• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary and literature cited
 Table 1 - Composition of diets
 Table 2 - Performance of barrows...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1981-5
Title: Influence of supplemental vitamin B12 on performance of barrows and gilts
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073126/00001
 Material Information
Title: Influence of supplemental vitamin B12 on performance of barrows and gilts
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 3 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bryant, Kenneth Lee, 1951-
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1981
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Vitamin B12 in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 2).
Statement of Responsibility: K.L. Bryant, G.E. Combs and H.D. Wallace.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "June 1981."
General Note: Pages have numbering 4-6.
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073126
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80910857

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 4
    Results and discussion
        Page 4
    Summary and literature cited
        Page 5
    Table 1 - Composition of diets
        Page 6
    Table 2 - Performance of barrows and gilts fed two levels of Vitamin B12
        Page 6
Full Text


Department of Animal Science 4 Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1981-5 Experiment Station
'- ne 1981 Gainesville, Florida


\\1
INFLUENCE OF SUPPLEMENTAL VITAMIN B2 ON PERFORMANCE OF BARROWS AND GILTS
2
2 3
K. L. Bryant G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace


Feed ingredients of animal origin contain substantial, but highly variable,
quantities of vitamin B2 whereas plant products are apparently devoid of this
12
vitamin. Synthesis of vitamin B by intestinal bacteria coupled with copro-
phagy by swine serve to supplement dietary sources. The NRC (1) suggests that
normal corn-soybean meal diets for 60-100 kg swine be supplemented with 11 ig
vitamin B per kilogram of diet. Vitamin B cyanocobalaminn) is required for
the maturaion of red blood cells and functions as a coenzyme in several meta-
bolic reactions. Decreased growth rate is the most evident clinical deficiency
symptom. In addition to retarded growth, posterior incoordination and unsteadi-
ness of gait can occur (2).

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the importance of vitamin B2
supplementation of a corn-soybean meal diet for finishing swine.


Experimental

Forty-eight crossbred pigs, 12-14 weeks of age, were allotted according to
weight, breeding and sex into four pens of barrows and four pens of gilts. Two
pens of each sex were randomly assigned to either 0 or 22 pg/kg of supplemental
vitamin B 2 The basal mixture contained 14% and 16% crude protein, respectively,
for barrows and gilts. Composition of the experimental diets is presented in
table 1. The pigs were fed ad libitum in partially-slotted pens for 70 days.
Data were analyzed by the analysis of variance procedure.


Results and Discussion

The performance data are summarized in table 2.

The barrows consumed more feed and gained faster than the gilts in spite
of a lower crude protein intake. Feed conversion was significantly (P<.01)
better for the gilts. Similar sex differences have been reported previously
from this station (3, 4).

Average daily gain, feed intake and feed/gain were not significantly
(P<.05) influenced by dietary vitamin B2 level. However, there was a 6%
reduction in average daily gain when vitamin B was omitted from the vitamin
premix. This decrease in growth rate was simi ar for barrows and gilts.


2Data taken from Swine Unit Experiment 236C.
Bryant, graduate assistant; present address: 109 Plantation Rd., Blacksburg,
3Virginia 24060.
Combs, Animal Nutritionist and Wallace, Department Chairman, Animal Science
Department, Gainesville.






Department of Animal Science 4 Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1981-5 Experiment Station
'- ne 1981 Gainesville, Florida


\\1
INFLUENCE OF SUPPLEMENTAL VITAMIN B2 ON PERFORMANCE OF BARROWS AND GILTS
2
2 3
K. L. Bryant G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace


Feed ingredients of animal origin contain substantial, but highly variable,
quantities of vitamin B2 whereas plant products are apparently devoid of this
12
vitamin. Synthesis of vitamin B by intestinal bacteria coupled with copro-
phagy by swine serve to supplement dietary sources. The NRC (1) suggests that
normal corn-soybean meal diets for 60-100 kg swine be supplemented with 11 ig
vitamin B per kilogram of diet. Vitamin B cyanocobalaminn) is required for
the maturaion of red blood cells and functions as a coenzyme in several meta-
bolic reactions. Decreased growth rate is the most evident clinical deficiency
symptom. In addition to retarded growth, posterior incoordination and unsteadi-
ness of gait can occur (2).

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the importance of vitamin B2
supplementation of a corn-soybean meal diet for finishing swine.


Experimental

Forty-eight crossbred pigs, 12-14 weeks of age, were allotted according to
weight, breeding and sex into four pens of barrows and four pens of gilts. Two
pens of each sex were randomly assigned to either 0 or 22 pg/kg of supplemental
vitamin B 2 The basal mixture contained 14% and 16% crude protein, respectively,
for barrows and gilts. Composition of the experimental diets is presented in
table 1. The pigs were fed ad libitum in partially-slotted pens for 70 days.
Data were analyzed by the analysis of variance procedure.


Results and Discussion

The performance data are summarized in table 2.

The barrows consumed more feed and gained faster than the gilts in spite
of a lower crude protein intake. Feed conversion was significantly (P<.01)
better for the gilts. Similar sex differences have been reported previously
from this station (3, 4).

