• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Experimental
 Results, discussion, summary, and...
 Table 1 - Composition of diets
 Table 2 - Performance of swine...
 Table 3 - Influence of dietary...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1981-8
Title: Dietary potassium and protein interrelationships with growing-finishing swine
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073129/00001
 Material Information
Title: Dietary potassium and protein interrelationships with growing-finishing swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 5 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Copelin, Johnny Landon
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1981
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Proteins in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Potassium -- Physiological effect -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 2).
Statement of Responsibility: G.E. Combs and J.L. Copelin.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "July, 1981."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073129
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80934107

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 18
    Results, discussion, summary, and literature cited
        Page 19
    Table 1 - Composition of diets
        Page 20
    Table 2 - Performance of swine fed diets containing varying levels of protein and potassium
        Page 21
    Table 3 - Influence of dietary potassium on swine performance
        Page 22
Full Text



'nip Department of Animal Science
Research Report Al-1981-8
yj-r IJuly, 1981


- 18 -


Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station
Gainesville, Florida


DIETARY POTASSIUM AND PROTEIN INTERRELATIONSHIPS
WITH GROWING-FINISHING SWINE1


G. E. Combs and J. L. Copelin2


Changes in agronomic practices, feed processing techniques and the genetic
make-up of swine all tend to support the concept that continuous evaluations of
dietary nutrient levels and requirements are needed to maintain an economical
animal production program. These changes are presently of particular importance
with nutrients such as potassium (K) which in the past have received limited
attention since they were considered to be present in adequate amounts in most
swine diets.

The present studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of growing-
finishing swine fed corn-soy diets containing two levels of dietary protein
and four levels of potassium.


Experimental

Experiment 1. Eighty crossbred pigs weighing approximately 52 kg were
allotted according to initial weight, litter and sex to eight treatment groups.
Each of these groups consisted of two pens containing five pigs each.

Experiment 2. Ninety-six crossbred pigs averaging 37 kg were allotted,
six pigs per pen and two pens per treatment, to eight dietary treatment groups.

The eight treatment groups in both experiments were as follows:


Treatment
no.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8


Dietary
protein %

15
15
15
15
13
13
13
13


Supplemental
K%

0
.4
1.4
2.4
0
.5
1..5
2.5


Total
dietary K%

0.6
1.0
2.0
3.0
0.5
1.0
2.0
3.0


All pigs were housed in semi-enclosed pens equipped with an aluminum slatted
floor, automatic watering devices and self-feeders.

Diet composition is presented in table 1.


1Experiment 274C and 274D.
2Combs, Animal Nutritionist and Copelin, Assistant Animal Nutritionist, Depart-
ment of Animal Science, Gainesville.







- 19 -


Results and Discussion

A summary of the performance data for Experiments 1 and 2 is presented
in tables 2 and 3.

The gain and feed efficiency data presented in table 2 indicate that the
imposed dietary treatments did not significantly (P<.05) influence these per-
formance parameters. However, calculations showed that daily gain and feed
conversion for all pigs fed the 15% or 13% protein diets were similar (P<.05):
(Experiment 1) .75, 3.73; .78, 3.68; (Experiment 2) .79, 3.29; .77, 3.41.
This absence of a difference (P<.05) between protein levels permits the pooling
of these means across potassium levelsand these pooled means are presented in
table 3.

The rate of gain for pigs fed diets containing 1% potassium was higher
(P<.05) than for pigs given the unsupplemented control diet or diets containing
2% or 3% potassium (table 3-Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, gain was similar
(P<.05) for pigs given the unsupplemented control or the 1% potassium diet. In
both experiments, gain was depressed (P<.05) by the addition of sufficient
supplemental potassium to form dietary levels of 2 or 3 percent. Feed efficiency
was not influenced (P<.05) by level of dietary potassium.

In contrast to previous reports (1 and 2) the results of these studies did
not show a relationship between dietary potassium and dietary protein or amino
acids. Diets containing 1 percent potassium produced weight responses that
varied between experiments and this inconsistency precludes a recommendation
regarding the efficacy of this treatment. However, the growth depression ob-
served with diets containing 2 or 3 percent potassium clearly demonstrates that
these levels are in excess of that required for optimal performance.


