• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Experimental - Results and...
 Summary
 Table 1 - Composition of diets
 Table 2 - Gain and feed data for...
 Table 3 - Blood serum constituents...
 Table 4 - Pooled means for average...
 Table 5 - Influence of K and CL...
 Table 6 - Influence of K and CL...
 Table 7 - Influence of K and CL...
 Table 8 - Influence of K and CL...
 Table 9 - Influence of CL on serum...
 Table 10 - Influence of K on serum...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1981-7
Title: Sodium, potassium and chloride interrelationships in young swine
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073128/00001
 Material Information
Title: Sodium, potassium and chloride interrelationships in young swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 8 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Harrison, Michael Dean, 1957-
Copelin, Johnny Landon
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1981
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sodium -- Physiological effect -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Potassium -- Physiological effect -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Chlorides -- Physiological effect -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: G.E. Combs, M.D. Harrison and J.L. Copelin.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "June, 1981."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073128
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80933001

Table of Contents
    Experimental - Results and discussion
        Page 10
    Summary
        Page 11
    Table 1 - Composition of diets
        Page 12
    Table 2 - Gain and feed data for pigs fed varying levels of CL and K
        Page 13
    Table 3 - Blood serum constituents of pigs fed varying levels of CL and K
        Page 14
    Table 4 - Pooled means for average daily gain
        Page 15
    Table 5 - Influence of K and CL on serum electrolytes
        Page 15
    Table 6 - Influence of K and CL on serum enzymes
        Page 16
    Table 7 - Influence of K and CL on serum components associated with protein metabolism
        Page 16
    Table 8 - Influence of K and CL on other serum components associated with protein metabolism
        Page 16
    Table 9 - Influence of CL on serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides
        Page 17
    Table 10 - Influence of K on serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides
        Page 17
Full Text


Department of Animal Science
Research Report AL-1981-7
June, 1981
Is' Ll


~iNN)


- 10 -


Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station
Gainesville, Florida


SODIUM, POTASSIUM AND CHLORIDE INTERRELATIONSHIPS
IN YOUNG SWINE1


G. E. Combs, M. D. Harrison and J. L. Copelin2


The specific roles of sodium (Na), potassium (K), and chloride (Cl) in
various metabolic functions are well established. But, in most instances,
these elements have been researched as separate entities with well defined
consequences resulting from excesses and/or inadequacies. The physiological
importance of considering the overall dietary cation-anion balance has received
only limited attention by swine researchers. Consequently, this experiment
was initiated to study the influence of varying the dietary concentrations of
Na, K, and Cl on the performance of young swine.


Experimental

One hundred sixty two pigs weaned at three weeks of age were allotted on
the basis of initial weight, litter and sex to nine treatment groups (3 x 3
factorial). Each of these groups consisted of three pens containing six pigs
per pen. All pigs were housed in an enclosed nursery equipped with elevated
pens having expanded metal floors and wire mesh sides. Each pen contained
an automated waterer and self-feeder. On the final day of the six week ex-
perimental period, blood samples were taken from each pig and analyzed for
various constituents (SMAC-25) by a commercial clinical laboratory

The dietary treatments were as follows:


1 2 3

.07 .07 .07
.3 .6 .9
.13 .13 .13


4 5 6

.13 .13 .13
.3 .6 .9
.13 .13 .13


7 8 9

.18 .18 .18
.3 .6 .9
.13 .13 .13


The composition of the diets is presented in table 1


Results and Discussion


The overall gain and feed data are summarized in table 2 and the serum pro-
file data are summarized in table 3.

Daily gain and feed. As is shown in table 2, the daily gain was influenced
(P<.05) by the level of dietary K whereas the dietary Cl effect was non-significant.


1Experiment 274. This experiment was partially supported by a grant from
International Minerals Corporation, Mundelein, IL.
2Combs, Animal Nutritionist; Harrison, Graduate Assistant; and Copelin, Assis-
tant Animal Nutritionist, Department of Animal Science.


Diet

%C1
%K
%Na






- 11 -


The pooled means which illustrate this influence are presented in table 4. The
data show that pigs fed diets containing .9% K at each Cl level gained less
than those given .3 or .6% K diets.

No significant (P<.05) differences in either feed consumption or feed
efficiency were found among treatment groups (table 2).

The effect of dietary treatment on the concentration of serum electrolytes
is summarized by treatment group in table 5. The level of dietary K did not
influence (P<.05) the serum concentration of electrolytes. Pigs fed diets con-
taining .18% Cl had lower serum levels of Na, K, Ca and P than those given.diets
containing .07 or .13 Cl. The effect of dietary Cl on serum Cl was that all
means differed (P<.05) from one another which precludes establishing a diet-
serum relationship.