Average daily gain, feed intake and feed/gain were not significantly
(P<.05) influenced by dietary vitamin B2 level. However, there was a 6%
reduction in average daily gain when vitamin B was omitted from the vitamin
premix. This decrease in growth rate was simi ar for barrows and gilts.


2Data taken from Swine Unit Experiment 236C.
Bryant, graduate assistant; present address: 109 Plantation Rd., Blacksburg,
3Virginia 24060.
Combs, Animal Nutritionist and Wallace, Department Chairman, Animal Science
Department, Gainesville.






- 5 -


Daily feed consumption increased 8% and 2%, respectively, for barrows and gilts
by vitamin B2 supplementation. The gilts receiving supplemental vitamin B12
produced the most efficient gains.

Results from this study suggest that intestinal sources of vitamin B
and/or coprophagy can provide near the requirement level of vitamin B. ow-
ever, supplementation of vitamin B2 ('22 g/kg) can increase daily gain approx-
imately 6 percent.


Summary

The feedlot performance of gilts and barrows was compared when fed a
corn-soybean meal diet supplemented with 0 or 22 hg/kg vitamin B Average
daily gain, daily feed intake and feed/gain ratios were not significantly
(P<.05) influenced by level of dietary vitamin B12. However, supplementation
of vitamin B2 increased daily gains of barrows and gilts 6 percent.


Literature Cited

1. NRC. 1979. Nutrient Requirement of Domestic Animals. No. 2. Nutrient
Requirements of Swine. National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

2. Neumann, A. L., B. C. Johnson and J. B. Thiersch. 1950. Crystalline
vitamin B2 in the nutrition of the baby pig. J. Nutrition 40:403.

3. Bryant, K. L., G. E. Combs and H. D. .Wallace. 1977. Supplemental choline
for young and growing-finishing swine. Animal Science Mimeo Series No.
AL-1977-1. Gainesville, Florida.

4. Combs, G. E., H. D. Wallace and J. L. Copelin. 1977. Protein levels for
starter, grower, and finisher swine diets. Animal Science Mimeo Series No.
AL-1977-2. Gainesville, Florida.






- 6 -


TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF DIETS


Barrows Gilts

Treatments +B12 -B12 +B2 -B12


(Ingredients)
Ground yellow corn 83.80 83.80 78.80 78.80
Soybean oil meal 13.00 13.00 18.00 18.00
Dynafos 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70
Limestone 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
1
Trace minerals (CCC) 20.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (UF) 0.10 0.10 -
Vitamin premix 2 (UF) 0.10 0.10
(No B 12) 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

1
Generously supplied by Calcium Carbonate Co., Quincy, IL. Contains:
20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.10%
cobalt, and 2% calcium.
Contains 13,200 mg riboflavin; 44,000 mg niacin; 26,400 mg panto-
thenic acid; 176,000 mg choline chloride; 22,000 mcg. vitamin B 2
5,500,000 IU vitamin A; 880,000 ICU vitamin D3and 22,000 IU vitamin
E per kg of premix.


TABLE 2. PERFORMANCE OF BARROWS AND GILTS FED TWO LEVELS OF VITAMIN B12



Barrows Gilts

Criteria +B12 -B12 +B12 -B12


Number of pigs 12 12 12 12
Avg. initial weight, kg 42.40 42.40 42.50 42.50
Avg. final weight, kg 97.50 94.30 95.10 92.10
Avg. daily gain, kg 0.79 0.74 0.75 0.71
Avg. daily feed, kg 2.71 2.50 2.40 2.30
Avg. feed/gain 3.43 3.38 3.20 3.25






- 6 -


TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF DIETS


Barrows Gilts

Treatments +B12 -B12 +B2 -B12


(Ingredients)
Ground yellow corn 83.80 83.80 78.80 78.80
Soybean oil meal 13.00 13.00 18.00 18.00
Dynafos 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70
Limestone 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
1
Trace minerals (CCC) 20.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (UF) 0.10 0.10 -
Vitamin premix 2 (UF) 0.10 0.10
(No B 12) 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

1
Generously supplied by Calcium Carbonate Co., Quincy, IL. Contains:
20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.10%
cobalt, and 2% calcium.
Contains 13,200 mg riboflavin; 44,000 mg niacin; 26,400 mg panto-
thenic acid; 176,000 mg choline chloride; 22,000 mcg. vitamin B 2
5,500,000 IU vitamin A; 880,000 ICU vitamin D3and 22,000 IU vitamin
E per kg of premix.


TABLE 2. PERFORMANCE OF BARROWS AND GILTS FED TWO LEVELS OF VITAMIN B12



Barrows Gilts

Criteria +B12 -B12 +B12 -B12


Number of pigs 12 12 12 12
Avg. initial weight, kg 42.40 42.40 42.50 42.50
Avg. final weight, kg 97.50 94.30 95.10 92.10
Avg. daily gain, kg 0.79 0.74 0.75 0.71
Avg. daily feed, kg 2.71 2.50 2.40 2.30
Avg. feed/gain 3.43 3.38 3.20 3.25




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