Summary

Two experiments involving 176 crossbred growing-finishing swine were con-
ducted to study the effects of various potassium and protein levels on perfor-
mance.

Rate and efficiency of gain was similar (P<.05) for pigs fed 15 or 13 per-
cent dietary protein. In Experiment 1, weight gains of pigs fed diets con-
taining 1 percent potassium were superior (P<.05) to all other treatments
whereas in Experiment 2, the performance of pigs fed the 1 percent potassium
and unsupplemented potassium diets was similar (P<.05). In both experiments,
a growth depression was observed by feeding diets containing 2 or 3 percent
potassium.


Literature Cited

1. Leibholz, J. M., J. T. McCall, V. W. Hays and V. C. Speer. 1966. Potassium,
protein and basic amino acid relationships in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 25:37.

2. Mabuduike, F. N., C. C. Calvert and R. E. Austic. 1980. Lysine-cation inter-
relationships in the pig. J. Anim. Sci. 51 (Suppl. 1): 210.


















TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF DIETS


Treatment no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


Gr. yellow corn 79.90 79.00 76.6 74.2 85.00 83.80 81.30 79.00
Soybean meal 17.20 17.30 17.7 18.1 12.10 12.30 12.80 13.10
Dynafos 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60
Limestone .90 .90 .90 .90 .90 .90 .90 .90
Iodized salt .20 .20 .20 .20 .20 .20 .20 .20
Tr. mineral (CCC)1 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10
Vit. premix (UF)2 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10
Dyna-K --- .80 2.80 4.80 --- 1.00 3.00 5.00


1Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, IL. Contained 20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1%
copper, 0.15% iodine, and 12% calcium.
2Contains 13,200 mg riboflavin; 44,000 mg niacin; 26,400 mg pantothenic acid; 176,000 mg choline chloride;
22,000 mog vitamin B12; 5,500,000 IU vitamin A; 880,000 ICU vitamin D3 and 2,000 IU vitamin E per kg of
premix.
3Potassium (50%) and Chloride (47%).

















TABLE 2. PERFORMANCE OF SWINE FED DIETS CONTAINING VARYING LEVELS OF PROTEIN AND POTASSIUM




Protein % 15 13
Total K% .6 1 2 3 .5 1 2 3

Experiment 1

Avg. initial weight, kg 51.77 51.77 51.91 51.77 51.82 51.73 51.77 51.86
Avg. final weight, kg 98.95 103.32 97.09 94.36 100.5 104.09 101.27 93.41
Avg. daily gain, kg1 .76 .83 .73 .69 .79 .85 .30 .67
Avg. daily feed, kg 2.88 2.83 2.73 2.70 2.87 3.03 2.93 2.53
Avg. feed/gain1 3.79 3.41 3.74 3.91 3.63 3.57 3.66 3.78
-----^ '"* '- '^^--- --- ^---- - - - -- - - - -----------------------i^ ^, ^ ^^^^.,. .I

Experiment 2

Avg. initial weight, kg 36.64 36.70 36.68 36.64 36.64 36.59 36.64 36.64
Avg. final weight, kg 109.07 107.73 102.95 91.89 103.75 110.18 98.91 96.86
Avg. daily gain, kgl .85 .84 .79 .66 .80 .82 .73 .72
Avg. daily feed, kg 2.74 2.84 2.64 2.10 2.61 2.79 2.54 2.51
Avg. feed/gain1 3.22 3.38 3.34 3.18 3.26 3.40 3.48 3.49


iTreatment differences N.S. (P<.05).







22 -













TABLE 3. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY POTASSIUM ON SWINE PERFORMANCE


Dietary K%
Control 1 2 3

Experiment 1

Avg. daily gain, kg 0.77b 0.84a 0.76c 0.68
Avg. feed/gaind 3.74 3.49 3.72 3.86


a
b1% higher than control, 2 and 3% (P<.05).
Control higher than 3% (P<.05).
d2% higher than 3% (P<.05).
Treatment differences N.S. (P<.05).


Experiment 2


Avg. daily gain, kg
Avg. feed/gain


0.83a
3.24


0.84a
3.38


0.76
3.42


0.69b
3.36


a
bControl and 1% N.S. (P<.05).
2% and 3% less than control and 1% (P<.05).
c
d3% less than 2% (P<.05).
Treatment differences N.S. (P<.05).




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