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Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; AL-1981-10
Title: Effects of weight, breed of sire, and sex on carcass characteristics of growing-finishing swine
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073131/00001
 Material Information
Title: Effects of weight, breed of sire, and sex on carcass characteristics of growing-finishing swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Copelin, Johnny Landon
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1981
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Carcasses -- Quality -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Swine breeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.L. Copelin ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "July, 1981."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073131
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80954646

Table of Contents
    Effects of weight, breed of sire, and ex on carcass characteristics of growing-finishing swine
        Page 23
        Experimental
            Page 23
        Results and discussion
            Page 24
        Summary
            Page 24
    List of Tables
        Page 25
        Page 26
Full Text



Department of Animal Science 23 Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1981-10 Experiment Station
SJuly, 1981 Gainesville, Florida



EFFECTS OF WEIGHT, BREED OF SIRE, AND SEX ON CARCASS
CHARACTERISTICS OF GROWING-FINISHING SWINE


J. L. Copelin, M. A. Wong-Valle O., D. D. Hargrove, and G. E. Combs1


Most market swine in the United States are slaughtered between 90 and 100
kg live weight. They generally are slaughtered at this weight because previous
work has shown a decline in feed efficiency, fatter carcasses, and undesirable
size of wholesale cuts when hogs were slaughtered at heavier weights. Selection,
during recent years, has been directed toward a larger, growthier-type hog that
can be marketed at heavier weights. It is possible that this type of hog has
the potential to perform satisfactorily and produce a desirable carcass when
carried to weights heavier than the usual slaughter weight. Slaughtering hogs
heavier than 100 kg may be advantageous for the packer because about the same
time and labor are required to process a light weight carcass as a heavier one;
therefore, the processing costs on a per pound basis would be lower for heavier
carcasses. Information is needed on the carcass merit of today's hogs when
slaughtered at weights above 100 kg.

The objective of the present study was to compare the carcass characteristics
of crossbred barrows and gilts, sired by purebred and crossbred boars, when
slaughtered atweights above 100 kg._ ..


Experimental

Sixty-six individually fed crossbred hogs with an average initial weight of
99.02 4.20 kg were used. They were progeny of Duroc x Yorkshire crossbred sows
mated to either Hampshire, Duroc, and Yorkshire or purebred Hampshire boars.
Four barrows and five gilts sired by Hampshire boars and five barrows and seven
gilts sired by crossbred boars were slaughtered at the beginning of the experi-
ment to obtain carcass d.ta. The average live weight of this group was 98.3 3.2
kg with range of 92.3 to 104.1 kg. This group will be referred to as the 100 kg
slaughter weight group. The remaining 45 hogs were stratified within breed of
sire and sex to slaughter weight groups of 118.2 4.5 and 131.8 4.5 kg. These
weight groups will be referred to as 118 and 132 kg slaughter weight groups. The
number of hogs by slaughter weight group, sex and breed of sire is presented in
table 1. The hogs were fed individually a properly fortified corn-soy finishing
diet (15% CP). Feed and water were available at all times. Hogs were slaughtered
and carcass data obtained at the University of Florida Meats Laboratory. The
traits studied were: carcass length, carcass backfat, dressing percent, percent
lean cuts, percent ham and loin, and loin eye area. Data were analyzed by least-
squares analyses.



ICopelin, Assistant Animal Nutritionist, Department of Animal Science, Gainesville;
Wong-Valle 0., graduate student, present address: Federal University, Managua,
Nicaragua; Hargrove, Associate Animal Scientist and Combs, Animal Nutritionist,
Department of Animal Science, Gainesville.







