intake occurred during periods
2 and 3 of the trial. Colts consumed more of diet C than did fillies (P<.05).
Diet C was consumed in greater quantity than diet A by colts (P<.05) but not
by fillies. At the end of the trial differences in concentrate intake were not
significant, but total intake was higher for colts fed diet C than diets A or B
(P<.05). A sex effect on intake of diet C was also observed (P<.05). No other
significant differences in feed intake were detected. Concentrate intake was
1.58, 1.67 and 1.65 kg/100 kg BW/day, hay intake was 0.98, 0.97 and 0.99 kg/
100 kg BW/day and total intake was 2.56, 2.64 and 2.64 kg/100 kg BW/day for
diets A, B and C, respectively (table 2).

Calculated daily protein intake was 723, 848 and 903 g; calcium intake
was 41, 45 and 46 g and phosphorus intake was 28, 34 and 34 g for diets A, B
and C, respectively. Foals 6 months of age with expected mature weight of
550 kg have a projected requirement of 825 g CP, 36 g Ca and 26 g P (NRC, 1978).
Since these foals averaged 185 days of age at the midpoint of the experiment,
diet A provided less than NRC recommended levels of protein, but adequate levels
of calcium and phosphorus. Diets B and C exceeded the protein, calcium and phos-
phorus recommendations.

Average weight gains were 157.3, 186.6 and 175.4 Ib/animal for treatments
A, B and C, respectively (table 3). Differences were not significant (P<.05),
but were closely correlated with feed intake. Height at withers was !greater
(P<.05) for colts fed diet C than diet A and greater (P<.05) for fillies fed
diet B than diet C. No other significant differences were detected for withers
height, girth, length or hip height, but in all cases weanlings fed diet A
were lower than those receiving diets B and C.

Photometric scans of the AP radiographs of the MCIII revealed no signifi-
cant differences between treatment groups for the initial radiographs. Only
the midpoint height was different with fillies having a higher value than the
colts. At the end of the experiment, area under the curve, medial peak, mid-
point, minimum value and lateral peak are all lower for diet A than for diet B
or C. However, only peak height 1 was significantly different, with treatment
A being less than B (P<.05). No sex differences were observed.

This study indicates that inadequate protein intake for the weanling horse
will limit growth and bone development even when calcium and phosphorus intakes
are equal to or above NRC recommendations. Daily intake of 848 g crude protein,
45 g calcium and 34 g of phosphorus.gave maximum growth and bone development
in the Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse weanlings used in this trial. This was
provided by supplementing good quality Coastal Bermudagrass hay with a concentrate
providing 16.4% CP, .78% Ca and .60% P on an as-fed basis.
















TABLE 1. CONCENTRATE FORMULAS AND COMPOSITION


Ingredients

Corn, ground

Oats, ground

Soybean meal, 44%

Wheat bran

Alfalfa, dehy 17%

Biophos

Limestone, ground

Calcium propionate

Salt

TM premix

Vitamins





Composition, DM basis:

Dry matter, as-fed

Crude protein

Calcium

Phosphorus


42.50

28.00

12.00

10.00

5.00

.50

.75

.25

.50

.50

+


100.00




87.54

16.66

.84

.58


36.50 30.25

25.50 25.00

20.00 26.00

10.00 10.00

5.00 5.00

1.00 1.50

.75 1.00

.25 .25

.50 .50

.50 .50

+ +


100.00 100.00


87.25

18.84

.89

.69


87.38

20.77

.91

.72









TABLE 2. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY PROTEIN AND MINERAL LEVELS ON THE DAILY
FEED AND NUTRIENT INTAKE BY WEANLING FOALS

Sex Diets
C F A B C

Concentrate1, lb 9.01 .07 8.04 .06 8.11 .07 8.83 .07 8.63 .07

Hay1, lb 5.20 .07 5.02 .05 5.02 .07 5.13 .07 5.19 .07

Total1, .b 14.21 .07 13.06 .05 13.13 .07 13.96 .07 13.82 .07


Concentrate Ib/100 lb BW 1.71 1.55 1.58 1.67 1.65

Hay', lb/100 lb DW 0.99 0.97 0.98 0.97 0.99

Totally, lb/100 lb BW 2.70 2.53 2.56 2.64 2.64


Crude protein, g 723 848 903

Calcium, g 41 45 46

Phosphorus, g 28 34 34


Feed/gainI 8.76 8.90 9.35 8.38 8.82

1As-fed










TABLE 3. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY PROTEIN AND MINERAL LEVELS ON GROWTH
OF WEANLING HORSES1,2

Sex Diets
SF A b L


Weight
Initial, lb
Final, lb
Gain, lb

Height
Initial, in.
Final, in.
Gain, in.

Girth
Initial, in.
Final, in.
Gain, in.

Length
Initial, in.
Final, in.
Gain, in.

Hip height
Initial, in.
Final, in.
Gain, in.


435.0
616.8 9.9
181.8


48.7
52.9
4.2


49.8
56.5
6.7


46.6
52.5 +
5.9


50.8
54.7 +
3.9


435.0
599.4 7.8
164.4


48.7
.2 52.6
3.9


49.8
.4 55.8
6.0


46.6
.4 52.0
5.4


50.8
.2 54.6
3.8


435.0
592.3 10.4
157.3


48.7
.1 52.5
3.8


49.8
.3 55.8
6.0


46.6
.4 51.8
5.2


50.8
.2 54.5 +
3.7


435.0
621.6 10.8
186.6


48.7
.2 52.9
4.2


49.8
.4 56.3
6.5


46.6
.4 52.7
6.1


50.8
.2 54.9
4.1


435.0
610.4 10.5
175.4


48.7
.2 52.8
4.1


49.8
.4 56.4
6.6


46.6
.4 52.3
5.7


50.8
.2 54.6
3.8


1Adjusted least
2112 day trial.


--


squares means.













TABLE 4. INFLUENCE OF PROTEIN AND MINERAL INTAKE ON BONE
GRAPHIC DENSITY EXPRESSED IN MM OF ALUMINUM


RADIO-


Initial Final Dif


515.9
564.1
538.9

536.9
542.3


18.27
19.57
18.79


26.1
24.1
26.0


15.2
23.1


617.9
685.9
680.5


22.6
22.6
21.8


102.0
121.8
141.6

114.2
129.5


651.1 14.2
671.8 20.4


20.66
23.11
22.15


.59a
.59b
.57a


2.39c
3.54e
3.36


19.35 .29
18.40 .44


15.96
16.99
15.62


16.92 .36
15.45 .54


15.35
16.39
15.01


21.85 .37
22.09 .53


17.89
18.92
19.73


.63
.63
.61


18.81 .40
18.89 .57


17.01
17.84
18.72


16.02 .39
15.15 .59


17.09
18.21
17.89


18.16 .46
17.55 .65


19.45
20.46
20.29


F 17.74 .32 20.01 .36 2.27
C 18.12 .49 20.12 .52 2.00
abValues with like superscripts are not different (P<.05).
c'd,eColts were different, but not fillies (P<.05).


Area
A
B
C


F
C

Peak 1
A
B
C


Midpoint
A
B
C


Minimum
A
B
C


2.50
3.69


1.93a
1.93a
4.11

1.89
3.44


1.66a
1.45a
3.71b


Peak 2


2.14
2.30


1.74
2.24
2.38




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