Table 6 presents the pooled treatment data for serum enzyme activity as
influenced by dietary K and Cl. Enzyme activity was not altered (P<.05) by
dietary Cl level. All of the enzymes, alkaline phosphatase,lactic dehydro-
genase and serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase were elevated (P<.05) in
pigs given the .9 K diets. Chemically, elevated enzyme values are often as-
sociated with liver disorders; therefore, the physiological relationship of
elevated enzyme values at the lowest K diets and the occurrence of maximum gain
with these same diets is not readily apparent.

The influence of dietary K and Cl on serum components associated with pro-
tein metabolism is summarized in tables 7 and 8. Table 7 shows a non-significant
(P<.05) Cl effect on urea and creatinine whereas pigs fed .9 K diets exhibited
higher (P<.01) urea and lower creatinine (P<.05) values than those given .3 or
.6% K diets. As is presented in table 8, the total serum protein, albumin and
globulin were depressed (P<.01) and bilirubin (P<.05) in pigs given diets con-
taining .18% Cl. The K effect on these parameters was non-significant (P<.05).

The data summarized in table 9 show that as the dietary level of Cl in-
creased from .07 to .18 percent, a reduction (P<.01) occurred in the concen-
tration of serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. The effect of K level
on these same constituents is presented in table 10 and the data indicate a
reduction (P<.05) in glucose at the .9 percent K diets. No effect was ob-
served with cholesterol whereas with triglycerides the highest level was
associated with the diets containing .9% K.


Summary

One hundred sixty-two early weaned pigs having an initial weight of ap-
proximately 5.7 kg were used to study the influence of dietary K, Na, and Cl
on growth and various blood serum parameters. Daily gain was influenced
(P<.05) by the level of dietary K whereas the dietary Cl effect was non-signi-
ficant. Neither feed intake nor feed efficiency was affected (P<.05) by
dietary treatment. Results obtained from a SMAC serum profile analysis on
individual pig serum showed that electrolytes and non-electrolytes were
affected by dietary K and/or Cl.














TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF DIETS


Diet 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9


Gr. yellow corn 81.60 80.10 79.40 81.28 80.20 79.15 81.30 80.34 79.74
Corn gluten meal 7.72 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.74 10.00 8.76 9.50 9.00
Isolated soy protein1 7.50 7.00 6.90 6.50 6.14 6.14 6.74 6.26 6.60
Limestone 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1,40
Biofos 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.12 1.12 1.12 1,12
Potassium citrate -- 0.70 1.50 -- 0.58 1.35 -4 0.42 1.20
Sodium sulfate 0.34 0.35 0.35 0.27 0.36 0.36 0.14 0.35 0.35
Lysine 0.12 0.15 0.15 0.17 0.19 0.19 0.16 0.19 0.17
Trace minerals (CCC),2 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0,10 0.10
Vitamin premix (UF)3 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0,10
Salt 0.02 -- -- 0.08 -- -- 0.18 -
Dyna-K -- -- -- -- 0.09 0.09 -- 0.22 0.22

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00


1Supro-350.
2Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, IL.
0.15% iodine, and 12% calcium.


Contained 20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper,


3Contains 13,200 mg riboflavin; 44,000 mg niacin; 26,400 mg pantothenic acid; 176,000 mg choline chloride;
22,000 mcg vitamin B12; 5,500,000 IU vitamin A; 880,000 ICU vitamin D3 and 2,000 IU vitamin E per kg of premix.




















TABLE 2. GAIN AND FEED DATA FOR PIGS FED VARYING LEVELS OF CL AND K


Treatment No.

Item 1 2. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Initial weight, kg 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5,7
Final weight, kg 17.2 18.1 16.5 17.6 17.4 16.4 17.4 17.1 16.0
Daily gain, kg1 .23 .25 .22 .24 .24 .22 .24 .24 .21
Daily feed, kg .54 .58 .46 .54 .53 .50 .51 .56 .45
Feed/gain, 2.02 2.26 2.12 2.23 2.19 2.33 2.28 2.40 2.15


1K levels significantly different (P<.05).
Cl levels non-significant.