Department of Animal Science 23 Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1981-10 Experiment Station
SJuly, 1981 Gainesville, Florida



EFFECTS OF WEIGHT, BREED OF SIRE, AND SEX ON CARCASS
CHARACTERISTICS OF GROWING-FINISHING SWINE


J. L. Copelin, M. A. Wong-Valle O., D. D. Hargrove, and G. E. Combs1


Most market swine in the United States are slaughtered between 90 and 100
kg live weight. They generally are slaughtered at this weight because previous
work has shown a decline in feed efficiency, fatter carcasses, and undesirable
size of wholesale cuts when hogs were slaughtered at heavier weights. Selection,
during recent years, has been directed toward a larger, growthier-type hog that
can be marketed at heavier weights. It is possible that this type of hog has
the potential to perform satisfactorily and produce a desirable carcass when
carried to weights heavier than the usual slaughter weight. Slaughtering hogs
heavier than 100 kg may be advantageous for the packer because about the same
time and labor are required to process a light weight carcass as a heavier one;
therefore, the processing costs on a per pound basis would be lower for heavier
carcasses. Information is needed on the carcass merit of today's hogs when
slaughtered at weights above 100 kg.

The objective of the present study was to compare the carcass characteristics
of crossbred barrows and gilts, sired by purebred and crossbred boars, when
slaughtered atweights above 100 kg._ ..


Experimental

Sixty-six individually fed crossbred hogs with an average initial weight of
99.02 4.20 kg were used. They were progeny of Duroc x Yorkshire crossbred sows
mated to either Hampshire, Duroc, and Yorkshire or purebred Hampshire boars.
Four barrows and five gilts sired by Hampshire boars and five barrows and seven
gilts sired by crossbred boars were slaughtered at the beginning of the experi-
ment to obtain carcass d.ta. The average live weight of this group was 98.3 3.2
kg with range of 92.3 to 104.1 kg. This group will be referred to as the 100 kg
slaughter weight group. The remaining 45 hogs were stratified within breed of
sire and sex to slaughter weight groups of 118.2 4.5 and 131.8 4.5 kg. These
weight groups will be referred to as 118 and 132 kg slaughter weight groups. The
number of hogs by slaughter weight group, sex and breed of sire is presented in
table 1. The hogs were fed individually a properly fortified corn-soy finishing
diet (15% CP). Feed and water were available at all times. Hogs were slaughtered
and carcass data obtained at the University of Florida Meats Laboratory. The
traits studied were: carcass length, carcass backfat, dressing percent, percent
lean cuts, percent ham and loin, and loin eye area. Data were analyzed by least-
squares analyses.



ICopelin, Assistant Animal Nutritionist, Department of Animal Science, Gainesville;
Wong-Valle 0., graduate student, present address: Federal University, Managua,
Nicaragua; Hargrove, Associate Animal Scientist and Combs, Animal Nutritionist,
Department of Animal Science, Gainesville.







- 24 -


Results and Discussion

Weights at which the hogs were slaughtered affected (P<.01) all carcass
traits studied (table 2). Hogs slaughtered at 100 kg live weight had a lower
dressing percent and produced shorter carcasses with smaller loin eyes than
those slaughtered at 118 kg and 132 kg. The carcasses from the 100 kg slaughter
weight group had a higher yield of percent lean cuts and percent ham and loin.
This indicates that the carcasses from this group were leaner than those from
the 118 and 132 kg slaughter weight groups. The difference in carcass backfat,
however, was significant only for the 132 kg group as compared to the 100 and
118 kg groups. Carcasses from the 132 kg group had an average backfat of 3.57
cm as compared with 3.25 cm for the 118 kg group and 3.10 cm for the 100 kg
group. The difference in backfat thickness between the 100 and 118 kg groups
was not significant (table 2). The higher yields of percent lean cuts and percent
ham and loin for the 100 kg group indicate; however, that this group had less
total carcass fat than the 118 kg group. Except for carcass backfat, there was
no difference in carcass merit for the 118 and 132 kg groups. The data show
that slaughtering the type of hog produced at the University of Florida Swine
Unit at weights of 18 to 32 kg above the usual slaughter weight of 100 kg de-
creased percent ham and loin by 1 to 1I percent, and percent lean cuts by 2
to 2 percent.

Hogs sired by crossbred boars had a higher dressing percent (P<.05) than
those sired by Hampshire boars (73.22 vs. 72.29, table 3). In this study, the
crossbred-sired hogs had a larger (P<.01) loin eye area (35.93 cm2) than did
those sired by Hampshires (32.942cm). This is probably due to the reduced
growth rate of the crossbred-sired hogs (average daily gains of .85 and .94 kg,
respectively, for crossbred-sired and Hampshire-sired hogs) causing them to be
older at a given slaughter weight. Breed of sire did not significantly affect
the other carcass traits studied.

Gilts had a higher (P<.05) percent lean cuts (60.04 vs. 58.92), a higher
(P<.05) percent ham and loin (42.77 vs. 41.65), and a larger (P<.01) loin eye
area (35.91 vs. 32.97 cm2) than did barrows (table 4). No other differences
in carcass traits were observed between gilts and barrows.


Summary

Sixty-six crossbred hogs (progeny of Duroc x Yorkshire crossbred sows mated
to Hampshire or crossbred boars) were fed individually and slaughtered at either
100, 118 or 132 kg live weight to determine the effects of slaughter weight,
breed group of sire, and sex on carcass characteristics.

Slaughter weight affected (P<.01) all carcass characteristics studied.
Hogs slaughtered at 100 kg live weight had a lower dressing percentage and pro-
duced shorter carcasses with smaller loin eyes than those slaughtered at 118
and 132 kg. The 100 kg slaughter group had higher percentages of lean cuts
and ham and loin than the other two groups. Backfat increased with slaughter
weight, and the 100 and 118 kg groups had less backfat (P<.01) than the group
slaughtered at 132 kg.

Crossbred-sired hogs had a higher dressing percent and larger loin eye area
than Hampshire-sired hogs. Carcasses from gilts had larger loin eyes, and
higher percentages of lean cuts and ham and loin than carcasses from barrows.







- 24 -


Results and Discussion

Weights at which the hogs were slaughtered affected (P<.01) all carcass
traits studied (table 2). Hogs slaughtered at 100 kg live weight had a lower
dressing percent and produced shorter carcasses with smaller loin eyes than
those slaughtered at 118 kg and 132 kg. The carcasses from the 100 kg slaughter
weight group had a higher yield of percent lean cuts and percent ham and loin.
This indicates that the carcasses from this group were leaner than those from
the 118 and 132 kg slaughter weight groups. The difference in carcass backfat,
however, was significant only for the 132 kg group as compared to the 100 and
118 kg groups. Carcasses from the 132 kg group had an average backfat of 3.57
cm as compared with 3.25 cm for the 118 kg group and 3.10 cm for the 100 kg
group. The difference in backfat thickness between the 100 and 118 kg groups
was not significant (table 2). The higher yields of percent lean cuts and percent
ham and loin for the 100 kg group indicate; however, that this group had less
total carcass fat than the 118 kg group. Except for carcass backfat, there was
no difference in carcass merit for the 118 and 132 kg groups. The data show
that slaughtering the type of hog produced at the University of Florida Swine
Unit at weights of 18 to 32 kg above the usual slaughter weight of 100 kg de-
creased percent ham and loin by 1 to 1I percent, and percent lean cuts by 2
to 2 percent.

Hogs sired by crossbred boars had a higher dressing percent (P<.05) than
those sired by Hampshire boars (73.22 vs. 72.29, table 3). In this study, the
crossbred-sired hogs had a larger (P<.01) loin eye area (35.93 cm2) than did
those sired by Hampshires (32.942cm). This is probably due to the reduced
growth rate of the crossbred-sired hogs (average daily gains of .85 and .94 kg,
respectively, for crossbred-sired and Hampshire-sired hogs) causing them to be
older at a given slaughter weight. Breed of sire did not significantly affect
the other carcass traits studied.