TABLE 3. BLOOD SERUM CONSTITUENTS OF PIGS FED VARYING LEVELS OF CL AND K


Diet No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Cl .07 .07 .07 .13 .13 .13 .18 .18 .18 Prob. %
Serum K .3 .6 .9 .3 .6 .9 .3 .6 .9 K C1

Glucose 109 107 103 113 111 103 104 93 97 S 1
Sodium 138 139 138 139 143 140 136 135 137 NS 1
Potassium 6.4 6.7 5.9 5.7 6.6 6.5 6.0 6.0 5.7 NS NS
Chloride 98 97 96 99 101 100 98 98 98 NS 1
Co2 content 24 25 26 23 27 26 25 25 25 1 NS
Balance [ Na-(Cl+Co2)] 15 17 16 16 14 13 12 12 13 NS 1
BUN 17 20 20 18 17 20 16 19 18 1 NS
Creatinine 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 S NS I
Ratio (BUN/Creat.) 18 19 19 18 17 21 17 18 17 1 NS H
Uric Acid 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 NS NS
Ca 10,2 10.5 10.3 10.4 10.7 10.5 9.8 9.8 10.2 NS 1
P 8.8 9.0 8.4 8.9 9.0 8.5 8.4 8.2 8.4 NS 1
Total Protein 4.9 4.8 4.7 4i.7 4.8 4.7 4.6' 4.4 4.5 NS 1
Albumin 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6 NS 1
Globulin 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.8 NS 1
A/G Ratio 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.4 NS NS
Ion. Ca 5.4 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.7 5.6 5.3 5.4 5.6 1 1
Bilirubin 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.09 0.09 0.1 NS S
Alk. Phos. 308 292 267 294 282 283 317 255 295 S NS
LDH 781 797 721 809 677 646 759 679 693 1 NS
SGOT 68 73 55 78 37 40 58 53 44 S NS
SGPT 58 59 49 53 44 46 51 47 43 S S
Cholesterol 101 109 104 113 105 111 98 98 99 NS 1
Triglycerides 43 50 43 44 34 46 40 26 40 S 1
Iron 155 146 142 146 130 140 133 138 143 NS NS





- 15 -


TABLE 4. POOLED MEANS FOR AVERAGE DAILY GAIN


Cl %

.07 .13 .18

K % .3 .23 .24 .24 .24
.6 .25 .24 .24 .24
.9 .22 .22 .21 .22

x .24 .23 .23



K effect .9 significantly different .3 and .6 (P<.05).









TABLE 5. INFLUENCE OF K AND CL ON SERUM ELECTROLYTES1




Dietary Cl %
SerumI .07 .13 .18
a
Na 139 141 136
K 6.4 6.3 5.9a
Cl 97 101 99b
Ca 10.4 10.6 9.9a
p 8.8 8.8 8.4a


K effect non-significant (P<.05).
Cl effect a.18 significantly different .07 and .13 (P<.05).
All means significantly different (P<.01).
1Na, K, Cl as mEq/L Ca and P mg/100 ml.





- 15 -


TABLE 4. POOLED MEANS FOR AVERAGE DAILY GAIN


Cl %

.07 .13 .18

K % .3 .23 .24 .24 .24
.6 .25 .24 .24 .24
.9 .22 .22 .21 .22

x .24 .23 .23



K effect .9 significantly different .3 and .6 (P<.05).









TABLE 5. INFLUENCE OF K AND CL ON SERUM ELECTROLYTES1




Dietary Cl %
SerumI .07 .13 .18
a
Na 139 141 136
K 6.4 6.3 5.9a
Cl 97 101 99b
Ca 10.4 10.6 9.9a
p 8.8 8.8 8.4a


K effect non-significant (P<.05).
Cl effect a.18 significantly different .07 and .13 (P<.05).
All means significantly different (P<.01).
1Na, K, Cl as mEq/L Ca and P mg/100 ml.






- 16 -


TABLE 6. INFLUENCE OF K AND CL ON SERUM ENZYMES1


Serum Dietary K%
./L .3 .6 .9

a
Alk. phos. 294 282 283
LDH 809 677 646
SGOT 78a 37 40


1Cl effect non-significant (P<.05).
K effect .3 significantly different .6 and .9 (P<.05).





TABLE 7. INFLUENCE OF K AND CL ON SERUM COMPONENTS ASSOCIATED WITH
PROTEIN METABOLISM1



Serum Dietary K%
mg/100 ml .3 .6 .9


Urea 18.6 18.7 20.5a
Creatinine 1 1 .9b


1C1 effect non-significant (P<.05).
K effect a.9 significantly different .3 and .6 (P<.01).
.9 significantly different .3 and .6 (P<.05).




TABLE 8. INFLUENCE OF K AND CL ON OTHER SERUM COMPONENTS ASSOCIATED WITH
PROTEIN METABOLISM1



Serum Dietary Cl%
g/100 ml .07 .13 .18


Total protein 4.8 4.7 4.5a
Albumin 2.8 2.8 2.7a
Globulin 1.9 1.9 1.8a
Bilirubin .1 .1 .09


1K effect non-significant (P<.05).
Cl effect .18 significantly different .07 and .13 (P<.01).
.18 significantly'different .07 and .13 (P<.05).






- 16 -


TABLE 6. INFLUENCE OF K AND CL ON SERUM ENZYMES1


Serum Dietary K%
./L .3 .6 .9

a
Alk. phos. 294 282 283
LDH 809 677 646
SGOT 78a 37 40


1Cl effect non-significant (P<.05).
K effect .3 significantly different .6 and .9 (P<.05).





TABLE 7. INFLUENCE OF K AND CL ON SERUM COMPONENTS ASSOCIATED WITH
PROTEIN METABOLISM1



Serum Dietary K%
mg/100 ml .3 .6 .9


Urea 18.6 18.7 20.5a
Creatinine 1 1 .9b


1C1 effect non-significant (P<.05).
K effect a.9 significantly different .3 and .6 (P<.01).
.9 significantly different .3 and .6 (P<.05).




TABLE 8. INFLUENCE OF K AND CL ON OTHER SERUM COMPONENTS ASSOCIATED WITH
PROTEIN METABOLISM1



Serum Dietary Cl%
g/100 ml .07 .13 .18


Total protein 4.8 4.7 4.5a
Albumin 2.8 2.8 2.7a
Globulin 1.9 1.9 1.8a
Bilirubin .1 .1 .09


1K effect non-significant (P<.05).
Cl effect .18 significantly different .07 and .13 (P<.01).
.18 significantly'different .07 and .13 (P<.05).






- 16 -


TABLE 6. INFLUENCE OF K AND CL ON SERUM ENZYMES1


Serum Dietary K%
./L .3 .6 .9

a
Alk. phos. 294 282 283
LDH 809 677 646
SGOT 78a 37 40


1Cl effect non-significant (P<.05).
K effect .3 significantly different .6 and .9 (P<.05).





TABLE 7. INFLUENCE OF K AND CL ON SERUM COMPONENTS ASSOCIATED WITH
PROTEIN METABOLISM1



Serum Dietary K%
mg/100 ml .3 .6 .9


Urea 18.6 18.7 20.5a
Creatinine 1 1 .9b


1C1 effect non-significant (P<.05).
K effect a.9 significantly different .3 and .6 (P<.01).
.9 significantly different .3 and .6 (P<.05).




TABLE 8. INFLUENCE OF K AND CL ON OTHER SERUM COMPONENTS ASSOCIATED WITH
PROTEIN METABOLISM1



Serum Dietary Cl%
g/100 ml .07 .13 .18


Total protein 4.8 4.7 4.5a
Albumin 2.8 2.8 2.7a
Globulin 1.9 1.9 1.8a
Bilirubin .1 .1 .09


1K effect non-significant (P<.05).
Cl effect .18 significantly different .07 and .13 (P<.01).
.18 significantly'different .07 and .13 (P<.05).






- 17 -


TABLE 9. INFLUENCE


OF CL ON SERUM GLUCOSE, CHOLESTEROL
AND TRIGLYCERIDES


Serum Dietary Cl %
mg/100 ml .07 .13 .18

Glucose 107 109 98a
Cholesterol 104 110 99a
Triglycerides 46 41 35


a
.18 lower .07 and .13 (P<.01).












TABLE 10. INFLUENCE OF K ON SERUM GLUCOSE, CHOLESTEROL
AND TRIGLYCERIDES



Serum Dietary K %

mg/100 ml .3 .6 .9

Glucose 113 111 103a
Cholesterol 113 105 111
Triglycerides 44 34 46a


a
.9 different .3 and .6 (P<.05).






- 17 -


TABLE 9. INFLUENCE


OF CL ON SERUM GLUCOSE, CHOLESTEROL
AND TRIGLYCERIDES


Serum Dietary Cl %
mg/100 ml .07 .13 .18

Glucose 107 109 98a
Cholesterol 104 110 99a
Triglycerides 46 41 35


a
.18 lower .07 and .13 (P<.01).












TABLE 10. INFLUENCE OF K ON SERUM GLUCOSE, CHOLESTEROL
AND TRIGLYCERIDES



Serum Dietary K %

mg/100 ml .3 .6 .9

Glucose 113 111 103a
Cholesterol 113 105 111
Triglycerides 44 34 46a


a
.9 different .3 and .6 (P<.05).




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