Gilts had a higher (P<.05) percent lean cuts (60.04 vs. 58.92), a higher
(P<.05) percent ham and loin (42.77 vs. 41.65), and a larger (P<.01) loin eye
area (35.91 vs. 32.97 cm2) than did barrows (table 4). No other differences
in carcass traits were observed between gilts and barrows.


Summary

Sixty-six crossbred hogs (progeny of Duroc x Yorkshire crossbred sows mated
to Hampshire or crossbred boars) were fed individually and slaughtered at either
100, 118 or 132 kg live weight to determine the effects of slaughter weight,
breed group of sire, and sex on carcass characteristics.

Slaughter weight affected (P<.01) all carcass characteristics studied.
Hogs slaughtered at 100 kg live weight had a lower dressing percentage and pro-
duced shorter carcasses with smaller loin eyes than those slaughtered at 118
and 132 kg. The 100 kg slaughter group had higher percentages of lean cuts
and ham and loin than the other two groups. Backfat increased with slaughter
weight, and the 100 and 118 kg groups had less backfat (P<.01) than the group
slaughtered at 132 kg.

Crossbred-sired hogs had a higher dressing percent and larger loin eye area
than Hampshire-sired hogs. Carcasses from gilts had larger loin eyes, and
higher percentages of lean cuts and ham and loin than carcasses from barrows.







- 25


TABLE 1. NUMBER OF HOGS BY SLAUGHTER WEIGHT GROUP, SEX, AND BREED OF SIRE



Slaughter weight group
Breed of sire Sex 100 kg 118 kg 132 kg Total

Crossbred Barrows 5 6 5 16
Gilts 7 3 3 13

Hampshire Barrows 4 10 12 26
Gilts 5 3 3 11

Total 21 22 23 66












TABLE 2. LEAST-SQUARES MEANS (LSM) AND STANDARD ERRORS (SE) FOR CARCASS
TRAITS BY SLAUGHTER WEIGHT GROUP



Slaughter weight
100 kg 118 kg 132 kg

LSM SE LSM SE LSM SE

Carcass length, cm 80.31.80a 85.00+.87b 85.691.90b
Carcass backfat, cm 3.10.09a 3.25.09a 3.57+.09b
Dressing percent, % 71.43.36a 73.34.37b 73.49+.37b
Percent lean cuts, % 61.001.39a 58.95g.40b 58.49+.40b
Percent ham and loin, % 43.04.26a 42.05.27b 41.54+.26b
,oin eye area, cm2 31.19.79a 35.44.82b 36.69.81b


a,b
Means in the same row
different (P<.01).


with different superscripts are significantly







- 26 -


TABLE 3. LEAST-SQUARES MEANS (LSM) AND STANDARD ERRORS (SE) FOR CARCASS
TRAITS BY BREED GROUP OF SIRE



Breed group of sire

Hampshire Crossbred

LSM SE LSM SE

Carcass length, cm 84.27.67a 83.03.61a
Carcass backfat, cm 3.32.07a 3.30.08a
Dressing percent, % 72.29.29a 73.22t.31b
Percent lean cuts, % 59.45.31a 59.52.34a
Percent ham and loin, % 42.08.21a 42.34.22a
Loin eye area, cm2 32.94.66a 35.93.69b


a'bMeans in the same row with different superscripts are significantly
different (P<.05).







TABLE 4. LEAST-SQUARES MEANS (LSM) AND STANDARD ERRORS (SE) FOR CARCASS
TRAITS BY SEX



Sex

Barrow Gilt

LSM SE LSM SE


Carcass length, cm 84.23.59a 83.10.78a
Carcass backfat, cm 3.36.06a 3.26.08a
Dre:sing percent, % 72.73.26a 72.791.35a
Percent lean cuts, % 58.92.28a 60.04.37b
Percent ham and loin, % 41.65.19' 42.77.25b
Loin eye area, cm2 32.97.58a 35.91.76b


a,bMeans in the same row with different superscripts are significantly
different (P<.05).




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